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Flora and vegegation of Danau Sentarum: unique lake and swamp forest ecosystem of West Kalimantan.

Danau Sentarum National Park is characterized char·ac·ter·ize  
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.

 by lakes and a variety of swamp forests that are unique, and unlike comparable habitats in Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.  or Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. . Structurally, it was once very similar to the Mahakam Lakes in East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. Kaltim) is Indonesian province on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda (the capital and a center for timber product) and Balikpapan (a petroleum center with oil , but the latter area is severely degraded de·grad·ed  
1. Reduced in rank, dignity, or esteem.

2. Having been corrupted or depraved.

3. Having been reduced in quality or value.
. Three main swamp forest types are recognized on the basis of structure: dwarf swamp forest, stunted stunt 1  
tr.v. stunt·ed, stunt·ing, stunts
To check the growth or development of.

1. One that stunts.

2. One that is stunted.

 swamp forest, and tall swamp forest. Within each of these, various vegetation vegetation /veg·e·ta·tion/ (vej?e-ta´shun) any plantlike fungoid neoplasm or growth; a luxuriant fungus-like growth of pathologic tissue.  types are recognized on the basis of dominant species. Basic structural types are closely linked with depth and duration of flooding. Aquatic vegetation is virtually absent, due to a combination of severe fluctuation Fluctuation

A price or interest rate change.
 in water levels and low nutrient nutrient /nu·tri·ent/ (noo´tre-int)
1. nourishing; providing nutrition.

2. a food or other substance that provides energy or building material for the survival and growth of a living organism.
 levels in lake waters. Plant species diversity of each habitat is low, but due to diversity in habitat types, overall plant diversity is relatively high and 262 species are recorded for swamp forests. DSNP DSNP Digital Signal Noise Processing
DSNP Danau Sentarum National Park (Borneo)
DSNP Digital Synchronization Network Plan
 harbors 30-40 endemics or restricted range species. The most serious immediate threats to the integrit y of these forests are fires and illegal logging Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of , while swidden swid·den  
An area cleared for temporary cultivation by cutting and burning the vegetation.

[Dialectal alteration of obsolete swithen, from Old Norse svidhna, to be burned.]
 cultivation cultivation, tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or  on levees forms the main threat to the riparian riparian adj. referring to the banks of a river or stream. (See: riparian rights)  habitat.


Swamp habitats in Indonesia

Large areas of non-marine swamp occur in the lowlands of Sumatra Sumatra (smä`trə), island (1990 pop. 36,471,731), c.183,000 sq mi (473,970 sq km), Indonesia, in the Indian Ocean along the equator, S and W of the Malay Peninsula (from which it , Borneo Borneo (bôr`nēō'), island (1990 pop. 9,102,906), c.287,000 sq mi (743,330 sq km), largest of the Malay Archipelago and third largest island in the world, SW of the Philippines and N of Java. , and Papua Papua, province, Indonesia
Papua (păp`ə, –y
, extending over a total area of 23-3 5 million hectares (Euroconsult, 1984; Silvius Silvius has several meanings:
  • In Roman mythology, Silvius was the son of Aeneas and Lavinia. He succeeded Ascanius as King of Alba Longa. Virgil VI, 763. All the kings of Alba following Silvius bore the name as their cognomen.
 et al., 1987; RePPProT, 1990; IIED IIED International Institute for Environment and Development (UK)
IIED Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress (legal) 
, 1994), and form one of the largest areas of tropical swamp world-wide outside of Amazonia Am·a·zo·ni·a  

The vast basin of the Amazon River in northern South America. It remains largely unpopulated and undeveloped, especially in the interior.
 (WCMC WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Centre
WCMC Weill Cornell Medical College
WCMC Westchester Medical Center (Valhalla, NY)
WCMC Weill Cornell Medical Center
WCMC Wildlife Conservation and Management Committee
, 1992; Maltby Maltby can be the name of a person, an organization, or a place:

  • Maltby, Lincolnshire, England
  • Maltby, South Yorkshire, England, near Rotherham
  • Maltby, North Yorkshire, England, near Middlesbrough
  • Maltby, Washington, USA
, 1997). These swamps consist of two main types, namely peat swamp forest Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soils prevent dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing, which over time creates thick layer of acidic peat. Large areas of these forests are being logged at high rates.  and freshwater swamp forest Freshwater swamp forests, or flooded forests, are forests which are inundated with freshwater, either permanently or seasonally. They normally occur along the lower reaches of rivers and around freshwater lakes. . The former is characterized by peat soils, which by definition have an organic matter content of at least 65 percent, while the latter occurs on predominantly pre·dom·i·nant  
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.

 mineral soils. More than three-quarters Noun 1. three-quarters - three of four equal parts; "three-fourths of a pound"

common fraction, simple fraction - the quotient of two integers

three-quarters npl
 of all peat land in Southeast Asia occurs in Indonesia, and with a total area of 17-27 million hectares, it accounts for more than half of the world's total of tropical peat Areas of tropical peat are found mostly in South East Asia (about 70% by area) although are also found in Africa, Central and South America and elsewhere around the Pacific Ocean.  land (Maltby, 1997).

Most of Indonesia's non-marine swamps are near coastal areas and were forested before the advent of large-scale large-scale
1. Large in scope or extent.

2. Drawn or made large to show detail.


1. wide-ranging or extensive

 commercial logging in A colloquial term for the process of making the initial record of the names of individuals who have been brought to the police station upon their arrest.

The process of logging in is also called booking.
 the 1980s and 1990s. Isolated swamps further inland, in the middle or upper basins of larger rivers, are far less common. Papua very extensive swamp forests are broad, inland extensions of coastal freshwater swamp forests, and due to the rugged, mountainous moun·tain·ous  
1. Having many mountains.

2. Resembling a mountain in size; huge: mountainous waves.


 nature of the interior, inland swamps are either absent or consist of medium to high altitude Conventionally, an altitude above 10,000 meters (33,000 feet). See also altitude.  bogs (Paaijmans, 1976; Petocz, 1989). Most swamps of Sumatra follow a similar pattern: peat- and freshwater swamp forests are found along most of the east coast and extend far inland, with wooded medium to high altitude bogs found in the central mountain range (Scholz Scholz is a German surname.
  • Rupert Scholz (born 1937), German politician
  • Heiko Scholz(born 1966)
  • Donald Thomas Scholz (born 1947), guitarist
  • Jackson Scholz (1897-1986)
  • Franz Scholz (1909-1998) priest and professor of theology
, 1983; Silvius et al., 1987). Due to a flat topography topography (təpŏg`rəfē), description or representation of the features and configuration of land surfaces. Topographic maps use symbols and coloring, with particular attention given to the shape and elevations of terrain. , lowland swamps have developed far inland on Borneo and are well-developed well-developed adj [arm, muscle etc] → bien desarrollado; [sense] → agudo, fino

well-developed adj [girl
 in the middle-upper reaches of the island's longest rivers, especially along the Mahakam and Kapuas Kapuas (kä`päs), river, c.710 mi (1,140 km) long, rising in the mountains of central Borneo and flowing SW through W Kalimantan, Indonesia, to the South China Sea near Pontianak.  (Silvius et al., 1987). While forested swamps along the Mahakam have largely deteriorated over the past decades, those in the upper Kapuas basin are relatively intact, and a significant area is protected in the Danau (=lake) Sentarum National Park.

Danau Sentarum National Park

The Danau Sentarum National Park (further referred to as DSNP or the Park) covers an area of 132,000 hectares, and is located in the floodplain floodplain, level land along the course of a river formed by the deposition of sediment during periodic floods. Floodplains contain such features as levees, backswamps, delta plains, and oxbow lakes.  of the upper Kapuas River The Kapuas River (Indonesian: Sungai Kapuas) is located in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. At approximately 1,143 km, it is the longest river in Indonesia, and is the major river of the western portion of Borneo. It is also the world's longest river on an island.  in West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line.  (see Giesen and Aglionby Aglionby may be the surname of:
  • Edward Aglionby, English poet
  • John Aglionby, royal chaplain, college principal
As a placename it may refer to:
  • Aglionby, Cumbria, England
, 2000). The Park lies between the Kapuas River and the border with Sarawak Sarawak (sərä`wäk), state (1991 pop. 1,648,217), 48,342 sq mi (125,206 sq km), Malaysia, in NW Borneo and on the South China Sea. , and is located between 0[degrees]40'-0[degrees]55' N and 112[degrees]00' - 112[degrees]25' E at an average elevation elevation, vertical distance from a datum plane, usually mean sea level to a point above the earth. Often used synonymously with altitude, elevation is the height on the earth's surface and altitude, the height in space above the surface.  of 35 meters. DSNP consists of a series of interconnected seasonal lakes, interspersed with swamp forest, peat swamp forest, and dry lowland forest on isolated hills. It was gazetted a Wildlife Reserve (Suaka Margasatwa) in 1982, and its status was upgraded to National Park (Taman Nasional) in 1999.

Physical factors

Annual rainfall in the Park fluctuates around 3,900 mm per year, while the surrounding sur·round  
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.

2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.

 hills and mountainous catchment area catchment area or drainage basin, area drained by a stream or other body of water. The limits of a given catchment area are the heights of land—often called drainage divides, or watersheds—separating it from neighboring drainage  receive 4,500-6,000 mm. Because of high precipitation precipitation, in chemistry
precipitation, in chemistry, a process in which a solid is separated from a suspension, sol, or solution. In a suspension such as sand in water the solid spontaneously precipitates (settles out) on standing.
 levels, most of the low-lying areas in the basin--including Danau Sentarum--are flooded in the wetter months. Water levels of the lakes and streams may rise and fall up to 12 meters during an average year. During about nine months of the year the lake system is flooded, with an average maximum depth of 6.5 meters, though levels may fluctuate substantially. During the remainder of the year (usually late June-early September) waters usually retreat to the deepest channels and the lakes dry out entirely in two out of three years.

Isolated waterholes or kerinan may remain in the swamp forest or otherwise dry lake bed, while deeper parts of otherwise dry streams may remain as pools or lubuk Lakes and stream waters are colored by tannins tannins, polyphenolic phytochemicals whose name derives from their use in tanning animal skins. Used as astringents, antioxidants, and styptics; treats burns, relieves diarrhea.
, ins, very mineral-deficient and acidic acidic /acid·ic/ (ah-sid´ik) of or pertaining to an acid; acid-forming.
adj having the properties of an acid; acid-forming properties.
, with a pH of 4.55.5. Light penetration in water is about one meter, while conductivity conductivity /con·duc·tiv·i·ty/ (kon?duk-tiv´i-te) the capacity of a body to transmit a flow of electricity or heat; the conductance per unit area of the body.

 averages at 16 [micro]S (range 9-24 [micro]S). Dissolved dis·solve  
v. dis·solved, dis·solv·ing, dis·solves
1. To cause to pass into solution: dissolve salt in water.

 oxygen levels are fairly low, averaging at 4.4 mg/l, while surface temperatures are high (30.4[degrees]C). The geology geology, science of the earth's history, composition, and structure, and the associated processes. It draws upon chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and mathematics (notably statistics) for support of its formulations.  of Danau Sentarum consists largely of recent deposits with some arkosic sandstone sandstone, sedimentary rock formed by the cementing together of grains of sand. The usual cementing material in sandstone is calcium carbonate, iron oxides, or silica, and the hardness of sandstone varies according to the character of the cementing material; quartz  outcroppings. Recent deposits consist of illite Illite is a non-expanding, clay-sized, micaceous mineral. Illite is a phyllosilicate or layered silicate. Structurally illite is quite similar to muscovite or sericite with slightly more silicon, magnesium, iron, and water and slightly less tetrahedral aluminium and interlayer  and kaolin kaolin (kā`əlĭn): see china clay.  clays in the lake basin, with pockets of shallow to moderately deep topogenic peat occurring locally. Soils on slopes consist mainly of highly weathered and nutrient poor loams and sands, while those on the flat ridge tops consist of fine to moderately fine sands and loamy loam  
1. Soil composed of a mixture of sand, clay, silt, and organic matter.

2. A mixture of moist clay and sand, and often straw, used especially in making bricks and foundry molds.

 sands. In general, soils throughout the area have a low to very low nutrient status and are infe rtile. The flat topography is relieved by several isolated hills in the Park, and hill ranges to the west, northeast, and east.


Botanical bo·tan·i·cal   also bo·tan·ic
1. Of or relating to plants or plant life.

2. Of or relating to the science of botany.

 studies were initially carried out in the area by the author in 1986 (Giesen, 1987). These included the collection of voucher A receipt or release which provides evidence of payment or other discharge of a debt, often for purposes of reimbursement, or attests to the accuracy of the accounts.  specimens (numbered 1-200), which were deposited at Bogor, Leiden and (partly at) Kew herbariums. During the UK-Indonesia Tropical Forest Management Program (UK-ITFMP) project at DSNP (1992-97), further collections were made of both ferns Ferns can refer to:
  • the plural of fern, a pteridophyte plant that reproduces using spores rather than seeds.
  • Ferns, a small historic town in north County Wexford, Ireland.
  • Ferns Inquiry.
 and seed plants. Voucher specimens (numbered Zulkarnain and Giesen 300-580, dated 1993-94) were deposited at and identified by Bogor and Leiden herbariums, with duplicates held at the Park's Bukit Tekenang Field Center. Kew Herbarium herbarium, collection of dried and mounted plant specimens used in systematic botany. To preserve their form and color, plants collected in the field are spread flat in sheets of newsprint and dried, usually in a plant press, between blotters or absorbent paper.  provided identifications of collected palm specimens. Local plant names and uses were recorded for each species. Plant specimens were also identified in the field using Flora Flora, in Roman religion, goddess of flowers and fertility. Her festival, the Floralia, Apr. 28–May 1, was celebrated with great gaiety and licentiousness.  Malesiana, Tree Flora of Malaya, Airy air·y  
adj. air·i·er, air·i·est
1. Of, relating to, or having the constitution of air.

2. High in the air; lofty.

3. Open to the air: airy chambers.

 Shaw (1975), Backer and Poshumus (1939), Bakhuizen van den Brink (1943-45), Corner (1988), Danser (1927-28, 1931, 1936-37, 1940) and Piggott (1988). Whitmore et al. (1990) was used to convert local name s to scientific names; the latter were subsequently cross-referenced by comparing plant material with literature references.

To assess the composition and structure of DSNP vegetation, surveys included transects, whereby vegetation along a discrete line is described. Transects of DSNP swamp forest vegetation were carried out on a stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.

Arranged in the form of layers or strata.
 random basis (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg, 1974), using a 1990 Landsat TM image of the area and 1:50,000 scale base maps created by the UK-ITFMP team, as a basis for site selection. Points were located in the field using a Magellan 5000 Global Positioning System Global Positioning System: see navigation satellite.
Global Positioning System (GPS)

Precise satellite-based navigation and location system originally developed for U.S. military use.
. Each transect tran·sect  
tr.v. tran·sect·ed, tran·sect·ing, tran·sects
To divide by cutting transversely.

[trans- + -sect.
 measured 10 by 100 meters, within which all plants were recorded, and height/diameter records were made of woody Woody

Slang to describe when the market has a strong and quick upward movement.

For example, you'll hear "the market has a woody," when the market is performing well... seriously, we don't make this stuff up.
 species with a dbh of more than five centimeters. In addition to plant species and location, water depths were measured in the flooded forest, along with soil type and peat depth. In all, 66 transects were carried out between 7 March and 11 June 1994. Ten transects were on peat soil, half of which (transects 24,26,37,43,61) were shallow (< 50 cm deep), while others were up to 4.05 meters deep. Transect data wa s entered into a spreadsheet spreadsheet

Computer software that allows the user to enter columns and rows of numbers in a ledgerlike format. Any cell of the ledger may contain either data or a formula that describes the value that should be inserted therein based on the values in other cells.
, and analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

 for species presence and relative abundance Abundance
See also Fertility.


horn horn of Zeus’s nurse-goat which became a cornucopia. [Gk. Myth.: Walsh Classical, 19]


conical receptacle which symbolizes abundance. [Rom. Myth.
. Habitat surveys also included: a) short surveys in 27 burnt areas, whereby species occurrence and condition was noted (June 1994); b) a phenology phe·nol·o·gy  
1. The scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions.

 study of 29 plant species occurring along the jetty jetty: see coast protection.  at Bukit Tekenang (every 1-2 weeks, January 1994-January 1995); and c) a study of the phenology of 40 common plant species at DSNP, every 2-3 weeks (January 1994-January 1995).



Plant diversity

Study of the flora of DSNP began with Beccari in 1867, when he collected about 3035 type specimens (Beccari, 1904), which are held by the herbarium of Florence. Subsequent collections were made in the lake area by Teysmann (1875), Hallier (1895), Polak (1949) and Giesen (1987). Altogether, 504 plant species were recorded in the Danau Sentarum area, representing 99 families (see Appendix I), of which 57 percent were identified to species level and 35 percent to genus genus, in taxonomy: see classification.

Biological classification. It ranks below family and above species, consisting of structurally or phylogenetically (see
 level. The ten best-represented plant families are Dipterocarpaceae, with 40 species, Euphorbiaceae 36 species, Rubiaceae 35 species, Myrtaceae 26 species, Fabaceae 21 species, Lauraceae 20 species, Melastomataceae 20 species, Guttiferae 19 species, Moraceae 14 species, and Arecaceae 14 species.

Of these 504 species, just over half (262) are found in the Danau Sentarum swamp forests, where plant collecting efforts by the author were concentrated. Most of the remainder are found in dryland habitats such as lowland forest, heath forest Heath forest is a type of tropical moist forest found in areas with acidic, sandy soils that are extremely nutrient-poor. Notable examples are the Rio Negro campinarana of the Amazon Basin in South America, and the Sundaland heath forests (also known as Kerangas  and sites of former shifting cultivation This article or section is written like a personal reflection or and may require .
Please [ improve this article] by rewriting this article or section in an .
. Aquatic herbaceous her·ba·ceous  
1. Relating to or characteristic of an herb as distinguished from a woody plant.

2. Green and leaflike in appearance or texture.
 species are uncommon, probably because of the significant annual fluctuations in water levels, and are generally limited to more permanent bodies of water near the Kapuas River. Almost three-quarters (73%) of the 504 species are trees and shrubs.

Taxonomic tax·o·nom·ic   also tax·o·nom·i·cal
Of or relating to taxonomy: a taxonomic designation.


The Danau Sentarum area harbors novel and interesting plant species. Dichilanthe borneensis (known locally as berus), was first collected at Danau Sentarum by Beccari in 1867, and has never been collected elsewhere. This unique species represents a link between the Rubiaceae (to which it has been assigned as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

) and the Scrophulariaceae, incorporating characteristics from both families. A new species of Rhodoleia (insang dungan) was collected in 1993 and identified by Vink (Leiden Herbarium). This species belongs to the Hamamelidaceae, a family poorly represented in Asia, with only seven genera genera, in taxonomy: see classification.  occurring in the Malesian realm, each represented by only one species. The only other species of this family found on Borneo is Sycopsis dunnii, which is endemic endemic /en·dem·ic/ (en-dem´ik) present or usually prevalent in a population at all times.

 to Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah (Vink, 1957). The small tree Dicoelia beccariana (belat), the sedge sedge, common name for members of the Cyperaceae, a family of grasslike and rushlike herbs found in all parts of the world, especially in marshes of subarctic and temperate zones.  Hypolytrum capitulatum, the stemless palm Eugeissona ambigua (ransa) and the rattan rattan (rătăn`), name for a number of plants of the genera Calamus, Daemonorops, and Korthalsia climbing palms of tropical Asia, belonging to the family Palmae (palm family).  Plectocomiopsis triquetra Triquetra (IPA: [tɹaɪ'kwεtɹə]) is a word derived from the Latin tri- ("three") and quetrus ("cornered").  (rotan udang) are rare species that are locally common at DSNP (A iry-Shaw, 1975; Kern Kern, river, 155 mi (249 km) long, rising in the S Sierra Nevada Mts., E Calif., and flowing south, then southwest to a reservoir in the extreme southern part of the San Joaquin valley. The river has Isabella Dam as its chief facility. , 1972; Dransfield, pers. comm. 1986 and 1994).

Endemics/restricted range species

In the basence of comparable floristic data from much of Borneo, the number of plant species with a restricted range or endemic to Danau Sentarum can only be approximated. Many of the 35 species collected by Beccari in the Danau Sentarum area in 1867 (Beccari, 1904) are likely to have a restricted range, as he focused on novel species, and had already been active in neighboring neigh·bor  
1. One who lives near or next to another.

2. A person, place, or thing adjacent to or located near another.

3. A fellow human.

4. Used as a form of familiar address.

 Sarawak for many years before visiting the Kapuas lakes. Species that are endemic to DSNP or at least have a restricted range number 30-40, and include the new Rhodoleja species, Dichilanthe borneensis and Eugeissona ambigua mentioned above. Danau Sentarum is the type locality type locality
1. Biology The place or source where a holotype or type specimen was found.

2. Geology The place or region in which a rock, series of rock, or formation is typically exposed.
 for all three species. Seven other species likely to be restricted to the Danau Sentarum area are new species collected by Giesen (1987) and Zulkarnain and Giesen (Giesen, 1996). These include Casaeria sp. nov. (Flacourtiaceae; limut), Croton croton, in botany
croton (krō`tən), any of several species of Codiaeum that are widely cultivated as ornamentals and houseplants. The most popular species is C.
 cf. ensifolius (Euphorbiaceae; melayak), Helicia cf. petiolaris (Proteaceae; putat rimba), Korthalsella cf. germinans (Lor anthaceae; paha buntak), Microcos cf. stylocarpus (Tiliaceae; tengkurung asam), Ternstroemia cf. toguian (Theaceae), and Vatica cf. Umbronata (Dipterocarpaceae; menungau).

Flowering and fruiting

A number of plant species tend to flower and set fruit intermittently in·ter·mit·tent  
1. Stopping and starting at intervals. See Synonyms at periodic.

2. Alternately containing and empty of water: an intermittent lake.
 throughout the year, without any apparent cue cue,
n a stimulus that determines or may prompt the nature of a person's response.

cue Psychology Any sensory stimulus that evokes a learned patterned response. See Conditioning.
 by either rainfall or water depth. These species include Crudia teysmannia (timba tawang), Fagraea fragrans (tembesu), Ficus heterophylla (luwak), Psychotria montensis (akar engkerabang), and Xanthophyllum flavescens (tengkurung). If these five species are omitted from the phenology study of 29 species, there is a good correlation between flowering/fruiting and flooding regime. Of the 24 species that display seasonality, only 3 flower/fruit in the dry months of April to August, while the remainder flower or set fruit throughout the October-March wet season (with 6-18 flowering/fruiting at any given time in this period).


Relatively few exotic plant species have been introduced to DSNP; these include Ageratum conyzoides Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat-weed, Chick weed, Goatweed, Whiteweed; Ageratum conycoides L., Ageratum obtusifolium Lam., Cacalia mentrasto Vell.) is an invasive species native from Brazil. , Cassia alata Noun 1. Cassia alata - tropical shrub (especially of Americas) having yellow flowers and large leaves whose juice is used as a cure for ringworm and poisonous bites; sometimes placed in genus Cassia
ringworm bush, ringworm cassia, ringworm shrub, Senna alata
, Eichhornia crassipes, Hyptis brevipes, Ludwigia Ludwigia

Australian plant in the family Onagraceae, causes diarrhea and paralysis in all species. The toxin has not been identified.
 hyssopifolia, Mimosa pigra Mimosa pigra is an invasive species of the genus Mimosa, in the familty Leguminosae. It is native to the Neotropics, but has been listed as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species[1][2], and has been documented in: Australia, Cambodia,  and Passiflora Passiflora

a plant genus of vines in the family Passifloraceae. Includes passion fruit valued for their edible fruits. Most of the plants in the genus that have been tested have high concentrations of cyanogenetic glycosides and are potential causes of cyanide poisoning and
 foetida. All are from tropical South America South America, fourth largest continent (1991 est. pop. 299,150,000), c.6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere.  except for H. brevipes, which originates from Mexico. Waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and Giant Mimosa Mimosa pigra are highly invasive invasive /in·va·sive/ (-siv)
1. having the quality of invasiveness.

2. involving puncture of the skin or insertion of an instrument or foreign material into the body; said of diagnostic techniques.
 noxious weed Noxious weeds are plant species that have been designated by state or national agricultural authorities as plants that are injurious to agricultural and/or horticultural crops and/or humans and livestock.  species (Miller et al., 1981; Soerjani et al., 1987; Finlayson, 1998), but fortunately for the Park, both remain uncommon at DSNP (see below).

Vegetation and habitats

Major habitat types at DSNP are indicated in Table 1 and a map is provided in Figure 1. Based on physiognomy physiognomy /phys·i·og·no·my/ (fiz?e-og´nah-me)
1. determination of mental or moral character and qualities by the face.

2. the countenance, or face.

, three major types of swamp forest can be identified: tall, stunted, and dwarf swamp forest, which have average canopy heights of 22-30, 8-15(-22) and 5-8 meters, respectively. Dwarf swamp forest develops in deeply flooded areas that may be flooded with 4-5.5 meters of water for 8-12 months per year. Tall swamp forest is flooded for 2-3 months annually by 1-2.5 meters of water, and some areas are characterized by peat soils with a depth of 0.5-4 meters. Stunted swamp forest is intermediate between tall- and dwarf swamp forest in terms of flooding depth and duration, and does not have any peat. Both dwarf and stunted swamp forests are prone to fires (see below, and Dennis et al., 2000). Heath forests are characterized by uniform, fairly small statured Stat´ured   

a. 1. Arrived at full stature.
 trees (average up to 20-25 meters), an open canopy, large numbers of myrmecophytes, and usually occur on very poor, leached sandy soils. In the DSNP area heath forests occur on the top of sandstone ridges. Lowland forest is found on the low hills and ridges around the lake basin, and consists of tall to very tall tree, with emergents attaining 35-45(-55) meters.

Herbaceous aquatic vegetation

Herbaceous aquatic vegetation is rare at DSNP. The extreme annual fluctuation of water levels limits the growth of many species, and both submerged and emergent emergent /emer·gent/ (e-mer´jent)
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.

2. pertaining to an emergency.


1. coming out from a cavity or other part.

2. coming on suddenly.
 aquatic herbs are usually absent. Incoming floodwaters bring floating mats of waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, but these do not proliferate pro·lif·er·ate
To grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissue, parts, cells, or offspring.
. Most waterhyacinth remain small, gradually turning brown and withering with·er·ing  
Tending to overwhelm or destroy; devastating: withering sarcasm.

, except in villages and in waters near the Kapuas River. Other free-floating species such as Nile Cabbage cabbage, leafy garden vegetable of many widely dissimilar varieties, all probably descended from the wild, or sea, cabbage (Brassica oleracea) of the family Cruciferae (mustard family), found on the coasts of Europe.  Pistia stratiotes are rare, and occur only near villages and streams near the Kapuas River. When the lakes dry out--which occurs in two out of three years--dry lake bottoms are rapidly colonized Colonized
This occurs when a microorganism is found on or in a person without causing a disease.

Mentioned in: Isolation
 by a carpet of small annual herbs, dominated by grasses such as Isachne globosa, sedges such as Fimbristylis dipsacea, F. miliacea, and diminutive di·min·u·tive  
1. Extremely small in size; tiny. See Synonyms at small.

2. Grammar Of or being a suffix that indicates smallness or, by semantic extension, qualities such as youth, familiarity, affection, or
 herbs such as Lindnera species.

Emergent herbs--especially sedges--are found in swamp forests, but rarely occur as discrete vegetation types. An exception to this general pattern is formed by floating mats of herbaceous vegetation called kumpai, which occurs locally in the southern part of DSNP, especially at several oxbow lakes Oxbow Lakes is a single by ambient house artist The Orb. It featured remixes from artists such as Carl Craig, Sabres of Paradise and A Guy Called Gerald. It also includes an acoustic version performed by the string sextet Instrumental.  near the Kapuas River, and along the Mbaloh Leboyan River. Kumpai consists of thick mats of mainly perennial perennial, any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or a biennial. Botanically, the term perennial  herbs, dominated by grasses such as Digitaria Digitaria

grass genus containing a large number of valuable species in the family Poaceae. Contains cyanogenetic glycosides, can cause cyanide, and possibly oxalate, poisoning. Includes D. eriantha (D. decumbens), D. didactyla, D. saginata, D.
 species, Echinochloa Echinochloa

genus of grasses in the family Poaceae. Mostly good forage plants but linked anecdotally with outbreaks of primary photosensitization, in grazing ruminants. Toxin unidentified but some plants contain high concentrations of nitrate. Includes E.
 colonum, Leersia hexandra, Leptochloa chinensis, Panicum Panicum

a genus of grasses in the family Poaceae. May contain sufficient nitrate or oxalate to cause poisoning with these substances. They are highly productive and popular annual and perennial grasses and cereal crops but many of them cause hepatogenous photosensitization
 conjugatum, P. repens, Phragmites karka and Saccharum sac·cha·rum


[L.] sugar (especially sucrose).
 spontaneum, along with the climbers This list of climbers includes both mountaineers and rock climbers, since many (though not all) climbers engage in both types of activities. The list also includes boulderers and ice climbers.  Aniseia martinicensis and Merremia hederacea, and the large herbs Polygonum Polygonum

genus of toxic plants in the family Polygonaceae, called collectively smartweeds. Some cause nitrate-nitrite poisoning, some cause photosensitization; includes P. aviculare (wireweed), P. convolvulus (Fallopia convolvulus), P. esculentum, P.
 barbatum and Polygonum celebicum.

Swamp forest vegetation

Three swamp forest vegetation types can be recognized at DSNP, namely dwarf swamp forest, stunted swamp forest and tall swamp forest. Tall swamp forest is found in areas that are shallowly flooded for shorter periods, and is locally called hutan pepah. Depending on the locally common species, an appropriate suffix suf·fix  
An affix added to the end of a word or stem, serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending, such as -ness in gentleness, -ing in walking, or -s in sits.

 is added, for example hutan pepah kelansau or hutan pepah emang. Stunted swamp forest is termed hutan rawa or gelgah, and similarly, one may for example have gelgah menungau, gelgah kamsia or gelgah kenarin depending on local conditions and dominant tree species. Dwarf forest of any type is called rampak, and dwarf swamp forest is called rampak gelgah. A fourth type that is very similar to stunted swamp forest is riparian forest, which occurs on levees of larger rivers in the Park.

Dwarf swamp forest is characterized by trees and shrubs 5-8 meters tall, and may be flooded more than 11 months per year (average 9.5 months). At times this vegetation is almost entirely submerged, as waters may be 5.5 meters deep. Common species are Barringtonia acutangula Barringtonia acutangula is a species of Barringtonia native to coastal wetlands in southern Asia and northern Australasia, from Afghanistan east to the Philippines and Queensland.[1] References

 (putat), Carallia bracteata (kayu tahun), Croton cf. ensifolius (melayak), Garcinia borneensis (empanak), Gardenia gardenia: see madder.

Any of the approximately 200 species of ornamental shrubs and trees in the genus Gardenia, in the madder family, native to tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia.
 tentaculata (landak), Ixora mentanggis (mentangis), Pternandra teysmanniana (gelagan), Memecylon edule (kebesi), Syzygium claviflora (masung) and Timonius salicifolius (kerminit). Some species may be locally dominant, to the virtual exclusion of all other species.

Stunted swamp forest is charcterized by small to medium-sized trees 8-15(-22) meters tall. It is flooded 4-8 months annually (average 6 months), with waters of up to 3.5 meters deep. This habitat is highly fire-prone and subjected to regular burning in the dry season. It is estimated that about a quarter of this habitat has been burnt over the past decades. Based on species composition, two main stunted swamp forest vegetation types may be recognized, namely Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia vegetation, and Kawi-Kamsia vegetation.

Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest is probably the most widespread, and is characterized by Diospyros coriacea (kenarin), Vatica cf. umbronata (menungau) and Mesua hexapetalum (kamsia), along with many other species including Cleistanthus sumatranus (kertik), Crudia teysmannii (timba tawang), Fordia splendissima (limau antu), Garcinia bancana (sikup), Homalium caryophyllaceum (pekeras), Ilex cymosa (kayu telor), Microcos cf. stylocarpa (tengkurung asam) and Xanthophyllum affine af·fine  
adj. Mathematics
1. Of or relating to a transformation of coordinates that is equivalent to a linear transformation followed by a translation.

2. Of or relating to the geometry of affine transformations.

Kawi-Kamsia stunted swamp forest is characterized by the same species as the previous type, but includes the dipterocarp Noun 1. dipterocarp - tree of the family Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpaceae, family Dipterocarpaceae - chiefly tropical Asian trees with two-winged fruits; yield valuable woods and aromatic oils and resins
 Shorea balangeran Shorea balangeran (also called Red Balau) is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is endemic to Indonesia. Source
  • Ashton, P. 1998. Shorea balangeran. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 August 2007.
 (kawi), which may dominate locally. Occasionally kawi trees may attain a height of over 30 meters, but on average they are usually 15-22 meters and are often gnarled gnarled  
1. Having gnarls; knotty or misshapen: gnarled branches.

2. Morose or peevish; crabbed.

. This vegetation type is possibly derived from the Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia type by the influence of fire, as Shorea balangeran apppears to be a relatively fire-tolerant species (see below; Mackinnon et al., 1983; Giesen, 1987; Dennis et al., 2000).

Climbers such as various rattans Calamus calamus (kăl`əməs): see arum.  schistoacanthus (duri antu), Calamus tapa (duri tapah), Ceratolobus hallierianus, (duri pelanduk), Psychotria montensis (akar engkerabang), Ficus heterophylla (luwak), Fagraea cf. ceilanica (akar seraya) and akar tulang salai (Annonaceae) are also common to locally very common in the stunted swamp forest (for rattans, see Peters and Giesen, 2000).

Tall swamp forest is dominated by the occurrence of tall (25-30(-35) meter) straight stemmed stemmed  
1. Having the stems removed.

2. Provided with a stem or a specific type of stem. Often used in combination: stemmed goblets; long-stemmed roses.
 trees, in areas that are flooded for 2-3 months annually by 1-2.5 meters of water. Peat, with depths of up to four meters may occur locally, but is often absent. Two main vegetation types may be recognized, namely the Kelansau-Emang-Melaban type and the Ramin-Mentangur Kunyit vegetation type.

Kelansau-Emang-Melaban tall swamp forest, characterized by the occurrence of Dryobalanops abnormis (kelansau), Hopea mengerawan Hopea mengerawan is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Source
  • Ashton, P. 1998. Hopea mengerawan. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 August 2007.
 (emang) and Tristaniopsis obovata (melaban) is the most common type of tall swamp forest. Additional species found in this habitat include Calophyllum species (mentangur), Dichilanthe borneensis (berus), Gluta pubescens (kebaca), Gluta walichii (rengas manuk), Ilex cymosa (kayu telor), Shorea balangeran (kawi), Teysmanniodendron sarawakanum (mutun) and Vatica ressak (resak).

Ramin-Mentangur kunyit tall swamp forest may formerly have been more widespread, but as Gonystylus bancanus Gonystylus bancanus is a species of plant in the Thymelaeaceae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is threatened by habitat loss. Source
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Gonystylus bancanus.
 (ramin Ramin (Gonystylus) is a genus of about 30 species of hardwood trees native to southeast Asia, in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea, with the highest species diversity on Borneo. ) is much sought after by commercial timber companies; it is now uncommon and occurs only very locally. It is characterized by a very open canopy, and an undergrowth characterized by the tall sedge Tetraria borneensis (lembang). Dominant tree species are Ramin and Calophyllum sclerophyllum (mentangur) kunyit), along with Dichilanthe borneensis (berus), Garcinia rostrata (sikup rimba), Shorea balangeran (kawi), Syzygium durifolium (ubah) and Tristaniopsis obovata (melaban).

Riparian forest in much of the area appears to have many of the same species as the Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest, but is characterized by the presence of typical riparian species such as Gluta renghas (rengas) and Lagerstroemia speciosa Noun 1. Lagerstroemia speciosa - native to Asia, Australia, and East Indies, where it provides timber called pyinma; used elsewhere as an ornamental for its large showy flowers
Queen's crape myrtle, pride-of-India
 (bungur), along with Antidesma stipulare (engkunik), Artocarpus teysmannii (cempedak air), Dillenia excelsa (ringin), Elaeocarpus cf. sphaerocarpa (menyawai), Excoecaria Excoecaria

Asian and Australian trees in the family Euphorbiaceae; their milky sap is very irritating and causes intense pain in the eye or on other tender parts. Cause poisoning of livestock. No specific toxin has been identified. Includes E.
 indica (kebuau), Ficus microcarpa “Curtain fig” redirects here. For the Queensland, Australia strangler fig attraction, see Curtain Fig Tree.

Ficus microcarpa, also known as Chinese Banyan, Malayan Banyan, Indian Laurel or Curtain fig
 (jabai), Hopea dasyrrhachis (tekam air), Mallotus sumatranus (belantik), and Pternandra galeata (kelusuk bujang). This vegetation type occurs on levees of the larger rivers in the Park (e.g. Tawang, Belitung, Empanang), and has a flooding regime similar to that of the stunted swamp forest.

Dryland forests

Dryland habitats at DSNP occur on the isolated hills scattered Scattered

Used for listed equity securities. Unconcentrated buy or sell interest.
 throughout the area (Pegah, Semanggit, Sempadan, Semujan, Tekenang), and the low ranges to the west, northeast, and east of the Park. Because this habitat formed only a minor element in the original 80,000 hectare hectare (hĕk`târ, –tär), abbr. ha, unit of area in the metric system, equal to 10,000 sq m, or about 2.47 acres.  reserve, it has not received much emphasis in the habitat studies to date. Based on physiognomy, two main dryland primary vegetation types can be recognized, namely hill forest and heath forest. In addition, various secondary vegetation types occur, mainly as a result of clearing and burning of these primary vegetation types.

Hill forests are dominated by dipterocarp species such as Anisoptera grossivenia Anisoptera grossivenia is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Source
  • Ashton, P. 1998. Anisoptera grossivenia. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 20 August 2007.
 (penyau), Dipterocarpus gracilis Dipterocarpus gracilis is a species of tree in the family Dipterocarpaceae endemic to Kalimantan. The species is found in Bangladesh, India (the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Tripura), Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Peninsular Malaysia,  (tempurau), Shorea leprosula Shorea leprosula (also called Light Red Meranti or Meranti) is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Source
  • Ashton, P. 1998. Shorea leprosula.
 (rup) and S. seminis (kerintak). These trees are tall to very tall, with emergents attaining 35-45 meters. Hill forests occur on the slopes of isolated hills and along ranges, where soils are moister and less sandy (i.e. with significant clay content). In some areas, for example at Bukit Semanggit, Dayak forest gardens (tembawang) occur where certain dipterocarps such as tempurau are nurtured for the periodic harvesting of the oil-containing nuts. Heath heath, tract of open land
heath, tract of open land characterized by a few scattered trees, abundant moss cover, and numerous low shrubs, principally of the heath family (see heath, in botany).
 forest--also known as kerangas--is a stunted forest with trees of (20)22-26 meters. The canopy is open, while the trees have slender Slender

“though well-landed, an idiot.” [Br. Lit.: Merry Wives of Windsor]

See : Stupidity
 trunks and are pole-like. This vegetation type occurs on sandy soils west of the Park, on top of Bukit Semujan and on the flat tops Flat Tops may refer to:
  • Flat Tops, a summit in Imperial County, California in the United States
  • The Flat Tops, a summit in Emery County, Utah in the United States
  • Flat Tops, an area and summit in Garfield and Mesa counties in Colorado in the United States
 of hills in the Menyukung range to the southeast of the Park. Small areas of a wetter type of heath forest known as kerapah occurs on leached, sandy soil at t he base of hills to the west of the Park. Common heath Noun 1. common heath - small erect shrub of Australia and Tasmania with fragrant ivory flowers
blunt-leaf heath, Epacris obtusifolia

epacris - any heathlike evergreen shrub of the genus Epacris grown for their showy and crowded spikes of small bell-shaped or
 forest species include Baeckia frutescens, Koompassia malaccensis Koompassia malaccensis is a species of legume in the Fabaceae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. It is threatened by habitat loss.

A common name for this wood is Kempas, it is used as a flooring material.
 (menggeris), Lithocarpus species (kempilik), Lycopodium cernuum, Nepenthes ampullaria
    Nepenthes ampullaria (Latin: ampulla = a flask-like bladder) is a very distinctive and widespread species of Nepenthes, present in Borneo, Sumatra, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, the Maluku Islands, and New Guinea.
    , N. mirabilis, Shorea laevis Shorea laevis is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. Source
    • Ashton, P. 1998. Shorea laevis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 August 2007.
     (masang), S. seminis (kerintak), Syzygium species, Tristaniopsis obovata and Vatica cinerea Vatica cinerea is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. It is found in Cambodia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Source
    • Ashton, P. 1998. Vatica cinerea. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 24 August 2007.
     (resak padi). Secondary scrub occurs on abandoned former sites of shifting cultivation (ladang) and areas formerly cleared for settlements. These patches are small and constitute only a minor element, as these infertile in·fer·tile
    Not capable of initiating, sustaining, or supporting reproduction.

    adj unable to produce offspring.
     hills have generally not been cultivated cultivated,
    n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild.
    . Secondary scrub vegetation is characterized by a profusion of ferns (esp. Pteridium Pteridium

    a fern in the family Dennstadiaceae.

    The fern is classified by some authorities as more than one species including: P. aquilinum, P. esculentum, P. revolutum, P. yarrabense. Called also bracken.
     aquilinum), shrublets Melastoma malabathricum Noun 1. Melastoma malabathricum - evergreen spreading shrub of India and southeastern Asia having large purple flowers
    Indian rhododendron

    bush, shrub - a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems
     and Rhodomyrtus tormentosa, various Macaranga species and a hill variety of Fagraea fragrans (tembesu).


    Fire is an all-important factor controlling vegetation patterns at DSNP. From studies of remote sensing Deriving digital models of an area on the earth. Using special cameras from airplanes or satellites, either the sun's reflections or the earth's temperature is turned into digital maps of the area.  imagery, combined with ground truthing, it is apparent that 18 percent of the 80,000 hectare reserve (= 24.8% of reserve forests) have been affected by fire over the past decades (see Dennis et al., 2000). Vegetation studies of 27 formerly forested areas that had been burnt during the past decade showed that the species that most often survive a fire are: Shorea balangeran (kawi; in 80% of fires), Crudia teysmannia (timba tawang; 65%), Mesua hexapetalum (kamsia; 51%) and Syzygium sp. 120 (tengelam; 51%). This does not mean that many trees survive a fire: for a given fire survival may vary between 0-25 percent of all trees. On average, however, about 1-3 percent of all trees appear to survive a typical fire. Survival is important for recruitment, and relatively fire-tolerant species such as the aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned  
    Mentioned previously.

    The one or ones mentioned previously.


    mentioned before

    Adj. 1.
     four are most likely to form an important element in the recovering vegetation. Of these four specie s SPECIE. Metallic money issued by public authority.
         2. This term is used in contradistinction to paper money, which in some countries is emitted by the government, and is a mere engagement which represents specie.
    , kawi survives in the greatest numbers. A second important element in areas recovering from fires are the pioneer species; i.e. those species that newly establish themselves from propagules (seeds, fruit). The most important pioneer species observed at burnt sites at DSNP are shrubs Croton cf. ensifolius (melayak), Ixora mentanggis (mentangis) and Timonius salicifolius (kerminit), and the herbs Polygonum spp. lembung and kumpai (various grasses).


    Plant diversity

    Dwarf swamp forests are very low in plant diversity, having an average of only 10 species per transect of 10 by 100 meters (0.1 ha), and a maximum of 15 species. Stunted swamp forest is somewhat richer, with an average of 17-18 species per transect and a total of 60 species. Most diverse among the wetland habitats is tall swamp forest, with an average of 20-29 species and a total of 127 species. Riparian forests are of intermediate diversity, having about 20 species on average, and a total of 35 species. Plant diversity in the various wetland habitat types is low compared to Malesian lowland forest, where 120-180 species may be found in a one hectare plot (Whitmore, 1984). It is comparable to Southeast Asian peat swamp forests such as in Peninsular pen·in·su·la  
    n. Abbr. Pen.
    A piece of land that projects into a body of water and is connected with the mainland by an isthmus.

    [Latin paen
     Malaysia, where tree species diversity of 0.4-1.0 hectare plots may range from 54 (Shamsudin and Chong, 1992) to 132 (Ibrahim, 1997), and more than 150 plant species have been recorded by Latiff (1997). Peat swamp forests of Sarawak appear to be more diverse, and A nderson (1963) recorded 242 tree species alone in this habitat. The variety of habitat types in the Danau Sentarum area contributes to overall diversity. The total of 262 plant species recorded in the swamp forests of Danau Sentarum is almost identical to that of the swamp forests of Berbak National Park in Jambi, Sumatra, where Giesen (1991) recorded a total of 261 plant species. At DSNP 73 percent are trees and shrubs, while at Berbak this figure is 67 percent. This figure for DSNP (191) is intermediate between Pensinsular Malaysia and Sarawak.

    Endert (1927) describes similar forests from the lake district of the Mahakam River The Mahakam River flows 980 km from the highlands of Borneo, district Long Apari to its mouth in Makassar Strait. The city of Samarinda, the provincial capital of East Kalimantan, lies along the river 48 km (30 mi) from the river mouth.  in East Kalimantan, but these forests have now largely disappeared, and the Mahakam lakes have subsequently become choked choke  
    v. choked, chok·ing, chokes
    1. To interfere with the respiration of by compression or obstruction of the larynx or trachea.

     with floating aquatic weeds 1. weeds - Refers to development projects or algorithms that have no possible relevance or practical application. Comes from "off in the weeds". Used in phrases like "lexical analysis for microcode is serious weeds."
    , especially waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (pers. comm. Head of Provincial Planning Bureau, "Bappeda," East Kalimantan, 1993). In addition, formerly forested areas around the Mahakam lakes have become infested in·fest  
    tr.v. in·fest·ed, in·fest·ing, in·fests
    1. To inhabit or overrun in numbers or quantities large enough to be harmful, threatening, or obnoxious:
     with the exotic Giant Mimosa Mimosa pigra. Swamp forests along the east coast of Sumatra are taller and of a quite different species composition, perhaps owing to owing to
    Because of; on account of: I couldn't attend, owing to illness.

    owing to prepdebido a, por causa de 
     the higher nutrient levels of waters. Lakes and swamp forests along the Siak Kecil River in Riau, Sumatra, occur on deep to very deep peat, and few species are shared with DSNP (Giesen and van Balen, 1992).

    Plant species shared between Danau Sentarum and a number of key freshwater fresh·wa·ter  
    1. Of, relating to, living in, or consisting of water that is not salty: freshwater fish; freshwater lakes.

    2. Situated away from the sea; inland.

     wetlands in South and Southeast Asia are summarized in Figure 2. Floristically, DSNP is most similar to the swamp forests of Berbak (Jambi, Sumatra), Sungai Negara (South Kalimantan South Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Selatan often abbreviated to Kalsel) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. ) and Tasek Bera (Peninsular Malaysia), with which it shares 42, 46 and 48 species, respectively. If easily dispersed dis·perse  
    v. dis·persed, dis·pers·ing, dis·pers·es
    a. To drive off or scatter in different directions: The police dispersed the crowd.

     (and often "weedy") herbaceous species and exotics are excluded, Danau Sentarum is most similar to Berbak, with which it shares 31 trees and shrubs. 13 tree and shrub shrub, any woody, perennial, bushy plant that branches into several stems or trunks at the base and is smaller than a tree. Shrubs are an important feature of permanent landscape planting, being used for formal decorative groups, hedges, screens, and background  species are shared with the Ogan Komering lebaks in South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. ; this low figure is probably due to the long history of logging and burning, which has impoverished im·pov·er·ished  
    1. Reduced to poverty; poverty-stricken. See Synonyms at poor.

    2. Deprived of natural richness or strength; limited or depleted:
     the woody vegetation in this part of South Sumatra. Only 3-4 non-exotic tree and shrub species are shared with Tonle Sap Tonle Sap

    Lake, western Cambodia. The largest freshwater body in mainland Southeast Asia, it receives several tributaries as well as the floodwaters of the Mekong River.
     (Cambodia) and Tanguar Haor (Bangladesh), namely Barringtonia acutangula, Crateva religiosa The flowering tree Crateva religiosa (syn Crataeva religiosa, Crateva adansonii) is called the sacred garlic pear and temple plant, and many other names in a variety of dialects, including abiyuch, barna, varuna , Ficus heterophylla and Melastoma malabathricum. Forests around Tonle Sap are highly disturbed and few m ature stands remain. Barringtonia-dominated swamp forest vegetation occurs westward up to Afghanistan and India (Heyne, 1950), but these forests are invariably in·var·i·a·ble  
    Not changing or subject to change; constant.

     greatly disturbed and poor in species. In Bangladesh last vestiges of depleted de·plete  
    tr.v. de·plet·ed, de·plet·ing, de·pletes
    To decrease the fullness of; use up or empty out.

    [Latin d
     swamp forest remain in the haor region in the northeastern part of the country (Giesen and Rashid, 1997).

    Aquatic vegetation

    Although once very similar to Danau Sentarum, the Mahakam lakes have changed significantly, as most of the forests have disappeared or are greatly disturbed, lake waters are choked with waterhyacinth, and fisheries fisheries. From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long  have declined dramatically (Dunn and Otte, 1983; Bappeda, pers. comm. 1993). As waterhyacinth was already present in the Mahakam in 1925, the more recent proliferation proliferation /pro·lif·er·a·tion/ (pro-lif?er-a´shun) the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells.prolif´erativeprolif´erous

     of this weed weed, common term for any wild plant, particularly an undesired plant, growing in cultivated ground, where it competes with crop plants for soil nutrients and water.  species in the lakes is probably due to changes in nutrient status of the waters. This appears to be linked with changes in the catchment catch·ment  
    1. A catching or collecting of water, especially rainwater.

    a. A structure, such as a basin or reservoir, used for collecting or draining water.

    , as Dunn and Otte (1983) show that the decline in Mahakam lakes fisheries (from late 1960s onwards on·ward  
    Moving or tending forward.

    adv. also on·wards
    In a direction or toward a position that is ahead in space or time; forward.

    Adv. 1.
    ) coincided with increased logging in the Mahakam River basin. At Danau Sentarum, water acidity acidity /acid·i·ty/ (-i-te) the quality of being acid; the power to unite with positively charged ions or with basic substances.

    The state, quality, or degree of being acid.
     and nutrient status appear to be limiting waterhyacinth growth. According to according to
    1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

    2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

     Oki et at. (1978) and Carlander (1980), the threshold level Noun 1. threshold level - the intensity level that is just barely perceptible
    intensity, intensity level, strength - the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation); "he adjusted the intensity of the sound"; "they measured the
     of [Ca.sup.2+] for waterhyacinth growth is 120 [micro]Mol/liter (= 4.8 mg/l), which is 4.5-24 times the average [Ca.sup.+2] concentration found in the Kapuas l akes (Giesen, 1987). This also explains why waterhyacinth survives in village waters and near the Kapuas River, as nutrient levels are higher in these locations.

    Flooding and habitat types

    The single most important factor governing gov·ern  
    v. gov·erned, gov·ern·ing, gov·erns
    1. To make and administer the public policy and affairs of; exercise sovereign authority in.

     the distribution of the different vegetation types is depth and duration of flooding, and structurally, the stunted swamp forest of Danau Sentarum is very similar to the Varzea swamp forests of Amazonia (Richards Rich·ards , Dickinson Woodruff 1895-1973.

    American physician. He shared a 1956 Nobel Prize for developing cardiac catheterization.
    , 1972), where similar flooding regimes occur. Dwarf swamp forest is flooded on average for a period of 9.5 months per year, by water depths with an average maximum of 5.5 meters. During some years, such as 1995, flooding is year-round, and this vegetation may be (partly-) submerged for up to 21 months at a time. Stunted swamp forest is flooded for an average of 6 months per year, with waters of up to 3.5 meters deep, while for tall swamp forest these figures are 2-3 months and 1-2.5 meters. The flooding regime appears to have a greater effect on vegetation structure (dwarf, stunted, tall forest) than on floristic composition, as there is no apparent correlation with the latter. All tree species examined in Danau Sentarum's swamp forests appear to have growth rings. These may be associated with the flooding regime, as annual floods lead to a period of relative dormancy Dormancy

    In the broadest sense, the state in which a living plant organ (seed, bud, tuber, bulb) fails to exhibit growth, even when environmental conditions are considered favorable.
    , and the drier period is a time of growth.

    Flowering and fruiting of trees and shrubs at Danau Sentarum show a degree of synchronicity synchronicity (singˈ·kr  linked with flooding. Although there are always a number of trees and shrubs that flower or bear fruit, there is a marked increase as floodwaters rise. This has not gone unnoticed, as local fishermen are well aware that the arrival of the migratory migratory /mi·gra·to·ry/ (mi´grah-tor?e)
    1. roving or wandering.

    2. of, pertaining to, or characterized by migration; undergoing periodic migration.


    emanating from or pertaining to migration.
     bees (Apis dorsata Apis dorsata, the Giant honey bee, is a honey bee of southern and southeastern Asia. It is only slightly smaller than the Himalayan honey bee.

    In the wild, they prefer to nest in exposed areas far off the ground, on tree limbs and under cliff overhangs, and
    ) that form the basis of the local honey industry (Rouquette, 1995), occurs simultaneously with the rise of the floodwaters. There is an ecological ecological

    emanating from or pertaining to ecology.

    ecological biome
    see biome.

    ecological climax
    the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each
     advantage for flowering and fruiting in the wet season, as the fruits of many species float and are dispersed by flood waters. An interesting characteristic is that many local swamp forest fruits are sour, even when fully ripe, probably due to high levels of citric cit·ric  
    Of or relating to citric acid.


    of or derived from citrus fruits or citric acid

    Adj. 1.
     and ascorbic acids (Vitamin C vitamin C
     or ascorbic acid

    Water-soluble organic compound important in animal metabolism. Most animals produce it in their bodies, but humans, other primates, and guinea pigs need it in the diet to prevent scurvy.
    ). This is possibly parallel to the situation in Amazonia, where many fruits are dispersed by fish that are attracted by sour fruit. This response is selected upon, as fish are unable to produce these essential compounds ( pers. comm. C. Peters, 1994).

    Soils and habitat types

    Differences between soil types appear to be less important in determining vegetation patterns than the flooding regime. Tall swamp forest occurs both on peat and mineral soil, but the two types of tall swamp forest recognized, Kelansau-Emang-Melaban and Ramin-Mentangur, are not strongly linked with either soil type. The distinction between hill forest and heath forest is strongly determined by soil type and geomorphology geomorphology, study of the origin and evolution of the earth's landforms, both on the continents and within the ocean basins. It is concerned with the internal geologic processes of the earth's crust, such as tectonic activity and volcanism that constructs new . Hill forest at DSNP occurs on slopes where the soil has a large fraction of clay minerals Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths and other cations. Clays have structures similar to the micas and therefore form flat hexagonal sheets.  and where soil moisture is higher, whereas heath forest occurs on areas with leached, dry, sandy soils.

    Clearing and logging

    Both the Malay and Dayak ethnic groups of the region traditionally practice swidden or ladang. Dayak generally practice ladang in dryland areas, while Malay cultivate cul·ti·vate  
    tr.v. cul·ti·vat·ed, cul·ti·vat·ing, cul·ti·vates
    a. To improve and prepare (land), as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; till.

     the levees of larger rivers. As most of the hills in and immediately adjacent the Park have highly infertile soils, there are few Dayak ladang and their impact is small. Dayak ladang are significant only on the hills near Lanjak, around Gunung Kenepai south-west of the Park, and in the Lempai range west of DSNP. Ladang practices of the Malay probably have a greater effect on DSNP, as it leads to direct loss of riparian habitat. This habitat is small in area, and it is estimated that already more than half of the Park's riparian forests had been lost to shifting cultivation by 1994, especially along the Tawang, Tengkidap and Belitung/Ketam rivers. Where fields have been abandoned for a long time, a secondary vegetation type appears dominated mainly by a few shrubby shrub·by  
    adj. shrub·bi·er, shrub·bi·est
    1. Consisting of, planted with, or covered with shrubs.

    2. Of or resembling a shrub.
     species rather than taller trees characteristic of the original vegetation. The cl earing of sites for settlements has a very localized Translated into the spoken language of the country. See localization.  direct effect, and only a small area (35 ha) has been cleared to date for this purpose. However, as settlements are located on the levees of the major streams, this contributes to pressures on vulnerable riparian habitat.

    Commercial logging commenced in the Danau Sentarum area south of the Menyukung range to the southeast of the Park in 1978. In the 1980s, four logging concessions bordered on the Park and concentrated on selective logging of tall swamp forest. By the mid- mid-
    Middle: midbrain. 
    1990s these companies had stopped or were on the verge On the Verge (or The Geography of Yearning) is a play written by Eric Overmyer. It makes extensive use of esoteric language and pop culture references from the late nineteenth century to 1955.  of closing down, as most tall swamp forests in and around the Park had been logged. There is evidence that (illegal) logging has commenced again since 1997 (Wadley et al., 2000). Logging occurred in a number of tall swamp forest areas within the 80,000-hectare reserve prior to gazettal in 1982, including 200 hectares at Danau Pemera and 150 hectares south of Bukit Pegah. Most of these selectively logged forests are regenerating re·gen·er·ate  
    v. re·gen·er·at·ed, re·gen·er·at·ing, re·gen·er·ates
    1. To reform spiritually or morally.

    2. To form, construct, or create anew, especially in an improved state.
     well, and are expected to have retained most plant species. Fast growing tree species such as Calophyllum Mentangur species tend to dominate these regenerating swamp forests. The lack of commercially interesting timber in the dwarf and stunted swamp forests of Danau Sentarum protect ed these areas from logging. A more insidious insidious /in·sid·i·ous/ (-sid´e-us) coming on stealthily; of gradual and subtle development.

    Being a disease that progresses with few or no symptoms to indicate its gravity.
     type of logging is the small scale felling of trees that takes place within the Park by local inhabitants
    :This article is about the video game. For Inhabitants of housing, see Residency
    Inhabitants is an independently developed commercial puzzle game created by S+F Software. Details
    The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame.
    . Much of this concentrates on timber for local use, and specifically targets Shorea balangeran and Fagraea fragrans, and large specimens of the latter are becoming rare (Peters, 1994).


    Reports of forest fires This is a list of notorious forest fires: North America

    Year Size Name Area Notes
    1825 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km²) Miramichi Fire New Brunswick Killed 160 people.
     in the Danau Sentarum area date back to the last century. Ida Pfeiffer (1856) observed extensive areas of burnt stumps, while Gerlach (1881) reports of extensive fires in the forests in the northwestern part of the current park, near Pulau Majang. Molengraaff (1900) records fisherfolk igniting the forest during the dry season, but Polak (1949) could not find traces of burnt forest in spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.

    See also: Spite
     specifically looking for Looking for

    In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with.
     them. Vaas (1952) suggested that the latter may be explained by a lack of fishing during the Second World War. Studies carried out by UK-ITFMP show that the incidence of burning has increased significantly since 1990, but causes remain speculative (see Dennis et at., 2000).

    Both dwarf and stunted swamp forests at Danau Sentarum are prone to fires, possibly due to the accumulation of large amounts of organic matter in the wet months, in combination with desiccation des·ic·ca·tion
    The process of being desiccated.

     in the dry season. As van Steenis (1957) pointed out, "Fire is one of the greatest enemies of the swamp forest ... this type of forest is definitely flammable flam·ma·ble  
    Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly; inflammable.

    [From Latin flamm
     and is attacked by fishermen." Most fires are caused by human activities, and the more pronounced a dry season, the higher the number of fires and extent of burning (Aglionby, 1997). Studies of pioneer and surviving plant species in burnt areas at DSNP strongly suggest that forests subjected to (infrequent in·fre·quent  
    1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.

    ) fires are characterized by fire-tolerant surviving species such as kawi, kamsia, timba tawang and tengelam. This indicates that Shorea balangeran-dominated stunted swamp forest may be derived from the more diverse Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia stunted swamp forest by irregular HEIR, IRREGULAR. In Louisiana, irregular heirs are those who are neither testamentary nor legal, and who have been established by law to take the succession. See Civ. Code of Lo. art. 874.  burning. This supports the hypothesis by MacKinnon (1983) about the origin of Shorea balan geran-dominated forests in the Tanjung Puting National Park in Central Kalimantan Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya.

    The province has a population of 1.

    Areas that are more frequently burnt are likely to be dominated by rapidly colonizing, shrubby pioneer species such as kerminit, melayak and mentangis shrubs, which are dominant species of the dwarf swamp forest. Large areas of this dwarf swamp forest occur in the northern and northwestern part of the Park, in areas where stunted swamp forest is to be expected on the basis of flooding depth and duration. While this habitat appears to be linked with deep and prolonged pro·long  
    tr.v. pro·longed, pro·long·ing, pro·longs
    1. To lengthen in duration; protract.

    2. To lengthen in extent.
     flooding, it is apparently also connected with repeated burning. A similar pattern was found by Giesen (1989) in the Sungai Negara swamp forests of South Kalimantan, where infrequent fires lead to domination domination

    the relationship between animals and humans in which little consideration is given to the rights of the animals. The prevailing sentiment is one of proprietary domination.
     by Shorea balangeran and Combretocarpus rotundifolius, while more frequently burnt areas were dominated by Melaleuca Melaleuca

    see tea tree oil.
     cajuputi (gelam).
     #   Family            Species
     1   Acanthaceae       Pseuderanthemum sp.
     2   Amaranthaceae     Alternanthera sessilis
     3   Anacardiaceae     Campnosperma
     4                     Gluta pubescens
     5                     Gluta renghas
     6                     Gluta wallichii
     7                     Gluta sp.
     8                     Mangifera sp.
     9                     Semecarpus glaucus
    10                     Swintonia sp.
    11                     ?
    12   Annonaceae        Polyalthia sp.
    13                     Xylopia sp.
    15   Apocynaceae       Dyera? polyphylla
    16                     Tabernaemontana sp.
    17                     ?
    18   Aquifoliaceae     Ilex cymosa
    19   Araceae           Aglaeonema minus
    20                     Aglaeonema simplex
    21                     Pistia stratiotes
    22   Araliaceae        Schefflera avensis (Miq.)
    23                     Schefflera sp.
    24   Arecaceae         Calamus myriacanthus
    25                     Calamus schistoacanthus
    26                     Calamus zonatus Becc.
    27                     Calamus sp.
    28                     Calamus tapa Becc.
    29                     Calamus sp.
    30                     Ceratolobus hallierianus
    31                     Daemonorops hystrix
                           (Griff.) Mart. Var.
                           exulans Becc.
    32                     Eugeissonia ambigua
    33                     Korthalsia sp.
    34                     Licuala sp.
    35                     Oncosperma horrida
    36                     Plectocomiopsis triquetra
                           (Blecc.) J.Dransf.
    37                     ?
    38   Asclepiadaceae    Dischidia nummularia
    39                     Dischidia sp.
    40                     Hoya macrophylla Bl.
    41   Asteraceae        Ageratum conyzoides L.
    42                     Vernonia arborea Buch.-
    43   Bambusoideae      ?
    44   Begoniaceae       Begonia sp.
    45   Bombaceae         Durio kutejensis
    46                     Durio sp. (?excelsus)
    47                     Durio sp.
    48   Burmanniaceae     Burmannia lutescens
    49   Bursearaceae      Dacryoides laxa
    50                     Dacryoides rostrata (Bl.)
                           H.J.L. f. rostrata
    51                     Santiria ? griffithii
    52   Capparaceae       Crateva religiosa Forst.
    53   Casuarinaceae     Gymnostoma sumatrana
                           (Jungh. Ex de Vriese) L.J.
    54   Coniferae         Dacrydium beccari
    55   Connaraceae       Connarus monocarpus L.
                           ssp. Malayana Leenh.
    56                     Connarus villosus Jack.
    57   Convolvulaceae    Aniseia martinicensis
                           (Jacq.) Choisy
    58                     Merremia hederacea
    59   Cyperaceae        Cyperus brevifolia
    60                     Cyperus trialatus
                           (Boeck.) Kern
    61                     Fimbristylis dichotoma
    62                     Fimbristylis dipsacea
    63                     Fimbristylis miliacea
    64                     Hypolytrum capitulatum
                           Valck. Sur. Ex Clarke
    65                     Hypolytrum nemorum
     66                    Mapania cuspidata var.
     67                    Rhynchospora aurea
     68                    Scleria ciliaris
     69                    Scleria purpurescens
     70                    Scleria sumatrensis
     71                    Tetraria borneensis
     72                    Thoracostachyum
     73  Datiscaceae       Octomele sumatrana
     74  Dilleniaceae      Dillenia beccariana
     75                    Dillenia excelsa
     76                    Dillenia sp.
     77  Dioscoreaceae     Dioscorea sp.
     78  Dipterocar-pacea  Anisoptera grossivenia
     79                    Cotylelobium burkii
     80                    Dipterocarpus crinitus
     81                    Dipterocarpus gracilis
     82                    Dipterocarpus nudus
     83                    Dipterocarpus tempehes
     84                    Dipterocarpus validus Bl.
     85                    Dryobalanops abnormis
     86                    Dryobalanops rappa
     87                    Dryobalanops
                           oblongifolia Dyer
     88                    Hopea dasyrrhachis
     89                    Hopea mengerawan Miq.
     90                    Hopea rudiformis
     91                    Parashorea? sp.
     92                    Shorea balangeran
                           (Korth.) Burck
     93                    Shorea? beccariana
     94                    Shorea laevis
     95                    Shorea leprosula
     96                    Shorea multiflora
     97                    Shoreapachyphylla
     98                    Shorea palembanica
     99                    Shorea pauciflora
    100                    Shorea guadrinervis
    101                    Shorea seminis
    102                    Shorea smithiana Sym.
    103                    Shorea uliginosa
    104                    Shorea sp.
    105                    Shorea sp.
    106                    Shorea sp.
    107                    Vatica cinerea
    108                    Vatica Micrantha Hook.
    109                    Vatica cf. umbronata
    110                    Vatica venulosa
    111                    Vatica sp.
    112                    ?
    113                    ?
    114                    ?
    115                    ?
    116                    ?
    117                    ?
    118  Ebenaceae         Diospyros coriacea
    119                    Diospyros maritima Bl.
    120                    Diospyros sp.
    121  Elaeocarpaceae    Elaeocarpus mastersii
    122                    Elaeocarpus
    123                    Elaeocarpus
                           submonoceras Miq.
    124                    Elaeocarpus sp.
    125  Ericaceae         Rhododendron
    126                    Vaccinium bigibbum JJS
    127                    Vaccinium clementis
    128                    Vaccinium sp.
    129                    Vaccinium sp.
    130  Euphorbiaceae     Antidesma bunius
    131                    Antidesma stipulare
    132                    Antidesma venenosum
                           F.Mey ex Tul.
    133                    Antidesma sp.
    134                    Aporosa confusa Gage.
    135                    Aporosa lunata
    136                    Aporosa sp.
    137                    Baccaurea bracteata MA
    138                    Baccaurea javanica (Bl.)
    139                    Baccaurea racemosa
                           (Reinw. Ex. Bl.)Muell.Arg
    140                    Baccaurea reticulata
                           (Ptychopyxix javanica
                           (JJS) Croizet)
    141                    Breynia microphylla
                           (Kurz. Ex. T&B)M.A.
    142                    Cheilosa malayana
    143                    Cleistanthus sumartranus
                           (Miq) M.A.
    144                    Cleistanthus sp.
    145                    Cleistanthus sp.
    146                    Croton cf. ensifolius
    147                    Dicoelia beccariana
    148                    Excoecaria indica
                           (Sapium indicum)
    149                    Galeria fulva
    150                    Glochidion borneene
                           (M.A.) Boerl.
    151                    Glochidion sp.
    152                    Glochidion sp.
    153                    Glochidion sp.
    154                    Homalanthus populneus
                           (Geisel) Pax
    155                    Macaranga denticulata
    156                    Macaranga gigantosa
    157                    Macaranga triloba f.
    158                    Macaranga sp.
    159                    Macaranga sp.
    160                    Macaranga sp.
    161                    Macaranga sp.
    162                    Macaranga sp.
    163                    Mallotus sumatranus
    164                    Neoscoretchinia sp.
    165                    Sapium discolor
    166  Fabaceae          Bauchinia sp.
    167                    Cassia alata
    168                    Crudia teysmannii
    169                    Desmodium capitatum (Burm.f.)DC.
    170                    Dialium sp.
    171                    Dialium sp.
    172                    Erythrina sp.
    173                    Fordia splendissima
    174                    Intsia ? palembanica
    175                    Kingiodendron sp.
    176                    Koompassia malaccensis
    177                    Mimosa pigra
    178                    Mucuna sp.
    179                    ?Ormosia sp.
    180                    Phanera sp.
    181                    Pterocarpus sp.
    182                    Sindora leiocarpa
    183                    Sindora sp.
    184                    Sindora sp.
    185                    ?
    186                    ?
    187  Fagaceae          Castanopsis sp.
    188                    Lithocarpus curtisii (King Hk.f.)A.
    189                    Lithocarpus sp.
    190                    Lithocarpus sp.
    191                    Lithocarpus sp.
    192                    Lithocarpus sp.
    193  Flacourtiaceae    Casearia sp. nov.
    194                    Flacourtia rukam Z&M
    195                    ?Flacourtia sp.
    196                    Homalium caryophyllaceum
    197                    Homalium sp.
    198                    Hydnocarpus polypetala
    199  Flagellariaceae   Flagellaria indica L.
    200                    Hanguana malayana
    201  Gesneriaceae      Aeschynanthes sp.
    202                    Cyrtandra oblongifolia
    203                    Didymocarpus sp.
    204                    Didymocarpus sp.
    205  Gnetaceae         Gnetum ?neglecta
    206  Guttiferae        Calophyllum macrocarpum
    207                    Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque
    208                    Calophyllum sp.
    209                    Calophyllum sp.
    210                    Calophyllum sp.
    211                    Calophyllum sp.
    212                    Calophyllum sp.
    213                    Calophyllum sp.
    214                    Garcinia bancana
    215                    Garcinia borneensis
    216                    Garcinia parvifolia Miq.
    217                    Garcinia rostrata
    218                    Garcinia sp.
    219                    Garcinia sp.
    220                    Garcinia sp.
    221                    Garcinia sp.
    222                    Mesua congestiflora
                           P. V. Stevens
    223                    Mesua hexapetalum
    224                    Mesua sp.
    225  Hamameli-         Rhodoleia sp. nov.
    226  Hypericaceac      Cratoxylon arborescens
    227                    Cratoxylon glaucum
    228  Lamiaceae         Hyptis brevipes Poit.
    229  Lauraceae         Actinodaphne sp.
    230                    Cassytha filiformis
    231                    Cinnamomum sp.
    232                    Cinnamomum sp.
    233                    Cinnamomum sp.
    234                    Litsea sp.
    235                    Litsea sp.
    236                    Litsea sp.
    237                    ?
    238                    ?
    239                    ?
    240                    ?
    241                    ?
    242                    ?
    243                    ?
    244                    ?
    245                    ?
    246                    ?
    247                    ?
    248                    ?
    249  Lecythidaceae     Barringtonia acutangula
                           ssp. Acutangula
    250                    Barringtonia reticulata
                           (Bl.) Miq.
    251                    Barringtonia sp.
    252  Leeaceae          Leea indica
    253  Loganiaceae       Fagraea ceilanica
    254                    Fagraea cf. ceilanica
    255                    Fagraea elliptica Roxb.
    256                    Fagraea fragrans Roxb.
    257                    Fragraea racemosa Jack
                           ex Wall.
    258  Loranthaceae      Amyema sp.
    259                    Dendrophthoe falcata
    260                    Dendrophthoe pentandra
                           (L) Miq.
    261                    Elytranthe sp.
    262                    Helixanthera sp.
    263                    Korthalsella cf.
    264                    Lepeostegeres sp.
    265                    Lepidaria forbesii
    266                    Lepidaria sp.
    267                    Macrosolen cohin-
                           chinensis (Lour.) Tiegh.
    268                    Macrosolen sp.
    269                    Scurrula fusca (Bl)GDon
    270                    Viscum ovalifolium Wall.
                           ex DC
    271  Lythraceae        Lagerstroemia speciosa
    272  Malvaccae         Hibiscus tiliaceus
    273  Marantaceae       Donax canaeformis
    274  Melastomaceae     Bellucia axinanthera
    275                    Blastus sp.
    276                    Diplectria sp.
    277                    Medinilla motleyi
                           Hook.f.ex Triana
    278                    Medinilla sp.
    279                    Medinilla sp.
    280                    Melastoma affine D.Don.
    281                    Melastoma
                           malabathricum L.
    282                    Memecylon edule Roxb.
    283                    Memecylon laurinum Bl.
    284                    Memecylon sp.
    285                    Oxyspora sp.
    286                    Pachycentria constricta
    287                    Pachycentria sp.
    288                    Pogonanthera
    289                    Pternandra coerulescens
                           Jack. var. jackiana C.B.C.
    290                    Pternandra galeata
    291                    Pternandra teysmanniana
                           (Cogn.) Ohwi
    292                    Pternandra sp.
    293                    ?
    294  Meliaceae         Aglaia odoratissima
    295                    Aglaia sp.
    296                    Chisocheton patens Bl.
    297                    Dysoxylum sp.
    298                    Dysoxylum sp.
    299                    Dysoxylum sp.
    300                    Sandoricum emarginatum
    301  Moraceae          Artocarpus kemando
    302                    Artocarpus teysmannii
    303                    Ficus consociata Bl. Var.
                           murtoni King
    304                    Ficus deltoidea Jack
    305                    Ficus grossivenis Miq.
    306                    Ficus grossularioids
    307                    Ficus heterophylla L.f.
    308                    Ficus microcarpa
    309                    Ficus obscura var.
                           Borneensis (Miq.) Corner
    310                    Ficus punctata Thunb.
    311                    Ficus sp.
    312                    Ficus sp.
    313                    Ficus sp.
    314                    Ficus sp.
    315  Myristicaceae     Myristica giabra Bl.
    316                    ?
    317  Myrsinaceae       Ardisga colorata Roxb.
                           (?Ardisia biumei)
    318                    Labisia pumilis (Bl.)
                           F. Viii
    319                    Maesa ramentacea
                           (Roxb.) Wall.
    320                    Rapanea porteriana
                           Wail. ex A.DC.
    321                    Rapanea umbeilulala
    322  Myrtaceae         Baeckia fruiescens
    323                    Eugenia bankanensis
    324                    Eugenia ?densiflora
    325                    Eugenia costulata Elmer
    326                    Eugema sp.
    327                    Rhodomyrtus tormentosa
                           (W.Ait) Hassk.
    328                    Syzygium clavlflora
    329                    Syzygium durifolium
         Merr. & Perry     373, 378
    330                    Syzygium sp.
    331                    Syzygium sp.
    332                    Syzygium sp.
    333                    Syzygium sp.
    334                    Syzygium sp.
    335                    Syzygium sp.
    336                    Syzygium sp.
    337                    Syzygium sp.
    338                    Syzygium sp.
    339                    Tristaniopsis obovat
    340                    Tristaniopsis sp.
    341                    ?
    342                    ?
    343                    ?
    344                    ?
    345                    ?
    346                    ?
    347                    ?
    348  Nepenthaceae      Nepenthes ampullaria
    349                    Nepenthes gracilis Korth.
    350                    Nepenthes cf. gracilis
    351                    Nepenthes mirabilis
    352                    Nepenthes rafflesiana
    353  Ochnaceae         Brackenridgea palustris
    354                    Brackenridgea serrulata
    355                    Euthemis minor Jack.
    356  Olacaceae         Scorodocarpus
    357  Oleaceae          Chionanthus laxiflorus
    358  Onagraceae        Ludwigia hyssopifolia
    359  Orchidaceae       Apostaria sp.
    360                    Appendicula sp.
    361                    Bromheadla
                           (Lindl.) Rehb.f.
    362                    Dendrobium crumenatum
    363                    Dendrobium lamellatum
    364                    Dendrobium sp.
    365                    Dendrobium sp.
    366                    Dendrobium sp.
    367                    Eria sp.
    368                    Grammatophyllum
                           speciosum Bl.
    369                    Macrostylis sp.
    370                    Taeniophyllum obtusum
    371  Pandanaceae       Freycinetia sp.
    372                    Pandanus helicopus
    373                    Pandanus sp.
    374                    Pandanus sp.
    375                    Pandanus sp.
    376                    Pandanus sp.
    377  Passifloraceae    Passiflora foetida
    378  Piperaceae        Piper sp.
    379  Poaceae           Digitaria sp.
    380                    Echinochloa colonum
    381                    Ischaemum intermedium
    382                    Leersia hexandra
    383                    Leptochloa chinensis
    384                    Ottochloa sp.
    385                    Panicum repens
    386                    Paspalum conjugatum
    387                    Phragmites karka
    388                    Saccharum spontaneum
    389                    Sorghum oropinquium
    390  Podocarpaceae     Dacrydium beccariii
    391  Polygalaceae      Xanthophyllum affine
    392                    Xanthophyllum
                           flavescens Roxb.
    393                    Xanthophyllum vitellinum
                           (Bl.) Dietr.
    394                    Xanthophyllum sp.
    395  Polygonaceae      Polygonum barbatum
    396                    Polygonum celebicum
    397  Pontederiaceae    Eichhornia crassipes
    398  Proteaceae        Helicia cf. petiolaris
    399  Rhizophoraceae    Carallia bracteata
                           (Lour.) Merr.
    400                    Combretocarpus
    401                    Pellacalyx sp.
    402  Rosaceae          Prunus arborea (Bl.)
    403  Rubiaceae         Dichilanthe borneensis
    404                    Gaertnera vaginans (DC)
    405                    Gaertnera vaginata var.
                           junghuhniana (DC) Merr.
    406                    Gaertnera sp.
    407                    Gardenia tentaculata
    408                    Gardenia tubifera
    409                    Gardenia sp.
    410                    Gardenia sp.
    411                    Hydnophytum
    412                    lxora ithyoides Brem.
    413                    lxora paludosa (Bl.) Kurz.
    414                    lxora mentangis
    415                    Ixora salicifolia
    416                    lxora sp.
    417                    Mitragyna speciosa
    418                    Morinda sp.
    419                    Myrmecodia tuberosum
    420                    Nauclea purpurea Roxb.
    421                    Nauclea subdita
    422                    Psychotria montensis
    423                    Psychotria sp.
    424                    Timonius flavescents
                           (Jack) Baker
    425                    Timonius salticifolius
    426                    Timonius stipulosus
                           (Scheff) Boerl.
    427                    Timonius timon (Spreng)
    428                    Timonius sp.
    429                    Timonius sp.
    430                    Uncaria sclerophylla
                           (Hunter) Roxb.
    431                    Uncaria sp.
    432                    Urophyllum arboreum
                           (Reinw. Ex Bl.) Korth.
    433                    Urophyllum hirsutum
    434                    Urophyllum
    435                    Uvaria sp.
    436                    ?
    437                    ?
    438  Sapindeceae       Guioa sp.
    439                    Lepisanthes amoena
                           (Hassk.) Leenh.
    440                    Lepisanthes alata (Bl.) Bl.
    441                    Nephelium ? cuspidatum
    442                    Nephelium sp.
    443                    Nephelium sp.
    444                    Xerospermum
                           noronhianum (Bl.) Bl.
    445  Sapotaceae        Palaquium sp.
    446                    Palaquium sp.
    447                    Palaquium sp.
    448                    Palaquium sp.
    449                    Planchonella obovata
                           (R.Br.) Pierre
    450  Scrophulari-      Limnophila erecta
    451                    Lindnera sp.
    452                    ?
    453  Sterculiaceae     Leptonichya heteroclita
    454                    Melochia corchorifolia L.
    455                    Pterospermum sp.
    456                    Sterculia sp.
    457  Symplocaceae      Symplocos
                           (Lour.)Moore ssp.
                           Laurina (Relz.)Noot. var.
    458                    Symplocos sp.
    459  Theaceae          Euryc sp.
    460                    Ploiarium alternifolium
    461                    Ternslroemia cf. togutan
    462                    Ternstroemia sp.
    463                    Ternstroemia sp.
    464  Thymelaeaceae     Gonystylus bancanus
    465                    Gonyslylus velulinus
    466  Tiliaceae         Microcos ?stylocarpa
    467  Urticaceae        Poikilospermum
    468                    Poikilospermum sp.
    469                    Poikilospermum sp.
    470                    Villebrunea rubescens
    471  Verbenaceae       Clerodendrum sp.
    472                    Premna foetida Reinw.
    473                    Teysmanniodendron
    474                    Vitex pinnata L.
    475  Vitaceae          Cayratia sp.
    476                    Cissus sp.
    477                    Cissus sp.
    478                    Cissus sp.
    479  Zingiberaceae     ?
    480                    ?
         FERNS AND
          FERN ALLIES
    481  Aspidiaceae       Tectaria sp.
    482  Aspelniaceae      Asplenium nidus
    483  Athyriaceae       Diplazium sp.
    484  Blechnaceae       Blechnum finlaysonianum
    485                    Stenochlaena palustris
    486  Gleicheniaceac    Dicranopteris linearis
    487  Hypolepidaceae    Pteridium aquilinum
    488  Lindsaeaceae      Lindsaea walkerae Hook.
    489  Lycopodiaceae     Lycopodium cernuum
    490  Oleandraceae      Oleandra sp.
    491  Ophioglosaceae    Helminthostachys
                           zeylanica Hook.
    492  Polypodiaceae     Dipteris conjugata
    493                    Drynaria quercifolia
    494                    Microsorum
    495                    Platycerium coronarium
    496                    Polypodium verrucosum
    497  Schizaceae        Lygodium flexuosum
    498                    Lygodium microphyllum
    499                    Schizaea dichotoma
    500  Selaginellaceae   Selaginella sp.
    501  Taenitidaceae     Taenitis sp. A
    502                    Taenitis sp. B
    503  Vittariaceae      Antrophyum reticulatum
    504                    Vittaria sp.
     #          Number  Identification  Local                Habitat
     1             520  Bogor           ?                       C
     2             ---  WoR             Lembu                   D
     3             ---  WTM             Beringin                Ci
     4             ---  FM              Kebacar                 Ci
     5              40  Leiden          Rengas                  D
     6             ---  FM              Rengas                  Ci
     7             393  ---             Rengas                  Ci
     8             377  Bogor           Rabu                    Bi
     9              56  Leiden          Temelak                 Ci
    10             ---  FM              Kerintah,              C(E)
    11             ---  ---             Ubal                    F
    12             137  Leiden          Lada                    F
    13             ---  WTM             Jankar/                 Ci
    14             489  ---             Akar tulang             D
    15             ---  WTM             Jelutung               Cii
    16            135a  Leiden          Lada (Iban)             F
    17              72  ---             ?                       E
    18         444/012  Bogor,          Telur                 B, Ci
    19             565  Bogor           Keladi                  E
    20              76  Leiden          Rumput                  E
    21             ---  ---             Rumpur                 lake
    22             541  Bogor           ?                       E
    23             130  Leiden          ?                      Bii
    24             111  Drans-field     Rotan                 Ci, E
    25             449  Dransfield      Rotan duri             B, C
    26             134  Dransfield      Rotan duri              F
    27             ---  ---             Rotan duri              E
    28             ---  Dransfield      Rotan tapah           B, Ci,
    29             ---  ---             Rotan                 Ci, E
    30             ---  Dransfield      Rotan                  B,C,
                                        pelanduk               (E)
    31             359  Dransfield      Rotan duri              E
    32             ---  Beccari,        Ransa                   E
    33             ---  ---             Rotan tikus             C
    34             ---  ---             Gernis                  C
    35             ---  Polak           ?                       E
    36            135b  Dransfield      Rotan                 (C), F
    37             ---  ---             Rotan                  C, E
    38             ---  ---             Akar                   B, C
    39             504  ---             ?                       Ci
    40             465  Bogor           Litap                  B, C
    41             327  Bogor           ?                       H
    42             322  Bogor           Bungkang               E, H
    43             ---  ---             Bambu                  E, H
    44             566  Bogor           ?                       E
    45             ---  WTM             Empe-kung               E
    46             ---  WTM             Durian                  E
    47             ---  ---             Durian                  E
    48             ---  FM              ?                       E
    49              78  ---             Tulang                  E
    50             369  Bogor           Kema-yau             Bii, Ci,
    51             ---  FM              Bunyau                  C
    52          350/19  Bogor           Punggu                 A, D
    53              47  Bogor           Embun                  Cii
    54             ---  WTM             Embun                   E
    55             490  Bogor           Akar libang           Ci, D
    56             506  Bogor           Tunjuk                  C
    57             473  Bogor           Akar ginta             G, H
    58             ---  FM              Akar                  D,G,H
    59             333  Bogor           Rumput                 G,H
    60             334  Bogor           Rumput                 G,H
    61         326/125  Bogor           Rumput                D,G,H
    62             ---  FM              Semperai,              A,B
                                        Padi hantu
    63             ---  Bogor           Rumput                  B
    64         330/126  Bogor,          Rumput                 B,C
                        Leiden          musi
    65         105/110  Leiden          Rumput                 B,C
     66            ---  FM              ?                       Ci
     67            ---  Polak           ?                      B,C
     68        104/109  Bogor           Rumput                 B,C
     69            ---  FM              Terisit                B.C
     70            ---  FM              Lembang                 C
     71            485  FM              Lembang                 C
     72            105  Leiden          Rumput                 B,C
     73            ---  ---             Benuang                B,D
     74              6  Bogor           Ringin,                 D
     75            ---  WTM             Ringin,                C,D
     76            ---  ---             Juing rimba             C
     77            ---  Polak           ?                       G
     78            ---  FM              Penyau                  E
     79            ---  FM              Pukul kawi              E
     80            ---  ---             Resak                   E
                                        r. empelas
     81            ---  FM              Tempurau               Ci,E
     82            ---  FM              Tenkabang               Ci
     83            ---  FM              Ran                     E
     84            ---  Polak           Tempurau               Ci,E
     85            ---  Teysmann        Kelansau,               Ci
     86            ---  FM              Kelansau,               C
     87            ---  FM              Kelansau                E
     88            ---  Bogor           Tekam air              Ci,D
     89            ---  De Mol          Emang                   Ci
     90            ---  FM              Emang                  Cii
     91            ---  FM              Resak                   E
     92            141  Leiden          Kawi                  Bii,Ci
     93            ---  FM              Tengkawang              C
     94            ---  ---             Masang                  F
     95            ---  ---             Rup.                  Ci,E,F
     96            ---  ---             Barit                   E
     97            ---  ---             Tegelung               Ci,E
     98            ---  ---             Majau                   E
     99            ---  ---             Balik                   F
    100            ---  ---             Tengka-                 F
                                        wang tikus
    101        422/390  Bogor           Kerintak              Ci,D,E
    102            357  Bogor           Teng-                   E
    103            ---  ---             Penge-                  E
    104            ---  ---             Emang                   Ci
    105            ---  ---             Kerintak                E
    106            ---  ---             Meranti                 E
                                        bunga, M.
    107            ---  ---             Resak padi              F
    108            356  Bogor           ?                      D,E
    109      450, 416,  FM, Bogor       Menu-ngau               B
    110            ---  FM              Resak                  B,Ci
    111            ---  ---             Meng-gung               E
    112            ---  ---             Resak bukit            E,H
    113            ---  ---             Resak                   C
    114            ---  ---             Resak jabai             C
    115            ---  ---             Resak labu              C
    116            ---  ---             Tekam                   C
    117            ---  ---             Tekam                   C
    118           445,  Leiden,         Kenarin,                B
               342, 66  Bogor           Mengku
    119            535  Bogor           ?                       Ci
    120            ---  ---             Malam                  C,E
    121            560  Bogor           Ensubal                 E
    122            330  ---             Menyawai              (B),D
    123            303  Bogor           Menyawai              (B),D
    124            565  Bogor           Ensubal                 E
    125            410  Argent          ?                       E
    126           042n  Bogor           ?                      B,C
    127            549  Bogor           ?                       E
    128            065  Leiden          ?                       D
    129            425  ---             ?                       D
    130            354  Bogor           Bunia                   Bi
    131          55/38  Leiden          Engkunik                D
    132            368  Bogor           Berenai                 D
    133            ---  ---             Engkunik                E
    134            362  Bogor           Jangit                  E
    135            365  Bogor           ?                       E
    136           518/  Bogor           Keranjik                C
                  518B                  tikus
    137            557  Bogor           ?                       E
    138            341  Bogor           Engkunik                Bi
    139           019n  Bogor           Engkunik                Bi
    140            ---  Airy Shaw       Suluh,                  B
                        (de Mol)        Menu-
    141            325  Bogor           Tarum                   D
    142            ---  ---             Gurak                   F
    143           435,  Bogor           Keretih                B,D
              315, 344
    144            ---  ---             Keretih                 E
    145            397  ---             Punan                   D
    146        81, 314  Bogor           Melayak                 A
    147        71, 378  Leiden          Kemelat,               A,B
    148            ---  WTM             Kebuau                  D
    149             97  Leiden          Manyam                  Ci
    150            499  Bogor           Manyam                  Ci
    151            487  ---             Manyam                Bi,Ci
    152            400  ---             ?                      D,H
    153            ---  ---             Rambai                  D
    154            364  Bogor           ?                      E,H
    155            012  ---             Ketali                 E,H
    156            ---  WTM             Merku-                 E,H
    157            ---  WTM             Garong                 E,H
    158            ---  WTM             Merpuah                 E
    159            364  ---             Purang                 E,H
    160            ---  ---             Purang                 E,H
    161            073  ---             Purang                 E,H
    162            099  ---             Purang                 E,H
    163      087, 392,  Bogor,          Belantik               (B)D
                   433  Leiden
    164            147  Leiden          Teluk                   E
    165            ---  ---             Sengka-                E,F
    166            131  Leiden          Akar                    F
    167            ---  ---             Serugan                D,H
    168       064, 306  Bogor,          Timba                  B,D
                        Leiden          tawang
    169            332  Bogor           ?                     (E),H
    170       375, 434  Bogor           Keranjik madu           E
    171            ---  ---             Keranjik tikus          E
    172            ---  ---             Dadap hutan             C
    173            446  Bogor           Limau antu              B
    174            ---  WTM             Senah                   C
    175            ---  ---             Sempetir                E
    176            ---  WTM             Menggeris               E
    177            ---  ---             Putri malu             D,H
    178            048  Leiden          Akar limbai             D
    179            396  ---             Telempi,               B,D
    180            131  Leiden          Entalang                F
    181            ---  WTM             Senah                  E,F
    182            ---  WTM             Sindur                  Ci
    183            ---  WTM             Sempetir                Ci
    184            ---  WTM             Tampar hantu            E
    185            ---  ---             Kacang pelanduk         C
    186            571  ---             Leceng                 B,D
    187            567  FM              ?                       E
    188       544, 546  Bogor           (K)empelik (-babi)     E,F
    189       401, 402  FM              Kempilik               E,F
    190            ---  ---             Kempilik babi          E,F
    191            ---  ---             Kempilik batu          E,F
    192            394  ---             Kenual babi             D
    193          Coll.  FM              Limut                 B,C,D
    194            367  Bogor           Rukam                   D
    195            ---  ---             Mandin                  D
    196    115,309,431  Leiden          Perkeras, Empalinas    B,Ci
    197            ---  ---             Perkeras bukit          E
    198            088  FM              Cugut                 (B),D
    199            ---  WG, Polak       Rotan tikus            D,E
    200            ---  Ross            ?                      Lake
    201            523  ---             ?                       Ci
    202            084  Leiden          Kumis kucing           G,H
    203            525  Bogor           ?                       E
    204            070  ---             Rumput ilung            E
    205            108  Leiden          Akar                    Ci
    206            ---  ---             Bunan                   F
    207            537  Bogor           Mentangur kunyit        C
    208            ---  WTM             Bereng-                 Ci
    209            ---  WTM             Kacam                   C
    210            ---  ---             Mentangur              Ci,E
    211            ---  ---             Mentangur               E
    212            ---  ---             Mentangur               C
    213            491  ---             Timbung                 Ci
    214            339  Bogor           Sikup                  B,C
    215            374  Bogor           Empanak                A,B
    216       338, 358  Bogor           Kandis,                E,H
    217           024,  Bogor           Sikup                   C
              480, 533                  rimba
    218            ---  ---             Kerat dila              Ci
    219            513  ---             Kerin timah             C
    220            ---  ---             Ransi, Dila             D
    221            ---  ---             Sikup ruai              F
    222            517  Bogor           Kamsia                  Ci
    223           139,  Bogor           Kamsia                  B
              386, 452
    224            ---  De Mol          Melanyan               C,F
    225            381  Vink,           Isang                  B,D
                        Leiden          dungan
    226            ---  ---             Temau                   C
    227            550  Bogor           Temau                   E
    228            329  Bogor           ?                      G,H
    229            ---  Polak           ?                       E
    230            496  Leiden          ?                       A
    231            ---  WTM             Cendana                 C
    232            ---  ---             Kulit                   Ci
    233            ---  Teysmann        Sinduk,                C,E
    234            576  Bogor           Lilin                  B,D
    235            ---  ---             Medang                  E
    236            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    237            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    238            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    239            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    240            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    241            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    242            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    243            ---  ---             Medang                  C
                                        lebar daun
    244            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    245            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    246            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    247            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    248            ---  ---             Medang                  C
    249       011, 129  Leiden          Putat                  A,D
    250            471  Bogor           Putat rimba             Ci
    251            360  Bogor           Karut                  E,H
    252            050  Leiden          Temali                  D
    253            124  Leiden          ?                       D
    254        418,438  Leiden          Akar seraya             Bi
    255            335  Bogor           Tembesu                E,H
    256       148,301,  Bogor,          Tembesu,                B
                   306  Leiden          Tembesu
    257        085,361  Bogor           Tapak labi             D,E
    258            138  Leiden          Akar                    B
    259           122a  Leiden          Akar                    B
    260            573  Bogor           Akar                   A,B
    261           122b  Leiden          Akar                    B
    262        004,441  Leiden          Akar                   Bi,D
    263       10b, 474  Leiden          Paha                    A
    264            132  Leiden          Akar                    F
    265            ---  WG.             Akar                    C
                        Danser          serang
    266            090  Leiden          Akar                    D
    267            469  Bogor           Akar                   A,B
    268            555  Bogor           Akar                    B
    269            459  Bogor           Akar                   A,B
    270            554  Bogor           Akar                    B
    271            366  WTM             Bungur                  D
    272            ---  WTM             Waru                   D,H
    273            044  Leiden          Akar                   D,H
    274            015  Leiden          Jembu                  E,H
    275           075a  Leiden          Akar                    E
    276            069  Leiden          Kelemun-                E
                                        ting bukit
    277            492  Bogor           ?                       D
    278            100  Leiden          ?                       Ci
    279            547  Bogor           ?                       E
    280            320  Bogor           Kelemun-               E,H
    281            336  Bogor           Kelemun-               E,H
    282       004,351,  Bogor           (Ke)besi               A,B
    283            020  Bogor           ?                       B
    284            ---  ---             Besi danau              Ci
    285            077  ---             Akar                    E
    286            451  Bogor           Akar                  A,B,C
    287          075b,  Leiden          Akar                    E
                   096                  tebentak
    288            468  Bogor           Asam riang             B,C
    289       353, 502  Bogor           Kebesi                B, Ci
                                        rimba, Sang
    290            118  Leiden          Kelusuk               B,C,D
    291       009, 458  Bogor           Gelagan               A, (D)
    292            ---  ---             Kelukuk                 E
    293            ---  ---             Sebalpau                C
    294            061  Leiden          Pasak                   D
    295       527, 528  Bogor           Pinanga                 E
    296            531  Bogor           ?                       C
    297            ---  ---             Ensunut                 F
    298            ---  ---             Mengungan               F
    299            ---  ---             ?                      Cii
    300            ---  ---             Kapas                   E
    301            ---  WTM             Puduk                   Ci
    302            443  WTM             Cempedak                D
    303            346  Bogor           Ara nasi                B
    304           z015  Bogor           ?                       B
    305            312  Bogor           Lengkan                E,H
    306        113,313  Bogor           Lengkan                E,H
    307            324  Bogor           Luwak                  B,D
    308            083  Leiden          Jabai,                  D
    309            363  ---             Karak                  E,H
    310            529  Bogor           ?                       C
    311            387  ---             Ara                     A
    312            074  Leiden          Ara                     E
    313            ---  ---             Ara kiarak              B
    314            ---  ---             Ara nakit               B
    315            534  Bogor           Kumpang                 Ci
    316            ---  ---             Kumpang                 F
    317           051,  Bogor           Sabar bubu,             B
                  080,                  Tampoh
               317,376                  bubu
    318            503  Bogor           ?                       C
    319            466  Bogor                                  Cii
    320            540  Bogor           ?                      Cii
    321            484  Bogor           ?                      Cii
    322            403  WTM             ?                      E,F
    323            478  Bogor           Embun,                  C
    324            420  WTM             Jembu air               D
    325        481,510  Bogor           Ensubal                Cii
                                        babi, ubah
    326            558  Bogor           ?                       E
    327        319,337  Bogor           Kelemuntin             E,H
                                        g jawa
    328        304,442  Bogor           Masung                A,(B)
    329           305,  Bogor           Ubah                    B
    330            476  ---             Mata siluk             A,Bi
    331           002,  ---             Ramut,                A,B,D
               383,384                  Jijap
    332            372  ---             Samak                   B
    333            ---  ---             Samak                   C
    334        120,308  ---             Tengelam               A,B
    335            018  ---             Ubah putih              B
    336            493  ---             Ubah                    D
    337            ---  ---             Ubah                    D
    338            349  Bogor           ?                       Bi
    339            ---  WTM             Melaban                C,F
    340            382  ---             Adau                   B,C
    341            ---  ---             Ubah                    C
    342            ---  ---             Ubah                    C
    343            ---  ---             Ubah lilin              C
    344            ---  ---             Ubah                    C
    345            ---  ---             Ubah paya               C
    346            ---  ---             Ubah ribu               C
    347            ---  ---             Ubah                    C
    348            ---  Danser          Entuyuk               Cii,F
    349        509,539  Bogor           Entuyuk                 C
    350            543  Bogor           Entuyuk                 E
    351            136  Leiden          Entuyuk               C,E,F,
    352            562  Bogor           Entuyuk                 E
    353            092  Leiden          ?                      Cii
    354            ---  Beccari         ?                       C
    355        482,548  Bogor           Jinta                 Cii,E
    356            ---  FM              Kesinduk                E
    357            559  Bogor           Ensubal                 E
    358            328  WoR             ?                      G,H
    359            ---  Polak           Anggrek                 E
    360            063  Leiden          Anggrek                 B
    361            536  Bogor           Anggrek                 C
    362            574  Bogor           Anggrek                B,C
    363            067  Leiden          Anggrek                B,D
    364            119  Leiden          Anggrek                 D
    365            455  ---             Anggrek                 Bi
    366            551  Bogor           Anggrek                 E
    367            ---  Polak           Anggrek                 E
    368            ---  Teysmann,       Anggrek                B,D
    369            ---  Polak
    370            460  ---             Anggrek                A,B
    371            ---  ---             ?                       C
    372            ---  ---             Rasau                   D
    373           477,  Bogor           Kulan                  Cii
    374            428  ---             Kulan bukit             E
    375            ---  ---             Mengkuang             B,C,D
    376            ---  ---             Ngerin                  C
    377            ---  FM              Akar selasi            G,H
    378            ---  ---             ?                      (E)H
    379            ---  WoR             Sepit udang           D,G,H
    380            ---  WoR             Padi hantu,           D,G,H
    381            ---  WoR             Kumpai                D,G,H
    382            ---  WoR             Kumpai                D,G,H
    383            ---  WoR             Kumpai                D,G,H
    384            ---  WoR             Kumpai                D,G,H
    385            ---  WoR             Kumpai                D,G,H
    386            ---  WoR             Kumpai                D,G,H
                                        sepit udang
    387            ---  WoR             Keberuk               D,G,H
    388            ---  WoR             Keberuk,              D,G,H
                                        Tebu air
    389            ---  WoR             Kumpai                D,G,H
    390            ---  FM              ?                      E,F
    391           021,  Bogor           Merbemban               B
              436, 440
    392           371,  Bogor           Tengkurun               B
              453, 472                  g jelawat
    393           z022  Bogor           Lilin                  B,D
    394            ---  ---             Rinja                  B,D
    395            127  Danser          Rumput                 G,H
    396            091  Danser          Rumput                 G,H
    397            ---  ---             Rumput                  G
    398            432  FM              Putat rimba             Bi
    399           007,  Bogor           Tahun                 A,B,C
                  031,                  (Tulang
              310, 512                  ular)
    400            ---  FM              Maripat,               Cii
    401            ---  ---             Tulang ular             C
    402            542  Bogor           Suluh                   E
    403       093, 483  Leiden          Berus                   C
    404            507  Bogor           Mula asu,               C
    405       500, 505  Bogor           Sabar bubu              Ci
    406            095  Leiden          ?                       C
    407            086  Leiden          Landak                  D
    408       001, 462  Leiden          Landak                  D
    409            429  ---             Landak                  A
    410       399, 457  ---             Landak                  D
    411            ---  ---             Empukung               B,C
    412            501  Bogor           ?                       Ci
    413            311  Bogor           Mentangis             A,(B)
    414           021,  Leiden          Mentangis             A,(B)
              121, 385
    415            049  Leiden          ?                       D
    416            511  Bogor           ?                       C
    417            ---  ---             Purik rawa              C
    418            521  Bogor           Keretih                 E
    419            ---  ---             Empekung               B.C
    420            379  Bogor           Bengkal                Bi,D
    421            ---  ---             Bengkal                 D
    422           098,  Bogor           Akar                  A,B,D
              106, 323                  engke-
    423            524  ---             ?                       Ci
    424            316  Bogor           Temirit,                A
    425          010a,  Leiden          Temirit,                A
                   380                  Kerminit
    426           507b  Bogor           Mula asu,               C
    427            561  Bogor           ?                       E
    428            112  Leiden          Tembesu                 C
    429            561  ---             ?                       E
    430       114, 454  Bogor           Akar kelait           B,C,H
    431            ---  ---             Akar kelait            E,H
    432            516  Bogor           ?                       C
    433       107, 456  Bogor           Kebesi                  Ci
    434            089  Leiden          Lilin                   D
    435            ---  Teysmann        ?                       D
    436            461  ---             Serang                  Bi
    437            ---  ---             Merambang               C
    438            508  Bogor           ?                       C
    439           057,  Bogor           Kelensuak,              D
              370, 398                  (K)ensuak
    440            355  Bogor           Kelili                 E,H
    441            ---  WTM             Sibau                  Ci,E
    442            ---  ---             Nipis kulit            Ci,E
    443            ---  ---             Paregi                 Cii
    444            518  Bogor           Keranjik                C
    445            ---  ---             Nyatuh,                 Ci
    446            ---  ---             Nyatuh                  E
    447            ---  ---             Nyatuh                  E
    448            ---  ---             Pudu                   Cii
    449       348, 486  Bogor           Libang                  Bi
    450            ---  WoR             ?                      lake
    451            ---  WoR             ?                      lake
    452            388  ---             Bunga rup              (E)H
    453            575  Bogor           ?                       C
    454            ---  WoR             Rumput                  D
    455            ---  ---             Banyur                  Ci
    456            134  Leiden          ?                       F
    457       147, 467  Bogor           Tekuluk                 Bi
    458           470,  ---             ?                      Bii
              497, 498
    459            ---  ---             Jirak                   F
    460            ---  WTM             Jengil                 E,F
    461       519, 530  Bogor           (Nyatoh)                C
    462            ---  De Mol          Arang-                  B
    463            023  ---             ?                       D
    464            007  Leiden          Ramin                  Cii
    465            ---  FM              Medang                  E
    466       016, 307  Leiden          Tengku-                 B
                                        rung (-
    467            062  Leiden          ?                       D
    468            046  Leiden          ?                       D
    469            101  Leiden          ?                       Ci
    470            318  Bogor           Karniong              (E),H
    471            133  Leiden          Rumput                  F
    472            321  Bogor           Buas-buas              D,H
    473       117, 123  Leiden          Mutun                 (B),D
    474            302  Bogor           Leban(g)                D
    475            128  Bogor           Akar                    E
    476            047  Bogor           Akar gundi              D
    477            068  Bogor           Akar                    E
    478            060  Bogor           ?                       D
    479            522  ---             Lemas                   Ci
    480            532  ---             Liak hantu              Ci
    481            ---  Paku            Polak                 B,C,D,
    482            ---  ---             Paku rajang           B,C,D,
    483            082  Leiden          Paku                    E
    484            033  Leiden          Paku kijang           (E),H
    485            037  Leiden          Paku                  (E),H
    486            034  Leiden          Resam                 (E),H
    487            ---  ---             Paku                  (E),H
    488            ---  Polak           ?                       E
    489            ---  ---             Enkabut                E,F
    490            ---  Polak           ?                     B,C,D
    491            ---  Polak           ?                       E
    492            ---  Piggott         Paku                    E
    493            ---  ---             Paku                  B,C,D,
    494            ---  ---             Paku                  B,C,E
    495            ---  ---             Paku                  B,C,D,
    496            032  Leiden          Paku kubuk            B,C,D
    497            036  Leiden          Paku belit            D,E,G,
    498            035  Leiden          Paku belit            D,E,G,
    499            ---  Piggott         Rumput                B,C,D
    500            ---  ---             Paku                    E
    501            ---  WG, Polak       Paku                  B,C,D,
    502            ---  WG, Polak       Paku                  B,C,D,
    503            052  Leiden          ?                       D
    504            ---  Polak           Paku                   D,E
    * Collection number, as by Giesen  (1-200), and Zulkarnain and Giesen
    ** Identification:
    Airy Shaw:   Airy Shaw, H.K. (1975)
    Argent:      pers. comm. G. Argent, Edinburgh Herbar (1993)
    Beccari:     Beccari (1904)
    Bogor:       Bogor Herbarium
    Danser:      Danser(1927, 1931)
    de Mol       de Mol (1933-34)
    Dransfield:  pers. comm. J. Dransfield, Kew Herbarium (1986, 1993)
    FM:          Flora Malesiana
    FMal:        Flora of Malaya
    Leiden:      Leiden Herbarium
    Piggott:     Piggott (1988)
    Polak:       Polak (1949)
    Ross:        Ross et at. (1996)
    Vink:        pers. comm. Vink, Leiden Herbarium (1994)
    Teysmann:    Teysmann (1875)
    WoR:         Soerjani, M., A.J.G.H.Kostermans
                  and G. Tjitrosoepomo (1987)
    WTM:         Corner (1952)
    *** Habitat types:
    A:   Dwarf swamp forest
    Bi:  Stunted swamp forest, dominated by Kenarin-Menungau-Kamsia
    Bii: Stunted swamp forest, dominated by Kawi-Kamsia
    Ci:  Tall swamp forest, dominated by Kelansau-Emang-Melaban
    Cii: Tall swamp forest, dominated by Ramin-mentangur kunyit
    D:   Riparian forest
    E:   Hill forest
    F:   Heath forest (kerangas)
    G:   Disturbed vegetation in former swamp forest habitat
    H:   Disturbed vegetation in former dryland forest hab

    Table 1
    Habitat types of Danau Sentarum.
    Habitat type                       80,000 ha Wildlife Reserve e
                                             (gazetted 1982)
                                    Area (ha)            %
    Lowland forest (on hills)             102         0.13
    Heath forest                            0            0
    Tall swamp forest                   8,962        11.00
    Stunted swamp forest               30,824        38.19
    Dwarf swamp forest                  2,170         2.69
    Regenerated after fire(s)          10,952        13.57
    Recently burnt                      3,680         4.56
    Clearings/shifting cultivation      1,848         2.29
    Settlements                            27         0.03
    Open water (lakes and rivers)      21,728        26.92
    Floating grass mats                     0            0
    Habitat type                       132,000 ha National Park
                                           (gazetted 1999)
                                    Area (ha)             %
    Lowland forest (on hills)           6,767          5.17
    Heath forest                          201          0.15
    Tall swamp forest                  21,915         16.76
    Stunted swamp forest               39,469         30.18
    Dwarf swamp forest                  2,362          1.81
    Regenerated after fire(s)          16,930         12.95
    Recently burnt                      6,154          4.71
    Clearings/shifting cultivation      4,603          3.52
    Settlements                            32          0.02
    Open water (lakes and rivers)      30,095         23.01
    Floating grass mats                   257          0.20
    Note: Data obtained from the ODA/PHPA Remote Sensing/GIS Unit; based on
    Landsat TM (1990), airborne radar imagery and 1994 aerial photographs.


    The study was carried out in two phases: in 1986 for the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada.  (then World Wildlife Fund), and funded by the Royal Netherlands Government, and in 1993-94 as part of the UK-Indonesia Tropical Forest Management Project, funded by the British Overseas Development Administration (now Department for International Development). The Danau Sentarum Management Project of UK-ITFMP was implemented by the Indonesia Programme of the Asian Wetland Bureau (now Wetlands International-Asia Pacific), together with the Indonesian Directorate General of Nature Protection and Conservation (PKA pK a /pK a/ the negative logarithm of the ionization constant (K) of an acid, the pH of a solution in which half of the acid molecules are ionized. ; then PHPA PHPA Professional Helicopter Pilots Association
    PHPA Professional Hockey Players' Association
    PHPA Port Hedland Port Authority (Australia)
    PHPA Partial Hydrolytic Polyacrylamide (oil and gas drilling mud additive) 
    ) and KSDA KSDA Korea Securities Dealers Association
    KSDA Kenya Socialist Democratic Alliance
     Sub-balai West Kalimantan. The author would like to extend his gratitude Gratitude

    traditional symbol for gratitude. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 172]


    because he had once extracted a thorn from its paw, the lion refrained from attacking Androcles in the arena. [Rom. Lit.
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    It was founded in 1954 as the International Wildfowl Inquiry and the organisation was focused on the protection of waterbirds.
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    Author:Giesen, Wim
    Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
    Geographic Code:90SOU
    Date:Jan 1, 2000
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