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Fire and maneuver: versatility in COIN.

The 1st Battalion, 10th Field Artillery (1-10 FA), known as Task Force (TF) Rock redeployed to Fort Benning Fort Benning, U.S. army post, 189,000 acres (76,500 hectares), W Ga., S of Columbus; est. 1918. One of the largest army posts in the United States, it is the nation's largest infantry training center and the home of the Army Infantry School. , Georgia, in January 2006 after serving 12 months in Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedom III. The unit then reorganized into the traditional role of providing close in fire support for the Hammer Brigade Combat Team The brigade combat team (BCT) is the basic deployable unit of maneuver in the US Army. A brigade combat team consists of one combat arms branched maneuver brigade, and its attached support and fire units.  (BCT BCT Brigade Combat Team
BCT Basic Combat Training
BCT Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology (EPA)
BCT Business Cards Tomorrow
BCT Banque Centrale de Tunisie (Central Bank of Tunisia) 
). During the next 15 months, the battalion prepared for its future deployment, requiring its Artillerymen and Infantrymen to perform counterinsurgency coun·ter·in·sur·gen·cy  
Political and military strategy or action intended to oppose and forcefully suppress insurgency.

 (COIN)--training to attack the enemy along all logical lines of operations Lines that define the directional orientation of the force in time and space in relation to the enemy. They connect the force with its base of operations and its objectives. . The battalion's leadership stressed the importance of staying ahead of the enemy, learning faster and adapting more rapidly than he does, whether at the National Training Center (NTC NTC Notice
NTC National Training Center
NTC National Telecommunications Commission
NTC National Transport Commission (Australia)
NTC Negative Temperature Coefficient
NTC Naval Training Center
) in Fort Irwin, California, or in downtown Narwhan, Iraq.

Deployed in March 2007, for the next 14 months the battalion conducted multiple missions in three provinces across Iraq, executing detainee de·tain·ee  
A person held in custody or confinement: a political detainee.

Noun 1. detainee - some held in custody
political detainee
 operations in the largest detainment facility in the world, providing terrain denial fires in Baghdad and Basra, and owning the largest operational environment in Area of Operations An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their  (AO) Hammer.


This article describes the preparation, tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) TF Rock learned during previous deployments and the challenges it faced delivering fires in support of COIN operations.

Predeployment Training. While preparing for deployment, the brigade commander In the United States Army, the commanding officer of a brigade is a Brigade Commander. The position is usually held by a colonel, although a lieutenant colonel can be selected for brigade command in lieu of an available colonel.  ordered the battalion to train as a maneuver headquarters; one firing battery transforming into a motorized mo·tor·ize  
tr.v. mo·tor·ized, mo·tor·iz·ing, mo·tor·iz·es
1. To equip with a motor.

2. To supply with motor-driven vehicles.

3. To provide with automobiles.
 rifle company and one conducting traditional Artillery operations--the norm for most Artillery battalions in Iraq. Though the battalion becomes very busy with COIN operations, there still are FA missions that have to be resourced and executed, presenting more challenges than the typical maneuver headquarters faces.

Lessons learned from the unit's previous deployments led the battalion commander In the United States Army and United States Marine Corps, the commanding officer of a battalion is a Battalion Commander. The position is usually held by a lieutenant colonel, although a major can be selected for battalion command in lieu of an available lieutenant colonel.  to modify the training for combat operations. He chose to remove training normally integral to high intensity combat (HIC), such as smoke missions, coordinated illumination, and large irregular shaped targets.

Removing these missions, which have no relevance in support of COIN operations, allowed the battalion to conserve critical ammunition needed both to familiarize the fire direction centers (FDCs) with proper calibration procedures and for numerous multiple-round missions. Both firing batteries conducted Qualification Tables VIII and XII. Then A Battery conducted the required motorized rifle-company training, while B Battery performed Table XV qualification and conducted additional training, preparing for counterfire and terrain denial operations.

With the uncertainty of the types of missions facing Artillery battalions, firing batteries should qualify their sections on a modified Table VIII, including a low-angle fire-for-effect mission (counterfire), a low-angle adjust-fire mission (terrain denial), a calibration mission, a priority target mission, and, if possible, an Excalibur mission. These allow the units to perform multiple-round missions that section chiefs need to refine their crew drills.

Knowing that the entire battery would not be needed to conduct FA operations, TF Rock faced the challenge of training all Soldiers in COIN operations basics. This demanding training paid off, ensuring that everyone was proficient in COIN basics, key Arabic phrases and cultural concepts. The battery prepared for full-spectrum operations while at NTC, such as providing fixed-site security for the joint security station and manning the firing headquarters, command-security detachment, forward operating base An airfield used to support tactical operations without establishing full support facilities. The base may be used for an extended time period. Support by a main operating base will be required to provide backup support for a forward operating base. Also called FOB.  (FOB FOB 1) adj. short for Free on Board, meaning shipped to a specific place without cost. 2) Friend of Bill (Clinton). (See: Free on Board) ) quick reaction force and the detainee holding area.

Our brigade and battalion generated multiple smart cards Example of widely used contactless smart cards are Hong Kong's Octopus card, Paris' Calypso/Navigo card and Lisbon' LisboaViva card, which predate the ISO/IEC 14443 standard. The following tables list smart cards used for public transportation and other electronic purse applications.  containing pertinent data, such as improvised explosive device Noun 1. improvised explosive device - an explosive device that is improvised

explosive device - device that bursts with sudden violence from internal energy
 (IED Noun 1. IED - an explosive device that is improvised
I.E.D., improvised explosive device

explosive device - device that bursts with sudden violence from internal energy
) defeat, culture, useful Arabic phrases and combat lifesaving skills. Carrying these smart cards helps each Soldier and allows sergeants and leaders to conduct hip-pocket training during any downtime no matter where they are.

Full-Spectrum Operations. Shortly after arriving in theater, MultiNational Corps, Iraq, ordered TF Rock to Camp Bucca--the world's largest detainment facility--to conduct detainee operations. The Soldiers quickly grasped the skills, providing the proper custody, control and care for more than 3,500 detainees on a daily basis. The cultural, language and COIN training they had received in the states was integral to their ability to quell riots, attempted escapes and many other harmful situations during their tenure at Camp Bucca Camp Bucca is the name of a holding facility for security detainees maintained by the United States military in the vicinity of Umm Qasr, Iraq. The facility was initially called Camp Freddy and used by British Forces to hold Iraqi prisoners of war. . Their competent actions helped bring dangerous and radical insurgents Insurgents, in U.S. history, the Republican Senators and Representatives who in 1909–10 rose against the Republican standpatters controlling Congress, to oppose the Payne-Aldrich tariff and the dictatorial power of House speaker Joseph G. Cannon.  to justice.

Many of the unit's officers and NCOs took part in detainee release boards, and their experiences armed these leaders with the knowledge they would need later in conducting COIN operations. Because many of the detainees were released due to lack of evidence, these leaders learned that precise and comprehensive detainment paperwork can ensure the proper people are brought to justice.

Also, this assignment provided an opportunity to serve with our sister Services, the Air Force and Navy, in joint operations A general term to describe military actions conducted by joint forces or by Service forces in relationships (e.g., support, coordinating authority) which, of themselves, do not create joint forces. .

Joint Operations. After four months at Camp Bucca, the battery fielded the new Excalibur precision-guided munitions (PGM PGM Program
PGM Pragmatic General Multicast
PGM Phosphoglucomutase
PgM Program Manager
PGM Platinum Group Metal
PGM Pagemaker (software)
PGM Portable Gray Map
PGM Precision Guided Munition
) with a follow-on tasking to support British forces at Basra Air Station--the "incoming indirect-fire capital" of Iraq. Along with this mission, the battery assumed control of firing operations out of FOB Hammer in support of 3rd BCT, 3rd Infantry Division.

Integrating a platoon-sized element into Battery A, 1st Royal Horse Artillery The Royal Horse Artillery (RHA) is a Regiment in the British Army. "A" and "B" Troops of Royal Horse Artillery were raised in January 1793 at Goodwood in Sussex by the 3rd Duke of Richmond who was Master-General of the Ordnance to provide fire support for the cavalry.  Regiment, better known as The Chestnut Troop, proved easier than expected. Aside from the daily rocket barrages, the biggest challenge was adapting to the British Artillery operational style. Our battalion operations sergeant major and fire control NCO NCO
noncommissioned officer

NCO noncommissioned officer

NCO n abbr (Mil) (= noncommissioned officer) → Uffz. 
 initially joined the battery to smooth over these few integration issues.

Soldiers of both units took many lessons learned and the feedback was that they thoroughly enjoyed the experience of working with their greatest ally. From shooting artillery side by side, participating in a pick up game of volleyball or sweating during a heated game of soccer (or "futball," as they call it), the experiences will last throughout our careers in the Army as well as some new friends who will last a lifetime.


At FOB Hammer, the battalion chain of command decided to place the battery FDC FDC - Floppy Disk Controller  in the brigade tactical operations command (TOC), collocated with the brigade fire support element (FSE FSE

1. feline spongiform encephalopathy.

2. focal symmetrical encephalomalacia.
), eliminating the need to man the battalion FDC. This TTP TTP (thymidine triphosphate): see thymine.  proved very effective and was used throughout OIF OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom
OIF Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (French: International Organization of Francophonie)
OIF Office for Intellectual Freedom (American Library Association) 
 V at FOB Hammer.

Instead of communicating through FM radio, the FSE and FDC were in constant face-to-face communication, alleviating much of the confusion that can come with distance. Along with the FSE, all other fire support assets were in "arm's reach" of the brigade aviation element and the air liaison officer The senior tactical air control party member attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air power. An air liaison officer is usually an aeronautically rated officer. Also called ALO. See also liaison. , greatly reducing fire mission processing times and allowing for a faster counterfire battle drill. This enhanced the brigade's ability to clear the ground, Army and Air Force air and simultaneously lay the howitzers. The result was a smooth fire mission process that eliminated the normal lag that comes with communicating over FM, my internet relay chat See IRC.

(chat, messaging) Internet Relay Chat - (IRC) /I-R-C/, occasionally /*rk/ A client-server chat system of large (often worldwide) networks. IRC is structured as networks of Internet servers, each accepting connections from client programs, one per user.
 (mIRC) or secure voice over internet protocol (SVOIP).

Lessons Learned. One important lesson learned was to, if at all possible, collocate col·lo·cate  
v. col·lo·cat·ed, col·lo·cat·ing, col·lo·cates
To place together or in proper order; arrange side by side.

To occur in a collocation.
 the battery FDC with the brigade TOC during training leading up to the mission readiness exercise and perfect counterfire battle drill before arriving in theater. This allows for a smooth process from day one of operations. Also, removing the need to man a battalion FDC allows military occupational specialist (MOS (1) (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) See MOSFET.

(2) (Mean Opinion Score) The quality of a digitized voice line. It is a subjective measurement that is derived entirely by people listening to the calls and scoring the results from
) 13D Field Artillery Tactical Data Systems Specialists to fill other key areas in the TOC. This frees more Soldiers to man the command group's security detachment, which came "out of hide" from our battalion.

Providing fires 24-hours a day, on two fronts, called for a meticulous troop-to-task list. Managing leadership of the battery's firing units, howitzer howitzer: see artillery.  and FDC sections during environmental and morale leave was a challenge and had to be met with precise planning to ensure firing capability was not lost. To alleviate such issues, the battery conducted numerous Table VII certifications, certifying almost every gunner with each section chief in the battery.

In some instances, certifying a strong gunner with an experienced cannoneer was also an alternative. During normal operations, the latter might be unadvisable with multiple occupations and other requirements requiring an experienced gunner, however in a stationary environment, an experienced cannoneer proved very reliable at cutting charges and verifying firing data. This technique eased many of the issues with breaking crews and certifications during environmental and morale leave.

TTPs. TF Rock adopted several TTPs in theater to the unit's needs. When conducting Table VIIs, the battery leadership generated a more refined certification, focusing on terrain denial, counterfire, Excalibur, calibration, voice commands and troubleshooting procedures. The missions were processed during the certifications just as during a live terrain-denial or counterfire mission.

All missions initially were given in a "lay but do not load" status to allow for clearance of ground and air. Also, all firing data was verified by voice back to the FDC to ensure safety. Terrain denial missions were sent as "adjust fire," with the first round used to verify accuracy and adjust onto the target, followed by the fire-for-effect portion. The counterfire was sent as a "fire for effect" from the start with the radar used as an observer.

Once cleared, the FDC changed the method of control to "when ready," also sending the command quadrant. The Excalibur portion of the certification covered system initialization in·i·tial·ize  
tr.v. in·i·tial·ized, in·i·tial·iz·ing, in·i·tial·iz·es Computer Science
1. To set (a starting value of a variable).

2. To prepare (a computer or a printer) for use; boot.

, fire mission processing and troubleshooting procedures. To ensure that the sections maintained their gunnery skills, the chain of command conducted certifications quarterly.

Our fire mission processing relied heavily on voice fire commands that initially were very rusty. As a battery, we got "back to the basics" of voice fire commands to alleviate the confusion. At shift changeover, the FDC would send dry fire missions to the howitzer to shake off the cobwebs cob·web  
a. The web spun by a spider to catch its prey.

b. A single thread spun by a spider.

2. Something resembling the web of a spider in gauziness or flimsiness.

 and to ensure voice and digital communications. For upcoming terrain denial missions, the FDC would gather the mission data and conduct a technical rehearsal to ensure there were no delays during the actual fire mission.

Shortly after assuming duties at FOB Hammer, operational tempo created a need for a third firing unit location. This generated a definite need for outside help to man three FDCs continuously. The battalion provided a few outside MOS 13D NCOs and Soldiers to ease the strain of manning the battery's FDCs. Mixing battalion FDC personnel into battery-level FDCs during the transition from tactical to technical fire direction seemed to alleviate issues.

Leaders Empowered/Complacency Avoided. One piece of advice to offer an Artillery commander preparing his unit for combat is to empower leaders at the lowest level to make command decisions. The term "Strategic Soldier" is very common today in Iraq. No matter the mission being conducted, one Soldier's actions can have a strategic impact, and commanders cannot be everywhere they are needed.

Along with challenging the FDCs, the expansion to three locations also required a meticulous troop-to-task list. Managing personnel, administration, environmental and morale leave, ammunition and supplies for three different locations throughout two different multinational divisions was very challenging. A strong first sergeant and a mature executive officer made the process much easier, as TF Rock split the battery headquarters with the first sergeant at FOB Hammer and the battery commander in Basra. The battery ran three firing locations for three months before departing Basra Air Station and consolidating the headquarters at FOB Hammer.

Running 24-hour operations from two locations and 12-16 hours at a third proved taxing for sections. Realizing that long hours in the stifling turret of a Paladin Paladin

archetypal gunman who leaves a calling card. [TV: Have Gun, Will Travel in Terrace, I, 341]

See : Wild West
 could lead to complacency, the battalion commander recommended that, when possible, the battery should limit time in the turret to eight hours.

The shortened shift gave the battery the flexibility to perform weekly maintenance on all of the howitzers and other taskings. Late in the tour, the same decision was made for FDCs as promotions and experience led to more flexibility.

To combat complacency throughout the tour, as lulls between fire missions can be extensive, the howitzer and FDC sections conducted hip-pocket training. Topics ranged from manual gunnery and computations to ammunition management and specialty munitions mu·ni·tion  
War materiel, especially weapons and ammunition. Often used in the plural.

tr.v. mu·ni·tioned, mu·ni·tion·ing, mu·ni·tions
To supply with munitions.
 fire missions processing techniques.

Ammunition/Weapons Issues. The quality of Class V ammunition throughout the tour was troublesome. The many pushes the brigade received were poor with multiple lots; Vietnam-era propellants had lost their stabilizers (bottom on the base charge turns denim blue), and there were also dry-rotted and eroding propellant pro·pel·lant also pro·pel·lent  
1. Something, such as an explosive charge or a rocket fuel, that propels or provides thrust.

 increments. Numerous attempts through the brigade to request lots we already had calibrated cal·i·brate  
tr.v. cal·i·brat·ed, cal·i·brat·ing, cal·i·brates
1. To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument):
 were unsuccessful.

These ammunition issues led to complications with calibration. Many of the different lots did not have enough propellants to calibrate To adjust or bring into balance. Scanners, CRTs and similar peripherals may require periodic adjustment. Unlike digital devices, the electronic components within these analog devices may change from their original specification. See color calibration and tweak.  effectively, giving the unit fewer attack options. It also led to the disposal of multiple propellants for every push received, further amplifying the need for effective and accurate calibration to ensure that all projectiles fell within the constraints of the collateral damage collateral damage Surgery A popular term for any undesired but unavoidable co-morbidity associated with a therapy–eg, chemotherapy-induced CD to the BM and GI tract as a side effect of destroying tumor cells  estimate. Units should become familiar with the calibration process while at home station and conduct a base line calibration with their equipment while in Kuwait before moving north.

However, inference of muzzle velocities, normally a useful method to save rounds, is not as important because in most cases there only will be two howitzers operating on a given firing point. We sacrificed the few extra rounds necessary to calibrate both our hot and warm gun, as actual muzzle velocity variance readings are more reliable than inferred calculations.

When new ammunition is received, calibrating both hot and warm howitzers ensures firing capability when maintenance issues arise. Also, preparing the FDCs to juggle multiple lots and square weights, as done at the NTC, sets them up for success.

Another TTP was setting a standard turret load in the hot and warm gun based off of the most recent fire missions. In doing this, the howitzer sections knew exactly which area to restock re·stock  
tr.v. re·stocked, re·stock·ing, re·stocks
To furnish new stock for; stock again.

Verb 1. restock - stock again; "He restocked his land with pheasants"
 from and greatly reduced the possibility of errors in ammunition reporting between the FDC and the howitzer sections. This was no easy task, as the multiple ranges possible for fire missions forced us to keep a multitude of propellants in the ammunition holding area.

This alone required a precise count and thorough organization of ammunition. All like ammunition was stored together to streamline the restocking process. Also, to give our forward support company flexibility needed with flat racks, the battery stored ammunition on Air Force 463L pallets, readily available around the FOB.

An overabundance o·ver·a·bun·dance  
A going or being beyond what is needed, desired, or appropriate; an excess: teenagers with an overabundance of energy.
 of M795 extended range high explosive (HE) projectiles throughout the latter stages of the tour generated the need to calibrate M795 with all charges. Although this was a new TTP for the unit, calibration proved relatively simple; and we experienced great success in shooting the M795.

Our unit found that getting solid calibration data with the modular artillery charge system M232 was nearly impossible. The propellants were erratic with rounds periodically falling outside the target area. This problem, along with the recently released safety message stating the need for some extreme calculations for muzzle velocity variances due to shortfalls in the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System software, caused some doubt between the FSE and FDC and forced the unit to discontinue usage of the M232, except with Excalibur.

The Excalibur PGM proved somewhat difficult to keep operational. The hardware was cumbersome with cabling and components strewn strew  
tr.v. strewed, strewn or strewed, strew·ing, strews
1. To spread here and there; scatter: strewing flowers down the aisle.

 throughout the Paladin's turret. This allowed less freedom of maneuver in the turret and led to damaged cables while preparing ammunition for firing. There were multiple issues with faulty ruggedized personal data assistant cabling and uncooperative software. Our experiences have shown that the system is prone to issues if it is run continuously.


The field support representatives in country were willing to help us when possible, but the shortage of repair parts in theater produced a lag in our Excalibur firing capability. If at all possible, bring repair parts from Excalibur systems fielded at home station and coordinate with the unit you are replacing to establish communication with field service representatives in theater to prepare for maintenance issues.

Another challenge brought about by Excalibur was the need for a unique transmission encryption key and the erratic monthly key distribution. Often, the communications data needed to run the system was not given to the unit or was missing vital portions.

The Excalibur PGM is a good tool, but the time needed to clear the upper levels of airspace needed to fire, along with the safety restrictions required for the base plate, make the use of the projectile projectile

something thrown forward.

projectile syringe
see blow dart.

projectile vomiting
forceful vomiting, usually without preceding retching, in which the vomitus is thrown well forward.
 less desirable for a BCT. With a Guided Multiple-Launch Rocket System (GMLRS GMLRS Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System ) battery located on our FOB, the Excalibur system became a secondary option for the BCT, behind the GMLRS or readily available fixed-or rotary-wing aviation assets.

The Air Force's Meteorological me·te·or·ol·o·gy  
The science that deals with the phenomena of the atmosphere, especially weather and weather conditions.

[French météorologie, from Greek
 (Met) messages are a very useful tool. With correct latitude, longitude and region, 26 lines of accurate Met data can be received. This frees more personnel to conduct COIN operations.

COIN Operations Results. The Artillery piece of COIN operations in AO Hammer provided the intended effect on the local Iraqi citizens' minds. Civil affairs Soldiers attached to the battalion conducted numerous surveys asking the local citizens about their feelings concerning the terrain denial fire they commonly heard. Almost every response was positive, saying it was comforting to know that the US Forces can and are willing to protect the populace.

The Artillery was used in retaliation to attacks from certain areas throughout AO Hammer. If a patrol was ambushed or attacked with an IED in a certain area, it was not uncommon to fire terrain denial missions throughout the night in that area to help "root out" the culprits and to deny them further access to the scene of the attack.

The predeployment COIN training definitely paid great dividends. The TF continues to make substantial improvements along all lines of operations in its AO, providing security through the Sons of Iraq, creating jobs by increasing the operational strength of the Narwhan Brick Factory, providing much needed water for families, medical supplies for the sick, veterinary care for animals and a myriad of other improvements throughout the AO.

Whether, providing cannon fires, conducting detainee operations, patrolling the streets of AO Hammer, or providing vital force protection, these Artillerymen are making great strides in the COIN environment. With the versatility to fulfill its traditional role of shooting artillery while also acting as a maneuver TF headquarters, the battalion has become an integral piece in the overall success of the BCT.

Despite the assigned mission, it is still very important to continue training for our FA mission. As any Artilleryman would agree, the skills used in the delivery of cannon fire, whether in the FDC or in the turret, are perishable. However, with continued battle-focused training on COIN operations, partnered with training on our traditional Artillery tasks, Redlegs will continue to uphold that outstanding reputation that they have earned as versatile Soldiers capable of accomplishing any and all missions.


See: Carriage Paid To
 Christopher R. Vegas and 1SG Theodore M. Brock, both FA

Captain Christopher R. Vegas, Field Artillery (FA), is on terminal leave. Previously, he served as the Commander of B Battery, ist Battalion, 10th Field Artillery (B/1-10 FA), serving in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (01 F) Vat Forward Operating Base (FOB) Hammer, Iraq. He has served as a Battalion Rear Detachment Commander, Combat Observation and Lasing Team Platoon Leader, Firing Battery Platoon Leader (deploying in support of OIF I), and Platoon Fire Direction Officer, all in 1-10 FA, Fort Benning, Georgia.

First Sergeant Theodore M. Brock, FA, is the First Sergeant for, C/2-12 FA, 4th Brigade, 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, at Fort Lewis, Washington. Previously, he was the Chief Fire Control NCO and Projects Purchasing Officer for B/1-10 FA, deployed in support of OIF V at FOB Hammer. He has served as a Platoon Sergeant and Battalion Fire Control NCO for 1-15FA, Camp Casey, Korea; an Observer/Controller and Trainer for 2-78 Training Support Battalion, Fort Drum, New York This article is about the U.S. Army base in New York State. For other places with a similar name, see Fort Drum.

Fort Drum is a census-designated place and U.S. Army military reservation in Jefferson County, New York, United States.
; Battalion Fire Control NCO for 2-82 FA, at Fort Hood, Texas; and a Fire Control Sergeant in both 1-320 FA, Fort Campbell, Kentucky, and 3-311 FA, at Schofield Barracks bar·rack 1  
tr.v. bar·racked, bar·rack·ing, bar·racks
To house (soldiers, for example) in quarters.

1. A building or group of buildings used to house military personnel.
, Hawaii.
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Author:Vegas, Christopher R.; Brock, Theodore M.
Date:Oct 1, 2008
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