Fitness; Treatment.The first and easiest change to make on your journey to fitness is to add "lifestyle physical activity" to your day. This means being more physically active during your usual daily activities. You can:
park in a far-away spot and briskly walk to your destination
take the stairs instead of an elevator
rake leaves instead of using the blower
play tag with the kids instead of computer games
go golfing, bowling or dancing for fun
walk down the hall instead of using the phone or E-mail
take a walk during a morning or afternoon break.
do indoor chores such as window washing, tub scrubbing or reorganizing your closet
do active outdoor chores, such as mowing the grass, gardening or washing the car
Making these changes is an easy way to improve mood and heart, respiratory, and muscular fitness, and to reduce body fat.
However, for women who need to make more dramatic gains in fitness or need to lose weight, a more formal exercise program, in addition to lifestyle physical activity, may be necessary. Your program should address the five components of fitness by including:
Aerobic activities, which involve using the large muscles of your body in a rhythmical, continuous activity, improving cardiovascular conditioning and helping reduce body fat. Aerobic exercises include walking, jogging, bicycling and swimming, and aerobics or other exercise classes or videos.
Strength training, such as weight lifting weight lifting, international sport, also a training technique for athletes in other sports. From the earliest times men have lifted weights as a test of strength. . This improves muscular strength and endurance and helps maintain bone density. It also raises metabolism, helping you burn more calories.
Stretching exercises, which include slow, gentle movements that elongate e·lon·gate
tr. & intr.v. e·lon·gat·ed, e·lon·gat·ing, e·lon·gates
To make or grow longer.
adj. or elongated
1. Made longer; extended.
2. Having more length than width; slender. your muscles and improve flexibility. These are often part of exercise classes or videos, as well as yoga and Pilates.
How Much Is Enough?
One of the most common questions is, "How much do I need to exercise?" The U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services Noun 1. Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
Department of Health and Human Services, HHS and Agriculture and other professional groups recommend that healthy women do some sort of aerobic exercise aerobic exercise,
n sustained repetitive physical activity, such as walking, dancing, cycling, and swimming, that elevates the heart rate and increases oxygen consumption resulting in improved functioning of cardio-vascular and respiratory systems. on most or all days of the week for 30 to 60 minutes to reduce the risk of chronic disease. To manage body weight and prevent weight gain, women should exercise moderately to vigorously for 60 minutes most days of the week; 60 to 90 minutes most days to sustain weight loss.
These minutes can be accumulated in increments of 10. For instance, 10 minutes of an aerobics video in the morning, 10 minutes of brisk walking at lunch and 10 minutes of brisk walking in the evening. Intermittent exercise (intermittently increasing the heart rate) can be part of a good weight-loss strategy because your metabolism is elevated following each bout of exercise.
If you have been inactive, you need to work up slowly to this amount. Start with five or 10 minutes--whatever you're comfortable with--every other day and add one minute every other session. If you do too much too soon, you can become injured, fatigued and discouraged.
Similarly, don't overdo strength training. Start slowly, with lighter weights, and work up to heavier weights. You don't need to strength train more than three days per week, and 20- to 30-minute sessions are sufficient for most people. Finally, always wait at least 48 hours before exercising the same muscle group to give those muscles adequate time to recover between sessions.
Ideally, stretching and flexibility exercises should be done for 30 minutes three times a week, but even a mere five minutes at the end of an exercise session is better than nothing. They can follow an exercise session. Some lighter stretches can even be done at your desk or while you watch TV. Examples of stretching exercises include shoulder or arm circles. There are also a number of stretches specifically targeted to arm, back, chest, thigh and calf muscles.
How Hard Should You Work?
The second question is, "How hard do I need to exercise?"
As you work on increasing the length of your exercise sessions, you also need to work on increasing their intensity. Low-intensity aerobic exercise, like housework, gardening and walking the dog, provide many general health benefits, but to truly enhance fitness, especially if weight loss is one of your goals, you need to up the ante and exercise at a moderate or higher intensity with vigorous activities like brisk walking or jogging, singles tennis, aerobics classes or cycling.
In fact, results from a University of Pittsburgh study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American Medical Association. JAMA is the most widely circulated medical journal in the world. found that women trying to lose weight can benefit as much from moderate-intensity physical activity as from an intense workout. The exercise duration and intensity trial involved 201 overweight, healthy women ages 21 to 45 years. All received reduced-calorie meals and were assigned to one of four physical activity regimens.
The regimens consisted of either a moderate or vigorous-intensity physical activity performed for either a shorter (2.5 to 3.5 hours per week) or longer (3.5 to 5 hours per week) duration. The physical activity consisted primarily of brisk walking that burned between 1,000 and 2,000 calories a week.
Women in all four groups lost between 13 and 20 pounds, or eight to 10 percent of their body weight, and maintained that weight loss for a year. They also improved their cardiorespiratory fitness Cardiorespiratory fitness refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity. Regular exercise makes these systems more efficient by enlarging the heart muscle, enabling more blood to be pumped . But, most importantly Adv. 1. most importantly - above and beyond all other consideration; "above all, you must be independent"
above all, most especially , the amount of weight lost and fitness improvement was essentially the same among the four groups.
The author concluded that an intervention program should initially target the adoption and maintenance of at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity exercise, and, when appropriate, eventually progress to exercise levels of 60 minutes per day, most days of the week. This upper level is consistent with the U.S. departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture's 2005 recommendation of 60 minutes per day, most days of the week, to manage body weight and prevent weight gain.
Because the goal of aerobic exercise is to work your heart, your exercise needs to increase your heart rate. One way to determine if you are exercising intensely enough is to measure your heart rate. Your heart rate should be about 50 to 85 percent of its maximum, depending on the intensity of your exercise. Maximum heart rate for one minute is your age subtracted from 220.
After warming up and then sustaining an aerobic activity for about five minutes, take your pulse by placing two fingers on the radial artery radial artery
1. An artery with its origin in the brachial artery and with branches to the radial recurrent, dorsal metacarpal, and dorsal digital arteries, the principal artery of the thumb, the palmar metacarpal, and muscular and carpal on your wrist. Count the beats for 10 seconds. The number of beats you count should fall between the two numbers listed beside your age in the chart below. The following chart illustrates recommended 10-second heart rate counts.
Age / Number of beats in 10 seconds
20 / 17 to 28
30 / 16 to 27
40 / 15 to 26
50 / 14 to 24
60 / 13 to 23
Older adults should exercise as often as others but aim for a lower number of beats per minute beats per minute Cardiac pacing The unit of measure for the frequency of heart depolarizations or contractions each minute–or pulse rate . To determine exactly what your heart rate should be during exercise, subtract your age from 220; divide that number by six for a 10-second heart rate count, then multiply that number by 0.5 for the lower end of the range and 0.85 for the higher end. For example, if you're 70 years old:
220 - 70 = 150 (this would be your maximum heart rate for one minute)
150 | 6 = 25 (this would be your maximum heart rate for 10 seconds)
25 x 0.50 = 12.5 (this would be your target heart rate for 10 seconds)
An easier way to judge intensity is the "talk test." You shouldn't be exercising so hard that you can't talk with a friend or recite a poem. If you can't talk without gasping for breath, slow down.
If you take medications for high blood pressure, your heart rate may be kept artificially low, and intensity should be monitored using the talk test.
The intensity of your strength training exercise will increase over time as well. Again, don't strain to do more, but slowly work your way up to heavier weights or more repetitions. Choose weights that are heavy enough to tire your muscles after about 12 repetitions. The last two reps should be difficult to achieve, because the idea is that the muscle is challenged. When you can comfortably do 12 or more repetitions at a certain weight, increase the weight five to 10 percent. You will be amazed a·maze
v. a·mazed, a·maz·ing, a·maz·es
1. To affect with great wonder; astonish. See Synonyms at surprise.
2. Obsolete To bewilder; perplex.
v.intr. at how much more you can do after even a few weeks.
What kind of exercise?
The third question is, "What should I do?" The key to sticking with an exercise program is choosing activities you enjoy. There are many to choose from.
Strength training. The best way to start may be to hire a certified personal trainer for three or four sessions to develop a plan and show you how to use the equipment properly. You can use weight machines, free weights or resistance equipment like specially made rubber bands or a weighted vest, and you can strength train at a health club or at home.
Strength training videos that show you how to use common household items such as food cans and water bottles can save you money on weights or other fancy equipment. In any case, if you don't use the proper form, you can injure yourself, so you do need to learn how to use the equipment, whether it's from a personal trainer, a video or a book. Be sure any video or book you use is current, as some once-popular strength-training exercises have been found to be potentially harmful.
Strength training is important for women of all ages. In young women, it can set the stage for a lifetime of stronger bones. Research shows that women start to lose muscle strength as early as age 20. For these women, strength training can help slow or reverse the natural process of muscle degeneration. And studies also find that older women who strength train not only maintain bone density, but have a much lower risk of hip fractures, due in part to the improvement in dynamic balance that often accompanies stronger muscles.
Functional or core strength training. This type of training helps strengthen the muscles of the back, trunk, abdomen and pelvis. The idea is to strengthen these muscles first in the "movement chain" to prevent injury and to provide a solid, stable base so the muscles further down the chain--your legs and arms--have a stable base supporting them and can get stronger and more efficient. So, for instance, rather than strengthening your legs with hamstring curls and leg extensions--which don't have much application in real life--you do squats, step-ups or walking lunges that challenge your entire body and improve dynamic balance while strengthening your legs and thigh muscles.
Aerobic exercise. The options are many and varied. Some of the more popular choices include:
Brisk walking burns almost as many calories as running or jogging for the same distance and poses less risk for injury. If you are a beginning walker, choose a level surface. Gradually increase your pace until you can do one mile in about 15 minutes. To intensify the exercise, add hills and varied terrain to your course. You can also use hand weights of one to three pounds, but avoid ankle weights because they can cause injury.
Jogging burns more calories in less time and is as simple and convenient as walking, but it is too strenuous for some and may cause joint injuries. If you are a beginner, alternate walking and jogging for the first three or four weeks. Then gradually increase the jogging portion until you can comfortably run for the entire workout. Remember not to exceed your target heart rate; the talk test may be the best way to easily monitor your exertion level.
Aerobics classes or home videos offer variety, music and choreography. Some women prefer the extra motivation an instructor provides. Start with beginner classes or videos, and watch the instructor carefully for proper foot placement and body alignment to avoid injury, especially to your knees. There are a variety of types of aerobics classes, including:
Step classes that incorporate a low bench that allows you to step up and down while performing various moves.
Boxing classes and Tae Bo Tae Bo is an aerobic exercise routine developed by tae kwon do practitioner Billy Blanks, and was one of the first "cardio-boxing" programs to enjoy commercial success. Such programs use the motions of martial arts at a rapid pace designed to promote fitness. which have become a craze in some parts of the country. Boxing classes consist of aerobic moves combined with boxing moves such as punching and footwork. Tae Bo adds martial arts moves, including karate-type punches and kicks, to the mix. The feet and upper body move for most of the class, providing a total-body workout.
Slide classes that involve a special mat and booties that slip over your shoes and allow you to slide back and forth on the mat. Great for toning the lower body and building strength in the inner thigh area but should be avoided by those with knee injuries.
Interval classes that combine step or floor aerobics with weight training using hand-held weights or special rubber bands.
Toning/sculpting classes incorporate floor aerobics that concentrate on isometric exercises for specific body parts.
High-impact classes, which incorporate moves such as jumping, running and hopping. These are not recommended for women with joint problems in the lower extremities.
Low-impact classes, which incorporate moves in which one foot is always on the floor. They are not necessarily low-intensity exercises, though.
If you're taking an aerobics class, take care of your feet! According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the American Podiatric Medical Association, proper shoes are crucial to successful, injury-free aerobics. Before you start an aerobics program, consider seeing a podiatrist Podiatrist
A physician who specializes in the medical care and treatment of the human foot.
Mentioned in: Shin Splints
podiatrist for a biomechanical or gait analysis gait analysis Rehab medicine Evaluation of the gait of Pts with a neurologic or orthopedic condition affecting the motor control system–eg, brain injury, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, musculoskeletal actuator systems, post to estimate your risk of injury. Shoes should provide sufficient cushioning and shock absorption to compensate for pressure on the foot many times greater than found in walking.
Impact forces from aerobics can reach up to six times your own body weight, which is transmitted to each of the 26 bones in the foot. Because of the many side-to-side motions, shoes need an arch design that will compensate for these forces and sufficiently thick upper leather or strap support to provide forefoot forefoot /fore·foot/ (-foot)
1. one of the front feet of a quadruped.
2. the fore part of the foot. stability and prevent slippage of the foot and lateral shoe "breakup."
Make sure shoes have a toe box Noun 1. toe box - the forward tip of the upper of a shoe or boot that provides space and protection for the toes; "the toe box may be rounded or pointed"
boot - footwear that covers the whole foot and lower leg that is high enough to prevent irritation of toes and nails. Major shoe companies today have designed special shoes for aerobics, which provide the necessary arch and side support; they also have soles that allow for the twisting and turning of an aerobics regimen.
Spinning is an exciting aerobic exercise developed in the 1980s. Participants use a specially designed stationary bike and the instructor leads the class on an imaginary ride accompanied by energizing music. During an average 45-minute class, you can burn 400 to 500 calories. Be sure to talk with the instructor before your first class to go over the type of clothing you might need (padded shorts), your target heart rate and your physical limitations.
Swimming is an ideal exercise for pregnant women and those with physical limitations such as musculoskeletal musculoskeletal /mus·cu·lo·skel·e·tal/ (-skel´e-t'l) pertaining to or comprising the skeleton and muscles.
Relating to or involving the muscles and the skeleton. problems and asthma. However, swimming does not raise the heart rate quite as much as other aerobic exercises because humans are equipped with a reflex that causes the heart to slow when immersed in water. It is also not the best activity for losing weight because the body tends to conserve body fat as insulation in cold environments. For those whose only option is swimming, however, it is certainly better than remaining inactive. If you have arthritis, try to find a facility with a warm-water pool that conforms to Arthritis Foundation This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. Guidelines.
Flexibility training is important because it helps prevent cramps, stiffness and injuries. These exercises also ensure a wide range of motion, particularly important as women age. Two flexibility/stretching regimes are popular enough now that you should be able to find a class for either that fits your needs and schedule:
T'ai chi, an ancient Chinese List of ancient Chinese is a list of noteworthy people of ancient China. Different definitions of "ancient" China exist, but most agree that it is before the Tang dynasty. Related lists
A general listing of existing lists related to this topic. practice, is becoming popular for older adults. T'ai chi incorporates slow, graceful movements with relaxation and breathing techniques. It can improve strength, flexibility, balance, coordination and posture and is recommended by the National Institute on Aging because it may reduce older adults' risks of falling. Traditionally performed on land, t'ai chi can also be done in chest-deep water for added resistance and support (called water t'ai chi).
Yoga has been practiced for more than 5,000 years around the world, and about 11 million Americans currently do yoga. Yoga increases flexibility, strength, balance and range of motion. It also reduces stress and increases feelings of well-being. Everyone from high-powered executives to stay-at-home moms to people coping with illness or injuries can practice yoga. A typical yoga class involves breathing, warm up, yoga postures This is a list of some common Yoga postures, or asanas. It would be impossible to delineate all recognized postures and their variations. In addition, other labels may be given to postures, depending on the school, the origin of the system within that school, or the yogi or guru that consist of specific ways of stretching and moving the body, and relaxation and visualization. Be sure to find a certified yoga teacher and begin slowly.
Pilates is a 70-year-old, low-impact exercise technique that was first developed by German immigrant Joseph Pilates. It has recently experienced an upsurge in popularity in part because of the great interest in yoga and also because numerous celebrities have begun using it for toning and stretching. Some Pilates programs use special machines with pulleys and ropes that gently stretch all parts of your body with mild resistance; others use a series of floor exercises more akin to yoga. Much of the focus of Pilates is on strengthening back and abdominal muscles, increasing flexibility and building core strength.
You can buy a video to show you how to do stretching exercises in the privacy of your own home, or you can have a personal trainer at a gym show you how to incorporate the exercises after your cool-down period.
Special considerations: exercising when pregnant
Exercising when you're pregnant can help you achieve better posture, less back pain, less stress, better digestion, more energy, an easier delivery and less "postpartum postpartum /post·par·tum/ (post-pahr´tum) occurring after childbirth, with reference to the mother.
Of or occurring in the period shortly after childbirth. belly." It can also prevent or control gestational diabetes Gestational Diabetes Definition
Gestational diabetes is a condition that occurs during pregnancy. Like other forms of diabetes, gestational diabetes involves a defect in the way the body processes and uses sugars (glucose) in the diet. and reduce the risk of complications during delivery. If you've exercised throughout your pregnancy, you will be rewarded with increased strength, flexibility and stamina during labor and delivery, as well as a faster recovery.
Be sure to consult with your doctor about your exercise routine. If you were active before becoming pregnant, you should be able to continue, within reason. If you are new to exercise, be sure to start slowly and do not overdo. Low-intensity or low-impact cardiovascular exercise cardiovascular exercise Sports medicine Any vigorous aerobic exercise, which near-maxes the heart rate–eg, basketball, bicycling, cross-country skiing, dancing, hiking, jogging, race-walking, racquetball, running, skating, soccer, stair-climbing, volleyball. like walking, swimming, low-impact aerobics classes or special exercise classes for pregnant women are best. You can engage in these activities most days or every day of the week for about 30 minutes per session. Ask your health care professional about a target heart rate; one below 140 beats per minute is recommended. It's critical that you keep your body cool and well-hydrated (drink lots of water) during exercise. Don't forget to warm up and cool down.
Strength training during pregnancy can also help build your stamina and strengthen your muscles and bones. Use lighter weights or resistance because heavier weights increase your chances of injury. Remember to breathe normally and follow these pointers:
Don't lie on your back to exercise once you pass your 20th week of pregnancy.
Avoid deep knee bends, abdominal exercises while lying down, double leg raises and straight-leg toe touches because your ligaments are more prone to injury during pregnancy.
Don't exercise in hot, humid weather or wear excessive clothing because getting overheated could harm your baby.
Always drink plenty of liquids and stop and consult your health care professional if any unusual symptoms appear, including pain, bleeding, dizziness, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat or difficulty walking.
Special considerations: women with chronic conditions
Today, exercise is often recommended as a management strategy for many chronic medical conditions See carpal tunnel syndrome, computer vision syndrome, dry eyes and deep vein thrombosis. . Of course, a thorough discussion of exercise with your health care professional is imperative prior to beginning any kind of program.
For example, exercise is highly recommended for women with osteoporosis, a bone disease that causes bones to thin and weaken. A carefully designed exercise program can help protect your bones and retard development of the disease. Weight training, in particular, helps counter the effects of osteoporosis by stimulating bone formation.
Choose weights heavy enough to tire your muscles after about 12 repetitions. The last two reps should be difficult to achieve, because the idea is that your muscles are challenged. When you can comfortably do 12 or more repetitions of a certain exercise, increase the resistance by five to 10 percent. Walking, jogging and aerobics classes also help build bone. Bicycling and swimming, however, don't stimulate bone formation in the hips because you do not bear your full body weight on your feet. Flexibility exercises enhance your posture and increase your balance, making you less susceptible to dangerous falls.
Exercise is also extremely helpful if you have diabetes, and studies find that people with diabetes who are physically active have fewer complications. Exercise can reduce blood sugar levels and enable your muscles to use glucose more efficiently, reducing or eliminating the need for insulin.
The American Diabetes Association recommends aerobic activity at least five days a week for about 30 minutes, as well as strength training and stretching exercises several times a week. Your health care professional should oversee the design of your fitness program.
And always check your blood sugar level prior to exercise and make sure it's not low. Exercise increases the ability of glucose to get into cells, reducing the need for insulin. Always have a fast-acting sugar source with you in case you do have a reaction, and wear a medical alert identification bracelet or necklace.
For women at risk of developing heart disease, exercise is crucial. In fact, according to the American Heart Association, lack of physical activity is now clearly shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease
Disease that affects the heart and blood vessels.
Mentioned in: Lipoproteins Test
cardiovascular disease , the number one killer in America.
Studies find that people who are physically inactive are twice as likely to develop heart disease--a risk factor as significant as high cholesterol Cholesterol, High Definition
Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in animal tissue and is an important component to the human body. It is manufactured in the liver and carried throughout the body in the bloodstream. , high blood pressure and cigarette smoking. Even low-to-moderate-intensity activities such as pleasure walking, climbing stairs, gardening, yard work, moderate-to-heavy housework or dancing can bring benefits when performed for as little as 30 minutes a day. More vigorous aerobic activities such as brisk walking, running, group fitness classes, swimming, bicycling, roller skating roller skating, gliding on a hard, smooth, durable surface on skates with rollers or wheels, in recent years has become a popular adult sport. Skates mounted on wooden rollers date from the 1860s, and soon wooden wheels replaced the rollers. and jumping rope most days of the week for 30 to 60 minutes are best for improving the fitness of the heart and lungs.
If you already have heart disease, you can exercise safely as long as you work out under medical supervision and carefully monitor warning symptoms. Check with your local hospital or university for monitored cardiac rehabilitation Cardiac Rehabilitation Definition
Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive exercise, education, and behavioral modification program designed to improve the physical and emotional condition of patients with heart disease. exercise programs.
Strenuous physical exertion, however, is never recommended for people who suffer from congestive heart failure congestive heart failure, inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time. , unstable angina un·sta·ble angina
Angina pectoris characterized by pain of coronary origin that occurs in response to less exercise or other stimuli than usually required to produce pain. , chest pain, significant aortic valve aortic valve
The valve between the left ventricle of the heart and the ascending aorta, consisting of three semilunar cusps.
Aortic valve disease or aortic aneurysm Aortic Aneurysm Definition
An aneurysm is an abnormal bulging or swelling of a portion of a blood vessel. The aorta, which can develop these abnormal bulges, is the large blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to the rest of the , although some may benefit from mild or moderate exercise under controlled situations.
Exercise also is beneficial for and can help control obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and back pain and may improve the symptoms of some neurological and emotional disorders. It also has been shown to help prevent certain types of cancer.
"Physical activity." HealthierUS.gov. 2007. http://www.healthierus.gov. Accessed October 2007.
"Physical activity." Womenshealth.gov. January 2005. (Link from the HealthierUs.gov site). http://www.womenshealth.gov/. Accessed October 2007.
"Fitness Fundamentals: Guidelines for Personal Exercise Programs." 2007. http://www.fitness.gov. Accessed October 2007.
"U.S. Physical Activities Statistics." The Center for Disease Control and Prevention Noun 1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention - a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services; located in Atlanta; investigates and diagnoses and tries to control or prevent diseases (especially new and unusual diseases)
CDC . Updated May 2007. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov. Accessed October 2007.
Jakicic JM, et al. "Effect of Exercise Duration and Intensity on Weight Loss in Overweight, Sedentary Women" JAMA. 2003;290: 1323-1330. http://jama.ama-assn.org. Accessed September 2003.
"What are some tips for being more active?" National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. . Updated Feb. 2003. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed August 2003.
Yoke yoke (yok)
1. a connecting structure.
n 1. something that connects or binds. M. "A Guide to Personal Fitness Training." Sherman Oaks. Calif: Aerobics and Fitness Association of America The Aerobics and Fitness Association of America (AFAA) is a fitness education company that was established in 1983, and operates out of Sherman Oaks, California. AFAA offers education workshops and certifications internationally but mainly operates in the United States. ; 1997. http://www.afaa.com. Accessed August 2003.
Jordan P. "Fitness: Theory and Practice." Sherman Oaks. Calif: Aerobics and Fitness Association of America and Stoughton. Mass: Reebok University Press; 2nd ed. 1995. http://www.afaa.com. Accessed August 2003.
"Healthy eating tips." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov. Updated April 2003. Accessed Aug. 2003.
"Physical activity and good nutrition." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov. Reviewed May 2003. Accessed August 2003.
"Exercise: Feeling fit for life." National Institute on Aging. http://www.niapublications.org. 2000. Accessed August 2003.
Cahill S. "Exercise." National Institute on Aging. http://www.niapublications.org. June 2001. Accessed Aug. 2003.
"Physical Activity: AHA scientific position." American Heart Association. 2007. http://www.americanheart.org. Accessed February 2007.
"Chapter 4: Physical Activity." Dietary Guidelines dietary guidelines Cardiology A series of dietary recommendations from the Nutrition Committee of the Am Heart Assn, that promote cardiovascular health. See Caloric restriction, food pyramid, French paradox. for Americans 2005, U.S. Department of Agriculture. http://www.health.gov. Accessed February 2007.
"Target Heart Rates." American Heart Association. 2007. Accessed February 2007.
"Strength Training: Get stronger, leaner, and healthier." The Mayo Clinic. July 2006. http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed February 2007.
"Aerobics & Your Feet" American Podiatric Medical Association 2007. http://www.apma.org. Accessed February 2007.
"ACE Yoga Study." The American Council on Exercise. 2007. http://www.acefitness.org. Accessed February 2007.
"Strength Training 101." The American Council on Exercise. 2007. http://www.acefitness.org. Accessed February 2007.
"Pilates Primer" The American Council on Exercise. 2007. http://www.acefitness.org. Accessed February 2007.
"Types of Exercise." American Diabetes Association. 2007. http://www.diabetes.org. Accessed February 2007.
"Getting Started." American Diabetes Association. 2007. http://www.diabetes.org. Accessed February 2007.
"Physical Activity Among Adults: United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , 2000 and 2005." The National Center for Health Statistics. 2007. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed February 2007.
"Physical inactivity physical inactivity A sedentary state. Cf Physical activity. and your heart." American Heart Association. 2007. www.americanheart.org. Accessed February 2007.
"Flexible benefits." The American Council on Exercise. 2007. http://www.acefitness.org. Accessed February 2007.
"Exercise During Pregnancy." Harvard University Harvard University, mainly at Cambridge, Mass., including Harvard College, the oldest American college. Harvard College
Harvard College, originally for men, was founded in 1636 with a grant from the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Health Services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract . 2003. http://huhs.harvard.edu. Accessed February 2007.
"Risk Factors." The University of Virginia Health System. 2007. http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu. Accessed February 2007.
Keywords: Fitness, lifestyle physical activity, women, pregnant women, aerobic exercise, strength training, stretching, flexibility, heart rate, target heart rate, brisk walking, jogging, boxing classes, tae bo, swimming, yoga, practice yoga, pilates, pregnant, during pregnancy, pregnancy, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol