Floristic records in the Platte and Loup River bottomlands of Platte County, Nebraska.
A recent inventory of vascular plants in the Loup loup
a bounding gait. and Platte riverbottoms in Platte County Platte County is the name of three counties in the United States:
Ecology and Background
The area of union of the Loup River Loup River
River, east-central Nebraska, U.S. It flows east to join the Platte River. It is 300 mi (485 km) long and is harnessed to produce hydroelectric power. Its name is derived from the French name (meaning “wolf”) for the Skidi Indians. system with the Platte River Platte River
River, central Nebraska, U.S. Formed by the confluence of the North Platte and South Platte rivers, it is 310 mi (500 km) long. It flows southeast into a big bend at Kearney, Neb., then empties into the Missouri River at Plattsmouth, south of Omaha. basin near Columbus, Nebraska Columbus is a city in Platte County, Nebraska, 90 miles (148 km) west by north of Omaha on the Loup River, a short distance above the confluence with the Platte. In 1900, 3,522 people lived in Columbus, Nebraska; in 1910, 5,014; and in 1940, 7,632. , provides a collective view of the plants found in both river systems. A comprehensive floristic determination for this area could be valuable for evaluation of future land-use impacts in those large watersheds. Growing threats of climate changes could have significant effects on local plant communities. Establishing accurate lists of species is important for detecting signs of change in our local flora.
With ninety-nine percent of the original tall-grass, mixed-grass and wetland prairies plowed for agriculture or used for grazing, populations of many once-common native species are now drastically reduced. Agriculture and urbanization have significantly altered the landscape for many species. As land-use disturbances continue at a rapid rate, bottomland floras are now more diverse, heterogeneous mixes of plants than in presettlement times. The absence of frequent prairie fires and the invasion of many exotics threaten remaining fragments of native prairie and original bottomland forests.
History of Plant Collecting in Nebraska and Platte County
Published reports of Nebraska's flora begin with explorers Lewis and Clark in 1803-6, Nuttall and Bradbury in 1808, James of the Long Expedition The Long expedition, named after its leader, James Long, was an early attempt by Anglo-Americans to wrest Texas from Spain. The expedition was mounted by a militia from Natchez, Mississippi, who were opposed to the boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. in 1820, the Fremont Expedition in the 1840s, and the Warren Expedition of 1857. Among the early attempts to list Nebraska's complete flora are two catalogues, those of Samuel Aughey (1876) and H. J. Webber (1890). Local studies in the state have produced numerous floristic lists for counties and other areas. A detailed list of such publications from 1804 through 1985 is presented by Kantak and Churchill (1986); others are cited by Kaul et al. (2006). The state's vegetation was mapped at 1:1,000,000 by Kaul and Rolfsmeier (1993), and some detail was shown for Platte County. Satellite imagery Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. History
The first satellite photographs of Earth were made August 14, 1959 by the US satellite Explorer 6. is depicted at 30-meter resolution by the Nebraska Gap-Analysis Project (1993).
The earliest plant collections in Platte County were by Edwin James John Edwin James QC (c.1812 - 4 March 1882) was an English lawyer, Member of Parliament and would-be actor whose professional misconduct led him to end his life in poverty. of the Long Expedition to the Rocky Mountains Rocky Mountains, major mountain system of W North America and easternmost belt of the North American cordillera, extending more than 3,000 mi (4,800 km) from central N.Mex. to NW Alaska; Mt. Elbert (14,431 ft/4,399 m) in Colorado is the highest peak. in 1820, who traveled the Platte Valley across Nebraska and made many original documentations of Nebraska plant life (Goodman and Lawson 1995). The plants James documented in what is now Platte County are Lithospermum incisum, fringed puccoon; Cirsium sp., a thistle; Vicia americana Vicia americana is a species of legume in the vetch genus known by the common names American vetch and purple vetch. It includes a subspecies known as mat vetch. It is a climbing perennial forb that grows from both taproot and rhizome. , American purple vetch vetch, common name for many weak-stemmed, leguminous herbs of the genus Vicia of the family Leguminosae (pulse family). The vetches are chiefly annuals, distributed over temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and of South America. (not on our list); Rhus glabra, smooth sumac; Asclepias speciosa, showy milkweed showy milkweed
asclepiasspeciosa. ; Toxicodendron radicans, poison ivy poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac, woody vines and trailing or erect shrubs of the family Anacardiaceae (sumac family), native to North America. ; Apocynum cannabinum, hemp hemp, common name for a tall annual herb (Cannabis sativa) of the family Cannabinaceae, native to Asia but now widespread because of its formerly large-scale cultivation for the bast fiber (also called hemp) and for the drugs it yields. dogbane; Helianthus Helianthus (hē'lēăn`thəs): see sunflower. petiolaris, plains sunflower; Amorpha fruticosa, wildindigo; Gaura coccinea, scarlet gaura; Monarda pectinata, a mint not on our list; Potamogeton nodosus, floating-leaf pondweed pondweed, common name for the family Potamogetonaceae, and for weedy aquatic herbs of the genus Potamogeton, of which about 50 known species inhabit North American ponds and slow streams. ; Rubus occidentalis, black raspberry; Sparganium eurycarpum, bur-reed; Callirhoe involucrata, purple poppy-mallow; Plantago patagonica, woolly plantain plantain (plăn`tĭn), any plant of the genus Plantago, chiefly annual or perennial weeds of wide distribution. Many species are lawn pests and the pollen is often a hay fever irritant. P. ; and Anemone anemone (ənĕm`ənē) or windflower, any of the perennial herbs, wild or cultivated, of the genus Anemone of the family Ranunculaceae (buttercup family). canadensis, meadow anemone.
The junction of the Loup and Platte rivers at Columbus was a landmark for Pawnee Indians in the 1820s (Ducey 2000). Warren (1875) noted that the valley of the Loup Fork was well wooded as far up as the Pawnee villages to the west of present-day Platte County. The Platte River at Columbus was described as having a sand bottom and many sandbars, and the floodplain floodplain, level land along the course of a river formed by the deposition of sediment during periodic floods. Floodplains contain such features as levees, backswamps, delta plains, and oxbow lakes. was said to be from two to ten miles wide, as it is today. In 1844, Carleton reached the fork of the Loup and Platte Rivers and remarked:
The bed of the river is but one wide expanse of quicksand quicksand
State in which water-saturated sand loses its supporting capacity and acquires the characteristics of a liquid. Quicksand is usually found in a hollow at the mouth of a large river or along a flat stretch of stream or beach where pools of water become partly filled , which is formed in bars and these are continually changing and driving about. The channels are innumerable, but are usually only a foot or so deeper than the surrounding water. The river is filled with beautiful islands. They are all well wooded, but only here and there is there any timber growing upon the main banks. Sometimes we found the channels between the islands and the shore, entirely dry, presenting to the eye a wide extent of sand, which as the wind swept over it, was blown about in clouds, as one would notice on a barren coast of the ocean. The bottomlands are what would be called high river prairie (Carleton 1844-1846 (1983)).
Curry (1950) wrote that when the city of Columbus The passenger steamer City of Columbus ran aground on Devil’s Ridge off of Gay Head Cliffs in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts in January 1884. She was owned by Boston & Savannah Steamship Co. and was built in 1878. She was an early iron steamer with a tonnage of 2,200. was founded, prior to 1870, the grass "blue joint" grew thick and matted, was taller than a man's head and common in the area. It was reported to grow between twelve and fifteen feet tall along the sloughs in the area and defied any attempts by primitive plows. (The plant called blue-joint today is Calamagrostis canadensis, which never grows that tall, and perhaps Curry was describing Phragmites australis, common reed, which reaches such height in moist habitats. Calamagrostis canadensis is not on our list of vouchered species, but it is known from several adjacent counties and is undoubtedly in Platte County today.)
The Loup River drains much of the Sandhills, which are less disturbed than most areas of the state, but the substitution of cattle for bison has altered grazing patterns and affected native flora there. The Platte River originates in Colorado and has numerous diversions, with significant irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. usage and storage along the entire watercourse. Row-crop agriculture dominates its borderlands.
Our 12-year sampling period, 1996-2007, documents species within the Platte and Loup River bottoms after 150 years of settlement by Euro-Americans in these watersheds. For completeness and comparison, we list all species ever collected in Platte County, as documented by specimens deposited in various university herbaria, especially that of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, which houses many specimens we collected. The list was assembled from Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1977), The Flora of Nebraska (Kaul et al. 2006), and our own observations and collecting. It consists almost entirely of plants collected in the bottomlands of Platte County, because very little collecting has been done in the much-disturbed, heavily agricultural uplands north of those bottomlands, most of whose species also occur in the bottomlands. This congregation of plants of river bottoms appears to be common in the lower reaches of the Platte River.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
The focus for observations and collection were two primary sites on the Platte and Loup Rivers, where two of the largest watersheds in Nebraska unite (Fig. 1). The Platte River site is Witchey's Island (Fig. 2), a heavily wooded area (but not now a true island) on the north bank of the Platte River, equidistant e·qui·dis·tant
equi·distance n. between Duncan and Columbus on a parcel of property almost a mile in length. Witchey's Island has been grazed only minimally by livestock and natural deer populations, has not had fire for over 100 years, and has never been cultivated or farmed. It was homesteaded in 1864 by John Witchey, and according to historical record he maintained only a small garden and orchard. The Loup River site (Fig. 2) is on the south bank of the river and includes dense bottomland forest with open prairies, all on sandy soil.
The coordinates for most plants collected are as follows:
Witchey's Island-Platte River Site (Fig. 2 Top)
NW corner of site
NE corner of site
SW corner of site
SE corner of site
Loup River Site (Fix. 2 Bottom)
NW corner of the site
NE corner of site
SW corner of the site
SE corner of site
Lake Babcock, three miles northwest of Columbus, was another sampling location, as was Buck Island on the Loup River southeast of the city. But most collecting was at the established Loup and Platte River study sites because of their ease of access and the intact nature of their flora. The sampling locations were walked during the spring, summer and fall growing seasons, typically on a weekly basis, to identify species not previously vouchered.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The native and naturalized species known so far are summarized in Table 1 above, and the full list of those species follows the text, as Table 2.
The Witchey's Island site is representative of an eastern Nebraska riparian riparian adj. referring to the banks of a river or stream. (See: riparian rights) forest with a mixed-hardwood community, where the tree canopy is Celtis occidentalis, hackberry hackberry: see elm. ; Fraxinus pennslyvanica, green ash; Morus alba, white mulberry; Quercus macrocarpa macrocarpa
cupressusmacrocarpa. , bur oak; and Ulmus americana, American elm. Cottonwoods, Populus deltoides, are present, but not to the large size of those in the Loup River site. The representative shrubs for this community are Cornus drummondii, rough-leaf dogwood dogwood or cornel (kôr`nəl), shrub or tree of the genus Cornus, chiefly of north temperate and tropical mountain regions, characteristically having an inconspicuous flower surrounded by large, showy bracts which ; Ribes missouriense, Missouri gooseberry; Symphoricarpos occidentalis and S. orbiculatus, wolfberry and coralberry; and Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum americanum,
n See prickly ash. , prickly-ash. Abundant woody vines (lianas) form jungle-like tangles: Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Virginia creeper, and P. vitacea, woodbine; Smilax smilax, common name for a florists' plant of two separate genera (Asparagus and Smilax), both of the family Liliaceae (lily family, although some botanists recognize smilax as a separate family, the Similacaceae). hispida, green briar briar: see brier. ; Toxicodendron radicans, poison ivy; Menispermum canadense, moonseed; and Vitis riparia, riverbank grape. The herbaceous her·ba·ceous
1. Relating to or characteristic of an herb as distinguished from a woody plant.
2. Green and leaflike in appearance or texture. plants in this community include Carex spp., sedges; Elymus canadensis, Canada wild rye Noun 1. Canada wild rye - North American wild rye
wild rye - any of several grasses of the genus Elymus ; Ageratina altissima, white snakeroot white snakeroot, North American woods perennial (Eupatorium urticifolium) of the family Asteraceae (aster family), having a flat-topped cluster of small white flowers. It is of the same genus as the boneset and joe-pye weed. ; Muhlenbergia spp., muhly grasses; Sanicula canadensis, Canada sanicle; and Viola sororia, sister violet. This community occurs in the floodplains of rivers and streams in the eastern fourth of the state and extends only slightly westward into central Nebraska, along the Loup and Platte River systems. Western wild rose, Rosa woodsii, is more typical of central and western Nebraska, but it is abundant and robust here.
The Loup River site is also representative of eastern-Nebraska riparian woodland, where the tree canopy is represented by cottonwood, many of them 10-30 m in height. The subcanopy contains Acer negundo, boxelder; Gleditsia triacanthos, honey locust; Fraxinus pennslyvanica, green ash; Ulmus americana, American elm; and Morus alba, white mulberry--all common at this site. Shrubs include Cornus drummondii, Ribes missouriense, Sambucus canadensis Sambucus canadensis,
n See elderberry. (elderberry), and Symphoricarpos orbiculatus. Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron radicans and Vitis riparia are also common. Representative herbaceous plants include Ageratina altissima, white snakeroot; Galium aparine, bedstraw bedstraw: see madder.
Any low perennial herbaceous plant of the genus Galium, in the madder family, found in damp woods and swamps and along stream banks and shores. : Geum canadense, white avens avens
Any of the low-growing, perennial flowering plants (approximately 50 species) of the genus Geum, in the rose family. Most occur in the northern or southern temperate zones or in the Arctic. ; Poa pratensis, Kentucky bluegrass bluegrass, any species of the large and widely distributed genus Poa, chiefly range and pasture grasses of economic importance in temperate and cool regions. In general, bluegrasses are perennial with fine-leaved foliage that is bluish green in some species. ; Rudbeckia rudbeckia (rədbĕk`ēə): see black-eyed Susan.
indicates fairness. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 177]
See : Justice laciniata, cutleaf coneflower coneflower, name for several American wildflowers of the family Asteraceae (aster family). The purple coneflowers (genus Echinacea), found E of the Rockies, have purple to pinkish petallike rays; some cultivated forms have white flowers. ; and Viola sororia, sister violet--all common to abundant.
Recent intrusions of exotic, invasive species are evident: Lythrum salicaria, purple loosestrife loosestrife, common name for the Lythraceae, a widely distributed family of plants most abundant as woody shrubs in the American tropics but including also herbaceous species (chiefly of temperate zones) and some trees. ; Euphorbia esula, leafy spurge; and introduced genotypes of Phragmites australis, common reed. We witnessed their rapid proliferation, but Tamarix ramosissima (salt-cedar) is not yet known in the study area, although it is rampant to the west, along the Platte. Some species apparently are moving upriver, east to west, such as Robinia pseudoacacia Robinia pseudoacacia
toxic tree in the legume family Fabaceae; the bark contains a toxalbumin which causes purging and paralysis. Called also black locust, black acacia, false acacia, locust tree. , black locust black locust: see locust. ; Catalpa speciosa, northern catalpa; and Lonicera tatarica, Tatarian honeysuckle honeysuckle, common name for some members of the Caprifoliaceae, a family comprised mostly of vines and shrubs of the Northern Hemisphere, especially abundant in E Asia and E North America. . The invasive exotics Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) and autumn-olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) were not present in or near our study sites, but their currently aggressive westward spread across Nebraska assures eventual arrival in Platte County.
The Loup River site has naturalized species such as Rhamnus cathartica Rhamnus cathartica,
n See buckthorn. , buckthorn buckthorn, common name for some members of the Rhamnaceae, a family of woody shrubs, small trees, and climbing vines widely distributed throughout the world. ; Convallaria majalis Convallaria majalis,
n See lily of the valley.
a toxic plant of the family Liliaceae; contains cardiac glycosides; causes cardiomyopathy, sudden death, diarrhea. Called also lily-of-the-valley. , lily-of-the-valley; and Lonicera tatarica, which are common there but not at the Witchey's Island site. The latter site harbors such natives as Hibiscus laevis, halberd-leaf rosemallow; Mimulus
An underlying layer of vegetation, especially the plants that grow beneath a forest's canopy. at Witchey's Island, especially in heavily grazed places because livestock do not eat them. Black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia, and northern catalpa, Catalpa speciosa, both native to southeastern North America, are invading the forests near the confluence of the rivers. Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, and white mulberry, Morus alba, both introduced to North America from Asia long ago, are established and abundant. A native invasive tree, red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana), is abundant in fields and even in deep forests, and here as almost everywhere across the state, it overwhelms native ecosystems.
Some species reach their western limits in or near these sites, e.g., Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-the-pulpit), Zanthoxylum americanum (prickly-ash), Erythronium albidum (prairie fawnlily), Viola pubescens (smooth yellow violet), and Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper). Others reach their eastern limits in the same area, e.g., Opuntia opuntia
Any plant of the genus Opuntia, the largest genus of the cactus family. Native to the New World, it has characteristic small bristles with backward-facing barbs. fragilis, little prickly-pear.
Aughey, Samuel. 1875. Catalogue of the Flora of Nebraska. University of Nebraska-Lincoln: 37 pp.
Carleton, James H. 1844-1846 (1983). The Prairie Logbooks: Dragoon dragoon
In late 16th-century Europe, a mounted soldier who fought as a light cavalryman on attack and as a dismounted infantryman on defense. The term derived from his weapon, a short musket called the dragoon. Campaigns to the Pawnee Villages in 1844, and to the Rocky Mountains in 1845. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press: 295 pp.
Curry M. 1950. The History of Platte County, Nebraska Platte County is a county located in the U.S. state of Nebraska. As of 2000, the population was 31,662. Its county seat is Columbus6.
In the Nebraska license plate system, Platte County is represented by the prefix 10 (it had the tenth-largest number of vehicles . Murray and Gee, Inc. Culver City, CA: 1011p.
Ducey, J. E. 2000. Birds of the Untamed West. Making History, Omaha, Nebraska: 299 pp.
Goodman G.J., and C.E. Lawson. 1995. Retracing Major Stephen H. Long's 1820 Expedition- The Itinerary and Botany. University of Oklahoma Press The University of Oklahoma Press is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma. It has been in operation for over seventy-five years, and was the first university press established in the American Southwest. , Norman: 366pp.
Great Plains Flora Association. 1977. Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains. Iowa State University Academics
ISU is best known for its degree programs in science, engineering, and agriculture. ISU is also home of the world's first electronic digital computing device, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer. Press, Ames: 777 pp.
Kantak, G.E., and S.P. Churchill. 1986. A bibliography of the ecological and taxonomic literature of the Nebraska vascular plants. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 14: 61-78.
Kaul, R.B., and S.B. Rolfsmeier. 1993. Native Vegetation of Nebraska. Map, 1:1000,000. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Conservation and Survey Division.
Kaul, R. B., D. M. Sutherland, and S. B. Rolfsmeier. 2006. The Flora of Nebraska. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Conservation and Survey Division: 968 pp.
Nebraska Gap-Analysis Project. 1993. Land Cover Classification of Nebraska. Map 1:1,500,000. Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Warren, Gouveneur Kemble. 1875. Preliminary Report of Explorations in Nebraska and Dakota, in the Years 1855-'56-'57. Washington D.C.: U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers.
Webber, Herbert J. 1890. Catalogue of the Flora of Nebraska. Nebraska State Board of Agriculture, Report for 1889: 36-163.
Michael P. Gutzmer
New Century Environmental LLC (Logical Link Control) See "LANs" under data link protocol.
LLC - Logical Link Control
Columbus, Nebraska 68601-6335
Robert B. Kaul
University of Nebraska State Museum The University of Nebraska State Museum, also known as Elephant Hall, is a natural history museum featuring Nebraska biodiversity, paleontology, and cultural diversity. It was founded in 1871.
Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0514
Table 1. Species of native and naturalized trees, shrubs, woody vines, and herbs Trees Shrubs Lianas Herbs totals Native 13 20 7 385 425 Introduced 8 10 1 98 117 totals 21 30 8 483 542 Table 2. Platte County families and species of vascular plants documented. New records (boldface) are as compared to mapped records in Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Assn. 1977). Some of these new records are mapped in The Flora of Nebraska (Kaul et al. 2006), whose nomenclature is used below. Introduced, naturalized species are indicated by an asterisk (*). Most of the vouchering specimens are in the Bessey Herbarium of the University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln. ACERACEAE Acer ginnala,# Amur maple* Acer negundo,# boxelder Acer saccharinum,# silver maple, soft maple ADOXACEAE Viburnum opulus,# highbush-cranberry* AGAVACEAE Yucca glauca,# yucca ALISMATACEAE Sagittaria cuneata,# arrowhead, duck-potato Sagittaria latifolia,# arrowhead AMARANTHACEAE Amaranthus albus,# pale amaranth Amaranthus retroflexus, redroot pigweed Amaranthus tuberculatus,# water-hemp Froelichia floridana,# snake-cotton Froelichia gracilis,# slender snake-cotton ANACARDIACEAE Rhus aromatica,# fragrant sumac* Rhus glabra, smooth sumac Rhus typhina "Laciniata",# staghorn sumac* Toxicodendron radicans negundo, poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans rydbergii,# poison ivy APIACEAE Berula erecta,# water-parsnip Cicuta maculata,# common water-hemlock Conium maculatum,# poison-hemlock* Osmorhiza longistylis,# long-styled sweet cicely Polytaenia nuttallii, prairie-parsley Sanicula canadensis, Canada sanicle Sanicula odorata,# cluster sanicle Spermolepis inermis, scaleseed APOCYNACEAE Apocynum cannabinum,# hemp dogbane Asclepius arenaria, sand milkweed Asclepius engelmanniana, slender-leaf milkweed Asclepius incarnata,# swamp milkweed Asclepius speciosa, showy milkweed Asclepius speciosa x syriaca, hybrid milkweed Asclepius syriaca, common milkweed Asclepius verticillata, whorled milkweed Asclepius viridiflora,# green milkweed ARACEAE Arisamea triphyllum,# jack-in-the-pulpit ASTERACEAE Achillea millefolium, yarrow Ageratina altissima, white snakeroot Ambrosia artemisiifolia,# common ragweed Ambrosia psilostachya,# western ragweed Ambrosia trifida, giant ragweed Antennaria neglecta, pussytoes Antennaria parvifolia,# pussytoes Arctium minus,# burdock* Artemisia dracunculus,# silky wormwood Artemisia ludoviciana,# Louisiana sage Aster novae-angliae, New England aster Aster oblongifolius, aromatic aster Aster praealtus neb raskensis,# willowleaf aster Bidens bipinnatus, Spanish needles Bidens cernuus, bur-marigold Bidens comosus, beggarticks Bidens connatus (both varieties), beggarticks Bidens frondosus, beggarticks Bidens trichosperma,# tickseed sunflower Bidens vulgatus, beggarticks Brickellia eupatorioides corymbulosa, false boneset Carduus nutans, musk thistle* Cirsium altissimum,# tall thistle Cirsium canescens, Platte thistle Conyza canadensis, horseweed, marestail Coreopsis lanceolata,# lanceleaf tickseed* Coreopsis tinctoria, plains coreopsis Dyssodia papposa, fetid marigold Echinacea angustifolia, narrow-leaf purple coneflower Eclipta prostrata,# yerba de tajo Erechtites hieraciifolia,# fireweed Erigeron annuus, annual fleabane Erigeron philadelphicus, marsh fleabane Erigeron strigosus, daisy fleabane Eupatorium altissimum,# tall boneset Eupatorium maculatum v. bruneri,# spotted Joe Pye weed Eupatorium perfoliatum,# boneset Euthamia gymnospermoides, goldentop Gnaphalium obtusifolium,# fragrant cudweed Grindelia squarrosa,# curly-cup gumweed Helenium autumnale,# sneezeweed Helianthus annuus,# common sunflower Helianthus grosseserratus, sawtooth sunflower Helianthus petiolaris,# plains sunflower Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem artichoke Heliopsis helianthoides,# false sunflower Heterotheca latifolia,# camphor-weed Heterotheca villosa, golden-aster Hymenopappus tenuifolius Iva annua,# marsh-elder Lactuca serriola,# prickly lettuce* Leucanthemum vulgare,# oxeye daisy* Liatris punctata, gayfeather Liatris squarrosa glabrata, gayfeather Matricaria matricarioides, pineapple weed* Nothocalais cuspidata, false dandelion Ratibida columnifera, prairie coneflower Ratibida pinnata,# grayhead coneflower Rudbeckia hirta,# black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia laciniata,# cutleaf coneflower Senecio plattensis, prairie ragwort Silphium integrifolium v. laeve,# rosinweed Silphium laciniatum,# compass plant Silphium perfoliatum,# cup plant Solidago canadensis, Canada goldenrod Solidago gigantea,# tall goldenrod Solidago mollis, soft goldenrod Solidago nemoralis,# gray goldenrod Taraxacum officinale, dandelion* Thelesperma megapotamicum, greenthread Tragopogon dubius, goat's-beard* Vernonia baldwinii, interior, western ironweed Xanthium strumarium,# spiny cocklebur BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens capensis, touch-me-not BERBERIDACEAE Berberis vulgaris, European barberry* BIGNONIACEAE Catalpa speciosa,# northern catalpa* BORAGINACEAE Hackelia virginiana, stickseed Lithospermum caroliniense, plains puccoon Lithospermum incisum, fringed puccoon Onosmodium molle occidentale,# false gromwell BRASSICACEAE Arabis hirsuta pycnocarpa,# rock cress Barbarea vulgaris, winter cress* Capsella bursa-pastoris, shepherd's-purse* Cardamine pensylvanica,# bitter cress Chorispora tenella,# blue mustard* Descurainia pinnata,# tansy mustard Descurainia sophia,# tansy mustard* Erysimum repandum, bushy wallflower* Hesperis matronalis,# dame's rocket* Lepidium densiflorum, pepper-grass Physaria ludoviciana, bladderpod Rorippa palustris glabra, bog yellow-cress Rorippa sessiliflora,# yellow-cress Sisymbrium loeselii, tall hedge-mustard* Thlaspi arvense, field penny-cress* CACTACEAE Opuntia fragilis,# little prickly-pear Opuntia humifusa, eastern prickly-pear CAESALPINIACEAE Chamaecrista fasciculata, showy partidge-pea Gleditsia triacanthos,# honey-locust Gymnocladus dioica,# Kentucky coffee tree CAMPANULACEAE Lobelia siphilitica,# great blue lobelia Lobelia spicata, palespike lobelia Triodanis perfoliata, Venus's looking-glass CANNABACEAE Cannabis sativa,# marijuana* Humulus lupulus,# hop CAPRIFOLIACEAE Lonicera japonica,# Japanese honeysuckle* Lonicera morrowii,# Morrow's honeysuckle* Lonicera tatarica, Tatarian honeysuckle* Sambucus canadensis, elderberry Symphoricarpos occidentalis, wolfberry Symphoricarpos orbiculatus,# coralberry CARYOPHYLLACEAE Agrostemma githago, corn-cockle* Arenaria serpyllifolia,# thyme-leaf sandwort* Cerastium brachypodum,# chickweed Cerastium fontanum vulgare,# chickweed* Dianthus armeria,# Deptford pink* Holosteum umbellatum,# jagged chickweed* Saponaria officinalis,# soapweed, bouncing Bet* Stellaria media,# common chickweed* CELASTRACEAE Celastrus scandens,# American bittersweet Euonymus atropurpureus,# wahoo CELTIDACEAE Celtis occidentalis, hackberry CERATO PHYLLACEAE Ceratophyllum demersum,# coontail CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium glaucum,# oakleaf goosefoot* Chenopodium simplex,# maple-leaf goosefoot Chenopodium standleyanum,# Standley's goosefoot Chenopodium stricture, goosefoot Corispermum americanum,# American bugseed Cycloloma atriplicifolium, winged pigweed Kochia scoparia kochia, summer cypress* Salsola tragus=S. iberica, Russian thistle* CISTACEAE Lechea mucronata, pinweed CLEOMACEAE Polanfsia jamesii, James's clammyweed CLUSIACEAE Hypericum perforatum,# common St.John's-wort* COMMELINACEAE Commelina communis,# dayflower* Tradescantia occidentalis,# spiderwort CONVOVLVULACEAE Calystegia macounii,# Macoun's bindweed Calystegia sepium angulata, hedge bindweed Convolvulus arvensis, field bindweed* Ipomoea hederacea,# ivyleaf morning-glory* Ipomoea purpurea,# common morning-glory* CORNACEAE Cornus drummondii, rough-leaf dogwood Cornus sericea, red-osier dogwood CRASSULACEAE Penthorum sedoides,# ditch stonecrop CUCURBITACEAE Echinocystis lobata, wild-cucumber Sicyos angulatus,# bur-cucumber CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus virginiana,# eastern red-cedar CYPERACEAE Bolboschoenus fluviatilis,# river bulrush Carex bebbii,# sedge Carex blanda,# sedge Carex brevior, sedge Carex comosa,# sedge Carex crawei,# sedge Carex davisii,# sedge Carex eleocharis, sedge Carex emoryi,# sedge Carex granularis haleana,# sedge Carex gravida,# sedge Carex heliophila, sunsedge Carex hystericina, sedge Carex laeuiconica, sedge Carex meadii,# sedge Carex molesta,# sedge Carex pellita,# sedge Ca rex praegracills,# sedge Carex sartwellii,# sedge Carex scoparia,# sedge Carex stipata, sedge Carex tetanica,# sedge Carex vulpinoidea,# sedge Cyperus acuminatus,# flatsedge Cyperus bipartitus,# brook flatsedge Cyperus erythrorhizos, redroot flatsedge Cyperus lupulinus lupulinus,# flatsedge Cyperus lupulinus x schweinitzii,# flatsedge Cyperus odoratus,# rusty flatsedge Cyperus schweinitzii,# Schweinitz's flatsedge Cyperus squarrosus,# flatsedge Cyperus strigosus, false nutsedge, umbrella sedge Eleocharis compressa, spikerush Eleocharis erythropoda, redstem spikerush Schoenoplectus pungens, common threesquare Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani,# softstem bulrush Scirpus pallidus,# bulrush Scirpus pendulus,# bulrush DRYOPTERIDACEAE Onoclea sensibilis,# sensitive fern ELAEAGNACEAE Elaeagnus angustifolia,# Russian olive* EQUISETACEAE Equisetum arvense, field horsetail Equisetum hyemale v. affine, scouring-rush Equisetum laevigatum,# scouring-rush EUPHORBIACEAE Acalypha rhomboidea,# three-seeded mercury Croton texensis,# Texas croton Euphorbia davidii, western toothed spurge Euphorbia esula esula,# leafy spurge* Euphorbia geyeri, Geyer's spurge Euphorbia glyptosperma, spurge Euphorbia hexagona,# six-angle spurge Euphorbia marginata, snow-on-the-mountain Euphorbia missurica intermedia, Missouri spurge Euphorbia nutans, eyebane Euphorbia stictospora, spurge FABACEAE Amorpha canescens, leadplant Amorpha fruticosa, wild-indigo Apios americana, ground-nut Astragalus canadensis,# Canadian milkvetch Astragalus crassicarpus, ground-plum Crotalaria sagittalis, rattlebox Dalea leporina, hare's-foot dalea Dalea purpurea purpurea, purple prairie-clover Dalea villosa, silky prairie-clover Desmodium glutinosum,# large-flowered tick-clover Glycyrrhiza lepidota, wild licorice Lathyrus polymorphus, hoary vetch Lespedeza capitata,# round-head lespedeza Lotus corniculatus,# bird's-foot trefoil* Lotus purshianus,# prairie trefoil Medicago lupulina, black medick* Medicago sativa sativa,# alfalfa* Melilotus albus,# white sweet-clover* Melilotus officinalis, yellow sweet-clover* Oxytropis lambertii, purple locoweed Pediomelum argophyllum, silver-leaf scurfpea Pediomelum digitatum, palmleaf scurfpea Psoralidium lanceolatum, lemon scurfpea Robinia pseudoacacia,# black-locust* Strophostyles helvula,# wild bean Strophostyles leiosperma,# slickseed wild bean Trifolium hybridum,# Alsike clover* Trifolium pratense, red clover* Trifolium repens,# white clover* Vicia villosa, hairy vetch* FAGACEAE Quercus macrocarpa,# bur oak GENTIANACEAE Gentiana andrewsii dakotica,# bottle gentian Gentiana puberulenta, downy gentian GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes missouriense,# Missouri gooseberry HYDROCHARITACEAE Elodea nuttallii, elodea Naias guadalupensis,# naiad HYDROPHYLLACEAE Ellisia nyctelea, waterpod IRIDACEAE Belamcanda chinensis,# blackberry lily* Iris germanica,# bearded iris* Iris pseudacorus,# yellow iris, yellow flag* Sisyrinchium campestre, blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium montanum,# blue-eyed grass JUGLANDACEAE Juglans nigra,# black walnut JUNCACEAE Juncus arcticus balticus,# Baltic rush Juncus brachyphyllus,# shortleaf rush Juncus dudleyi,# Dudley's rush Juncus interior, inland rush Juncus torreyi,# Torrey's rush LAMIACEAE Hedeoma hispida, rough false pennyroyal Leonurus cardiaca,# motherwort* Lycopus americanus, American water-horehound Lycopus asper,# western water-horehound Mentha arvensis, field mint Monarda fistulosa,# wild-bergamot Monarda punetata oceidentalis,# horsemint* Nepeta cataria, catnip* Prunella vulgaris lanceolata,# American heal-all Prunella vulgaris vulgaris,# European heal-all Pycnanthemum virginianum, Virginia mountain-mint Salvia reflexa,# Rocky Mountain salvia Scutellaria galericulata, marsh skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora,# mad-dog skullcap Scutellaria parvula missouriensis, little skullcap Teucrium canadense canadense, American germander Teucrium canadense occidentale,# American germander LEMNACEAE Lemna spp.,# duckweed Spirodela polyrrhiza,# greater duckweed Wolffia columbiana,# Columbian watermeal LILIACEAE Allium canadense canadense,# wild onion Allium canadense fraseri, wild onion Allium canadense lavendulare, wild onion Allium perdulce, fragrant onion Asparagus officinalis,# asparagus* Convallaria majalis,# lily-of-the-valley* Erythronium albidum,# prairie fawnlily Hernerocallis fulva,# daylily* Hypoxis hirsuta,# yellow star-grass Polygonatum biflorum,# Solomon's seal Smilacina stellata,# starry false Solomon's seal LINACEAE Linum rigidum simulans, stiff flax Linum sulcatum,# grooved flax LYTHRACEAE Ammannia robusta,# toothcup Lythrum alarum,# winged loosestrife Lythrum salicaria,# purple loosestrife* MALVACEAE Abutilon theophrasti, velvet leaf* Callirhoe alcaeoides,# pink poppy-mallow Callirhoe involucrata, purple poppy-mallow Hibiscus laevis,# halberd-leaf rose-mallow MARSILEACEAE Marsilea vestita,# pepperwort, water-clover MENISPERMACEAE Menispermum canadense,# moonseed MIMOSACEAE Desmanthus illinoensis,# Illinois tick-clover MOLLUGINACEAE Mollugo verticillata,# carpet-weed MORACEAE Morus alba,# white mulberry* NELUMBONACEAE Nelumbo lutea,# American lotus, chinkapin NYCTAGINACEAE Mirabilis hirsuta,# hairy four-o'clock Mirabilis nyctaginea,# wild four-o'clock NYMPHAEACEAE Nymphaea odorata s.l., white waterlily OLEACEAE Fraxinus pennsylvanica,# green ash ONAGRACEAE Calylophus serrulatus, plains evening-primrose Gaura coccinea,# scarlet gaura Oenothera biennis,# common evening-primrose Oenothera rhombipetala,# fourpoint evening-primrose ORCHIDACEAE Cypripedium candidum,# white lady's-slipper OXALIDACEAE Oxalis dillenii, gray oxalis PAPAVERACEAE Argemone polyanthemos,# prickly poppy PHRYMACEAE Phryma leptostachya,# lopseed PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago lanceolata,# English plantain* Plantago patagonica patagonica, woolly plantain Plantago rugelii,# American plantain Plantago virginica,# plantain POACEAE Agropyron cristatum, crested wheatgrass* Agrostis hyemalis, tickle-grass Agrostis stolonifera, redtop* Andropogon gerardii gerardii, big bluestem Andropogon gerardii hallii, sand bluestem Aristida basiramea, forktip three-awn Aristida oligantha, oldfield three-awn Bouteloua curtipendula, sideoats grama Bouteloua gracilis, blue grama Bouteloua hirsuta, hairy grama Bromus inermis, smooth brome* Bromus japonicus, hairy chess, Japanese brome* Bromus pubescens,# Canada brome Bromus tectorum, cheatgrass* Buchloe dactyloides,# buffalo grass Calamovilfa longifolia,# prairie sandreed Cenchrus longispinus, sandbur Chloris verticillata, windmill grass Dactylis glomerata, orchard grass* Digitaria cognata, fall witchgrass Digitaria ischaemum, smooth crabgrass* Digitaria sanguinalis, hairy crabrass* Echinochloa crusgalli,# barnyard grass* Echinochloa muricata microstachya,# barnyard grass Eleusine indica, goosegrass* Elymus canadensis, Canada wild rye Elymus elongatus, tall wheatgrass* Elymus hispidus, intermediate wheatgrass Elymus repens, quackgrass* Elymus smithii, western wheatgrass Elymus trachycaulus trachycaulus, slendeer wheatgrass Elymus villosus, hairy wild-rye Elymus virginicus, Virginia wild-rye Eragrostis cilianensis,# stinkgrass* Eragrostis pectinacea,# Carolina lovegrass Eragrostis spectabilis, purple lovegrass Eragrostis trichodes, sand lovegrass Eriochloa contracta,# prairie cupgrass Glyceria grandis, tall manna-grass Glyceria striata, fowl manna-grass Hordeum jubatum, foxtail barley Hordeum pusillum, little barley Koeleria macrantha, Junegrass Leersia virginica, Virginian cutgrass Lolium arundinaceum, tall-fescue Lolium perenne, perennial ryegrass* Miscanthus saccharifolius, silver grass, miscanthus* Muhlenbergia frondosa, wirestem muhly Muhlenbergia glomerata, muhly Muhlenbergia mexicana,# wirestem muhly Muhlenbergia pungens, blowout Muhlenbergia racemosa, marsh muhly Panicum acuminatum, panic grass Panicum capillare, common witchgrass Panicum dichotomiflorum, fall panicum Panicum leibergii, Leiberg panicum Panicum oligosanthes scribnerianum, Scribner's panicum Panicum virgatum, switchgrass Paspalum setaceum stramineum, paspalum Phalaris arundinacea, reed canary-grass* Phleum pratense, timothy* Phragmites australis,# common reed Poa annua,# annual bluegrass* Poa compressa,# Canada bluegrass Poa pratensis,# Kentucky bluegrass (*?) Polypogon monspeliensis,# rabbitfoot grass* Redfieldia flexuosa,# blowout grass Schedonnardus paniculatus, tumblegrass Schizachyrium scoparium, little bluestem Secale cereale, rye* Setaria italica, foxtail millet* Setaria pumila, yellow foxtail* Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail* Setaria viridis, green foxtail* Sorghastrum nutans,# switchgrass Sorghum bicolor, sorghum, milo* Spartina pectinata, prairie cordgrass Sphenopholis obtusata major, wedgegrass Sphenopholis obtusata obtusata, wedgegrass Sporobolus cryptandrus, sand dropseed Sporobolus vaginiflorus, poverty grass Stipa spartea, porcupine grass Tridens flavus,# purpletop grass Triplasis purpurea, purple sandgrass Tripsacum dactyloides,# eastern gamagrass Triticum aestivum, wheat* Vulpia octoflora, six-weeks fescue Zizania palustris interior,# interior wild-rice POLEMONIACEAE Phlox paniculata,# summer phlox* POLYGONACEAE Eriogonum annuum,# annual wild-buckwheat Polygonum achoreum, knotweed Polygonum aviculare,# knotweed, wireweed* Polygonum bicorne, pink smartweed Polygonum coccineum,# scarlet smartweed Polygonum convolvulus, black-bindweed* Polygonum lapathifolium, nodding smartweed Polygonum pensylvanicum,# Pennsylvania smartweed Polygonum persicaria,# smartweed* Polygonum punctatum,# water smartweed Polygonum ramosissimum (all vars.), bushy knotweed Polygonum scandens, climbing false-buckwheat Polygonum tenue,# slender knotweed Rumex acetosella,# sheep sorrel* Rumex altissimus, pale dock, tall dock Rumex patientia orientalis,# patience dock* Rumex stenophyllus,# narrowleaf dock* PONTEDERIACEAE Heteranthera limosa,# mud-plantain PORTULACEAE Phemeranthus parviflorus, prairie fame-flower Phemeranthus rugospermus, sand fame-flower POTAMOGETONACEAE Potamogeton foliosus,# leafy pondweed Potamogeton illinoensis,# Illinois pondweed Potamogeton nodosus, floating-leaf pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus,# sago pondweed Potamogeton pusillus,# small pondweed PRIMULACEAE Androsace occidentalis, western rock-jasmine Lysimachia nummularia,# moneywort* RANUNCULACEAE Anemone canadensis, meadow anemone Anemone caroliniana, Carolina anemone Aquilegia canadensis,# columbine Delphinium virescens, prairie larkspur Ranunculus abortivus,# kidney-leaf buttercup Ranunculus flabellaris,# yellow water-crowfoot Ranunculus longirostris,# white water-crowfoot Ranunculus sceleratus, cursed crowfoot Thalictrum dasycarpum,# purple meadow-rue RHAMNACEAE Rhamnus cathartica,# buckthorn* ROSACEAE Agrimonia gryposepala,# agrimony Geum canadense,# white avens Potentilla recta,# sulfur cinquefoil Prunus americana,# American plum Prunus pumila besseyi, sand cherry Prunus tomentosa,# Nanking cherry, bush cherry* Prunus virginiana,# chokecherry Rosa arkansana, dwarf prairie-rose Rosa multiflora,# multiflora rose* Rosa woodsii,# western wild rose Rubus occidentalis,# black raspberry RUBIACEAE Galium aparine, cleavers Galium circaezans,# woods bedstraw Galium obtusum,# bluntleaf bedstraw RUTACEAE Zanthoxylum americanum,# prickly-ash SALICACEAE Populus alba,# silver poplar* Populus deltoides occidentalis,# Plains cottonwood Salix amygdaloides,# peach-leaf willow Salix eriocephala famelica,# diamond willow Salix exigua interior, sandbar willow SANTALACEAE Comandra umbellata umbellata, comandra, bastard toadflax SCROPHULARIACEAE Agalinis tenuifolia parvifolia,# gerardia Bacopa rotundifolia,# water-hyssop Gratiola neglecta, hedge-hyssop Leucospora multifida,# leucospora Lindernia dubia, false pimpernel Mimulus glabratus,# roundleaf monkey-flower Mimulus ringens,# Allegheny monkey-flower Penstemon albidus, white beardtongue Penstemon angustifolius angustifolius, narrowleaf beardtongue Penstemon buckleyi,# Buckley's penstemon Penstemon grandiflorus, large beardtongue Scrophularia marilandica,# eastern figwort Verbascum blattaria,# moth mullein* Verbascum thapsus,# common mullein* Veronica anagallis-aquatica,# water speedwell* Veronica catenata,# water speedwell* Veronica peregrina peregrina,# purslane speedwell* Veronica peregrina xalapensis, purslane speedwell* Veronica polita,# veronica* SIMAROUBACEAE Ailanthus altissima,# tree-of-heaven* SMILACACEAE Smilax hispida,# greenbriar, prickly catbriar SOLANACEAE Datura wrightii,# angel's trumpet* Physalis heterophylla, ivyleaf ground-cherry Physalis longifolia, common ground-cherry Solanum carolinense,# horse-nettle Solanum interius, Plains black nightshade Solanum ptycanthum, black nightshade Solanum rostratum, buffalo bur SPARGANIACEAE Sparganium eurycarpum,# bur-reed TYPHACEAE Typha angustifolia,# narrowleaf cattail Typha latifolia,# broadleaf cattail ULMACEAE Ulmus americana,# American elm Ulmus pumila,# Siberian elm* Ulmus rubra,# red elm, slippery elm URTICACEAE Boehmeria cylindrica, false nettle Parietaria pensylvanica,# pellitory Urtica dioica, stinging nettle VERBENACEAE Lippia lanceolata,# northern fogfruit Verbena bracteata, prostrate vervain Verbena hastata, common vervain Verbena stricta, hoary vervain Verbena urticifolia,# white vervain VIOLACEAE Viola pubescens eriocarpa,# smooth yellow violet Viola sororia, sister violet VITACEAE Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Virginia creeper Parthenocissus vitacea,# woodbine Vitis riparia,# riverbank grape ZANNICHELLIACEAE Zannichellia palustris, horned pondweed ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Tribulus terrestris, puncture vine* Note: New records (boldface) are as compared to mapped records in Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Assn. 1977) is indicated with #.