Fire for effect: western developments in self-propelled artillery.
After nearly 50 years of domination by the Soviets, the artillery world is now on the brink of some radical changes wrought by western engineers.
The first of these is the decision by the United States, Britain, Germany, Italy and France to adopt barrels with a length of 52 calibres, and a chamber volume of 23 litres, for their future 155 mm self-propelled howitzers. These will provide effective ranges of at least 40 km with standard, unassisted projectiles, a startling increase of 62 percent over the 24.7 km ranges achieved by NATO's current 39-calibre 155 mm weapons with standard HE shells.
If the 52-calibre 155 mm howitzers are used to fire standard HE rounds fitted with drag-reducing base bleed units, they should achieve 50 km ranges. And if they fire Extended Range Full Bore (ERFB) projectiles with bore-riding nubs, plus base bleed, they may go to 55 or 60 km. The new, long-barrel artillery weapons are likely to start entering service with the western allies by the mid-1990s.
They have been preceded, mainly in South Africa and the Arab world, by a proliferation of 155 mm towed weapons with 45-calibre barrels. Almost all of them are derived from the pioneering work of one man, the brilliant but maverick Dr. Gerry Bull, and his design team at the Brussels-based Space Research Corporation (SRC). With ERFB projectiles - also originally designed by SRC - and base bleed, the 45-calibre tubes achieve ranges up to 39.9 km. Bull discovered that base bleed systems provide significantly less dispersion than Rocket Assisted Projectiles (RAPs), and was the first to apply the Swedish patented design.
If Bull precipitated the first major step forward in western artillery developments in 50 years, he has had little or nothing to do with the second. This will probably materialize in operational form in about 2010, but its outlines are already apparent. Using either Liquid Propellant (LP), Electro-Thermal (ET), or Combustion-Augmented Plasma (CAP) technologies, western 155 mm self-propelled artillery weapons of the next century are going to have the installed firepower of a present-day battery, a burst fire rate of 12 rounds per minute, and a range of up to 60 km.
Liquid propellant development is advancing rapidly in Germany, Britain and the United States, while electro-thermal and CAP developments appear to be the preserves of America. Just how much funding these heavy weapons will receive in the present defence budget-cutting climate remains to be seen.
Tho funding prospects for new towed 155 mm howitzers destined for use in low intensity conflicts, however, look decidedly more rosy. Here, the trend is towards major weight reductions, to permit the new weapons to be carried underslung by helicopters. The first two contenders in this field are both British.
So too is the market leader in towed 105 mm light guns. These, together with mortars, would probably be the first artillery to go into action in a low intensity conflict requiring rapid deployment of light forces. France has recently revived a national programme for a similar 105 mm gun to equip some units of its Force d'Action Rapide (FAR), but it has so far received few orders, even from the French Army.
Although the British Royal Ordnance 105 mm Light gun first entered service in 1973, it is still selling well (most recently entering US Army service as the M119) and, as yet, there is no real competition to it on the horizon.
The following survey, by country, covers the most significant modern self-propelled artillery systems available from western manufacturers, or in development. It makes no claim to be all-inclusive, since this would fill the magazine. The survey also includes boxes on new lightweight towed 155 mm howitzers, and on the two leading 105 mm light guns.
Going, as usual, against the grain of conventional wisdom, Gerry Bull's Space Research Corporation (SRC) in Belgium has launched the development of a new self-propelled howitzer in the 203 mm (8-inch) calibre that everybody else had thought was about to head for the museum. Not only that, but the VSP is a wheeled 6X6 design which, according to its description, is virtually identical to the 155 mm South African G6 (see below). It may, in fact, be using Armscor's unique G6 chassis, though no photographs have been released which could confirm this.
In addition to the weapon, SRC is developing a completely new family of ERFB ammunition to go with it. Fired from the VSP's 45.5-calibre 203 mm tube, standard ERFB projectiles will have a range of more than 38 km (vs. 21.3 km for HE rounds fired by the American M110A2), while ERFB base bleed rounds will achieve 50 km.
The VSP has a four-man crew, three of whom are in the turret with the ordnance and an automatic loader for the 30 rounds of ammunition carried on board.
The vehicle is powered by a V-12 diesel via an automatic transmission, both located to the rear of the driver's position over the front axle, as in the G6.
The turret is located in the conventional position at the back of the vehicle, with a traverse of [+ or -] 40[degrees], again identical to the G6. Maximum barrel elevation is 55[degrees]. Both the turret and the high ground-clearance hull have large rear access doors for ammunition loading.
The crew ar provided with a collective NBC system, and the VSP is clearly capable of firing chemical and nuclear projectiles, especially if these are developed in ERFB form.
According to strong, but so far unconfirmed, rumours Gerry Bull was working closely with an Arab state which has a proven chemical warfare capability and is developing nuclear weapons at the time of his assassination by a professional killer on 22 February this year.
In June 1989, after six months of intensive prototype trials, the British Army awarded Vickers Shipbuilding & Engineering Ltd (VSEL) a 300 pounds million fixed price contract for 170 production versions of its new 155 mm AS90 SP howitzer. During the trials, the two prototypes fired more than 1500 rounds and travelled some 3000 km without a mission-relevant failure.
First production AS90s, fitted with 39-calibre barrels, are to be completed in 1991, and the first regiment is to become operational in 1992. VSEL's present contract includes an option for a further 50 vehicles.
The prototypes have also been tested with 47 and 52-calibre barrels. The AS90 is designed specifically with these and other upgrades in mind (including possible fitting of liquid propellant, electro-thermal or combustion-augmented plasma systems) during its expected 25-year service life.
The AS90 has a combat weight of 42 tonnes and a crew of five. The chassis and turret are both of welded steel, with a maximum thickness of 17 mm.
The powerplant is a Cummins VTA 903T-660 V-8 diesel of 500kW (but with growth potential to at least 600 kW), mounted alongside the driver. The engine drives the front sprockets via a fully automatic ZF LSG2000 transmission, with eight forward and two reverse gears. The six double roadwheels on each side are fitted with Air Log hydropneumatic suspensions. This gives excellent cross-country performance, including a maximum gradient of 60%. Maximum road range with 640 litres of fuel is 430 km, and maximum road speed is 55 km/h.
Powered by silent electric drives at 10[degrees]/sec, the turret has 360[degrees] traverse and ordnance elevation of -5 to +70[degrees]. Full manual backup is also provided.
The Commander has a cupola on the right side of the turret roof, fitted with a day/night sight incorproating a Gen. III image intensifier, and a .5in anti-aircraft machine-gun is mounted on the air sentry's hatch to its left. An NBC pack is mounted at the right rear of the turret, and a Marconi Marcal muzzle velocity radar in front of the gun mantlet. The gun clamp on the front of the hull is remotely operated fromthe driver's position.
The 39-calibre Royal Ordnance barrel, with fume extractor and double-baffle muzzle brake, can be withdrawn forwards through the mantlet in under an hour. The ordnance is fitted with a split sliding block breech, a 12-round primer magazine, two opposed buffers and a single recuperator.
A bustle-mounted autoloader contains 31 of the vehicle's 48 on-board projectiles and charges. These can be fired at a burs rate of three rounds in 10 seconds, or six rounds per minute. Sustained rate is two rounds per minute. With standard HE rounds, a maximum range of 24,7 km can be achieved, but with ERFB ammunition this is increased to 32 km.
Fitting a 52-calibre tube will provide max ranges of 30 km with standard ammunition, and 40 km with the addition of base bleed. If ERFB rounds fitted with base bleed units are employed, however, ranges of 50 km should be possible with the 52-calibre barrel.
An autonomous navigation and gun laying system (AGLS), incorporating a ring-laser gyro-based inertial Dynamic Reference Unit (DRU, produced under US licence) is fitted in AS90. This permits the weapon to operate alone, when necessary.
The Turret Control Computer is linked to the DRU, the elvation and traverse drives, the layer's joystick and display unit, the ammunition handling and power distribution systems, and the gun display unit (GDU).
Operating via the AS90's UK/PRC 351 Clansman VHF radio, the GDU receives fire control orders directly from the British Army's new BATES artillery command and control system.
A two-stroke diesel auxiliary power unit in the fighting compartment permits the batteries to be recharged without having to run the main engine.
GIAT's then very advanced 155 mm GCT (Grande Cadence de Tir) self-propelled howitzer went into production in 1977 to meet a French Army requirement for 195 weapons. First deliveries, however, were made in 1978 to Saudi Arabia, which ordered 51 of them. These were all delivered by 1982.
The first French Army order was not placed until 1979. In 1982, Iraq ordered 85 GCTs, receiving a number on loan from the Saudis pending delvieries to Baghdad by GIAT.
Based on the rear-engined AMX-30 tank chassis, the GCT weighs 42 tonnes combat loaded, and has a crew of four. It has a large, centrally mounted turret in which are mounted the 40 calibre 155 mm ordnance and the western world's first automatic loader. The turret is hydraulically driven, at 10[degrees]/sec in all-round traverse, and at 5[degrees]/sec in elevation of -4[degrees] to +66[degrees]. Manual backup is provided.
The auto loader draws on the bustle load of 42 projectiles and cartridge cases, allowing burst fire of six rounds in 45 seconds, or an average rate of fire of eight rounds/min. With manual loading, rate of fire is 2-3 rounds/min. A further 40 charges are also stowed in the turret basket.
Maximum ranges of 28.5 km are achieved with reduced drag base conventional HE rounds, or 31.5 km with combined rocket-assisted/base bleed projectiles. Into action time is 1-2 min and out of action time is 1 min.
To reload the bustle racks, two large doors at the back of the turret fold down to the horizontal, providing a crew platform. The operation can be completed in 15 minutes by four men.
The GCT is powered by a 12-cylinder Hispano Suiza multi-fuel engine developing 540 kW. This drives the rear sprockets through a transmission consisting of an automatic clutch, combined gearbox and steering unit, brakes, and two final drives. The mechanically-operated gearbox has five forward and five reverse gears, and the steering system has a triple differential. Torsion bar suspension is fitted, and road wheel pairs 1, 2, 4 and 5 ar mounted on bogeys.
Maximum road speed is 60 km/h, and road range is 450 km.
Two SP howitzer programmes are under way in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The first is a weapon upgrade to the German and Norwegian armies' existing M109Gs, being carried out by Rheinmetall, resulting in the M109A3G. In essence, this replaces the original 155 mm barrel (with its distinctive "doughnut" fume extractor) by a 39-calibre barrel derived from that of the FH-70 towed howitzer. This allows the complete family of NATO ammunition to be fired to ranges of 24.7 km, or 30 km with base bleed.
Other modifications to the M109A3G include a new 22-round bustle magazine, a turbo-supercharger and reinforced torsion bar suspension.
The second German programme is far more ambitious. Intended to replace all the Bundeswehr towed FH-70s, all its M109s and all its 203 mm M110s, it calls for a total of 1254 new-generation Panzerhaubitze 2000s. Production is scheduled to start in 1998, unless the programme is cancelled due to reduced threat perceptions and unification of the two Germanys.
Specifications for the 155 mm PzH 2000 are not dissimilar from those for the US Army's futuristic AFAS (see below). It is to be fitted with a 52-calibre Rheinmetall barrel, an automatic loader giving a burst firing rate of three rounds in 10 seconds, on-board capacity for 60 projectiles and Rheinmetall modular unicharges, and must achieve 30 km range with standard ammunition, or considerably more with base bleed.
The barrel will have a muzzle velocitly of 945 m/s and will have a quick-change bayonet fixture. On the elevating mass will be fitted a 30-round automatic primer feed mechanism.
Two consortia are competing for the PzH 2000 contract - the so-called Northern Group led by Wegmann, with Krupp MaK, and the Southern Group headed by Krauss-Maffei, with Kuka, Porshe and Rheinmetall.
In 1987 each consortium was awarded a two-year contract of approximately DM 90 million covering Phase 1 concept definition and construction of one prototype. These were handed over in mid-February 1990 for testing at Meppen until late in the year, at which point one design is supposed to be selected for Phase 2 advanced development, including the construction of a further four prototypes.
Both designs use front-mounted MTU 881 diesel engines and automatic transmissions. The Northern Group's WECO design makes use of Leopard 1 tank components, with seven road wheels per side, while the Southern Group's Taurus employs Leopard 2 components and has six road wheel pairs.
A version of the US M109A6 Howitzer Improvement Programme kit, now entering production at BMY's (see below), is intended for the Israeli Defence Forces, which have been co-sponsoring the development of the kit. The Israeli Defence Forces version is known as the M109A1C and is a potential retrofit for the entire Israeli Defence Forces version vehicles.
Unlike its American counterpart, the M109A1C HIP kit incorporates a rebuilt, rather than a new, turret with a full-width bustle added. Is has a lower powered generator (400 Amps), and three features not fitted in the American HIP. These are: an APU; a muzzle velocity radar; and a Sondertechnik semi-automatic loader providing burst fire of three rounds in 12 seconds.
In place of the Honeywell MAPS position/navigation system, the M109A1C has a Tamam Gun Orientation and Navigation System (GONS). This uses a covnentional gyro, rather than the ring-laser gyro in MAPS.
The honeywell Automatic Fire Control system (AFCS) in the American HIP is replaced in the Israeli vehicle with a simpler Howitzer Advanced Fire-Control System (HAFCS), developed by the MBT division of Israel Aircraft Industries. The HAFCS has no ballistic computing capability. Instead, it receives fire-control and laying orders from the fire direction centre.
These orders, together with the GONS navigational directions, are displayed as simple up/down, left/right indications on the crew's liquid crystal displays, allowing little room for crew error.
A prototype M109A1C turret explosion killed two Israeli crewmen in November 1989, during trials at Yuma, Arizona. The cause is still under investigation by the US Army, but appears to have been crew error rather than a contractor fault. The remaining prototype turret has meanwhile been shipped to Israel for operational trials. These are expected to run from August this year to January 1991, when an IDF decision on procurement and/or any changes should be taken.
Israeli ordnance manufacturer Soltam has meanwhile dusted off its 10 year-old prototype 155 mm SP howitzer, known as Slammer, in the hope of supplanting the M109A1C.
Using a front-engined Merkava chassis, the slammer has a 45-calibre barrel (which could be replaced by a 52-calibre tube) in a rear-mounted turret. It has a rate of fire of 3-6 rounds per minute and an effective range in excess of 30 km. A remarkable total of 75 projectiles and charges is carried on board, and - according to Soltam - any type of 155 mm ammunition can be used.
Soltam's renewed hopes for the Slammer have recently been dashed, however, with a statement by the IDF Deputy Chief of Staff that there is no money available in the budget for an all-new self-propelled howitzer.
As a private venture purely for export, OTO-Melara began development of the 155 mm Palmaria SP howitzer in 1977. First production vehicles rolled out in 1982 for Libya, which had ordered 210. Nigeria ordered 25 in 1982, and Argentina took delivery of the last of 25 Palmaria turrets in 1986. These are intended to be fitted on stretched TAM (Thyssen Henschel Marder) light tank chassis, which have still not been produced.
The 46-tonne Palmaria has a crew of five. It uses the OF40 battle tank chassis, with a different engine, in this case a multi-fuel, turbocharged 8-cylinder MTU powerplant developing 560 kW. This drives the rear sprockets via a Renk planetary gearbox with power shift, four forward gears and one reverse, a hydraulic torque converter and lockup clutch. Maximum road speed is 60 km/h, and road range is 500 km with 800 litres of fuel.
The central turret mounts a 41-calibre 155 mm tube and an automatic loader with 23 ready rounds, giving a burst fire capability of three rounds in 20 seconds. Seven more rounds are stowed in the hull. Turret drives are hydraulic with manual backup. The turret can traverse through 360[degrees] and elevation limits are -4[degrees] to 170[degrees].
For loading, the barrel returns automatically to an elevation of +2[degrees]. Charges are loaded manually. Intense firing rate is four rounds in one minute, normal rate is one round per minute for one hour, and sustained rate is one round every three minutes for indefinite periods.
The specially developed Simmel ammunition has ranges of 24.7 km (standard), 27,5 km with base bleed, and 30 km with rocket-assisted rounds.
Armscor's 46-tonne G6 155 mm wheeled SP howitzer has a crew of six. It has been in series production since 1988. Designed to keep up with the Ratel wheeled APC on extended range operations into Angola, it uses a unique 6X6 chassis with independent torsion bar and damper supension on all six permanently driven wheels. The chassis is of welded steel, with a double floor to provide mine protection, and a central type inflation system is fitted.
The driver, provided with power steering, sits in a cab with large armoured glass windows, set low between the front wheels. Ahead of the front wheels is a full-width, wedge shaped armoured stowage box holding sixteen 155 mm projectiles, that also acts as a clearing device for bush and small trees.
Immediately behind the driver is the engine and transmission compartment. The engine is an air-cooled diesel developing 390 kW, and the automatic transmission with torque converter has six forward speeds and two reverse. Drive shafts run from the transmission, via differentials, to each wheel. Maximum road speed is 90 km/h, road range with 700 litres of fuel is 600 km, and maximum gradient is 50%.
Above the two pairs of rear wheels are the electro-hydraulically controlled turret and the crew compartment. The turret, with its limited traverse of +/-40[degrees], mounts a variant of the 45-calibre 155 mm ordnance in the Armscor G5 towed howitzer. Elevation limits of the ordnance are -5 to +75[degrees]. It has a fume extractor, a semi-automatic screw breech, and is fitted with a flick rammer. The recoil mechanism consists of a buffer, a recuperator and a replenisher.
Ready rounds are placed in the ramming tray by hand from the feed tray conveyor beneath the ammunition racks located in the rear of the hull, below the turret ring. The ramming tray is then swung in behind the breech (at any elevation), and the flick rammer is activated. Propelling charges are manually loaded. The ammunition racks contain 31 rounds and 51 charges.
All ammunition is of the ERFB type. Standard rounds have a range of 30.8 km, while base bleed rounds achieve 39 km, or more at altitudes above sea level and high ambient temperatures.
Burst fire of three rounds in 21 seconds is possible, and a good crew can fire four rounds per minute for up to 15 minutes. For sustained fire, external fuzed ammunition and charges are passed in through the rear of the vehicle via the feed tray conveyor, bypassing the on-board racks which are kept full. This is done either manually, by the driver and turret machine gunner, or automatically through chutes from an accompanying ammunition resupply vehicle.
The G6's into action time without preparation is 60 seconds The lowering of four hydraulic jacks, however (two between the first and second axles and two at the rear), significantly speeds up gun relaying.
The two major US Army self-propelled howitzer programmes are the M109A6 Howitzer Improvement Programme (HIP), and the Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS). The HIP was ordered into production at BMY in March this year, while the Army was expected to issue initial Requests for Quotations (RFQs) to industry on the all-new AFAS as this article went to press.
A team led by BMY won the HIP engineering development contract in October 1985. The recent order for the first 220 systems was placed after successful operational testing of four M109A6 prototypes, in parallel with trials of two prototype M109A1C variants for Israel (see above). The total US Army requirement calls for the upgrading of approximately 1000 M109s to A6 status.
The M109A6 configuration introduces upgrades in several key areas. The Honeywell Automatic Fire-Control System (AFCS, which includes a ballistic computer) and MAPS on-board navigation system will allow crews to deploy from road march status to target engagement within 60 seconds. Once in firing position, response time is reduced to less than 30 seconds. Integrated with the AFCS is a General Electric prognostics/diagnostics system that continuously monitors the performance of major subsystems. The new turret, with full-width bustle, incorporates additional survival features. These include Kevlar-lined aluminium armour; segregated hydraulics components and fuzed hydraulic lines; and a Hamilton Standard microclimatic cooling system for operations in NBC conditions. The M109a6's new M284 cannon assembly provides a range increase of 25% to 30 km. An automatic gun pointing system is filled, as are new gun drive serves. Mobility has also been considerably improved, with a new suspension and modified power train.
The first 220 M109A6s are to start production this summer, and be delivered by 1992.
The US Army's ambitious Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS) programme has been through many vicissitudes to date, including repeated cancellation of funding for its R&D in the defense budget. At present, the AFAS is still supposed to be mounted on a chassis that will also be common to that of the next-generation (Block III) main battle tank, the Future Infantry Fighting Vehicle (FIFV) and the new Combat Mobility Vehicle (CMV), as part of the Army's umbrella Heavy Forces Modernization (HFM) programme.
Due to the effect of glasnost on Congress and the resulting budget cuts, however, the HFM programme is in trouble on Capitol Hill. The Army has been asked to re-think the programme with a view to reorienting it more towards currently perceived threats, such as low intensity conflicts.
Whatever the outcome, and whatever the merits of the M109A6 HIP, it is glaringly evident that the Army cannot any longer postpone the start of development of a successor to the 27 year-old M109 series, if it wants a credible artillery capability in the 21st century.
The Army's AFAS specifications call for a crew of four in the vehicle, which must be air-transportable in the C-5 and C-17. A 52-calibre 155 mm gun tube is to be fitted; this is required to have a range of 40 km with unassisted rounds, and 50 km assisted by ballistic technology alone (i.e. base bleed or rocket), although desired maximum ranges are understood to be 50 km and 60 km respectively.
A total of 60 rounds must be carried aboard the vehicle, which is to have a fully automatic ammunition and charge loading system. Required burst rate of fire is four rounds in 15 seconds with a cyclic rate of 12 rounds per minute for five minutes, followed by three rounds per minute thereafter. The AFAS is
to be highly autonomous, working essentially alone for up to five days, with only an accompanying Forward Area Resupply Vehicle -- Artillery (FARV-A) to replenish it with ammunition and fuel.
To achieve maximum lethality, the AFAS must be capable of three rounds simultaneous effect on target, by firing them on different trajectories. This will also improve the gun's survivability by severely complicating the task of enemy counter-battery locating radars, which plot successive incoming shell trajectories back to their source. By the time the AFAS's projectiles arrive on target, it can h ave pulled out of its firing position.
Other survivability requirements for the AFAS include compartmentalization, all-round armour protection (including against top attack), insensitive munitions, and mobility equal to that of the manoeuvre units it will support. The range of the weapon will also contribute to its protection.
Because they will often operate on their own, the AFAS and its FARV-A will each require a 30 mm cannon and suitable warning sensors to defend themselves against air and ground threats. The AFAS may, in addition, be equipped with a smart antihelicopter round for the main gun, and decoy systems for use against anti-tank guided missiles.
An NBC warning system is also specified. The AFAS is required to operate for no less than 72 hours closed-down in NBC conditions. The design is to make maximum use of state-of-the-art navigation, positioning, auto-laying, fire-control and diagnostics/prognostics systems, with the contractors obliged to employ SAVER and V/TRONICS architecture. It is also to incorporate a self-repair capability and use modular components.
The new weapon and auto-loader must - at least intially - work with a six-module, fully combustible unicharge system developed by ARDEC (the Army's Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center) at Picatinny Arsenal. Down-stream alternatives to be examined are General Electric's liquid propellant gun system and FMC's combustion augmented plasma (CAP) gun technology. Of these, the former appears the most mature in terms of its development and applicability aboard a howitzer prototype, although the CAP system may turn out to offer range advantages and less barrel wear.
Selection of the HFM Common Chassis for full-scale engineering development is not currently scheduled until April 1992, when the programme for 3349 Block III battle tanks is due to start. The contractor for 249 CMVs is to be chosen in 1993, and choice of a design for 1375 FIFVs should be made in 1995. The AFAS and FARV-A developer is supposed to be selected in 1994.
Whilst awaiting the Common Chassis selection (assuming the outline of the above HFM programme survives), the AFAS Program Manager is expected to call for quotations on an interim Advanced Technology Transition Demonstrator (ATTD), for up to four years of testing to start in 1992. The AFAS demonstrator will mount a 52-calibre 155 mm gun, using conventional ammunition and charge system. It may be based on proposals for the Block III and Common Chassis, or it may use a surrogate Abrams tank chassis, suitably modified to incorporate the artillery module.
In parallel, at least two heavily modified M109s are to be used as test rigs for different AFAS weapons alternatives. One of these will mount a conventional 52-calibre tube with ARDEC's unicharge system and an Odetics auto-loader, and one will be fitted with a General Electric 52-calibre liquid propellant gun. It is possible that FMC may be able to obtain funding for a third, which would be used to test a 52-calibre 155 mm version of its CAP gun. However, the CAP gun has only been fired a few times so far, in calibres no larger than 120 mm.
Candidates for the AFAS ATTD contract are expected to include the following teams: General Dynamics Land Systems with Britain's VSEL; General Motors Military Vehicles Operation, with General Electric and Martin Marietta, FMC with Magnavox and Texas Instruments; and possibly BMY with its HIP team members Honeywell, General Electric, Sondertechnik, ECC and Hamilton Standard.
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|Title Annotation:||includes related articles|
|Author:||Gourley, Scott R.|
|Date:||Apr 1, 1990|
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