Flora and vegegation of Danau Sentarum: unique lake and swamp forest ecosystem of West Kalimantan.
Danau Sentarum National Park is characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by lakes and a variety of swamp forests that are unique, and unlike comparable habitats in Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago. or Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. . Structurally, it was once very similar to the Mahakam Lakes in East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. Kaltim) is Indonesian province on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda (the capital and a center for timber product) and Balikpapan (a petroleum center with oil , but the latter area is severely degraded de·grad·ed
1. Reduced in rank, dignity, or esteem.
2. Having been corrupted or depraved.
3. Having been reduced in quality or value. . Three main swamp forest types are recognized on the basis of structure: dwarf swamp forest, stunted stunt 1
tr.v. stunt·ed, stunt·ing, stunts
To check the growth or development of.
1. One that stunts.
2. One that is stunted.
3. swamp forest, and tall swamp forest. Within each of these, various vegetation vegetation /veg·e·ta·tion/ (vej?e-ta´shun) any plantlike fungoid neoplasm or growth; a luxuriant fungus-like growth of pathologic tissue. types are recognized on the basis of dominant species. Basic structural types are closely linked with depth and duration of flooding. Aquatic vegetation is virtually absent, due to a combination of severe fluctuation Fluctuation
A price or interest rate change. in water levels and low nutrient nutrient /nu·tri·ent/ (noo´tre-int)
1. nourishing; providing nutrition.
2. a food or other substance that provides energy or building material for the survival and growth of a living organism. levels in lake waters. Plant species diversity of each habitat is low, but due to diversity in habitat types, overall plant diversity is relatively high and 262 species are recorded for swamp forests. DSNP DSNP Digital Signal Noise Processing
DSNP Danau Sentarum National Park (Borneo)
DSNP Digital Synchronization Network Plan harbors 30-40 endemics or restricted range species. The most serious immediate threats to the integrit y of these forests are fires and illegal logging Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of , while swidden swid·den
An area cleared for temporary cultivation by cutting and burning the vegetation.
[Dialectal alteration of obsolete swithen, from Old Norse svidhna, to be burned.] cultivation cultivation, tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or on levees forms the main threat to the riparian riparian adj. referring to the banks of a river or stream. (See: riparian rights) habitat.
Swamp habitats in Indonesia
Large areas of non-marine swamp occur in the lowlands of Sumatra Sumatra (smä`trə), island (1990 pop. 36,471,731), c.183,000 sq mi (473,970 sq km), Indonesia, in the Indian Ocean along the equator, S and W of the Malay Peninsula (from which it , Borneo Borneo (bôr`nēō'), island (1990 pop. 9,102,906), c.287,000 sq mi (743,330 sq km), largest of the Malay Archipelago and third largest island in the world, SW of the Philippines and N of Java. , and Papua Papua, province, Indonesia
Papua (păp`ə, –y , extending over a total area of 23-3 5 million hectares (Euroconsult, 1984; Silvius Silvius has several meanings:
IIED Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress (legal) , 1994), and form one of the largest areas of tropical swamp world-wide outside of Amazonia Am·a·zo·ni·a
The vast basin of the Amazon River in northern South America. It remains largely unpopulated and undeveloped, especially in the interior. (WCMC WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Centre
WCMC Weill Cornell Medical College
WCMC Westchester Medical Center (Valhalla, NY)
WCMC Weill Cornell Medical Center
WCMC Wildlife Conservation and Management Committee , 1992; Maltby Maltby can be the name of a person, an organization, or a place:
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. mineral soils. More than three-quarters Noun 1. three-quarters - three of four equal parts; "three-fourths of a pound"
common fraction, simple fraction - the quotient of two integers
three-quarters npl → of all peat land in Southeast Asia occurs in Indonesia, and with a total area of 17-27 million hectares, it accounts for more than half of the world's total of tropical peat Areas of tropical peat are found mostly in South East Asia (about 70% by area) although are also found in Africa, Central and South America and elsewhere around the Pacific Ocean. land (Maltby, 1997).
Most of Indonesia's non-marine swamps are near coastal areas and were forested before the advent of large-scale large-scale
1. Large in scope or extent.
2. Drawn or made large to show detail.
1. wide-ranging or extensive
2. commercial logging in A colloquial term for the process of making the initial record of the names of individuals who have been brought to the police station upon their arrest.
The process of logging in is also called booking. the 1980s and 1990s. Isolated swamps further inland, in the middle or upper basins of larger rivers, are far less common. Papua very extensive swamp forests are broad, inland extensions of coastal freshwater swamp forests, and due to the rugged, mountainous moun·tain·ous
1. Having many mountains.
2. Resembling a mountain in size; huge: mountainous waves.
1. nature of the interior, inland swamps are either absent or consist of medium to high altitude Conventionally, an altitude above 10,000 meters (33,000 feet). See also altitude. bogs (Paaijmans, 1976; Petocz, 1989). Most swamps of Sumatra follow a similar pattern: peat- and freshwater swamp forests are found along most of the east coast and extend far inland, with wooded medium to high altitude bogs found in the central mountain range (Scholz Scholz is a German surname.
well-developed adj [girl in the middle-upper reaches of the island's longest rivers, especially along the Mahakam and Kapuas Kapuas (kä`päs), river, c.710 mi (1,140 km) long, rising in the mountains of central Borneo and flowing SW through W Kalimantan, Indonesia, to the South China Sea near Pontianak. (Silvius et al., 1987). While forested swamps along the Mahakam have largely deteriorated over the past decades, those in the upper Kapuas basin are relatively intact, and a significant area is protected in the Danau (=lake) Sentarum National Park.
Danau Sentarum National Park
The Danau Sentarum National Park (further referred to as DSNP or the Park) covers an area of 132,000 hectares, and is located in the floodplain floodplain, level land along the course of a river formed by the deposition of sediment during periodic floods. Floodplains contain such features as levees, backswamps, delta plains, and oxbow lakes. of the upper Kapuas River The Kapuas River (Indonesian: Sungai Kapuas) is located in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. At approximately 1,143 km, it is the longest river in Indonesia, and is the major river of the western portion of Borneo. It is also the world's longest river on an island. in West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line. (see Giesen and Aglionby Aglionby may be the surname of:
Annual rainfall in the Park fluctuates around 3,900 mm per year, while the surrounding sur·round
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.
2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.
n. hills and mountainous catchment area catchment area or drainage basin, area drained by a stream or other body of water. The limits of a given catchment area are the heights of land—often called drainage divides, or watersheds—separating it from neighboring drainage receive 4,500-6,000 mm. Because of high precipitation precipitation, in chemistry
precipitation, in chemistry, a process in which a solid is separated from a suspension, sol, or solution. In a suspension such as sand in water the solid spontaneously precipitates (settles out) on standing. levels, most of the low-lying areas in the basin--including Danau Sentarum--are flooded in the wetter months. Water levels of the lakes and streams may rise and fall up to 12 meters during an average year. During about nine months of the year the lake system is flooded, with an average maximum depth of 6.5 meters, though levels may fluctuate substantially. During the remainder of the year (usually late June-early September) waters usually retreat to the deepest channels and the lakes dry out entirely in two out of three years.
Isolated waterholes or kerinan may remain in the swamp forest or otherwise dry lake bed, while deeper parts of otherwise dry streams may remain as pools or lubuk Lakes and stream waters are colored by tannins tannins,
n.pl polyphenolic phytochemicals whose name derives from their use in tanning animal skins. Used as astringents, antioxidants, and styptics; treats burns, relieves diarrhea. , ins, very mineral-deficient and acidic acidic /acid·ic/ (ah-sid´ik) of or pertaining to an acid; acid-forming.
adj having the properties of an acid; acid-forming properties. , with a pH of 4.55.5. Light penetration in water is about one meter, while conductivity conductivity /con·duc·tiv·i·ty/ (kon?duk-tiv´i-te) the capacity of a body to transmit a flow of electricity or heat; the conductance per unit area of the body.
1. averages at 16 [micro]S (range 9-24 [micro]S). Dissolved dis·solve
v. dis·solved, dis·solv·ing, dis·solves
1. To cause to pass into solution: dissolve salt in water.
2. oxygen levels are fairly low, averaging at 4.4 mg/l, while surface temperatures are high (30.4[degrees]C). The geology geology, science of the earth's history, composition, and structure, and the associated processes. It draws upon chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and mathematics (notably statistics) for support of its formulations. of Danau Sentarum consists largely of recent deposits with some arkosic sandstone sandstone, sedimentary rock formed by the cementing together of grains of sand. The usual cementing material in sandstone is calcium carbonate, iron oxides, or silica, and the hardness of sandstone varies according to the character of the cementing material; quartz outcroppings. Recent deposits consist of illite Illite is a non-expanding, clay-sized, micaceous mineral. Illite is a phyllosilicate or layered silicate. Structurally illite is quite similar to muscovite or sericite with slightly more silicon, magnesium, iron, and water and slightly less tetrahedral aluminium and interlayer and kaolin kaolin (kā`əlĭn): see china clay. clays in the lake basin, with pockets of shallow to moderately deep topogenic peat occurring locally. Soils on slopes consist mainly of highly weathered and nutrient poor loams and sands, while those on the flat ridge tops consist of fine to moderately fine sands and loamy loam
1. Soil composed of a mixture of sand, clay, silt, and organic matter.
2. A mixture of moist clay and sand, and often straw, used especially in making bricks and foundry molds.
tr.v. sands. In general, soils throughout the area have a low to very low nutrient status and are infe rtile. The flat topography is relieved by several isolated hills in the Park, and hill ranges to the west, northeast, and east.
Botanical bo·tan·i·cal also bo·tan·ic
1. Of or relating to plants or plant life.
2. Of or relating to the science of botany.
n. studies were initially carried out in the area by the author in 1986 (Giesen, 1987). These included the collection of voucher A receipt or release which provides evidence of payment or other discharge of a debt, often for purposes of reimbursement, or attests to the accuracy of the accounts. specimens (numbered 1-200), which were deposited at Bogor, Leiden and (partly at) Kew herbariums. During the UK-Indonesia Tropical Forest Management Program (UK-ITFMP) project at DSNP (1992-97), further collections were made of both ferns Ferns can refer to:
adj. air·i·er, air·i·est
1. Of, relating to, or having the constitution of air.
2. High in the air; lofty.
3. Open to the air: airy chambers.
4. Shaw (1975), Backer and Poshumus (1939), Bakhuizen van den Brink (1943-45), Corner (1988), Danser (1927-28, 1931, 1936-37, 1940) and Piggott (1988). Whitmore et al. (1990) was used to convert local name s to scientific names; the latter were subsequently cross-referenced by comparing plant material with literature references.
To assess the composition and structure of DSNP vegetation, surveys included transects, whereby vegetation along a discrete line is described. Transects of DSNP swamp forest vegetation were carried out on a stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. random basis (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg, 1974), using a 1990 Landsat TM image of the area and 1:50,000 scale base maps created by the UK-ITFMP team, as a basis for site selection. Points were located in the field using a Magellan 5000 Global Positioning System Global Positioning System: see navigation satellite.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Precise satellite-based navigation and location system originally developed for U.S. military use. . Each transect tran·sect
tr.v. tran·sect·ed, tran·sect·ing, tran·sects
To divide by cutting transversely.
[trans- + -sect. measured 10 by 100 meters, within which all plants were recorded, and height/diameter records were made of woody Woody
Slang to describe when the market has a strong and quick upward movement.
For example, you'll hear "the market has a woody," when the market is performing well... seriously, we don't make this stuff up. species with a dbh of more than five centimeters. In addition to plant species and location, water depths were measured in the flooded forest, along with soil type and peat depth. In all, 66 transects were carried out between 7 March and 11 June 1994. Ten transects were on peat soil, half of which (transects 24,26,37,43,61) were shallow (< 50 cm deep), while others were up to 4.05 meters deep. Transect data wa s entered into a spreadsheet spreadsheet
Computer software that allows the user to enter columns and rows of numbers in a ledgerlike format. Any cell of the ledger may contain either data or a formula that describes the value that should be inserted therein based on the values in other cells. , and analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. for species presence and relative abundance Abundance
See also Fertility.
horn horn of Zeus’s nurse-goat which became a cornucopia. [Gk. Myth.: Walsh Classical, 19]
conical receptacle which symbolizes abundance. [Rom. Myth. . Habitat surveys also included: a) short surveys in 27 burnt areas, whereby species occurrence and condition was noted (June 1994); b) a phenology phe·nol·o·gy
1. The scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions.
2. study of 29 plant species occurring along the jetty jetty: see coast protection. at Bukit Tekenang (every 1-2 weeks, January 1994-January 1995); and c) a study of the phenology of 40 common plant species at DSNP, every 2-3 weeks (January 1994-January 1995).
Study of the flora of DSNP began with Beccari in 1867, when he collected about 3035 type specimens (Beccari, 1904), which are held by the herbarium of Florence. Subsequent collections were made in the lake area by Teysmann (1875), Hallier (1895), Polak (1949) and Giesen (1987). Altogether, 504 plant species were recorded in the Danau Sentarum area, representing 99 families (see Appendix I), of which 57 percent were identified to species level and 35 percent to genus genus, in taxonomy: see classification.
Biological classification. It ranks below family and above species, consisting of structurally or phylogenetically (see level. The ten best-represented plant families are Dipterocarpaceae, with 40 species, Euphorbiaceae 36 species, Rubiaceae 35 species, Myrtaceae 26 species, Fabaceae 21 species, Lauraceae 20 species, Melastomataceae 20 species, Guttiferae 19 species, Moraceae 14 species, and Arecaceae 14 species.
Of these 504 species, just over half (262) are found in the Danau Sentarum swamp forests, where plant collecting efforts by the author were concentrated. Most of the remainder are found in dryland habitats such as lowland forest, heath forest Heath forest is a type of tropical moist forest found in areas with acidic, sandy soils that are extremely nutrient-poor. Notable examples are the Rio Negro campinarana of the Amazon Basin in South America, and the Sundaland heath forests (also known as Kerangas and sites of former shifting cultivation This article or section is written like a personal reflection or and may require .
Please [ improve this article] by rewriting this article or section in an . . Aquatic herbaceous her·ba·ceous
1. Relating to or characteristic of an herb as distinguished from a woody plant.
2. Green and leaflike in appearance or texture. species are uncommon, probably because of the significant annual fluctuations in water levels, and are generally limited to more permanent bodies of water near the Kapuas River. Almost three-quarters (73%) of the 504 species are trees and shrubs.
Taxonomic tax·o·nom·ic also tax·o·nom·i·cal
Of or relating to taxonomy: a taxonomic designation.
The Danau Sentarum area harbors novel and interesting plant species. Dichilanthe borneensis (known locally as berus), was first collected at Danau Sentarum by Beccari in 1867, and has never been collected elsewhere. This unique species represents a link between the Rubiaceae (to which it has been assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. ) and the Scrophulariaceae, incorporating characteristics from both families. A new species of Rhodoleia (insang dungan) was collected in 1993 and identified by Vink (Leiden Herbarium). This species belongs to the Hamamelidaceae, a family poorly represented in Asia, with only seven genera genera, in taxonomy: see classification. occurring in the Malesian realm, each represented by only one species. The only other species of this family found on Borneo is Sycopsis dunnii, which is endemic endemic /en·dem·ic/ (en-dem´ik) present or usually prevalent in a population at all times.
1. to Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah (Vink, 1957). The small tree Dicoelia beccariana (belat), the sedge sedge, common name for members of the Cyperaceae, a family of grasslike and rushlike herbs found in all parts of the world, especially in marshes of subarctic and temperate zones. Hypolytrum capitulatum, the stemless palm Eugeissona ambigua (ransa) and the rattan rattan (rătăn`), name for a number of plants of the genera Calamus, Daemonorops, and Korthalsia climbing palms of tropical Asia, belonging to the family Palmae (palm family). Plectocomiopsis triquetra Triquetra (IPA: [tɹaɪ'kwεtɹə]) is a word derived from the Latin tri- ("three") and quetrus ("cornered"). (rotan udang) are rare species that are locally common at DSNP (A iry-Shaw, 1975; Kern Kern, river, 155 mi (249 km) long, rising in the S Sierra Nevada Mts., E Calif., and flowing south, then southwest to a reservoir in the extreme southern part of the San Joaquin valley. The river has Isabella Dam as its chief facility. , 1972; Dransfield, pers. comm. 1986 and 1994).
Endemics/restricted range species
In the basence of comparable floristic data from much of Borneo, the number of plant species with a restricted range or endemic to Danau Sentarum can only be approximated. Many of the 35 species collected by Beccari in the Danau Sentarum area in 1867 (Beccari, 1904) are likely to have a restricted range, as he focused on novel species, and had already been active in neighboring neigh·bor
1. One who lives near or next to another.
2. A person, place, or thing adjacent to or located near another.
3. A fellow human.
4. Used as a form of familiar address.
v. Sarawak for many years before visiting the Kapuas lakes. Species that are endemic to DSNP or at least have a restricted range number 30-40, and include the new Rhodoleja species, Dichilanthe borneensis and Eugeissona ambigua mentioned above. Danau Sentarum is the type locality type locality
1. Biology The place or source where a holotype or type specimen was found.
2. Geology The place or region in which a rock, series of rock, or formation is typically exposed. for all three species. Seven other species likely to be restricted to the Danau Sentarum area are new species collected by Giesen (1987) and Zulkarnain and Giesen (Giesen, 1996). These include Casaeria sp. nov. (Flacourtiaceae; limut), Croton croton, in botany
croton (krō`tən), any of several species of Codiaeum that are widely cultivated as ornamentals and houseplants. The most popular species is C. cf. ensifolius (Euphorbiaceae; melayak), Helicia cf. petiolaris (Proteaceae; putat rimba), Korthalsella cf. germinans (Lor anthaceae; paha buntak), Microcos cf. stylocarpus (Tiliaceae; tengkurung asam), Ternstroemia cf. toguian (Theaceae), and Vatica cf. Umbronata (Dipterocarpaceae; menungau).
Flowering and fruiting
A number of plant species tend to flower and set fruit intermittently in·ter·mit·tent
1. Stopping and starting at intervals. See Synonyms at periodic.
2. Alternately containing and empty of water: an intermittent lake. throughout the year, without any apparent cue cue,
n a stimulus that determines or may prompt the nature of a person's response.
cue Psychology Any sensory stimulus that evokes a learned patterned response. See Conditioning. by either rainfall or water depth. These species include Crudia teysmannia (timba tawang), Fagraea fragrans (tembesu), Ficus heterophylla (luwak), Psychotria montensis (akar engkerabang), and Xanthophyllum flavescens (tengkurung). If these five species are omitted from the phenology study of 29 species, there is a good correlation between flowering/fruiting and flooding regime. Of the 24 species that display seasonality, only 3 flower/fruit in the dry months of April to August, while the remainder flower or set fruit throughout the October-March wet season (with 6-18 flowering/fruiting at any given time in this period).
Relatively few exotic plant species have been introduced to DSNP; these include Ageratum conyzoides Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat-weed, Chick weed, Goatweed, Whiteweed; Ageratum conycoides L., Ageratum obtusifolium Lam., Cacalia mentrasto Vell.) is an invasive species native from Brazil. , Cassia alata Noun 1. Cassia alata - tropical shrub (especially of Americas) having yellow flowers and large leaves whose juice is used as a cure for ringworm and poisonous bites; sometimes placed in genus Cassia
ringworm bush, ringworm cassia, ringworm shrub, Senna alata , Eichhornia crassipes, Hyptis brevipes, Ludwigia Ludwigia
Australian plant in the family Onagraceae, causes diarrhea and paralysis in all species. The toxin has not been identified. hyssopifolia, Mimosa pigra Mimosa pigra is an invasive species of the genus Mimosa, in the familty Leguminosae. It is native to the Neotropics, but has been listed as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species, and has been documented in: Australia, Cambodia, and Passiflora Passiflora
a plant genus of vines in the family Passifloraceae. Includes passion fruit valued for their edible fruits. Most of the plants in the genus that have been tested have high concentrations of cyanogenetic glycosides and are potential causes of cyanide poisoning and foetida. All are from tropical South America South America, fourth largest continent (1991 est. pop. 299,150,000), c.6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. except for H. brevipes, which originates from Mexico. Waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and Giant Mimosa Mimosa pigra are highly invasive invasive /in·va·sive/ (-siv)
1. having the quality of invasiveness.
2. involving puncture of the skin or insertion of an instrument or foreign material into the body; said of diagnostic techniques. noxious weed Noxious weeds are plant species that have been designated by state or national agricultural authorities as plants that are injurious to agricultural and/or horticultural crops and/or humans and livestock. species (Miller et al., 1981; Soerjani et al., 1987; Finlayson, 1998), but fortunately for the Park, both remain uncommon at DSNP (see below).
Vegetation and habitats
Major habitat types at DSNP are indicated in Table 1 and a map is provided in Figure 1. Based on physiognomy physiognomy /phys·i·og·no·my/ (fiz?e-og´nah-me)
1. determination of mental or moral character and qualities by the face.
2. the countenance, or face.
3. , three major types of swamp forest can be identified: tall, stunted, and dwarf swamp forest, which have average canopy heights of 22-30, 8-15(-22) and 5-8 meters, respectively. Dwarf swamp forest develops in deeply flooded areas that may be flooded with 4-5.5 meters of water for 8-12 months per year. Tall swamp forest is flooded for 2-3 months annually by 1-2.5 meters of water, and some areas are characterized by peat soils with a depth of 0.5-4 meters. Stunted swamp forest is intermediate between tall- and dwarf swamp forest in terms of flooding depth and duration, and does not have any peat. Both dwarf and stunted swamp forests are prone to fires (see below, and Dennis et al., 2000). Heath forests are characterized by uniform, fairly small statured Stat´ured
a. 1. Arrived at full stature. trees (average up to 20-25 meters), an open canopy, large numbers of myrmecophytes, and usually occur on very poor, leached sandy soils. In the DSNP area heath forests occur on the top of sandstone ridges. Lowland forest is found on the low hills and ridges around the lake basin, and consists of tall to very tall tree, with emergents attaining 35-45(-55) meters.
Herbaceous aquatic vegetation
Herbaceous aquatic vegetation is rare at DSNP. The extreme annual fluctuation of water levels limits the growth of many species, and both submerged and emergent emergent /emer·gent/ (e-mer´jent)
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.
2. pertaining to an emergency.
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.
2. coming on suddenly. aquatic herbs are usually absent. Incoming floodwaters bring floating mats of waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, but these do not proliferate pro·lif·er·ate
To grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissue, parts, cells, or offspring. . Most waterhyacinth remain small, gradually turning brown and withering with·er·ing
Tending to overwhelm or destroy; devastating: withering sarcasm.
with , except in villages and in waters near the Kapuas River. Other free-floating species such as Nile Cabbage cabbage, leafy garden vegetable of many widely dissimilar varieties, all probably descended from the wild, or sea, cabbage (Brassica oleracea) of the family Cruciferae (mustard family), found on the coasts of Europe. Pistia stratiotes are rare, and occur only near villages and streams near the Kapuas River. When the lakes dry out--which occurs in two out of three years--dry lake bottoms are rapidly colonized Colonized
This occurs when a microorganism is found on or in a person without causing a disease.
Mentioned in: Isolation by a carpet of small annual herbs, dominated by grasses such as Isachne globosa, sedges such as Fimbristylis dipsacea, F. miliacea, and diminutive di·min·u·tive
1. Extremely small in size; tiny. See Synonyms at small.
2. Grammar Of or being a suffix that indicates smallness or, by semantic extension, qualities such as youth, familiarity, affection, or herbs such as Lindnera species.
Emergent herbs--especially sedges--are found in swamp forests, but rarely occur as discrete vegetation types. An exception to this general pattern is formed by floating mats of herbaceous vegetation called kumpai, which occurs locally in the southern part of DSNP, especially at several oxbow lakes Oxbow Lakes is a single by ambient house artist The Orb. It featured remixes from artists such as Carl Craig, Sabres of Paradise and A Guy Called Gerald. It also includes an acoustic version performed by the string sextet Instrumental. near the Kapuas River, and along the Mbaloh Leboyan River. Kumpai consists of thick mats of mainly perennial perennial, any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or a biennial. Botanically, the term perennial herbs, dominated by grasses such as Digitaria Digitaria
grass genus containing a large number of valuable species in the family Poaceae. Contains cyanogenetic glycosides, can cause cyanide, and possibly oxalate, poisoning. Includes D. eriantha (D. decumbens), D. didactyla, D. saginata, D. species, Echinochloa Echinochloa
genus of grasses in the family Poaceae. Mostly good forage plants but linked anecdotally with outbreaks of primary photosensitization, in grazing ruminants. Toxin unidentified but some plants contain high concentrations of nitrate. Includes E. colonum, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa chinensis, Panicum Panicum
a genus of grasses in the family Poaceae. May contain sufficient nitrate or oxalate to cause poisoning with these substances. They are highly productive and popular annual and perennial grasses and cereal crops but many of them cause hepatogenous photosensitization conjugatum, P. repens, Phragmites karka and Saccharum sac·cha·rum
[L.] sugar (especially sucrose). spontaneum, along with the climbers This list of climbers includes both mountaineers and rock climbers, since many (though not all) climbers engage in both types of activities. The list also includes boulderers and ice climbers. Aniseia martinicensis and Merremia hederacea, and the large herbs Polygonum Polygonum
genus of toxic plants in the family Polygonaceae, called collectively smartweeds. Some cause nitrate-nitrite poisoning, some cause photosensitization; includes P. aviculare (wireweed), P. convolvulus (Fallopia convolvulus), P. esculentum, P. barbatum and Polygonum celebicum.
Swamp forest vegetation
Three swamp forest vegetation types can be recognized at DSNP, namely dwarf swamp forest, stunted swamp forest and tall swamp forest. Tall swamp forest is found in areas that are shallowly flooded for shorter periods, and is locally called hutan pepah. Depending on the locally common species, an appropriate suffix suf·fix
An affix added to the end of a word or stem, serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending, such as -ness in gentleness, -ing in walking, or -s in sits.
tr.v. is added, for example hutan pepah kelansau or hutan pepah emang. Stunted swamp forest is termed hutan rawa or gelgah, and similarly, one may for example have gelgah menungau, gelgah kamsia or gelgah kenarin depending on local conditions and dominant tree species. Dwarf forest of any type is called rampak, and dwarf swamp forest is called rampak gelgah. A fourth type that is very similar to stunted swamp forest is riparian forest, which occurs on levees of larger rivers in the Park.
Dwarf swamp forest is characterized by trees and shrubs 5-8 meters tall, and may be flooded more than 11 months per year (average 9.5 months). At times this vegetation is almost entirely submerged, as waters may be 5.5 meters deep. Common species are Barringtonia acutangula Barringtonia acutangula is a species of Barringtonia native to coastal wetlands in southern Asia and northern Australasia, from Afghanistan east to the Philippines and Queensland. References
1. (putat), Carallia bracteata (kayu tahun), Croton cf. ensifolius (melayak), Garcinia borneensis (empanak), Gardenia gardenia: see madder.
Any of the approximately 200 species of ornamental shrubs and trees in the genus Gardenia, in the madder family, native to tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. tentaculata (landak), Ixora mentanggis (mentangis), Pternandra teysmanniana (gelagan), Memecylon edule (kebesi), Syzygium claviflora (masung) and Timonius salicifolius (kerminit). Some species may be locally dominant, to the virtual exclusion of all other species.
Stunted swamp forest is charcterized by small to medium-sized trees 8-15(-22) meters tall. It is flooded 4-8 months annually (average 6 months), with waters of up to 3.5 meters deep. This habitat is highly fire-prone and subjected to regular burning in the dry season. It is estimated that about a quarter of this habitat has been burnt over the past decades. Based on species composition, two main stunted swamp forest vegetation types may be recognized, namely Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia vegetation, and Kawi-Kamsia vegetation.
Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest is probably the most widespread, and is characterized by Diospyros coriacea (kenarin), Vatica cf. umbronata (menungau) and Mesua hexapetalum (kamsia), along with many other species including Cleistanthus sumatranus (kertik), Crudia teysmannii (timba tawang), Fordia splendissima (limau antu), Garcinia bancana (sikup), Homalium caryophyllaceum (pekeras), Ilex cymosa (kayu telor), Microcos cf. stylocarpa (tengkurung asam) and Xanthophyllum affine af·fine
1. Of or relating to a transformation of coordinates that is equivalent to a linear transformation followed by a translation.
2. Of or relating to the geometry of affine transformations. (merbemban).
Kawi-Kamsia stunted swamp forest is characterized by the same species as the previous type, but includes the dipterocarp Noun 1. dipterocarp - tree of the family Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpaceae, family Dipterocarpaceae - chiefly tropical Asian trees with two-winged fruits; yield valuable woods and aromatic oils and resins Shorea balangeran Shorea balangeran (also called Red Balau) is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is endemic to Indonesia. Source
1. Having gnarls; knotty or misshapen: gnarled branches.
2. Morose or peevish; crabbed.
3. . This vegetation type is possibly derived from the Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia type by the influence of fire, as Shorea balangeran apppears to be a relatively fire-tolerant species (see below; Mackinnon et al., 1983; Giesen, 1987; Dennis et al., 2000).
Climbers such as various rattans Calamus calamus (kăl`əməs): see arum. schistoacanthus (duri antu), Calamus tapa (duri tapah), Ceratolobus hallierianus, (duri pelanduk), Psychotria montensis (akar engkerabang), Ficus heterophylla (luwak), Fagraea cf. ceilanica (akar seraya) and akar tulang salai (Annonaceae) are also common to locally very common in the stunted swamp forest (for rattans, see Peters and Giesen, 2000).
Tall swamp forest is dominated by the occurrence of tall (25-30(-35) meter) straight stemmed stemmed
1. Having the stems removed.
2. Provided with a stem or a specific type of stem. Often used in combination: stemmed goblets; long-stemmed roses. trees, in areas that are flooded for 2-3 months annually by 1-2.5 meters of water. Peat, with depths of up to four meters may occur locally, but is often absent. Two main vegetation types may be recognized, namely the Kelansau-Emang-Melaban type and the Ramin-Mentangur Kunyit vegetation type.
Kelansau-Emang-Melaban tall swamp forest, characterized by the occurrence of Dryobalanops abnormis (kelansau), Hopea mengerawan Hopea mengerawan is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Source
Ramin-Mentangur kunyit tall swamp forest may formerly have been more widespread, but as Gonystylus bancanus Gonystylus bancanus is a species of plant in the Thymelaeaceae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is threatened by habitat loss. Source
Riparian forest in much of the area appears to have many of the same species as the Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest, but is characterized by the presence of typical riparian species such as Gluta renghas (rengas) and Lagerstroemia speciosa Noun 1. Lagerstroemia speciosa - native to Asia, Australia, and East Indies, where it provides timber called pyinma; used elsewhere as an ornamental for its large showy flowers
Queen's crape myrtle, pride-of-India (bungur), along with Antidesma stipulare (engkunik), Artocarpus teysmannii (cempedak air), Dillenia excelsa (ringin), Elaeocarpus cf. sphaerocarpa (menyawai), Excoecaria Excoecaria
Asian and Australian trees in the family Euphorbiaceae; their milky sap is very irritating and causes intense pain in the eye or on other tender parts. Cause poisoning of livestock. No specific toxin has been identified. Includes E. indica (kebuau), Ficus microcarpa “Curtain fig” redirects here. For the Queensland, Australia strangler fig attraction, see Curtain Fig Tree.
Ficus microcarpa, also known as Chinese Banyan, Malayan Banyan, Indian Laurel or Curtain fig (jabai), Hopea dasyrrhachis (tekam air), Mallotus sumatranus (belantik), and Pternandra galeata (kelusuk bujang). This vegetation type occurs on levees of the larger rivers in the Park (e.g. Tawang, Belitung, Empanang), and has a flooding regime similar to that of the stunted swamp forest.
Dryland habitats at DSNP occur on the isolated hills scattered Scattered
Used for listed equity securities. Unconcentrated buy or sell interest. throughout the area (Pegah, Semanggit, Sempadan, Semujan, Tekenang), and the low ranges to the west, northeast, and east of the Park. Because this habitat formed only a minor element in the original 80,000 hectare hectare (hĕk`târ, –tär), abbr. ha, unit of area in the metric system, equal to 10,000 sq m, or about 2.47 acres. reserve, it has not received much emphasis in the habitat studies to date. Based on physiognomy, two main dryland primary vegetation types can be recognized, namely hill forest and heath forest. In addition, various secondary vegetation types occur, mainly as a result of clearing and burning of these primary vegetation types.
Hill forests are dominated by dipterocarp species such as Anisoptera grossivenia Anisoptera grossivenia is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Source
heath, tract of open land characterized by a few scattered trees, abundant moss cover, and numerous low shrubs, principally of the heath family (see heath, in botany). forest--also known as kerangas--is a stunted forest with trees of (20)22-26 meters. The canopy is open, while the trees have slender Slender
“though well-landed, an idiot.” [Br. Lit.: Merry Wives of Windsor]
See : Stupidity trunks and are pole-like. This vegetation type occurs on sandy soils west of the Park, on top of Bukit Semujan and on the flat tops Flat Tops may refer to:
blunt-leaf heath, Epacris obtusifolia
epacris - any heathlike evergreen shrub of the genus Epacris grown for their showy and crowded spikes of small bell-shaped or forest species include Baeckia frutescens, Koompassia malaccensis Koompassia malaccensis is a species of legume in the Fabaceae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. It is threatened by habitat loss.
A common name for this wood is Kempas, it is used as a flooring material. (menggeris), Lithocarpus species (kempilik), Lycopodium cernuum, Nepenthes ampullaria
Not capable of initiating, sustaining, or supporting reproduction.
adj unable to produce offspring. hills have generally not been cultivated cultivated,
n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild. . Secondary scrub vegetation is characterized by a profusion of ferns (esp. Pteridium Pteridium
a fern in the family Dennstadiaceae.
The fern is classified by some authorities as more than one species including: P. aquilinum, P. esculentum, P. revolutum, P. yarrabense. Called also bracken. aquilinum), shrublets Melastoma malabathricum Noun 1. Melastoma malabathricum - evergreen spreading shrub of India and southeastern Asia having large purple flowers
bush, shrub - a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems and Rhodomyrtus tormentosa, various Macaranga species and a hill variety of Fagraea fragrans (tembesu).
Fire is an all-important factor controlling vegetation patterns at DSNP. From studies of remote sensing Deriving digital models of an area on the earth. Using special cameras from airplanes or satellites, either the sun's reflections or the earth's temperature is turned into digital maps of the area. imagery, combined with ground truthing, it is apparent that 18 percent of the 80,000 hectare reserve (= 24.8% of reserve forests) have been affected by fire over the past decades (see Dennis et al., 2000). Vegetation studies of 27 formerly forested areas that had been burnt during the past decade showed that the species that most often survive a fire are: Shorea balangeran (kawi; in 80% of fires), Crudia teysmannia (timba tawang; 65%), Mesua hexapetalum (kamsia; 51%) and Syzygium sp. 120 (tengelam; 51%). This does not mean that many trees survive a fire: for a given fire survival may vary between 0-25 percent of all trees. On average, however, about 1-3 percent of all trees appear to survive a typical fire. Survival is important for recruitment, and relatively fire-tolerant species such as the aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously.
Adj. 1. four are most likely to form an important element in the recovering vegetation. Of these four specie s SPECIE. Metallic money issued by public authority.
2. This term is used in contradistinction to paper money, which in some countries is emitted by the government, and is a mere engagement which represents specie. , kawi survives in the greatest numbers. A second important element in areas recovering from fires are the pioneer species; i.e. those species that newly establish themselves from propagules (seeds, fruit). The most important pioneer species observed at burnt sites at DSNP are shrubs Croton cf. ensifolius (melayak), Ixora mentanggis (mentangis) and Timonius salicifolius (kerminit), and the herbs Polygonum spp. lembung and kumpai (various grasses).
Dwarf swamp forests are very low in plant diversity, having an average of only 10 species per transect of 10 by 100 meters (0.1 ha), and a maximum of 15 species. Stunted swamp forest is somewhat richer, with an average of 17-18 species per transect and a total of 60 species. Most diverse among the wetland habitats is tall swamp forest, with an average of 20-29 species and a total of 127 species. Riparian forests are of intermediate diversity, having about 20 species on average, and a total of 35 species. Plant diversity in the various wetland habitat types is low compared to Malesian lowland forest, where 120-180 species may be found in a one hectare plot (Whitmore, 1984). It is comparable to Southeast Asian peat swamp forests such as in Peninsular pen·in·su·la
n. Abbr. Pen.
A piece of land that projects into a body of water and is connected with the mainland by an isthmus.
[Latin paen Malaysia, where tree species diversity of 0.4-1.0 hectare plots may range from 54 (Shamsudin and Chong, 1992) to 132 (Ibrahim, 1997), and more than 150 plant species have been recorded by Latiff (1997). Peat swamp forests of Sarawak appear to be more diverse, and A nderson (1963) recorded 242 tree species alone in this habitat. The variety of habitat types in the Danau Sentarum area contributes to overall diversity. The total of 262 plant species recorded in the swamp forests of Danau Sentarum is almost identical to that of the swamp forests of Berbak National Park in Jambi, Sumatra, where Giesen (1991) recorded a total of 261 plant species. At DSNP 73 percent are trees and shrubs, while at Berbak this figure is 67 percent. This figure for DSNP (191) is intermediate between Pensinsular Malaysia and Sarawak.
Endert (1927) describes similar forests from the lake district of the Mahakam River The Mahakam River flows 980 km from the highlands of Borneo, district Long Apari to its mouth in Makassar Strait. The city of Samarinda, the provincial capital of East Kalimantan, lies along the river 48 km (30 mi) from the river mouth. in East Kalimantan, but these forests have now largely disappeared, and the Mahakam lakes have subsequently become choked choke
v. choked, chok·ing, chokes
1. To interfere with the respiration of by compression or obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
a. with floating aquatic weeds 1. weeds - Refers to development projects or algorithms that have no possible relevance or practical application. Comes from "off in the weeds". Used in phrases like "lexical analysis for microcode is serious weeds."
2. , especially waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (pers. comm. Head of Provincial Planning Bureau, "Bappeda," East Kalimantan, 1993). In addition, formerly forested areas around the Mahakam lakes have become infested in·fest
tr.v. in·fest·ed, in·fest·ing, in·fests
1. To inhabit or overrun in numbers or quantities large enough to be harmful, threatening, or obnoxious: with the exotic Giant Mimosa Mimosa pigra. Swamp forests along the east coast of Sumatra are taller and of a quite different species composition, perhaps owing to owing to
Because of; on account of: I couldn't attend, owing to illness.
owing to prep → debido a, por causa de the higher nutrient levels of waters. Lakes and swamp forests along the Siak Kecil River in Riau, Sumatra, occur on deep to very deep peat, and few species are shared with DSNP (Giesen and van Balen, 1992).
Plant species shared between Danau Sentarum and a number of key freshwater fresh·wa·ter
1. Of, relating to, living in, or consisting of water that is not salty: freshwater fish; freshwater lakes.
2. Situated away from the sea; inland.
3. wetlands in South and Southeast Asia are summarized in Figure 2. Floristically, DSNP is most similar to the swamp forests of Berbak (Jambi, Sumatra), Sungai Negara (South Kalimantan South Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Selatan often abbreviated to Kalsel) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. ) and Tasek Bera (Peninsular Malaysia), with which it shares 42, 46 and 48 species, respectively. If easily dispersed dis·perse
v. dis·persed, dis·pers·ing, dis·pers·es
a. To drive off or scatter in different directions: The police dispersed the crowd.
b. (and often "weedy") herbaceous species and exotics are excluded, Danau Sentarum is most similar to Berbak, with which it shares 31 trees and shrubs. 13 tree and shrub shrub, any woody, perennial, bushy plant that branches into several stems or trunks at the base and is smaller than a tree. Shrubs are an important feature of permanent landscape planting, being used for formal decorative groups, hedges, screens, and background species are shared with the Ogan Komering lebaks in South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. ; this low figure is probably due to the long history of logging and burning, which has impoverished im·pov·er·ished
1. Reduced to poverty; poverty-stricken. See Synonyms at poor.
2. Deprived of natural richness or strength; limited or depleted: the woody vegetation in this part of South Sumatra. Only 3-4 non-exotic tree and shrub species are shared with Tonle Sap Tonle Sap
Lake, western Cambodia. The largest freshwater body in mainland Southeast Asia, it receives several tributaries as well as the floodwaters of the Mekong River. (Cambodia) and Tanguar Haor (Bangladesh), namely Barringtonia acutangula, Crateva religiosa The flowering tree Crateva religiosa (syn Crataeva religiosa, Crateva adansonii) is called the sacred garlic pear and temple plant, and many other names in a variety of dialects, including abiyuch, barna, varuna , Ficus heterophylla and Melastoma malabathricum. Forests around Tonle Sap are highly disturbed and few m ature stands remain. Barringtonia-dominated swamp forest vegetation occurs westward up to Afghanistan and India (Heyne, 1950), but these forests are invariably in·var·i·a·ble
Not changing or subject to change; constant.
in·vari·a·bil greatly disturbed and poor in species. In Bangladesh last vestiges of depleted de·plete
tr.v. de·plet·ed, de·plet·ing, de·pletes
To decrease the fullness of; use up or empty out.
[Latin d swamp forest remain in the haor region in the northeastern part of the country (Giesen and Rashid, 1997).
Although once very similar to Danau Sentarum, the Mahakam lakes have changed significantly, as most of the forests have disappeared or are greatly disturbed, lake waters are choked with waterhyacinth, and fisheries fisheries. From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long have declined dramatically (Dunn and Otte, 1983; Bappeda, pers. comm. 1993). As waterhyacinth was already present in the Mahakam in 1925, the more recent proliferation proliferation /pro·lif·er·a·tion/ (pro-lif?er-a´shun) the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells.prolif´erativeprolif´erous
n. of this weed weed, common term for any wild plant, particularly an undesired plant, growing in cultivated ground, where it competes with crop plants for soil nutrients and water. species in the lakes is probably due to changes in nutrient status of the waters. This appears to be linked with changes in the catchment catch·ment
1. A catching or collecting of water, especially rainwater.
a. A structure, such as a basin or reservoir, used for collecting or draining water.
b. , as Dunn and Otte (1983) show that the decline in Mahakam lakes fisheries (from late 1960s onwards on·ward
Moving or tending forward.
adv. also on·wards
In a direction or toward a position that is ahead in space or time; forward.
Adv. 1. ) coincided with increased logging in the Mahakam River basin. At Danau Sentarum, water acidity acidity /acid·i·ty/ (-i-te) the quality of being acid; the power to unite with positively charged ions or with basic substances.
The state, quality, or degree of being acid. and nutrient status appear to be limiting waterhyacinth growth. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Oki et at. (1978) and Carlander (1980), the threshold level Noun 1. threshold level - the intensity level that is just barely perceptible
intensity, intensity level, strength - the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation); "he adjusted the intensity of the sound"; "they measured the of [Ca.sup.2+] for waterhyacinth growth is 120 [micro]Mol/liter (= 4.8 mg/l), which is 4.5-24 times the average [Ca.sup.+2] concentration found in the Kapuas l akes (Giesen, 1987). This also explains why waterhyacinth survives in village waters and near the Kapuas River, as nutrient levels are higher in these locations.
Flooding and habitat types
The single most important factor governing gov·ern
v. gov·erned, gov·ern·ing, gov·erns
1. To make and administer the public policy and affairs of; exercise sovereign authority in.
2. the distribution of the different vegetation types is depth and duration of flooding, and structurally, the stunted swamp forest of Danau Sentarum is very similar to the Varzea swamp forests of Amazonia (Richards Rich·ards , Dickinson Woodruff 1895-1973.
American physician. He shared a 1956 Nobel Prize for developing cardiac catheterization. , 1972), where similar flooding regimes occur. Dwarf swamp forest is flooded on average for a period of 9.5 months per year, by water depths with an average maximum of 5.5 meters. During some years, such as 1995, flooding is year-round, and this vegetation may be (partly-) submerged for up to 21 months at a time. Stunted swamp forest is flooded for an average of 6 months per year, with waters of up to 3.5 meters deep, while for tall swamp forest these figures are 2-3 months and 1-2.5 meters. The flooding regime appears to have a greater effect on vegetation structure (dwarf, stunted, tall forest) than on floristic composition, as there is no apparent correlation with the latter. All tree species examined in Danau Sentarum's swamp forests appear to have growth rings. These may be associated with the flooding regime, as annual floods lead to a period of relative dormancy Dormancy
In the broadest sense, the state in which a living plant organ (seed, bud, tuber, bulb) fails to exhibit growth, even when environmental conditions are considered favorable. , and the drier period is a time of growth.
Flowering and fruiting of trees and shrubs at Danau Sentarum show a degree of synchronicity synchronicity (singˈ·kr linked with flooding. Although there are always a number of trees and shrubs that flower or bear fruit, there is a marked increase as floodwaters rise. This has not gone unnoticed, as local fishermen are well aware that the arrival of the migratory migratory /mi·gra·to·ry/ (mi´grah-tor?e)
1. roving or wandering.
2. of, pertaining to, or characterized by migration; undergoing periodic migration.
emanating from or pertaining to migration. bees (Apis dorsata Apis dorsata, the Giant honey bee, is a honey bee of southern and southeastern Asia. It is only slightly smaller than the Himalayan honey bee.
In the wild, they prefer to nest in exposed areas far off the ground, on tree limbs and under cliff overhangs, and ) that form the basis of the local honey industry (Rouquette, 1995), occurs simultaneously with the rise of the floodwaters. There is an ecological ecological
emanating from or pertaining to ecology.
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each advantage for flowering and fruiting in the wet season, as the fruits of many species float and are dispersed by flood waters. An interesting characteristic is that many local swamp forest fruits are sour, even when fully ripe, probably due to high levels of citric cit·ric
Of or relating to citric acid.
of or derived from citrus fruits or citric acid
Adj. 1. and ascorbic acids (Vitamin C vitamin C
or ascorbic acid
Water-soluble organic compound important in animal metabolism. Most animals produce it in their bodies, but humans, other primates, and guinea pigs need it in the diet to prevent scurvy. ). This is possibly parallel to the situation in Amazonia, where many fruits are dispersed by fish that are attracted by sour fruit. This response is selected upon, as fish are unable to produce these essential compounds ( pers. comm. C. Peters, 1994).
Soils and habitat types
Differences between soil types appear to be less important in determining vegetation patterns than the flooding regime. Tall swamp forest occurs both on peat and mineral soil, but the two types of tall swamp forest recognized, Kelansau-Emang-Melaban and Ramin-Mentangur, are not strongly linked with either soil type. The distinction between hill forest and heath forest is strongly determined by soil type and geomorphology geomorphology, study of the origin and evolution of the earth's landforms, both on the continents and within the ocean basins. It is concerned with the internal geologic processes of the earth's crust, such as tectonic activity and volcanism that constructs new . Hill forest at DSNP occurs on slopes where the soil has a large fraction of clay minerals Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths and other cations. Clays have structures similar to the micas and therefore form flat hexagonal sheets. and where soil moisture is higher, whereas heath forest occurs on areas with leached, dry, sandy soils.
Clearing and logging
Both the Malay and Dayak ethnic groups of the region traditionally practice swidden or ladang. Dayak generally practice ladang in dryland areas, while Malay cultivate cul·ti·vate
tr.v. cul·ti·vat·ed, cul·ti·vat·ing, cul·ti·vates
a. To improve and prepare (land), as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; till.
b. the levees of larger rivers. As most of the hills in and immediately adjacent the Park have highly infertile soils, there are few Dayak ladang and their impact is small. Dayak ladang are significant only on the hills near Lanjak, around Gunung Kenepai south-west of the Park, and in the Lempai range west of DSNP. Ladang practices of the Malay probably have a greater effect on DSNP, as it leads to direct loss of riparian habitat. This habitat is small in area, and it is estimated that already more than half of the Park's riparian forests had been lost to shifting cultivation by 1994, especially along the Tawang, Tengkidap and Belitung/Ketam rivers. Where fields have been abandoned for a long time, a secondary vegetation type appears dominated mainly by a few shrubby shrub·by
adj. shrub·bi·er, shrub·bi·est
1. Consisting of, planted with, or covered with shrubs.
2. Of or resembling a shrub. species rather than taller trees characteristic of the original vegetation. The cl earing of sites for settlements has a very localized Translated into the spoken language of the country. See localization. direct effect, and only a small area (35 ha) has been cleared to date for this purpose. However, as settlements are located on the levees of the major streams, this contributes to pressures on vulnerable riparian habitat.
Commercial logging commenced in the Danau Sentarum area south of the Menyukung range to the southeast of the Park in 1978. In the 1980s, four logging concessions bordered on the Park and concentrated on selective logging of tall swamp forest. By the mid- mid-
Middle: midbrain. 1990s these companies had stopped or were on the verge On the Verge (or The Geography of Yearning) is a play written by Eric Overmyer. It makes extensive use of esoteric language and pop culture references from the late nineteenth century to 1955. of closing down, as most tall swamp forests in and around the Park had been logged. There is evidence that (illegal) logging has commenced again since 1997 (Wadley et al., 2000). Logging occurred in a number of tall swamp forest areas within the 80,000-hectare reserve prior to gazettal in 1982, including 200 hectares at Danau Pemera and 150 hectares south of Bukit Pegah. Most of these selectively logged forests are regenerating re·gen·er·ate
v. re·gen·er·at·ed, re·gen·er·at·ing, re·gen·er·ates
1. To reform spiritually or morally.
2. To form, construct, or create anew, especially in an improved state. well, and are expected to have retained most plant species. Fast growing tree species such as Calophyllum Mentangur species tend to dominate these regenerating swamp forests. The lack of commercially interesting timber in the dwarf and stunted swamp forests of Danau Sentarum protect ed these areas from logging. A more insidious insidious /in·sid·i·ous/ (-sid´e-us) coming on stealthily; of gradual and subtle development.
Being a disease that progresses with few or no symptoms to indicate its gravity. type of logging is the small scale felling of trees that takes place within the Park by local inhabitants
The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame. . Much of this concentrates on timber for local use, and specifically targets Shorea balangeran and Fagraea fragrans, and large specimens of the latter are becoming rare (Peters, 1994).
Reports of forest fires This is a list of notorious forest fires: North America
Year Size Name Area Notes
1825 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km²) Miramichi Fire New Brunswick Killed 160 people. in the Danau Sentarum area date back to the last century. Ida Pfeiffer (1856) observed extensive areas of burnt stumps, while Gerlach (1881) reports of extensive fires in the forests in the northwestern part of the current park, near Pulau Majang. Molengraaff (1900) records fisherfolk igniting the forest during the dry season, but Polak (1949) could not find traces of burnt forest in spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.
See also: Spite specifically looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. them. Vaas (1952) suggested that the latter may be explained by a lack of fishing during the Second World War. Studies carried out by UK-ITFMP show that the incidence of burning has increased significantly since 1990, but causes remain speculative (see Dennis et at., 2000).
Both dwarf and stunted swamp forests at Danau Sentarum are prone to fires, possibly due to the accumulation of large amounts of organic matter in the wet months, in combination with desiccation des·ic·ca·tion
The process of being desiccated.
desic·ca in the dry season. As van Steenis (1957) pointed out, "Fire is one of the greatest enemies of the swamp forest ... this type of forest is definitely flammable flam·ma·ble
Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly; inflammable.
[From Latin flamm and is attacked by fishermen." Most fires are caused by human activities, and the more pronounced a dry season, the higher the number of fires and extent of burning (Aglionby, 1997). Studies of pioneer and surviving plant species in burnt areas at DSNP strongly suggest that forests subjected to (infrequent in·fre·quent
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.
2. ) fires are characterized by fire-tolerant surviving species such as kawi, kamsia, timba tawang and tengelam. This indicates that Shorea balangeran-dominated stunted swamp forest may be derived from the more diverse Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest by irregular HEIR, IRREGULAR. In Louisiana, irregular heirs are those who are neither testamentary nor legal, and who have been established by law to take the succession. See Civ. Code of Lo. art. 874. burning. This supports the hypothesis by MacKinnon (1983) about the origin of Shorea balan geran-dominated forests in the Tanjung Puting National Park in Central Kalimantan Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya.
The province has a population of 1. .
Areas that are more frequently burnt are likely to be dominated by rapidly colonizing, shrubby pioneer species such as kerminit, melayak and mentangis shrubs, which are dominant species of the dwarf swamp forest. Large areas of this dwarf swamp forest occur in the northern and northwestern part of the Park, in areas where stunted swamp forest is to be expected on the basis of flooding depth and duration. While this habitat appears to be linked with deep and prolonged pro·long
tr.v. pro·longed, pro·long·ing, pro·longs
1. To lengthen in duration; protract.
2. To lengthen in extent. flooding, it is apparently also connected with repeated burning. A similar pattern was found by Giesen (1989) in the Sungai Negara swamp forests of South Kalimantan, where infrequent fires lead to domination domination
the relationship between animals and humans in which little consideration is given to the rights of the animals. The prevailing sentiment is one of proprietary domination. by Shorea balangeran and Combretocarpus rotundifolius, while more frequently burnt areas were dominated by Melaleuca Melaleuca
see tea tree oil. cajuputi (gelam).
APPENDIX I PLANTS OF DANAU SENTARUM NATIONAL PARK # Family Species 1 Acanthaceae Pseuderanthemum sp. 2 Amaranthaceae Alternanthera sessilis 3 Anacardiaceae Campnosperma auriculata 4 Gluta pubescens 5 Gluta renghas 6 Gluta wallichii 7 Gluta sp. 8 Mangifera sp. 9 Semecarpus glaucus 10 Swintonia sp. 11 ? 12 Annonaceae Polyalthia sp. 13 Xylopia sp. 14 15 Apocynaceae Dyera? polyphylla 16 Tabernaemontana sp. 17 ? 18 Aquifoliaceae Ilex cymosa 19 Araceae Aglaeonema minus 20 Aglaeonema simplex 21 Pistia stratiotes 22 Araliaceae Schefflera avensis (Miq.) Harms 23 Schefflera sp. 24 Arecaceae Calamus myriacanthus Becc. 25 Calamus schistoacanthus Bl. 26 Calamus zonatus Becc. 27 Calamus sp. 28 Calamus tapa Becc. 29 Calamus sp. 30 Ceratolobus hallierianus Dransfield 31 Daemonorops hystrix (Griff.) Mart. Var. exulans Becc. 32 Eugeissonia ambigua 33 Korthalsia sp. 34 Licuala sp. 35 Oncosperma horrida Scheff. 36 Plectocomiopsis triquetra (Blecc.) J.Dransf. 37 ? 38 Asclepiadaceae Dischidia nummularia 39 Dischidia sp. 40 Hoya macrophylla Bl. 41 Asteraceae Ageratum conyzoides L. 42 Vernonia arborea Buch.- Ham. 43 Bambusoideae ? 44 Begoniaceae Begonia sp. 45 Bombaceae Durio kutejensis 46 Durio sp. (?excelsus) 47 Durio sp. 48 Burmanniaceae Burmannia lutescens 49 Bursearaceae Dacryoides laxa 50 Dacryoides rostrata (Bl.) H.J.L. f. rostrata 51 Santiria ? griffithii 52 Capparaceae Crateva religiosa Forst. F. 53 Casuarinaceae Gymnostoma sumatrana (Jungh. Ex de Vriese) L.J. 54 Coniferae Dacrydium beccari 55 Connaraceae Connarus monocarpus L. ssp. Malayana Leenh. 56 Connarus villosus Jack. 57 Convolvulaceae Aniseia martinicensis (Jacq.) Choisy 58 Merremia hederacea 59 Cyperaceae Cyperus brevifolia (Rottb.)Hassk 60 Cyperus trialatus (Boeck.) Kern 61 Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.)Vahl 62 Fimbristylis dipsacea 63 Fimbristylis miliacea (L.)Vahl 64 Hypolytrum capitulatum Valck. Sur. Ex Clarke 65 Hypolytrum nemorum 66 Mapania cuspidata var. cuspidata 67 Rhynchospora aurea 68 Scleria ciliaris 69 Scleria purpurescens 70 Scleria sumatrensis 71 Tetraria borneensis 72 Thoracostachyum bancanum 73 Datiscaceae Octomele sumatrana 74 Dilleniaceae Dillenia beccariana 75 Dillenia excelsa 76 Dillenia sp. 77 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea sp. 78 Dipterocar-pacea Anisoptera grossivenia 79 Cotylelobium burkii 80 Dipterocarpus crinitus 81 Dipterocarpus gracilis 82 Dipterocarpus nudus 83 Dipterocarpus tempehes 84 Dipterocarpus validus Bl. 85 Dryobalanops abnormis Gaertn.f. 86 Dryobalanops rappa Becc. 87 Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer 88 Hopea dasyrrhachis Ashton 89 Hopea mengerawan Miq. 90 Hopea rudiformis 91 Parashorea? sp. 92 Shorea balangeran (Korth.) Burck 93 Shorea? beccariana 94 Shorea laevis 95 Shorea leprosula 96 Shorea multiflora 97 Shoreapachyphylla 98 Shorea palembanica 99 Shorea pauciflora 100 Shorea guadrinervis 101 Shorea seminis 102 Shorea smithiana Sym. 103 Shorea uliginosa 104 Shorea sp. 105 Shorea sp. 106 Shorea sp. 107 Vatica cinerea 108 Vatica Micrantha Hook. 109 Vatica cf. umbronata 110 Vatica venulosa 111 Vatica sp. 112 ? 113 ? 114 ? 115 ? 116 ? 117 ? 118 Ebenaceae Diospyros coriacea Hiern. 119 Diospyros maritima Bl. 120 Diospyros sp. 121 Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus mastersii King 122 Elaeocarpus sphaerocarpa 123 Elaeocarpus submonoceras Miq. 124 Elaeocarpus sp. 125 Ericaceae Rhododendron longiflorum 126 Vaccinium bigibbum JJS 127 Vaccinium clementis Merr. 128 Vaccinium sp. 129 Vaccinium sp. 130 Euphorbiaceae Antidesma bunius 131 Antidesma stipulare 132 Antidesma venenosum F.Mey ex Tul. 133 Antidesma sp. 134 Aporosa confusa Gage. 135 Aporosa lunata (Miq)Kurz 136 Aporosa sp. 137 Baccaurea bracteata MA 138 Baccaurea javanica (Bl.) M.A. 139 Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw. Ex. Bl.)Muell.Arg 140 Baccaurea reticulata (Ptychopyxix javanica (JJS) Croizet) 141 Breynia microphylla (Kurz. Ex. T&B)M.A. 142 Cheilosa malayana 143 Cleistanthus sumartranus (Miq) M.A. 144 Cleistanthus sp. 145 Cleistanthus sp. 146 Croton cf. ensifolius 147 Dicoelia beccariana 148 Excoecaria indica (Sapium indicum) 149 Galeria fulva 150 Glochidion borneene (M.A.) Boerl. 151 Glochidion sp. 152 Glochidion sp. 153 Glochidion sp. 154 Homalanthus populneus (Geisel) Pax 155 Macaranga denticulata 156 Macaranga gigantosa 157 Macaranga triloba f. cornuta 158 Macaranga sp. 159 Macaranga sp. 160 Macaranga sp. 161 Macaranga sp. 162 Macaranga sp. 163 Mallotus sumatranus 164 Neoscoretchinia sp. 165 Sapium discolor 166 Fabaceae Bauchinia sp. 167 Cassia alata 168 Crudia teysmannii 169 Desmodium capitatum (Burm.f.)DC. 170 Dialium sp. 171 Dialium sp. 172 Erythrina sp. 173 Fordia splendissima 174 Intsia ? palembanica 175 Kingiodendron sp. 176 Koompassia malaccensis 177 Mimosa pigra 178 Mucuna sp. 179 ?Ormosia sp. 180 Phanera sp. 181 Pterocarpus sp. 182 Sindora leiocarpa 183 Sindora sp. 184 Sindora sp. 185 ? 186 ? 187 Fagaceae Castanopsis sp. 188 Lithocarpus curtisii (King Hk.f.)A. Camus 189 Lithocarpus sp. 190 Lithocarpus sp. 191 Lithocarpus sp. 192 Lithocarpus sp. 193 Flacourtiaceae Casearia sp. nov. 194 Flacourtia rukam Z&M 195 ?Flacourtia sp. 196 Homalium caryophyllaceum 197 Homalium sp. 198 Hydnocarpus polypetala 199 Flagellariaceae Flagellaria indica L. 200 Hanguana malayana 201 Gesneriaceae Aeschynanthes sp. 202 Cyrtandra oblongifolia 203 Didymocarpus sp. 204 Didymocarpus sp. 205 Gnetaceae Gnetum ?neglecta 206 Guttiferae Calophyllum macrocarpum 207 Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque 208 Calophyllum sp. 209 Calophyllum sp. 210 Calophyllum sp. 211 Calophyllum sp. 212 Calophyllum sp. 213 Calophyllum sp. 214 Garcinia bancana 215 Garcinia borneensis Pierre. 216 Garcinia parvifolia Miq. 217 Garcinia rostrata (Hassk)Miq 218 Garcinia sp. 219 Garcinia sp. 220 Garcinia sp. 221 Garcinia sp. 222 Mesua congestiflora P. V. Stevens 223 Mesua hexapetalum (Hook.f.)P.F.S. 224 Mesua sp. 225 Hamameli- Rhodoleia sp. nov. daceac 226 Hypericaceac Cratoxylon arborescens 227 Cratoxylon glaucum Korth. 228 Lamiaceae Hyptis brevipes Poit. 229 Lauraceae Actinodaphne sp. 230 Cassytha filiformis 231 Cinnamomum sp. 232 Cinnamomum sp. 233 Cinnamomum sp. 234 Litsea sp. 235 Litsea sp. 236 Litsea sp. 237 ? 238 ? 239 ? 240 ? 241 ? 242 ? 243 ? 244 ? 245 ? 246 ? 247 ? 248 ? 249 Lecythidaceae Barringtonia acutangula ssp. Acutangula 250 Barringtonia reticulata (Bl.) Miq. 251 Barringtonia sp. 252 Leeaceae Leea indica 253 Loganiaceae Fagraea ceilanica 254 Fagraea cf. ceilanica 255 Fagraea elliptica Roxb. 256 Fagraea fragrans Roxb. 257 Fragraea racemosa Jack ex Wall. 258 Loranthaceae Amyema sp. 259 Dendrophthoe falcata 260 Dendrophthoe pentandra (L) Miq. 261 Elytranthe sp. 262 Helixanthera sp. 263 Korthalsella cf. 264 Lepeostegeres sp. 265 Lepidaria forbesii 266 Lepidaria sp. 267 Macrosolen cohin- chinensis (Lour.) Tiegh. 268 Macrosolen sp. 269 Scurrula fusca (Bl)GDon 270 Viscum ovalifolium Wall. ex DC 271 Lythraceae Lagerstroemia speciosa 272 Malvaccae Hibiscus tiliaceus 273 Marantaceae Donax canaeformis 274 Melastomaceae Bellucia axinanthera 275 Blastus sp. 276 Diplectria sp. 277 Medinilla motleyi Hook.f.ex Triana 278 Medinilla sp. 279 Medinilla sp. 280 Melastoma affine D.Don. 281 Melastoma malabathricum L. 282 Memecylon edule Roxb. 283 Memecylon laurinum Bl. 284 Memecylon sp. 285 Oxyspora sp. 286 Pachycentria constricta Bl. 287 Pachycentria sp. 288 Pogonanthera pulverulantha 289 Pternandra coerulescens Jack. var. jackiana C.B.C. 290 Pternandra galeata 291 Pternandra teysmanniana (Cogn.) Ohwi 292 Pternandra sp. 293 ? 294 Meliaceae Aglaia odoratissima 295 Aglaia sp. 296 Chisocheton patens Bl. 297 Dysoxylum sp. 298 Dysoxylum sp. 299 Dysoxylum sp. 300 Sandoricum emarginatum 301 Moraceae Artocarpus kemando 302 Artocarpus teysmannii 303 Ficus consociata Bl. Var. murtoni King 304 Ficus deltoidea Jack 305 Ficus grossivenis Miq. 306 Ficus grossularioids Burm.f 307 Ficus heterophylla L.f. 308 Ficus microcarpa 309 Ficus obscura var. Borneensis (Miq.) Corner 310 Ficus punctata Thunb. 311 Ficus sp. 312 Ficus sp. 313 Ficus sp. 314 Ficus sp. 315 Myristicaceae Myristica giabra Bl. 316 ? 317 Myrsinaceae Ardisga colorata Roxb. (?Ardisia biumei) 318 Labisia pumilis (Bl.) F. Viii 319 Maesa ramentacea (Roxb.) Wall. 320 Rapanea porteriana Wail. ex A.DC. 321 Rapanea umbeilulala 322 Myrtaceae Baeckia fruiescens 323 Eugenia bankanensis Backer 324 Eugenia ?densiflora 325 Eugenia costulata Elmer 326 Eugema sp. 327 Rhodomyrtus tormentosa (W.Ait) Hassk. 328 Syzygium clavlflora Roxb. 329 Syzygium durifolium Merr. & Perry 373, 378 330 Syzygium sp. 331 Syzygium sp. 332 Syzygium sp. 333 Syzygium sp. 334 Syzygium sp. 335 Syzygium sp. 336 Syzygium sp. 337 Syzygium sp. 338 Syzygium sp. 339 Tristaniopsis obovat 340 Tristaniopsis sp. 341 ? 342 ? 343 ? 344 ? 345 ? 346 ? 347 ? 348 Nepenthaceae Nepenthes ampullaria 349 Nepenthes gracilis Korth. 350 Nepenthes cf. gracilis Ridl. 351 Nepenthes mirabilis 352 Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack. 353 Ochnaceae Brackenridgea palustris 354 Brackenridgea serrulata 355 Euthemis minor Jack. 356 Olacaceae Scorodocarpus borneensis 357 Oleaceae Chionanthus laxiflorus Bl. 358 Onagraceae Ludwigia hyssopifolia 359 Orchidaceae Apostaria sp. 360 Appendicula sp. 361 Bromheadla finlaysoniana (Lindl.) Rehb.f. 362 Dendrobium crumenatum Swartz. 363 Dendrobium lamellatum 364 Dendrobium sp. 365 Dendrobium sp. 366 Dendrobium sp. 367 Eria sp. 368 Grammatophyllum speciosum Bl. 369 Macrostylis sp. 370 Taeniophyllum obtusum 371 Pandanaceae Freycinetia sp. 372 Pandanus helicopus 373 Pandanus sp. 374 Pandanus sp. 375 Pandanus sp. 376 Pandanus sp. 377 Passifloraceae Passiflora foetida 378 Piperaceae Piper sp. 379 Poaceae Digitaria sp. 380 Echinochloa colonum 381 Ischaemum intermedium 382 Leersia hexandra 383 Leptochloa chinensis 384 Ottochloa sp. 385 Panicum repens 386 Paspalum conjugatum 387 Phragmites karka 388 Saccharum spontaneum 389 Sorghum oropinquium 390 Podocarpaceae Dacrydium beccariii 391 Polygalaceae Xanthophyllum affine Miq. 392 Xanthophyllum flavescens Roxb. 393 Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Bl.) Dietr. 394 Xanthophyllum sp. 395 Polygonaceae Polygonum barbatum 396 Polygonum celebicum 397 Pontederiaceae Eichhornia crassipes 398 Proteaceae Helicia cf. petiolaris 399 Rhizophoraceae Carallia bracteata (Lour.) Merr. 400 Combretocarpus rotundifolius 401 Pellacalyx sp. 402 Rosaceae Prunus arborea (Bl.) Kalkman 403 Rubiaceae Dichilanthe borneensis Baill. 404 Gaertnera vaginans (DC) Merr. 405 Gaertnera vaginata var. junghuhniana (DC) Merr. 406 Gaertnera sp. 407 Gardenia tentaculata 408 Gardenia tubifera 409 Gardenia sp. 410 Gardenia sp. 411 Hydnophytum formicarium 412 lxora ithyoides Brem. 413 lxora paludosa (Bl.) Kurz. 414 lxora mentangis 415 Ixora salicifolia 416 lxora sp. 417 Mitragyna speciosa 418 Morinda sp. 419 Myrmecodia tuberosum 420 Nauclea purpurea Roxb. 421 Nauclea subdita 422 Psychotria montensis Moore 423 Psychotria sp. 424 Timonius flavescents (Jack) Baker 425 Timonius salticifolius 426 Timonius stipulosus (Scheff) Boerl. 427 Timonius timon (Spreng) Merr. 428 Timonius sp. 429 Timonius sp. 430 Uncaria sclerophylla (Hunter) Roxb. 431 Uncaria sp. 432 Urophyllum arboreum (Reinw. Ex Bl.) Korth. 433 Urophyllum hirsutum Hook.f. 434 Urophyllum macrophyllum 435 Uvaria sp. 436 ? 437 ? 438 Sapindeceae Guioa sp. 439 Lepisanthes amoena (Hassk.) Leenh. 440 Lepisanthes alata (Bl.) Bl. Leenh. 441 Nephelium ? cuspidatum 442 Nephelium sp. 443 Nephelium sp. 444 Xerospermum noronhianum (Bl.) Bl. 445 Sapotaceae Palaquium sp. 446 Palaquium sp. 447 Palaquium sp. 448 Palaquium sp. 449 Planchonella obovata (R.Br.) Pierre 450 Scrophulari- Limnophila erecta aceae 451 Lindnera sp. 452 ? 453 Sterculiaceae Leptonichya heteroclita Kurz. 454 Melochia corchorifolia L. 455 Pterospermum sp. 456 Sterculia sp. 457 Symplocaceae Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.)Moore ssp. Laurina (Relz.)Noot. var. laurina 458 Symplocos sp. 459 Theaceae Euryc sp. 460 Ploiarium alternifolium 461 Ternslroemia cf. togutan 462 Ternstroemia sp. 463 Ternstroemia sp. 464 Thymelaeaceae Gonystylus bancanus 465 Gonyslylus velulinus 466 Tiliaceae Microcos ?stylocarpa 467 Urticaceae Poikilospermum microstachys 468 Poikilospermum sp. 469 Poikilospermum sp. 470 Villebrunea rubescens 471 Verbenaceae Clerodendrum sp. 472 Premna foetida Reinw. 473 Teysmanniodendron sarawakanum 474 Vitex pinnata L. 475 Vitaceae Cayratia sp. 476 Cissus sp. 477 Cissus sp. 478 Cissus sp. 479 Zingiberaceae ? 480 ? FERNS AND FERN ALLIES 481 Aspidiaceae Tectaria sp. 482 Aspelniaceae Asplenium nidus 483 Athyriaceae Diplazium sp. 484 Blechnaceae Blechnum finlaysonianum 485 Stenochlaena palustris 486 Gleicheniaceac Dicranopteris linearis 487 Hypolepidaceae Pteridium aquilinum 488 Lindsaeaceae Lindsaea walkerae Hook. 489 Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium cernuum 490 Oleandraceae Oleandra sp. 491 Ophioglosaceae Helminthostachys zeylanica Hook. 492 Polypodiaceae Dipteris conjugata 493 Drynaria quercifolia 494 Microsorum sarawakensis 495 Platycerium coronarium 496 Polypodium verrucosum 497 Schizaceae Lygodium flexuosum 498 Lygodium microphyllum 499 Schizaea dichotoma 500 Selaginellaceae Selaginella sp. 501 Taenitidaceae Taenitis sp. A 502 Taenitis sp. B 503 Vittariaceae Antrophyum reticulatum 504 Vittaria sp. # Number Identification Local Habitat name(s) 1 520 Bogor ? C 2 --- WoR Lembu D seluang 3 --- WTM Beringin Ci 4 --- FM Kebacar Ci 5 40 Leiden Rengas D 6 --- FM Rengas Ci manuk 7 393 --- Rengas Ci manuk 8 377 Bogor Rabu Bi 9 56 Leiden Temelak Ci 10 --- FM Kerintah, C(E) Kerintak 11 --- --- Ubal F 12 137 Leiden Lada F 13 --- WTM Jankar/ Ci Jangkang 14 489 --- Akar tulang D salai 15 --- WTM Jelutung Cii 16 135a Leiden Lada (Iban) F 17 72 --- ? E 18 444/012 Bogor, Telur B, Ci Leiden 19 565 Bogor Keladi E rimba 20 76 Leiden Rumput E ilung 21 --- --- Rumpur lake tempu-rung penuh 22 541 Bogor ? E 23 130 Leiden ? Bii 24 111 Drans-field Rotan Ci, E makup 25 449 Dransfield Rotan duri B, C antu 26 134 Dransfield Rotan duri F antu kerangas 27 --- --- Rotan duri E maram 28 --- Dransfield Rotan tapah B, Ci, E 29 --- --- Rotan Ci, E tunggal 30 --- Dransfield Rotan B,C, pelanduk (E) 31 359 Dransfield Rotan duri E seni 32 --- Beccari, Ransa E Polak 33 --- --- Rotan tikus C 34 --- --- Gernis C 35 --- Polak ? E 36 135b Dransfield Rotan (C), F udang 37 --- --- Rotan C, E telian 38 --- --- Akar B, C kancing 39 504 --- ? Ci 40 465 Bogor Litap B, C 41 327 Bogor ? H 42 322 Bogor Bungkang E, H 43 --- --- Bambu E, H 44 566 Bogor ? E 45 --- WTM Empe-kung E 46 --- WTM Durian E bukit 47 --- --- Durian E burung 48 --- FM ? E 49 78 --- Tulang E salai 50 369 Bogor Kema-yau Bii, Ci, D 51 --- FM Bunyau C 52 350/19 Bogor Punggu A, D 53 47 Bogor Embun Cii 54 --- WTM Embun E 55 490 Bogor Akar libang Ci, D 56 506 Bogor Tunjuk C maias 57 473 Bogor Akar ginta G, H 58 --- FM Akar D,G,H kermibit 59 333 Bogor Rumput G,H terisit 60 334 Bogor Rumput G,H terisit 61 326/125 Bogor Rumput D,G,H purum 62 --- FM Semperai, A,B Padi hantu 63 --- Bogor Rumput B terisit 64 330/126 Bogor, Rumput B,C Leiden musi 65 105/110 Leiden Rumput B,C musi 66 --- FM ? Ci 67 --- Polak ? B,C 68 104/109 Bogor Rumput B,C terisit 69 --- FM Terisit B.C 70 --- FM Lembang C 71 485 FM Lembang C 72 105 Leiden Rumput B,C musi 73 --- --- Benuang B,D kunit 74 6 Bogor Ringin, D Juin(g) 75 --- WTM Ringin, C,D Juin(g) 76 --- --- Juing rimba C 77 --- Polak ? G 78 --- FM Penyau E 79 --- FM Pukul kawi E 80 --- --- Resak E (k)emperas, r. empelas 81 --- FM Tempurau Ci,E 82 --- FM Tenkabang Ci tikus 83 --- FM Ran E 84 --- Polak Tempurau Ci,E 85 --- Teysmann Kelansau, Ci Keladan 86 --- FM Kelansau, C Kemerauan 87 --- FM Kelansau E bukit 88 --- Bogor Tekam air Ci,D 89 --- De Mol Emang Ci 90 --- FM Emang Cii bahau 91 --- FM Resak E barah 92 141 Leiden Kawi Bii,Ci 93 --- FM Tengkawang C rambai 94 --- --- Masang F 95 --- --- Rup. Ci,E,F Pengerawan lampung 96 --- --- Barit E 97 --- --- Tegelung Ci,E 98 --- --- Majau E 99 --- --- Balik F 100 --- --- Tengka- F wang tikus 101 422/390 Bogor Kerintak Ci,D,E 102 357 Bogor Teng- E kawang 103 --- --- Penge- E rawan buaya 104 --- --- Emang Ci melapi 105 --- --- Kerintak E patung 106 --- --- Meranti E bunga, M. timbul, Keme- rauan 107 --- --- Resak padi F 108 356 Bogor ? D,E 109 450, 416, FM, Bogor Menu-ngau B 340 110 --- FM Resak B,Ci seluang 111 --- --- Meng-gung E resak 112 --- --- Resak bukit E,H 113 --- --- Resak C danau 114 --- --- Resak jabai C 115 --- --- Resak labu C 116 --- --- Tekam C beruk 117 --- --- Tekam C tembaga 118 445, Leiden, Kenarin, B 342, 66 Bogor Mengku 119 535 Bogor ? Ci 120 --- --- Malam C,E 121 560 Bogor Ensubal E 122 330 --- Menyawai (B),D 123 303 Bogor Menyawai (B),D 124 565 Bogor Ensubal E 125 410 Argent ? E 126 042n Bogor ? B,C 127 549 Bogor ? E 128 065 Leiden ? D 129 425 --- ? D 130 354 Bogor Bunia Bi 131 55/38 Leiden Engkunik D 132 368 Bogor Berenai D 133 --- --- Engkunik E bukit 134 362 Bogor Jangit E 135 365 Bogor ? E 136 518/ Bogor Keranjik C 518B tikus 137 557 Bogor ? E 138 341 Bogor Engkunik Bi 139 019n Bogor Engkunik Bi 140 --- Airy Shaw Suluh, B (de Mol) Menu- ngan, Engkupa 141 325 Bogor Tarum D buaya 142 --- --- Gurak F 143 435, Bogor Keretih B,D 315, 344 144 --- --- Keretih E bukit 145 397 --- Punan D 146 81, 314 Bogor Melayak A 147 71, 378 Leiden Kemelat, A,B Belat 148 --- WTM Kebuau D 149 97 Leiden Manyam Ci rimba 150 499 Bogor Manyam Ci 151 487 --- Manyam Bi,Ci 152 400 --- ? D,H 153 --- --- Rambai D 154 364 Bogor ? E,H 155 012 --- Ketali E,H 156 --- WTM Merku- E,H bung 157 --- WTM Garong E,H 158 --- WTM Merpuah E 159 364 --- Purang E,H 160 --- --- Purang E,H bukit 161 073 --- Purang E,H garong 162 099 --- Purang E,H tikus 163 087, 392, Bogor, Belantik (B)D 433 Leiden 164 147 Leiden Teluk E 165 --- --- Sengka- E,F yang 166 131 Leiden Akar F entalang 167 --- --- Serugan D,H 168 064, 306 Bogor, Timba B,D Leiden tawang 169 332 Bogor ? (E),H 170 375, 434 Bogor Keranjik madu E 171 --- --- Keranjik tikus E 172 --- --- Dadap hutan C 173 446 Bogor Limau antu B 174 --- WTM Senah C 175 --- --- Sempetir E 176 --- WTM Menggeris E 177 --- --- Putri malu D,H 178 048 Leiden Akar limbai D 179 396 --- Telempi, B,D 180 131 Leiden Entalang F 181 --- WTM Senah E,F 182 --- WTM Sindur Ci 183 --- WTM Sempetir Ci 184 --- WTM Tampar hantu E 185 --- --- Kacang pelanduk C 186 571 --- Leceng B,D 187 567 FM ? E 188 544, 546 Bogor (K)empelik (-babi) E,F 189 401, 402 FM Kempilik E,F 190 --- --- Kempilik babi E,F 191 --- --- Kempilik batu E,F 192 394 --- Kenual babi D 193 Coll. FM Limut B,C,D 194 367 Bogor Rukam D 195 --- --- Mandin D 196 115,309,431 Leiden Perkeras, Empalinas B,Ci 197 --- --- Perkeras bukit E 198 088 FM Cugut (B),D 199 --- WG, Polak Rotan tikus D,E 200 --- Ross ? Lake 201 523 --- ? Ci 202 084 Leiden Kumis kucing G,H 203 525 Bogor ? E 204 070 --- Rumput ilung E 205 108 Leiden Akar Ci 206 --- --- Bunan F 207 537 Bogor Mentangur kunyit C 208 --- WTM Bereng- Ci kajang 209 --- WTM Kacam C 210 --- --- Mentangur Ci,E batu 211 --- --- Mentangur E bukit 212 --- --- Mentangur C umut 213 491 --- Timbung Ci 214 339 Bogor Sikup B,C 215 374 Bogor Empanak A,B 216 338, 358 Bogor Kandis, E,H Kundong 217 024, Bogor Sikup C 480, 533 rimba (Tulang ular) 218 --- --- Kerat dila Ci 219 513 --- Kerin timah C 220 --- --- Ransi, Dila D berkatak, Krupuk, Merkunyit 221 --- --- Sikup ruai F 222 517 Bogor Kamsia Ci rawa 223 139, Bogor Kamsia B 345, 386, 452 224 --- De Mol Melanyan C,F 225 381 Vink, Isang B,D Leiden dungan 226 --- --- Temau C 227 550 Bogor Temau E 228 329 Bogor ? G,H 229 --- Polak ? E 230 496 Leiden ? A 231 --- WTM Cendana C 232 --- --- Kulit Ci lawang 233 --- Teysmann Sinduk, C,E Sientok 234 576 Bogor Lilin B,D 235 --- --- Medang E bukit 236 --- --- Medang C danau 237 --- --- Medang C burung 238 --- --- Medang C kalab 239 --- --- Medang C keladi 240 --- --- Medang C kerapah 241 --- --- Medang C kumbang 242 --- --- Medang C lampung 243 --- --- Medang C lebar daun 244 --- --- Medang C libas 245 --- --- Medang C meningkat 246 --- --- Medang C patung 247 --- --- Medang C perawas 248 --- --- Medang C seluang 249 011, 129 Leiden Putat A,D 250 471 Bogor Putat rimba Ci 251 360 Bogor Karut E,H 252 050 Leiden Temali D 253 124 Leiden ? D 254 418,438 Leiden Akar seraya Bi 255 335 Bogor Tembesu E,H 256 148,301, Bogor, Tembesu, B 306 Leiden Tembesu lilin, Tembesu rebung 257 085,361 Bogor Tapak labi D,E 258 138 Leiden Akar B serang 259 122a Leiden Akar B bentak 260 573 Bogor Akar A,B bentak 261 122b Leiden Akar B bentak 262 004,441 Leiden Akar Bi,D serang 263 10b, 474 Leiden Paha A buntak 264 132 Leiden Akar F serang 265 --- WG. Akar C Danser serang 266 090 Leiden Akar D serang 267 469 Bogor Akar A,B serang 268 555 Bogor Akar B serang 269 459 Bogor Akar A,B serang 270 554 Bogor Akar B serang 271 366 WTM Bungur D 272 --- WTM Waru D,H 273 044 Leiden Akar D,H bemban 274 015 Leiden Jembu E,H pestor 275 075a Leiden Akar E tebentak 276 069 Leiden Kelemun- E ting bukit 277 492 Bogor ? D 278 100 Leiden ? Ci 279 547 Bogor ? E 280 320 Bogor Kelemun- E,H ting 281 336 Bogor Kelemun- E,H ting 282 004,351, Bogor (Ke)besi A,B 352 283 020 Bogor ? B 284 --- --- Besi danau Ci 285 077 --- Akar E kelempi 286 451 Bogor Akar A,B,C serang 287 075b, Leiden Akar E 096 tebentak 288 468 Bogor Asam riang B,C 289 353, 502 Bogor Kebesi B, Ci rimba, Sang 290 118 Leiden Kelusuk B,C,D bujang, Piuluk, Engklusuk 291 009, 458 Bogor Gelagan A, (D) 292 --- --- Kelukuk E bukit 293 --- --- Sebalpau C 294 061 Leiden Pasak D 295 527, 528 Bogor Pinanga E kenyala 296 531 Bogor ? C 297 --- --- Ensunut F 298 --- --- Mengungan F lemah 299 --- --- ? Cii 300 --- --- Kapas E 301 --- WTM Puduk Ci 302 443 WTM Cempedak D air 303 346 Bogor Ara nasi B 304 z015 Bogor ? B 305 312 Bogor Lengkan E,H besar 306 113,313 Bogor Lengkan E,H keeil 307 324 Bogor Luwak B,D 308 083 Leiden Jabai, D Beringin 309 363 --- Karak E,H 310 529 Bogor ? C 311 387 --- Ara A 312 074 Leiden Ara E 313 --- --- Ara kiarak B burung 314 --- --- Ara nakit B 315 534 Bogor Kumpang Ci 316 --- --- Kumpang F kiong 317 051, Bogor Sabar bubu, B 080, Tampoh 317,376 bubu 318 503 Bogor ? C 319 466 Bogor Cii 320 540 Bogor ? Cii 321 484 Bogor ? Cii 322 403 WTM ? E,F 323 478 Bogor Embun, C Engkerabu 324 420 WTM Jembu air D 325 481,510 Bogor Ensubal Cii babi, ubah rimba 326 558 Bogor ? E 327 319,337 Bogor Kelemuntin E,H g jawa 328 304,442 Bogor Masung A,(B) 329 305, Bogor Ubah B 330 476 --- Mata siluk A,Bi 331 002, --- Ramut, A,B,D 383,384 Jijap 332 372 --- Samak B 333 --- --- Samak C Pepah 334 120,308 --- Tengelam A,B 335 018 --- Ubah putih B 336 493 --- Ubah D bornean 337 --- --- Ubah D Ketingan 338 349 Bogor ? Bi 339 --- WTM Melaban C,F 340 382 --- Adau B,C 341 --- --- Ubah C jambu 342 --- --- Ubah C Kelumuh 343 --- --- Ubah lilin C 344 --- --- Ubah C merah 345 --- --- Ubah paya C 346 --- --- Ubah ribu C 347 --- --- Ubah C temilas, ubah sempilas 348 --- Danser Entuyuk Cii,F 349 509,539 Bogor Entuyuk C 350 543 Bogor Entuyuk E 351 136 Leiden Entuyuk C,E,F, H 352 562 Bogor Entuyuk E 353 092 Leiden ? Cii 354 --- Beccari ? C 355 482,548 Bogor Jinta Cii,E 356 --- FM Kesinduk E 357 559 Bogor Ensubal E 358 328 WoR ? G,H 359 --- Polak Anggrek E 360 063 Leiden Anggrek B 361 536 Bogor Anggrek C 362 574 Bogor Anggrek B,C 363 067 Leiden Anggrek B,D 364 119 Leiden Anggrek D 365 455 --- Anggrek Bi 366 551 Bogor Anggrek E 367 --- Polak Anggrek E 368 --- Teysmann, Anggrek B,D Polak 369 --- Polak 370 460 --- Anggrek A,B 371 --- --- ? C 372 --- --- Rasau D 373 477, Bogor Kulan Cii 515,545 374 428 --- Kulan bukit E 375 --- --- Mengkuang B,C,D 376 --- --- Ngerin C 377 --- FM Akar selasi G,H dani 378 --- --- ? (E)H 379 --- WoR Sepit udang D,G,H 380 --- WoR Padi hantu, D,G,H Padi 381 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 382 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 383 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 384 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 385 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H berbulu 386 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H sepit udang 387 --- WoR Keberuk D,G,H 388 --- WoR Keberuk, D,G,H Tebu air 389 --- WoR Kumpai D,G,H 390 --- FM ? E,F 391 021, Bogor Merbemban B 079, 436, 440 392 371, Bogor Tengkurun B 453, 472 g jelawat 393 z022 Bogor Lilin B,D 394 --- --- Rinja B,D 395 127 Danser Rumput G,H lembu seluang 396 091 Danser Rumput G,H lembu 397 --- --- Rumput G piambang 398 432 FM Putat rimba Bi 399 007, Bogor Tahun A,B,C 031, (Tulang 310, 512 ular) 400 --- FM Maripat, Cii Engkersit 401 --- --- Tulang ular C 402 542 Bogor Suluh E rimba 403 093, 483 Leiden Berus C 404 507 Bogor Mula asu, C Mula anjing 405 500, 505 Bogor Sabar bubu Ci rimba 406 095 Leiden ? C 407 086 Leiden Landak D kecil 408 001, 462 Leiden Landak D angkis 409 429 --- Landak A 410 399, 457 --- Landak D besar 411 --- --- Empukung B,C 412 501 Bogor ? Ci 413 311 Bogor Mentangis A,(B) 414 021, Leiden Mentangis A,(B) 121, 385 415 049 Leiden ? D 416 511 Bogor ? C 417 --- --- Purik rawa C 418 521 Bogor Keretih E bukit 419 --- --- Empekung B.C 420 379 Bogor Bengkal Bi,D 421 --- --- Bengkal D 422 098, Bogor Akar A,B,D 106, 323 engke- rabang 423 524 --- ? Ci 424 316 Bogor Temirit, A Kermirit 425 010a, Leiden Temirit, A 380 Kerminit 426 507b Bogor Mula asu, C Mula anjing 427 561 Bogor ? E 428 112 Leiden Tembesu C sungai 429 561 --- ? E 430 114, 454 Bogor Akar kelait B,C,H 431 --- --- Akar kelait E,H bukit 432 516 Bogor ? C 433 107, 456 Bogor Kebesi Ci rimba 434 089 Leiden Lilin D 435 --- Teysmann ? D 436 461 --- Serang Bi 437 --- --- Merambang C 438 508 Bogor ? C 439 057, Bogor Kelensuak, D 370, 398 (K)ensuak 440 355 Bogor Kelili E,H 441 --- WTM Sibau Ci,E 442 --- --- Nipis kulit Ci,E 443 --- --- Paregi Cii 444 518 Bogor Keranjik C tikus 445 --- --- Nyatuh, Ci (Sebalpau) 446 --- --- Nyatuh E durian 447 --- --- Nyatuh E nangka 448 --- --- Pudu Cii 449 348, 486 Bogor Libang Bi 450 --- WoR ? lake 451 --- WoR ? lake 452 388 --- Bunga rup (E)H 453 575 Bogor ? C 454 --- WoR Rumput D jelumpang 455 --- --- Banyur Ci hutan 456 134 Leiden ? F 457 147, 467 Bogor Tekuluk Bi 458 470, --- ? Bii 497, 498 459 --- --- Jirak F 460 --- WTM Jengil E,F 461 519, 530 Bogor (Nyatoh) C 462 --- De Mol Arang- B arang 463 023 --- ? D 464 007 Leiden Ramin Cii 465 --- FM Medang E semat 466 016, 307 Leiden Tengku- B rung (- asam) 467 062 Leiden ? D 468 046 Leiden ? D 469 101 Leiden ? Ci 470 318 Bogor Karniong (E),H 471 133 Leiden Rumput F semut 472 321 Bogor Buas-buas D,H 473 117, 123 Leiden Mutun (B),D 474 302 Bogor Leban(g) D 475 128 Bogor Akar E lelembai 476 047 Bogor Akar gundi D 477 068 Bogor Akar E sempiruk 478 060 Bogor ? D 479 522 --- Lemas Ci rimba 480 532 --- Liak hantu Ci 481 --- Paku Polak B,C,D, E 482 --- --- Paku rajang B,C,D, E 483 082 Leiden Paku E 484 033 Leiden Paku kijang (E),H 485 037 Leiden Paku (E),H lemedin 486 034 Leiden Resam (E),H 487 --- --- Paku (E),H bedegak 488 --- Polak ? E 489 --- --- Enkabut E,F 490 --- Polak ? B,C,D 491 --- Polak ? E 492 --- Piggott Paku E 493 --- --- Paku B,C,D, E 494 --- --- Paku B,C,E 495 --- --- Paku B,C,D, E 496 032 Leiden Paku kubuk B,C,D 497 036 Leiden Paku belit D,E,G, H 498 035 Leiden Paku belit D,E,G, H 499 --- Piggott Rumput B,C,D empangil 500 --- --- Paku E 501 --- WG, Polak Paku B,C,D, E 502 --- WG, Polak Paku B,C,D, E 503 052 Leiden ? D 504 --- Polak Paku D,E NOTES: * Collection number, as by Giesen (1-200), and Zulkarnain and Giesen (201-600) ** Identification: Airy Shaw: Airy Shaw, H.K. (1975) Argent: pers. comm. G. Argent, Edinburgh Herbar (1993) Beccari: Beccari (1904) Bogor: Bogor Herbarium Danser: Danser(1927, 1931) de Mol de Mol (1933-34) Dransfield: pers. comm. J. Dransfield, Kew Herbarium (1986, 1993) FM: Flora Malesiana FMal: Flora of Malaya Leiden: Leiden Herbarium Piggott: Piggott (1988) Polak: Polak (1949) Ross: Ross et at. (1996) Vink: pers. comm. Vink, Leiden Herbarium (1994) Teysmann: Teysmann (1875) WoR: Soerjani, M., A.J.G.H.Kostermans and G. Tjitrosoepomo (1987) WTM: Corner (1952) *** Habitat types: A: Dwarf swamp forest Bi: Stunted swamp forest, dominated by Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia Bii: Stunted swamp forest, dominated by Kawi-Kamsia Ci: Tall swamp forest, dominated by Kelansau-Emang-Melaban Cii: Tall swamp forest, dominated by Ramin-mentangur kunyit D: Riparian forest E: Hill forest F: Heath forest (kerangas) G: Disturbed vegetation in former swamp forest habitat H: Disturbed vegetation in former dryland forest hab
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Table 1 Habitat types of Danau Sentarum. Habitat type 80,000 ha Wildlife Reserve e (gazetted 1982) Area (ha) % Lowland forest (on hills) 102 0.13 Heath forest 0 0 Tall swamp forest 8,962 11.00 Stunted swamp forest 30,824 38.19 Dwarf swamp forest 2,170 2.69 Regenerated after fire(s) 10,952 13.57 Recently burnt 3,680 4.56 Clearings/shifting cultivation 1,848 2.29 Settlements 27 0.03 Open water (lakes and rivers) 21,728 26.92 Floating grass mats 0 0 Habitat type 132,000 ha National Park (gazetted 1999) Area (ha) % Lowland forest (on hills) 6,767 5.17 Heath forest 201 0.15 Tall swamp forest 21,915 16.76 Stunted swamp forest 39,469 30.18 Dwarf swamp forest 2,362 1.81 Regenerated after fire(s) 16,930 12.95 Recently burnt 6,154 4.71 Clearings/shifting cultivation 4,603 3.52 Settlements 32 0.02 Open water (lakes and rivers) 30,095 23.01 Floating grass mats 257 0.20 Note: Data obtained from the ODA/PHPA Remote Sensing/GIS Unit; based on Landsat TM (1990), airborne radar imagery and 1994 aerial photographs.
The study was carried out in two phases: in 1986 for the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. (then World Wildlife Fund), and funded by the Royal Netherlands Government, and in 1993-94 as part of the UK-Indonesia Tropical Forest Management Project, funded by the British Overseas Development Administration (now Department for International Development). The Danau Sentarum Management Project of UK-ITFMP was implemented by the Indonesia Programme of the Asian Wetland Bureau (now Wetlands International-Asia Pacific), together with the Indonesian Directorate General of Nature Protection and Conservation (PKA pK a /pK a/ the negative logarithm of the ionization constant (K) of an acid, the pH of a solution in which half of the acid molecules are ionized. ; then PHPA PHPA Professional Helicopter Pilots Association
PHPA Professional Hockey Players' Association
PHPA Port Hedland Port Authority (Australia)
PHPA Partial Hydrolytic Polyacrylamide (oil and gas drilling mud additive) ) and KSDA KSDA Korea Securities Dealers Association
KSDA Kenya Socialist Democratic Alliance Sub-balai West Kalimantan. The author would like to extend his gratitude Gratitude
traditional symbol for gratitude. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 172]
because he had once extracted a thorn from its paw, the lion refrained from attacking Androcles in the arena. [Rom. Lit. to PKA, KSDA, WWF See Windows Workflow Foundation. , Netherlands Government, DfID and Wetlands International Wetlands International is a global non-profit organisation dedicated solely to the work of wetland conservation and sustainable management.
It was founded in 1954 as the International Wildfowl Inquiry and the organisation was focused on the protection of waterbirds. for being allowed and enabled to carry out these studies. I would also like to extend my sincere gratitude to the people of Danau Sentarum, without whom this study would have been impossible.
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GEF Global Environment Fund
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