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Flexible schedules and shift work: replacing the `9-to-5' workday?



Flexible work hours have gained in prominence prominence /prom·i·nence/ (prom´i-nins) a protrusion or projection.

frontonasal prominence
, as more than a quarter of all workers can now vary their schedules; however, there has been little change in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift

Traditionally, much of the American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of  labor force has worked in a structured environment, with the work schedule following a set pattern--what many people have termed the "9-to-5" workday. Recent studies show that employers are beginning to recognize that many workers prefer schedules that allow greater flexibility in choosing the times they begin and end their workday. Consequently, increasing numbers and proportions of full-time full-time
adj.
Employed for or involving a standard number of hours of working time: a full-time administrative assistant.



full
 workers in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  are able to opt for flexible work hours, allowing workers to vary the actual times they arrive and leave the work place. For some workers, however, the nature of their jobs requires that they work a schedule other than a regular day shift, what may be termed an "alternative shift."(1) Examples of such alternative shift workers are police officers, emergency room physicians, and assembly-line a. 1. Of, pertaining to, or resembling an assembly line; as, an assembly-line process; also used metaphorically, as an assembly-line educational system s>.  workers at a factory.

In contrast to the increasing proportion of workers with flexible work schedules, the incidence of shift work has not changed since the mid- mid-
pref.
Middle: midbrain. 
1980s. If not for the sizable siz·a·ble also size·a·ble  
adj.
Of considerable size; fairly large.



siza·ble·ness n.
 job gains in service occupations, the overall proportion of workers on shift work would have edged down in recent years.

Recent data on flexible work hours and shift work are from information collected in the May 1997 supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS (1) (Characters Per Second) The measurement of the speed of a serial printer or the speed of a data transfer between hardware devices or over a communications channel. CPS is equivalent to bytes per second. ).(2) This article uses that supplement to examine both the incidence and trends in flexible work hours and alternative shift work and, also, the relationship between the jobs in which people work and the prevalence prevalence /prev·a·lence/ (prev´ah-lins) the number of cases of a specific disease present in a given population at a certain time.

prev·a·lence
n.
 of these digressions from the more traditional "9-to-5" workday.

Flexible work schedules

In 1997, more than 25 million workers, or 27.6 percent of all full-time wage and salary workers varied their work hours to some degree. Note that flexible schedule arrangements for many workers are probably informal, as indicated by data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)

A research agency of the U.S. Department of Labor; it compiles statistics on hours of work, average hourly earnings, employment and unemployment, consumer prices and many other variables.
 Employee Benefits Survey (EBS See Swiss Electronic Bourse.

EBS

See electronic blue sheet (EBS).
), in which employers provide information about employee access to various types of work-related benefits. The latest EBS data, from 1994-97, show that less than 6 percent of employees have formal flexible work schedule arrangements.(3)

CPS data show that the proportion of workers on flexible work schedules--either formal or informal--has more than doubled since 1985, when such data were first collected.(4) The increase in flexible work schedules since then has been widespread across demographic See demographics.  groups. The following tabulation tab·u·late  
tr.v. tab·u·lat·ed, tab·u·lat·ing, tab·u·lates
1. To arrange in tabular form; condense and list.

2. To cut or form with a plane surface.

adj.
Having a plane surface.
 shows the percent of workers, by age and race and Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere  origin, who work flexible schedules:
                            1985   1991   1997

Total, 16 years and older   12.4   15.1   27.6
  Men                       13.1   15.5   28.7
  Women                     11.3   14.5   26.2
  Hispanic origin            8.9   10.6   18.4
Race and Hispanic origin:
  White                     12.8   15.5   28.7
  Black                      9.1   12.1   20.1
  Hispanic origin            8.9   10.6   18.4


Although there has been relatively little difference in the proportions of men and women with flexible schedules during the 1985-97 period, whites have been more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have flexible work schedules. (See table 1.)

Table 1. Flexible schedules of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, May 1997
                                             All workers

                                Total   With flexible schedules

       Characteristic                     Number   Percent

Total 16 years and older        90,549   25,031      27.6
 16 to 19 years                  1,640      339      20.7
 20 years and older             88,909   24,692      27.8
  20 to 24 years                 8,462    1,923      22.7
  25 to 34 years                25,208    7,161      28.4
  35 to 44 years                26,755    7,781      29.1
  45 to 54 years                19,596    5,355      27.3
  55 to 64 years                 7,778    2,129      27.4
  65 years and older             1,110      344      31.0
 16 to 24 years                 10,102    2,262      22.4
 25 to 54 years                 71,559   20,296      28.4
 55 years and older              8,888    2,473      27.8

Race and Hispanic origin

White                           75,683   21,698      28.7
Black                           10,884    2,191      20.1
Hispanic origin                  9,635    1,769      18.4

Marital status

Never married                   21,721    5,523      25.4
Married, spouse present         53,369   15,358      28.8
Other marital status            15,459    4,150      26.8

Presence and age of children

Without own children under 18   55,251   14,824      26.8
With own children under 18      35,298   10,208      28.9
 With own children 6 to 17      19,852    5,542      27.9
 With own children under 6      15,446    4,666      30.2

                                           Men

                                Total    With flexible schedules

       Characteristic                    Number   Percent

Total 16 years and older        52,073   14,952      28.7
 16 to 19 years                  1,050      177      16.9
 20 years and older             51,023   14,774      29.0
  20 to 24 years                 4,968    1,111      22.4
  25 to 34 years                14,721    4,231      28.7
  35 to 44 years                15,434    4,730      30.6
  45 to 54 years                10,806    3,118      28.9
  55 to 64 years                 4,431    1,334      30.1
  65 years and older               662      251      38.0
 16 to 24 years                  6,018    1,288      21.4
 25 to 54 years                 40,961   12,078      29.5
 55 years and older              5,094    1,585      31.1

Race and Hispanic origin

White                           44,495   13,186      29.6
Black                            5,323    1,068      20.1
Hispanic origin                  6,283    1,147      18.3

Marital status

Never married                   12,746    3,180      24.9
Married, spouse present         32,756   10,077      30.8
Other marital status             6,571    1,695       5.8

Presence and age of children

Without own children under 18   31,266    8,596      27.5
With own children under 18      20,807    6,356      30.5
 With own children 6 to 17      10,820    3,211      29.7
 With own children under 6       9,986    3,146      31.5

                                         Women

                                 Total    With flexible schedules

       Characteristic                    Number   Percent

Total 16 years and older        38,476   10,079      26.2
 16 to 19 years                    590      161      27.4
 20 years and older             37,886    9,918      26.2
  20 to 24 years                 3,494      812      23.2
  25 to 34 years                10,486    2,931      27.9
  35 to 44 years                11,321    3,051      26.9
  45 to 54 years                 8,790    2,237      25.4
  55 to 64 years                 3,347      796      23.8
  65 years and older               448       93      20.7
 16 to 24 years                  4,084      973      23.8
 25 to 54 years                 30,598    8,218      26.9
 55 years and older              3,794      888      23.4

Race and Hispanic origin

White                           31,188    8,512      27.3
Black                            5,561    1,123      20.2
Hispanic origin                  3,352      622      18.5

Marital status

Never married                    8,975    2,343      26.1
Married, spouse present         20,613    5,281      25.6
Other marital status             8,888    2,456      27.6

Presence and age of children

Without own children under 18   23,985    6,228      26.0
With own children under 18      14,491    3,851      26.6
 With own children 6 to 17       9,032    2,331      25.8
 With own children under 6       5,459    1,520      27.8


NOTE: Data relate to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers who were at work during the survey reference week and exclude all self-employed persons Noun 1. self-employed person - a writer or artist who sells services to different employers without a long-term contract with any of them
free lance, free-lance, freelance, freelancer, independent
, regardless of whether or not their businesses were incorporated. Data reflect revised population controls used in the Current Population Survey effective with the January January: see month.  1997 estimates.

Occupations. To some degree, these differences reflect the varying occupational distributions of each of the worker groups. Generally, jobs with higher frequencies of flexible hours are those in which work can be conducted efficiently, regardless of the workers' start and end times. For instance, flexible work hours are most common among workers in executive, administrative, and managerial occupations, and for those in sales occupations--42.4 percent and 41.0 percent, respectively. (See table 2.) The incidence of flexible work hours is lower for groups of workers in occupations in which the nature of the work dictates that it begin and end at set times, for example, nurses, teachers, police, firefighters, and certain manufacturing operations Manufacturing operations concern the operation of a facility, as opposed to maintenance, supply and distribution, health, and safety, emergency response, human resources, security, information technology and other infrastructural support organizations. .

Table 2. Flexible schedules of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and Industry, May 1997

[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and Industry                        All workers

                                      Total    With flexible
                                                schedules

                                               Number   Percent

Occupation

Managerial and professional           27,384   10,651      38.9
 specialty
 Executive, administrative,           13,469    5,705      42.4
  and managerial
 Professional specialty               13,915    4,947      35.5
  Mathematical and computer            1,308      772      59.0
   scientists
  Natural scientists                     507      327      64.5
  Teachers, college and university       494      320      64.7

Technical, sales, and                 25,779    7,828      30.4
 administrative support
 Technicians and related support       3,376    1,040      30.8
 Sales occupations                     9,001    3,687      41.0
Sales workers, retail and              3,165      951      30.0
 personal services
Administrative support,               13,402    3,101      23.1
 including clerical

Service occupations                    9,313    1,906      20.5
 Private household                       308      125      40.5
 Protective service                    1,891      314      16.6
 Service, except private household
  and protective                       8,855    1,934      21.8
  Food service                         2,777      630      22.7
  Health service                       1,466      258      17.6
  Cleaning and building service        2,000      326      16.3
  Personal service                       871      254      29.1

Precision production, craft,          11,519    2,023      17.6
 and repair
 Mechanics and repairers               3,863      708      18.3
 Construction trades                   4,069      718      17.7
 Other precision production,           3,587      596      16.6
  craft, and repair
 Operators, fabricators,              14,812    2,156      14.6
  and laborers
 Machine operators, assemblers, and
  inspectors                           6,813      702      10.3
 Transportation and material moving    4,351      961      22.1
 Handlers, equipment cleaners,
  helpers, and laborers                3,648      494      13.5
Farming, forestry, and fishing         1,742      466      26.8

Industry

Private sector                        75,612   21,795      28.8
 Goods-producing industries           25,925    6,033      23.3
  Agriculture                          1,492      448      30.0
  Mining                                 541      122      22.6
  Construction                         5,389    1,218      22.6
  Manufacturing                       18,503    4,245      22.9
  Durable goods                       11,179    2,572      23.0
  Nondurable goods                     7,324    1,673      22.8

Service producing industries          49,687   15,763      31.7
 Transportation and public utilities   6,088    1,669      27.4
 Wholesale trade                       3,969    1,281      32.3
 Retail trade                         12,111    3,745      30.9
  Eating and drinking places           3,135      987      31.5
 Finance, insurance, and real estate   5,857    2,096      35.8
 Services                             21,662    6,971      32.2
  Private households                     391      148      37.7
  Business, automobile, and repair     5,060    1,607      31.8
  Personal, except private household   1,627      522      32.1
  Entertainment and recreation         1,051      397      37.8
  Professional services               13,497    4,286      31.8
  Forestry and fisheries                  36       11       (1)

Government                            14,937    3,236      21.7
 Federal                               2,828      977      34.5
 State                                 4,125    1,214      29.4
 Local                                 7,983    1,046      13.1

                                                Men

                                      Total    With flexible
                                                schedules

                                               Number   Percent
Occupation

Managerial and professional           13,882    6,407      46.2
 specialty
 Executive, administrative,            7,213    3,251      45.1
  and managerial
 Professional specialty                6,668    3,156      47.3
  Mathematical and computer              887      549      61.9
   scientists
  Natural scientists                     353      240      68.0
  Teachers, college and university       330      224      68.0

Technical, sales, and                  9,992    3,613      36.2
 administrative support
 Technicians and related support       1,724      611      35.4
 Sales occupations                     5,106    2,315      45.3
Sales workers, retail and              1,428      464      32.5
 personal services
Administrative support,                3,162      687      21.7
 including clerical

Service occupations                    4,754      831      17.5
 Private household                        21       16       (1)
 Protective service                    1,619      254      15.7
 Service, except private household
  and protective                       4,665      986      21.1
  Food service                         1,441      263      18.3
  Health service                         205       26      12.9
  Cleaning and building service        1,252      208      16.6
  Personal service                       216       63      29.0

Precision production, craft,          10,506    1,861      17.7
 and repair
 Mechanics and repairers               3,672      658      17.9
 Construction trades                   3,996      707      17.7
 Other precision production,           2,839      497      17.5
  craft, and repair
 Operators, fabricators,              11,388    1,815      15.9
  and laborers
 Machine operators, assemblers, and
  inspectors                           4,359      521      12.0
 Transportation and material moving    4,064      914      22.5
 Handlers, equipment cleaners,
  helpers, and laborers                2,965      379      12.8
Farming, forestry, and fishing         1,552      426      27.4

Industry

Private sector                        45,023   13,284      29.5
 Goods-producing industries           19,458    4,640      23.8
  Agriculture                          1,265      373      29.5
  Mining                                 473      106      22.4
  Construction                         4,974    1,086      21.8
  Manufacturing                       12,747    3,074      24.1
  Durable goods                        8,148    1,944      23.9
  Nondurable goods                     4,599    1,131      24.6

Service producing industries          25,565    8,644      33.8
 Transportation and public utilities   4,518   1,21 5      26.9
 Wholesale trade                       2,854      979      34.3
 Retail trade                          6,812    1,988      29.2
  Eating and drinking places           1,758      497      28.2
 Finance, insurance, and real estate   2,288    1,028      44.9
 Services                              9,094    3,434      37.8
  Private households                      42       27       (1)
  Business, automobile, and repair     3,319    1,118      33.7
  Personal, except private household     749      227      30.3
  Entertainment and recreation           619      231      37.3
  Professional services                4,336    1,820      42.0
  Forestry and fisheries                  29       11       (1)

Government                             7,050    1,668      23.7
 Federal                               1,621      535      33.0
 State                                 1,856      606      32.7
 Local                                 3,573      527      14.8

                                               Women

                                      Total    With flexible
                                                schedules

Occupation and industry                        Number   Percent

Occupation

Managerial and professional           13,502    4,245      31.4
 specialty
 Executive, administrative,            6,255    2,454      39.2
  and managerial
 Professional specialty                7,247    1,791      24.7
  Mathematical and computer              421      223      53.0
   scientists
  Natural scientists                     154       87      56.2
  Teachers, college and university       164       95      58.2

Technical, sales, and                 15,787    4,215      26.7
 administrative support
 Technicians and related support       1,651      429      26.0
 Sales occupations                     3,895    1,372      35.2
Sales workers, retail and              1,737      487      28.0
 personal services
Administrative support,               10,240    2,414      23.6
 including clerical

Service occupations                    4,559    1,075      23.6
 Private household                       287      109      37.8
 Protective service                      272       60      22.2
 Service, except private household
  and protective                       4,190      947      22.6
  Food service                         1,336      366      27.4
  Health service                       1,261      232      18.4
  Cleaning and building service          749      117      15.7
  Personal service                       655      191      29.2

Precision production, craft,          1,01 3      162      16.0
 and repair
 Mechanics and repairers                 192       50      26.3
 Construction trades                      74       12       (1)
 Other precision production,             748       99      13.3
  craft, and repair
 Operators, fabricators,               3,424      342      10.0
  and laborers
 Machine operators, assemblers, and
  inspectors                           2,454      181       7.4
 Transportation and material moving      287       47      16.3
 Handlers, equipment cleaners,
  helpers, and laborers                  683      114      16.7
Farming, forestry, and fishing           190       41      21.6

Industry

Private sector                        30,589    8,511      27.8
 Goods-producing industries            6,466    1,393      21.5
  Agriculture                            227       74      32.8
  Mining                                  68       16       (1)
  Construction                           415      132      31.8
  Manufacturing                        5,756    1,170      20.3
  Durable goods                        3,031      629      20.7
  Nondurable goods                     2,725      542      19.9

Service producing industries          24,122    7,118      29.5
 Transportation and public utilities   1,570      454      28.9
 Wholesale trade                       1,115      302      27.1
 Retail trade                          5,299    1,757      33.2
  Eating and drinking places           1,377      490      35.6
 Finance, insurance, and real estate   3,569    1,068      29.9
 Services                             12,568    3,537      28.1
  Private households                     350      120      34.4
  Business, automobile, and repair     1,740      489      28.1
  Personal, except private household     878      295      33.7
  Entertainment and recreation           432      167      38.5
  Professional services                9,161    2,465      26.9
  Forestry and fisheries                   7       --        --

Government                             7,887    1,568      19.9
 Federal                               1,208      442      36.6
 State                                 2,270      608      26.8
 Local                                 4,410      519      11.8


(1) Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.

NOTE: Data relate to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers who were at work during the survey reference week and exclude all self-employed persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses were incorporated. Data reflect revised population controls used in the Current Population Survey effective with the January 1997 estimates. Dashes represent zero.

As stated, the unique occupational distributions of the various demographic groups affect the overall proportion of workers on flexible work schedules within these respective groups. For example, as can be seen above, flexible work hours are considerably more prevalent prevalent

widespread occurrence.
 among whites than either blacks or Hispanics. At first glance, this is not surprising because whites are most likely to be in managerial and professional specialty A contract under seal.

A specialty is a written document that has been sealed and delivered and is given as security for the payment of a specifically indicated debt.
 occupations, in which flexible hours are most common. Furthermore, blacks and Hispanics are highly represented in the category of operators, fabricators, and laborers. Because of the nature of the work, historically, this category is one that fails to lend itself to the practice of flexible schedules.

Because flexible schedules appear to be closely associated with particular occupations, it is worth investigating whether the recent increases in the proportion of workers with flexible work schedules reflect an increase in employment in occupations with high occurrences of flexible work schedules or an increase in the availability of flexible work hours across occupations. A shift-share analysis Shift/share analysis is a technique sometimes used for retrospectively decomposing changes, usually in employment, in a set of urban areas or regions. Regional scientists widely use the technique to examine the sources of employment growth or decline.  was applied to determine the portion of the increase that was due to changes in occupational employment and the portion that was due simply to an increased incidence of flexible work hours. Less than 3 percentage points of the total increase were a result of shifts in occupational employment. This suggests, therefore, that the majority of the increase was spurred by the increased incidence of flexible work schedules within occupations; indeed, this phenomenon occurred in nearly every occupational category.

Race. In order to estimate how much of the difference in the rate of flexible work schedules between blacks and whites is accounted for by differences in occupations, a standardization standardization

In industry, the development and application of standards that make it possible to manufacture a large volume of interchangeable parts. Standardization may focus on engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, and drafting
 was performed. This process showed that if blacks had the same occupational distribution as whites (at the most detailed level of occupational classification), then the rate of black workers on flexible work schedules would have been 20.5 percent, instead of 20.1 percent; the difference between the rates for whites and blacks would have been 7.9 percentage points instead of 8.6 percentage points. A similar analysis was performed in which the white rates white rat
n.
A domesticated albino variety of the Norway rat, used extensively in laboratory experiments.
 of flexible work by occupation were applied to the black occupational distribution. Results show that, in each job category, if blacks were as likely as whites to be able to vary hours, then the overall black rate would rise to 24.4 percent, or 4.3 percentage points higher. This would have reduced the overall difference between blacks and whites to 4.3 percentage points. While even at the detailed level there may be differences in jobs held by blacks and whites, these findings suggest that factors other than occupational employment contribute to the disparity dis·par·i·ty  
n. pl. dis·par·i·ties
1. The condition or fact of being unequal, as in age, rank, or degree; difference: "narrow the economic disparities among regions and industries" 
 in access to flexible schedules.

Industry. To a lesser degree, the prevalence of flexible work schedules also varied by industry. These schedules were more common among private sector employees than among those in the public sector (28.8 percent versus 21.7 percent) in 1997. In the public sector, Federal government employees (34.5 percent) were more likely than their counterparts in State government (29.4 percent) or local government (13.1 percent) to have a flexible schedule. The rate for local government workers reflects the fact that local governments provide services that are often rigidly rig·id  
adj.
1. Not flexible or pliant; stiff.

2. Not moving; fixed.

3. Marked by a lack of flexibility; rigorous and exacting: "We have watered down a rigid training . . .
 scheduled. More than half of those employed in local governments work in the field of education, in which the nature of the work for most employees prohibits flexibility (only 7.6 percent of workers in education, the largest component of local government employment, could vary work hours). Within private industry, the proportion of workers with flexible schedules was higher in service-producing industries (31.7 percent) than in goods-producing industries (23.3 percent), reflecting the more rigid This article is about mathematics. For the materials sense, see Stiffness.

In mathematics, suppose C is a collection of mathematical objects (for instance sets or functions).
 work hours in manufacturing, construction, and mining.

Shift work

Although most workers report usually working between the hours of 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., more than 15 million, or 16.8 percent of all full-time wage and salary workers, worked alternative shifts. The most prevalent alternative shifts were the evening shift (accounting for 4.6 percent of all full-time wage and salary workers), for which work hours typically fall between 2 p.m. and midnight, and irregular HEIR, IRREGULAR. In Louisiana, irregular heirs are those who are neither testamentary nor legal, and who have been established by law to take the succession. See Civ. Code of Lo. art. 874.  shifts (3.9 percent) for which employers schedule shifts to fit the needs of the business for a particular time. Other shifts worked included night shifts (3.5 percent) for which work hours fall between 9 p.m. and 8 a.m., and rotating ro·tate  
v. ro·tat·ed, ro·tat·ing, ro·tates

v.intr.
1. To turn around on an axis or center.

2.
 shifts (2.9 percent) that change periodically from days to evenings or nights. (See table 3.)

Table 3. Shift usually worked by full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, May 1997

[Percent distribution]
                                                              Alter-
                                                              native
                                                               shift
                                                             workers
                                                   Regular
                                  Total workers    daytime
        Characteristic            (in thousands)   schedule   Total

          Age and sex

Total 16 years and older                  90,549      82.9     16.8
 16 to 19 years                            1,640      66.4     32.9
 20 years and older                       88,909      83.2     16.5
  20 to 24 years                           8,462      75.7     23.7
  25 to 34 years                          25,208      82.8     16.7
  35 to 44 years                          26,755      84.0     15.8
  45 to 54 years                          19,596      85.2     14.6
  55 to 64 years                           7,778      84.8     15.0
  65 years and older                       1,110      83.8     16.2
 16 to 24 years                           10,102      74.2     25.2
 25 to 54 years                           71,559      83.9     15.8
 55 years and older                        8,888      84.7     15.1

 Men                                      52,073      80.5     19.1
 Women                                    38,476      86.1     13.7

   Race and Hispanic origin

White                                     75,683      83.6     16.1
Black                                     10,884      78.5     20.9
Hispanic origin                            9,635      83.6     16.0

  Marital status and presence
      and age of children

Men:
 Never married                            12,746      77.1     21.9
 Married, spouse present                  32,756      82.5     17.3
 Other marital status                      6,571      77.3     22.1

 Without own children under 18            31,266      79.8     19.6
 With own children under 18               20,807      81.6     18.3
  With own children 6 to 17               10,820      82.8     17.1
  With own children under 6                9,986      80.3     19.7

Women:
 Never married                             8,975      79.8     19.8
 Married, spouse present                  20,613      89.2     10.7
 Other marital status                      8,888      85.4     14.5

 Without own children under 18            23,985      85.0     14.7
 With own children under 18               14,491      87.9     12.0
  With own children 6 to 17                9,032      88.4     11.4
  With own children under 6                5,459      87.1     12.9

                                        Alternative shift workers

                                    Evening                 Rotating
        Characteristic                shift   Night shift    shift

          Age and sex

Total 16 years and older               4.6         3.5         2.9
 16 to 19 years                       12.5         5.0         4.0
 20 years and older                    4.5         3.5         2.9
  20 to 24 years                       7.6         5.3         3.3
  25 to 34 years                       4.7         3.5         3.2
  35 to 44 years                       3.9         3.4         2.9
  45 to 54 years                       3.9         3.1         2.6
  55 to 64 years                       3.8         2.7         2.5
  65 years and older                   3.8         2.1         2.0
 16 to 24 years                        8.4         5.3         3.4
 25 to 54 years                        4.2         3.3         2.9
 55 years and older                    3.8         2.6         2.4

 Men                                   5.0         4.0         3.5
 Women                                 4.1         2.8         2.2

   Race and Hispanic origin

White                                  4.3         3.2         2.9
Black                                  6.5         5.5         3.2
Hispanic origin                        5.4         3.2         2.1

  Marital status and presence
      and age of children

Men:
 Never married                         7.0         4.4         3.2
 Married, spouse present               3.9         3.6         3.6
 Other marital status                  6.6         5.1         3.6

 Without own children under 18         5.5         4.0         3.3
 With own children under 18            4.2         4.0         3.7
  With own children 6 to 17            3.5         3.7         3.9
  With own children under 6            5.0         4.3         3.5

Women:
 Never married                         6.2         4.0         3.2
 Married, spouse present               3.1         2.3         1.8
 Other marital status                  4.5         2.9         2.0

 Without own children under 18         4.6         2.6         2.4
 With own children under 18            3.4         3.2         1.8
  With own children 6 to 17            2.7         3.4         1.9
  With own children under 6            4.5         2.8         1.6

                                        Alternative shift workers

                                                 Employer-
                                                 arranged
                                                 irregular    Other
        Characteristic             Split shift   schedules    shifts

          Age and sex

Total 16 years and older              0.4          3.9          1.4
 16 to 19 years                        .9          8.8          1.6
 20 years and older                    .4          3.8          1.4
  20 to 24 years                       .3          6.3           .9
  25 to 34 years                       .4          3.6          1.3
  35 to 44 years                       .4          3.7          1.4
  45 to 54 years                       .3          3.3          1.4
  55 to 64 years                       .6          3.3          2.1
  65 years and older                   .3          4.7          3.3
 16 to 24 years                        .4          6.7          1.0
 25 to 54 years                        .4          3.6          1.4
 55 years and older                    .6          3.5          2.2

 Men                                   .4          4.4          1.7
 Women                                 .3          3.1          1.0

   Race and Hispanic origin

White                                  .4          3.9          1.4
Black                                  .4          4.0          1.4
Hispanic origin                        .3          3.8          1.2

  Marital status and presence
      and age of children

Men:
 Never married                         .4          5.9          1.1
 Married, spouse present               .4          3.9          1.9
 Other marital status                  .5          4.2          2.0

 Without own children under 18         .4          4.6          1.6
 With own children under 18            .5          4.1          1.8
  With own children 6 to 17            .3          3.8          1.8
  With own children under 6            .6          4.5          1.8

Women:
 Never married                         .2          4.6          1.3
 Married, spouse present               .3          2.3           .9
 Other marital status                  .3          3.6          1.1

 Without own children under 18         .3          3.6          1.2
 With own children under 18            .4          2.4           .8
  With own children 6 to 17            .4          2.3           .7
  With own children under 6            .3          2.6          1.0


NOTE: Data relate to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers who were at work during the survey reference week and exclude all self-employed persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses were incorporated. Data reflect revised population controls used in the Current Population Survey effective with the January 1997 estimates.

As with flexible work schedules, the nature of the work is a major determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant.  of whether the worker is scheduled on an alternative shift. Hence, shift work is highly prevalent within certain occupations and industries and almost entirely absent from others. Alternative shifts were most common among occupations that provide services that are needed at all hours--such as protective service (55.1 percent) and food service (42.0 percent)--and among those employed as operators, fabricators and laborers (27.0 percent). (See table 4.) In contrast, teachers, construction workers, and executives and administrators were among the least likely to work an alternative shift.

Table 4. Shift usually worked by full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and Industry, May 1997
[Percent distribution]

                                                              Alter-
                                                              native
                                                               shift
                                                             workers
                                Total workers     Regular
Occupation and Industry         (in Thousands)    daytime
                                                 schedule     Total

Occupation

Managerial and professional             27,384     90.4        9.4
 specialty
 Executive, administrative,
  and managerial                        13,469     91.7        8.1
 Professional specialty                 13,915     89.1       10.7
  Mathematical and computer              1,308     94.9        4.6
   scientists
  Natural scientists                       507     94.0        6.0
  Teachers, college and                    494     86.1       13.9
   university
Technical, sales, and
  administrative support                25,779     86.2       13.5
 Technicians and related                 3,376     80.4       19.2
  support
 Sales occupations                       9,001     81.4       18.4
  Sales workers, retail and
   personal services                     3,165     70.9       28.5
 Administrative support,                13,402     91.0        8.8
  including clerical

Service occupations                      9,313     62.1       37.1
 Private household                         308     83.2       16.8
 Protective service                      1,891     44.4       55.1
 Service, except private
  household and protective               8,855     71.4       28.0
  Food service                           2,777     57.3       42.0
  Health service                         1,466     69.5       30.1
  Cleaning and building                  2,000     72.2       27.1
   service
  Personal service                         871     73.2       26.4

Precision production, craft,            11,519     86.2       13.4
 and repair Mechanics and                3,863     85.3       14.2
 repairers
 Construction trades                     4,069     95.3        4.4
 Other precision production,
  craft, and repair                      3,587     77.0       22.8
 Operators, fabricators, and            14,812     72.5       27.0
  laborers
 Machine operators,
  assemblers, and inspectors             6,813     73.4       26.2
 Transportation and material             4,351     69.2       30.4
  moving
 Handlers, equipment
  cleaners, helpers, and                 3,648     74.8       24.6
  laborers
Farming, forestry and fishing            1,742     93.8        5.9

Industry

Private sector                          75,612     82.3       17.4
 Goods-producing industries             25,925     84.1       15.6
  Agriculture                            1,492     93.1        6.7
  Mining                                   541     74.6       25.4
  Construction                           5,389     95.9        3.7
  Manufacturing                         18,503     80.2       19.4
  Durable goods                         11,179     83.0       16.8
  Nondurable goods                       7,324     76.0       23.5

Service producing industries            49,687     81.3       18.3
 Transportation and public               6,088     73.8       25.8
  utilities
 Wholesale trade                         3,969     89.7       10.1
 Retail trade                           12,111     71.1       28.4
  Eating and drinking places             3,135     51.9       47.2
 Finance, insurance, and                 5,857     94.8        5.1
  real estate
 Services                               21,662     83.9       15.6
  Private households                       391     78.9       21.1
  Business, automobile,                  5,060     86.0       13.3
   and repair
  Personal, except private               1,627     74.9       24.3
   household
  Entertainment and                      1,051     63.9       35.1
   recreation
  Professional services                 13,497     86.0       13.7
  Forestry and fisheries                    36      --          --

Government                              14,937     86.1       13.8
 Federal                                 2,828     85.4       14.4
 State                                   4,125     86.1       13.7
 Local                                   7,983     86.4       13.6

                                    Alternative shift workers

Occupation and Industry            Evening   Night     Rotating
                                    shift    shift      shift

Occupation

Managerial and professional          1.7      1.3        1.7
 specialty
 Executive, administrative,
  and managerial                     1.4       .7        1.7
 Professional specialty              2.0      1.7        1.6
  Mathematical and computer           .2       .3         .6
   scientists
  Natural scientists                  .9      1.0         --
  Teachers, college and               .6       .5        1.0
   university
Technical, sales, and
  administrative support             3.5      2.1        2.6
 Technicians and related             5.6      3.8        3.7
  support
 Sales occupations                   3.6      1.1        4.4
  Sales workers, retail and
   personal services                 6.7      1.7        7.3
 Administrative support,             3.0      2.3        1.0
  including clerical

Service occupations                 10.8      6.5        5.4
 Private household                   1.4       .8         .7
 Protective service                 11.3     13.2       16.3
 Service, except private
  household and protective          11.0      5.3        3.3
  Food service                      17.1      5.0        6.2
  Health service                    10.8      9.4        3.3
  Cleaning and building             14.9      7.3        1.2
   service
  Personal service                   5.1      5.0        4.7

Precision production, craft,         4.1      4.0        2.4
 and repair Mechanics and            4.2      4.7        2.7
 repairers
 Construction trades                  .6       .9         .8
 Other precision production,
  craft, and repair                  7.9      6.7        4.0
 Operators, fabricators, and         7.7      7.4        4.3
  laborers
 Machine operators,
  assemblers, and inspectors        10.1      8.4        4.6
 Transportation and material         4.6      4.1        4.7
  moving
 Handlers, equipment
  cleaners, helpers, and             7.0      9.3        3.4
  laborers
Farming, forestry and fishing         --      --          --

Industry

Private sector                       4.7      3.5        2.9
 Goods-producing industries          5.1      4.5        2.6
  Agriculture                         .3       .3         .7
  Mining                             4.8      2.3       12.5
  Construction                        .4       .2        0.3
  Manufacturing                      6.9      6.2        3.2
  Durable goods                      6.9      5.0        2.3
  Nondurable goods                   6.9      7.9        4.5

Service producing industries         4.5      3.0        3.1
 Transportation and public           4.2      3.3        4.5
  utilities
 Wholesale trade                     2.3      2.6        1.1
 Retail trade                        7.5      3.6        5.9
  Eating and drinking places        16.3      5.4        8.7
 Finance, insurance, and             1.0       .7         .5
  real estate
 Services                            4.3      3.3        2.1
  Private households                 1.9      2.2        2.3
  Business, automobile,              4.0      3.6        1.5
   and repair
  Personal, except private           7.7      4.1        3.4
   household
  Entertainment and                  9.7      2.8        4.4
   recreation
  Professional services              3.6      3.3        2.0
  Forestry and fisheries              --      --          --

Government                           4.2      3.2        3.0
 Federal                             4.3      5.3        1.8
 State                               4.7      3.1        2.6
 Local                               3.9      2.4        3.5

                                    Alternative shift workers

                                                 Employer-
Occupation and Industry             Split        arranged     Other
                                     shift       irregular    shifts
                                                 schedules
Occupation

Managerial and professional           .3            2.9        1.6
 specialty
 Executive, administrative,
  and managerial                      .2            2.7        1.3
 Professional specialty               .4            3.0        1.9
  Mathematical and computer           --            1.8        1.6
   scientists
  Natural scientists                  --            1.5        2.5
  Teachers, college and              2.9            4.0        4.9
   university
Technical, sales, and
  administrative support              .3            3.8        1.1
 Technicians and related              .2            4.2        1.5
  support
 Sales occupations                    .3            7.0        1.9
  Sales workers, retail and
   personal services                  .6           10.6        1.5
 Administrative support,              .2            1.6         .6
  including clerical

Service occupations                  1.0            6.3        2.2
 Private household                   1.5            8.2        4.3
 Protective service                   .9            7.9        5.6
 Service, except private
  household and protective           1.0            5.9        1.4
  Food service                       1.8           10.4        1.3
  Health service                      .6            4.6        1.1
  Cleaning and building               .6            2.2         .7
   service
  Personal service                    .8            6.3        4.5

Precision production, craft,          .2            2.1         .6
 and repair Mechanics and            3.0            1.6         .6
 repairers
 Construction trades                  --            1.8         .3
 Other precision production,
  craft, and repair                   .2            3.0        1.0
 Operators, fabricators, and          .5            5.4        1.7
  laborers
 Machine operators,
  assemblers, and inspectors          .2            2.0         .7
 Transportation and material          .9           12.3        3.9
  moving
 Handlers, equipment
  cleaners, helpers, and              .3            3.7         .8
  laborers
Farming, forestry and fishing         .6            4.1         .8

Industry

Private sector                        .4            4.3        1.4
 Goods-producing industries           .2            2.1         .9
  Agriculture                         .5            4.1         .8
  Mining                              .2            5.0         .5
  Construction                        .1            2.1         .6
  Manufacturing                       .3            1.9        1.0
  Durable goods                       .2            1.6         .7
  Nondurable goods                    .3            2.4        1.5

Service producing industries          .5            5.4        1.7
 Transportation and public            .6           10.3        2.8
  utilities
 Wholesale trade                      .1            2.7        1.3
 Retail trade                         .8            8.8        1.6
  Eating and drinking places         2.0           12.6        1.8
 Finance, insurance, and              .0            1.5        1.4
  real estate
 Services                             .5            3.7        1.6
  Private households                 1.1           10.2        3.4
  Business, automobile,               .2            2.7        1.3
   and repair
  Personal, except private            .4            6.6        2.2
   household
  Entertainment and                  1.4           13.8        3.1
   recreation
  Professional services               .6            2.7        1.6
  Forestry and fisheries              --            --          --

Government                            .3            1.9        1.3
 Federal                              .2            1.8        1.1
 State                                .3            1.8        1.2
 Local                                .3            1.9        1.5


(1) Percent not shown where base is less than 75,000.

NOTE: Data relate to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers who were at work during, the survey reference week and exclude all self-employed persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses were incorporated. Data reflect revised population controls used in the Current Population Survey effective with the January 1997 estimates. Dashes represent zero.

Similarly, the incidence of shift work was much greater among industries providing services used at all hours of the day as opposed op·pose  
v. op·posed, op·pos·ing, op·pos·es

v.tr.
1. To be in contention or conflict with: oppose the enemy force.

2.
 to "9-to-5" industries. For instance, about 47.2 percent of the total labor force employed in eating and drinking places worked an alternative shift, as did 35.9 percent in transportation, and 25.8 percent in hospitals. Conversely con·verse 1  
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.

2.
, shift work was much less common in industries such as finance, insurance, real estate, construction, and agriculture-industries in which most work is done during the daytime.

Some goods-producing industries operate on extended production schedules and therefore had high proportions of workers on alternative shifts. In many of these industries, it is more costly to shut down the production process at the end of the day and restart To resume computer operation after a planned or unplanned termination. See boot, warm boot and checkpoint/restart.  the next morning than it is to simply operate on extended, and in some cases, around-the-clock a·round-the-clock
adj.
Variant of round-the-clock.

Adj. 1. around-the-clock - at all times; "around-the-clock nursing care"
day-and-night, round-the-clock, nonstop
 production cycles.(4) Among industries with a high frequency of shift work were paper products (33.3 percent), automobiles No invention has so transformed the landscape of the United States as the automobile, and no other country has so thoroughly adopted the automobile as its favorite means of transportation.  (31.3 percent), and mining (24.8 percent).

Shift work occurred less frequently in the public sector than in the private sector, and varied little across Federal, State, and local governments. Within local government, however, the incidence of shift work varies widely by function. Nearly half of the local government employees in justice, public order, and safety functions worked alternative shifts; but only 4.5 percent of those employed in educational services worked an alternative shift.

The CPS supplement included a question intended to derive de·rive
v.
1. To obtain or receive from a source.

2. To produce or obtain a chemical compound from another substance by chemical reaction.
 workers' main reason for working an alternative shift; the results support the notion that the occurrence of shift work is highly correlated cor·re·late  
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates

v.tr.
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

2.
 with particular industries and occupations.(5) More than half of all full-time employees who worked an alternative shift did so because it was the "nature of the job." It is also apparent that very few of these workers chose to work one of these shifts for the purpose of obtaining greater monetary compensation or to alleviate Alleviate
To make something easier to be endured.

Mentioned in: Kinesiology, Applied
 nonwork conflicts. Only 6.1 percent of all alternative shiftworkers reported working a shift for better pay. About 4.1 percent worked an alternative shift for better childcare arrangements; and only a small fraction did so for an easier commute TO COMMUTE. To substitute one punishment in the place of another. For example, if a man be sentenced to be hung, the executive may, in some states, commute his punishment to that of imprisonment.  (0.7 percent) or because it allowed time for school (2.9 percent). Roughly 13.0 percent reported that they were on one of these shifts specifically because alternative shifts were mandated by their employer to meet transportation demand, management, or pollution abatement A reduction, a decrease, or a diminution. The suspension or cessation, in whole or in part, of a continuing charge, such as rent.

With respect to estates, an abatement is a proportional diminution or reduction of the monetary legacies, a disposition of property by will, when
 program requirements. A small percentage of shiftworkers (5.7 percent) worked an alternative shift because they were unable to find another job. (See table 5.)

Table 5. Shift usually worked on principal job by usual full-time wage and salary workers, by reason for working shift, May 1997
[Numbers in thousands]

                                      Total     Shift worked

                                               Evening   Night
Reason for working shift                        shift     shift

Total shift workers                   15,183     4,192    3,156
  Better child care arrangements         633       279      257
  Better pay                             920       350      330
  Better arrangements for                423       114      214
   care of family members
  Allows time for school                 435       201       62
  Easier commute, less traffic           109        51       27
  Could not get any other job            866       383      237
  Mandated by employer to meet
   transportation/pollution            1,967       397      326
   program requirements
  Nature of the job                    7,767     1,710    1,084
  Other reasons                        1,912       661      561
  Not reporting reasons                  151        46       37

                                       Shift worked

                                    Rotating     Split
Reason for working shift               shift     shift

Total shift workers                    2,649       350
  Better child care arrangements          31         3
  Better pay                              81        14
  Better arrangements for                 17         5
   care of family members
  Allows time for school                  56        11
  Easier commute, less traffic             4         2
  Could not get any other job             75        12
  Mandated by employer to meet
   transportation/pollution              561        55
   program requirements
  Nature of the job                    1,610       204
  Other reasons                          195        41
  Not reporting reasons                   19         3

                                       Shift worked

                                    Employer
                                    arranged
                                   irregular     Other
Reason for working shift               shift     shift

Total shift workers                    3,523     1,313
  Better child care arrangements          35        28
  Better pay                             105        41
  Better arrangements for                 38        34
   care of family members
  Allows time for school                  86        19
  Easier commute, less traffic            12        13
  Could not get any other job            138        20
  Mandated by employer to meet
   transportation/pollution              524       103
   program requirements
  Nature of the job                    2,354       805
  Other reasons                          224       211
  Not reporting reasons                    7        38


NOTE: Data relate to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers who were at work during the survey reference week and exclude all self-employed persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses were incorporated. Data reflect revised population controls used in the Current Population Survey effective with the January 1997 estimates.

As is the case with differences in flexible work schedules among workers, a portion of the differences among demographic groups in the incidence of shift work can be traced to the occupational distributions of the groups. As indicated in table 2 for example, men were more likely than women to work on an alternative shift: 19.1 percent versus 13.7 percent, respectively; a difference of 5.4 percentage points. A standardization analysis shows that if women had the same occupational distribution as men, then the overall proportion of women on alternative shifts would be 16.3 percent, reducing the difference between men and women to 2.8 percentage points. If the rates of alternative shift work by occupation for men are applied to the occupational distribution of women, then the difference in shift work rates falls to 1.5 percentage points. Thus, shift work is more common among men for two reasons: first, men are more likely then women to choose occupations in which shift work is common; and, on the same job, men are typically more likely than women to work an alternative shift.

Among other major groups, workers who had never been married were employed on one of these shifts more often than married workers (21.0 percent versus 14.8 percent, respectively), and a greater proportion of blacks (20.9 percent) worked alternative shifts than either whites (16.1 percent) or Hispanics (16.0 percent). Another shift-share analysis shows that only a small proportion of the disparity in alternative shift work between blacks and whites can be explained by different occupational groupings; on the same jobs, it is usually the case that more blacks than whites work an alternative shift. In addition, the incidence of alternative shift work varied to some degree by age: nearly one-third of employed teenagers worked an alternative shift. This is not surprising as daytime school commitments prevent many teenagers from working during normal business hours BUSINESS HOURS. The time of the day during which business is transacted. In respect to the time of presentment and demand of bills and notes, business hours generally range through the whole day down to the hours of rest in the evening, except when the paper is payable it a bank or by a . The prevalence of shift work declines with age to a low of 14.6 percent for workers aged 45 to 54 years. (See table 3.)

In general, the proportion of workers on alternative shifts has changed very little for all of the major demographic groups over the last 12 years. The following tabulation shows the percent working alternative shifts, 1985-97:
                                1985    1991     1997

Total, 16 years and older       15.9    17.8     16.8
  Men                           17.8    20.1     19.1
  Women                         13.0    14.6     13.7

Race and Hispanic origin:
  White                         15.3    17.1     16.1
  Black                         19.9    23.3     20.9
  Hispanic origin               15.5    19.1     16.0


Part-time part-time
adj.
For or during less than the customary or standard time: a part-time job.



part
 workers. Alternative shift work was much more common among workers who usually worked part time than among full-time workers. Of the 20.3 million part-time wage and salary workers, roughly 7.3 million, or 36.0 percent, usually worked an alternative shift on their primary job. The majority of these workers usually worked an evening shift or an irregularly ir·reg·u·lar  
adj.
1. Contrary to rule, accepted order, or general practice: irregular hiring practices.

2.
 scheduled shift. In many cases, part-timers are students, parents, or persons with other daytime commitments that conflict with a regular "9-to-5" schedule.(6) Another explanation for the high rates of shift work among part-timers is that a sizable proportion of businesses maintain operating hours that extend past the traditional 8-hour day; part-time workers are needed to fill this gap. While the proportion of full-time wage and salary workers who worked alternative shifts was unchanged between May 1991 and May 1997, the proportion of part-timers on alternative shifts fell from 45.6 percent to 36.0 percent over the period.

THE "9-TO-5" WORKDAY does not appear to be in jeopardy jeopardy, in law, condition of a person charged with a crime and thus in danger of punishment. At common law a defendant could be exposed to jeopardy for the same offense only once; exposing a person twice is known as

double jeopardy.
 of fading fading

fading skin coloring. See Arabian fading syndrome (below). Declining in body condition, general health, activity and productivity.


Arabian fading syndrome
general health is unimpaired.
 from its prominence in U.S. workplaces; yet the data do suggest that the rigidity rigidity /ri·gid·i·ty/ (ri-jid´i-te) inflexibility or stiffness.

clasp-knife rigidity
 of those hours continues to relax re·lax
v.
1. To make or become lax or loose.

2. To relieve or become relieved from tension or strain.
. In May 1997, about one-fourth of all full-time wage and salary workers could vary the times they began or ended work, nearly double the proportion in May 1985. In contrast, the proportions working alternative shifts--something other than a regular daytime shift--have not increased over the period.

Clearly, the prevalence of both flexible work schedules and alternative shifts is linked to the nature of the work involved in a particular job or industry. However, this explains only a portion of the variation in the frequency of these types of work schedules across demographic groups. Even within the most detailed occupational groupings, sizable differences remain, in both the rates of alternative shift work and flexible work hours among the various demographic groups, differences that the available data do not completely explain.

A brief description of flexible work arrangements

There are several types of formal flexible work arrangements. One type is a "gliding gliding,
n massage technique that comprises long and smooth strokes toward the heart. Commonly used for preparation and warming. Also called
effleurage.
 schedule" that requires a specified spec·i·fy  
tr.v. spec·i·fied, spec·i·fy·ing, spec·i·fies
1. To state explicitly or in detail: specified the amount needed.

2. To include in a specification.

3.
 number of hours of work each day but allows employees to vary the time of their arrival and departure, usually around an established set of mandatory Peremptory; obligatory; required; that which must be subscribed to or obeyed.

Mandatory statutes are those that require, as opposed to permit, a particular course of action.
 "core hours." Other types of flexible work arrangements include variable-day and variable-week schedules that usually require a specified number of hours per pay period. These types of work schedules frequently are grouped under the umbrella term A term used to cover a broad category of functions rather than one specific item. In many cases, a term is so catchy that it tends to be used for technologies that are a stretch from the original concept. See middleware and virtualization.  "flexitime flex·i·time  
n.
See flextime.


flexitime
Noun

a system permitting flexibility of working hours at the beginning or end of the day, provided an agreed total is worked

." Under these plans, employees are permitted to choose the number of hours they wish to work each day or each week. Credit or compensatory time compensatory time
n.
Time off given to an employee in place of overtime pay.

Noun 1. compensatory time - time off that is granted to a worker as compensation for working overtime
 arrangements allow employees who accumulate Accumulate

Broker/analyst recommendation that could mean slightly different things depending on the broker/analyst. In general, it means to increase the number of shares of a particular security over the near term, but not to liquidate other parts of the portfolio to buy a security
 overtime Overtime is the amount of time someone works beyond normal working hours. Normal hours may be determined in several ways:
  • by custom (what is considered healthy or reasonable by society),
  • by practices of a given trade or profession,
  • by legislation,
 hours to apply those hours to future time off from work, rather than receiving the overtime rate The overtime rate calculates the ratio between employee overtime with the planned working times in a specific time period. Interpretation
A high overtime rate is an indicator of a temporary or permanent high workload.
 for those hours. The presence of one or more of these arrangements in the workplace does not necessarily exclude the others; many can be used in conjunction conjunction, in astronomy
conjunction, in astronomy, alignment of two celestial bodies as seen from the earth. Conjunction of the moon and the planets is often determined by reference to the sun.
 with other flexible work arrangements. (For more information, see Atefah Sadri
see Sadri language for the Bihari language. Coordinates:  Sadri is a city and a municipality in Pali district in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
 McCampbell, "Benefits Achieved Through Alternative Work Schedules," Human Resource Planning Resource planning may refer to:
  • Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
  • Manufacturing resource planning (MRP and MRPII)
  • Distribution Resource Planning (DRP)
  • Human resources (HR)
, 1996, Vol. 19.3.)

NOTES

(1) Throughout this article the two terms "alternative shift" and "shift work" refer to all work schedules that do not conform to Verb 1. conform to - satisfy a condition or restriction; "Does this paper meet the requirements for the degree?"
fit, meet

coordinate - be co-ordinated; "These activities coordinate well"
 the regular daytime schedule, for which work hours typically fall between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.

(2) The source of the data used in this article is the May 1997 supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly survey of about 50,000 households, conducted by the Bureau of the Census Noun 1. Bureau of the Census - the bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census; provides demographic information and analyses about the population of the United States
Census Bureau
 for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The employment estimates for the period under study have been affected by a number of factors. Official data for 1990 and later years incorporate 1990 census-based population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount un·der·count  
tr.v. un·der·count·ed, un·der·count·ing, un·der·counts
To record fewer than the actual number of (persons in a census, for example).
, whereas prior data are based on 1980 census-based population controls, for which no such adjustment has been made.

In addition, data for January 1994 and forward are not strictly comparable with data for earlier years because of the introduction of a major redesign re·de·sign  
tr.v. re·de·signed, re·de·sign·ing, re·de·signs
To make a revision in the appearance or function of.



re
 of the CPS questionnaire questionnaire,
n a series of questions used to gather information.

questionnaire,
n a form usually filled out by patients that provides data concerning their dental and general health.
 and collection methodology. For additional information on the redesign, see "Revisions ReVisions is a 2004 anthology of alternate history short-stories. It is edited by Julie E. Czerneda and Isaac Szpindel. Contents

Title Author
The Resonance of Light James Alan Gardner
Out of China Julie E.
 in the Current Population Survey Effective January 1994," in the February February: see month.  1994 issue of the BLS See Bureau of Labor Statistics.  periodical periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily.  Employment and Earnings.

(3) U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employee Benefits Survey, Bulletins 2517 (1999); 2507 (1999); and 2477 (1996).

(4) The actual wording of the question on flexible work schedules was altered on the most recent May supplement to the Survey. Specifically, the word "flexitime" was removed in the description of flexible work hours.

(4) Earl F. Melior, "Shift work and flexitime: how prevalent are they?" Monthly Labor Review The Monthly Labor Review is a publication by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly publications are usually published by topic. Researchers outside of the BLS are welcome to submit their articles. External links
  • The Monthly Labor Review http://www.bls.
, November November: see month.  1986, pp. 14-20.

(5) Those who responded that they work a schedule other than a regular daytime schedule were asked, "What is the main reason why you work this type of shift?"

(6) Data from the Current Population Survey show that among workers who usually work part time, roughly 55.9 percent work part time due to one of the following reasons: 1) childcare problems; 2) other family or personal obligations; 3) attending school or training. These data are 1997 annual averages and appear in table 20 of the January 1998 issue of the BLS periodical Employment and Earnings.

Thomas (language) Thomas - A language compatible with the language Dylan(TM). Thomas is NOT Dylan(TM).

The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs
 M. Beers is an economist This article is about the profession. For the news publication, see The Economist.

An economist is an expert in the social science of economics.[1]
 in the Division of Labor Force Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
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No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Date:Jun 1, 2000
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