Fatty acid composition of eggs derived from conditioned and wild caught greenlip abalone broodstock (Haliotis laevigata).ABSTRACT In the present study, the fatty acid fatty acid, any of the organic carboxylic acids present in fats and oils as esters of glycerol. Molecular weights of fatty acids vary over a wide range. The carbon skeleton of any fatty acid is unbranched. Some fatty acids are saturated, i.e. profiles of eggs spawned from conditioned and wild caught greenlip abalone abalone (ăbəlō`nē), popular name in the United States for a univalve gastropod mollusk of the genus Haliotis, members of which are also called ear shells, or sea ears, as their shape resembles the human ear. broodstock (Haliotis laevigata) were compared. Lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids Noun 1. polyunsaturated fatty acid - an unsaturated fatty acid whose carbon chain has more than one double or triple valence bond per molecule; found chiefly in fish and corn and soybean oil and safflower oil (12% and 9%) compared with monounsaturated monounsaturated /mono·un·sat·u·rat·ed/ (mon?o-un-sach´er-at?ed) of a chemical compound, containing one double or triple bond.
adj. (44% and 45%) and saturated fatty acids
Most commonly occurring saturated fatty acids are:
Prostaglandins are produced by the body and are responsible for inflammation features, such as swelling, pain, stiffness, redness and warmth. , which play a vital role in molluscan mol·lus·can also mol·lus·kan
Of or relating to the mollusks.
A mollusk. reproduction. In this study, the levels of ARA Ara or Arrah (both: ŭ`rə), city (1991 pop. 157,082), Bihar state, NE India, on the Son Canal. A major road and rail junction, it is the administrative center for a district that produces grain, sugarcane, and oilseed. were higher in eggs than in the respective diets of the broodstock, except of the Gracilaria diet, indicating that ARA was preferentially incorporated into the eggs of broodstock feeding on formulated feed and Ulva australis. Results from the present study demonstrate that 3 mo of feeding on an altered diet is sufficient to alter the fatty acid profile of the eggs. This study shows high variability in diameter, weight, and biochemical bi·o·chem·is·try
1. The study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms; biological chemistry; physiological chemistry.
2. composition of eggs between batches and spawning seasons. We present initial evidence that smaller eggs had higher lipid lipid
Any of a diverse class of organic compounds, found in all living things, that are greasy and insoluble in water. One of the three large classes of substances in foods and living cells, lipids contain more than twice as much energy (calories) per unit of weight as the content with a higher larval larval
1. pertaining to larvae.
see cutaneous and visceral larva migrans. hatch rate than larger eggs. In addition, larval settlement was negatively correlated with egg moisture.
KEY WORDS: abalone eggs, arachidonic acid, fatty acids, Haliotis laevigata, lipid
Abalone farming is a well-established industry in many countries worldwide but is still in early development in Australia. Successful conditioning of broodstock is a crucial step for selective breeding
Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. programs to develop this growing industry. Gonad gonad /go·nad/ (go´nad) a gamete-producing gland; an ovary or testis.gonad´algonad´ial
indifferent gonad the sexually undifferentiated gonad of the early embryo. maturation maturation /mat·u·ra·tion/ (mach-u-ra´shun)
1. the process of becoming mature.
2. attainment of emotional and intellectual maturity.
3. and larval settlement success of abalone are known to vary seasonally (Webber 1970, Slattery 1992). However, large variability in spawning events, hatchability, and larval and juvenile survival rates has been observed during the same season between batches and hatcheries in Australia.
Formulated diets designed to maximize growth rates Growth Rates
The compounded annualized rate of growth of a company's revenues, earnings, dividends, or other figures.
Remember, historically high growth rates don't always mean a high rate of growth looking into the future. are not necessarily adequate to maintain viable, high quality eggs and larvae Larvae, in Roman religion
Larvae: see lemures. from captive broodstock. There is growing evidence that specific dietary lipids lipids, a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents. The definition excludes the mineral oils and other petroleum products obtained from fossil material. play an important role in gonadogenesis of abalone (Uki & Watanabe 1992, Nelson et al. 2002). Recently, Nelson et al. (2002) showed that variations of the [C.sub.20] polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid.
polyunsaturated fatty acid
polyunsaturated fatty acids. ) in the digestive gland digestive gland
A gland, such as the liver or pancreas, that secretes into the alimentary canal substances necessary for digestion. and foot tissue of Haliotis fulgens over the year coincided with variation in their macroalgal diets. This study indicated that abalone tissues directly reflect their diets. Furthermore, the authors suggested that arachidonic acid (ARA) is an essential fatty acid
Sources of fat in the diet, including omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
Mentioned in: Nutritional Supplements are derived from the algal algal
pertaining to or caused by algae.
is very rare but systemic and udder infections are recorded. See protothecosis.
the algae Prototheca trispora and P. diet and are most likely important in cyclical cyclical
Of or relating to a variable, such as housing starts, car sales, or the price of a certain stock, that is subject to regular or irregular up-and-down movements. gonad development.
Studies of changes in biochemical composition such as fatty acids in mollusc mollusc
members of the phylum Mollusca, which comprises about 50,000 species. Includes snails, slugs and the aquatic molluscs—oysters, mussels, clams, cockles, arkshells, scallop, abalone, cuttlefish, squid. eggs are scarce. Soudant et al. (1996) established that PUFA composition of great scallop scallop or pecten, marine bivalve mollusk. Like its close relative the oyster, the scallop has no siphons, the mantle being completely open, but it differs from other mollusks in that both mantle edges have a row of steely blue "eyes" and (Pecten pecten: see scallop. maximus) gonad was related to the fatty acid composition of the diet. Gallager & Mann (1986) reported a significant correlation between the initial egg lipid content and survival of the bivalve bivalve, aquatic mollusk of the class Pelecypoda ("hatchet-foot") or Bivalvia, with a laterally compressed body and a shell consisting of two valves, or movable pieces, hinged by an elastic ligament. Crassostrea virginica larvae. In addition, the growth of Ostrea edulis was affected by the amount of lipid present in larval and spat spat
juvenile aquatic shellfish, especially oysters ready for settlement on solid surfaces—'spat fall'. tissue (Laing & Millican 1986). Changes in biochemical composition during larval development were reported for scallops (Whyte et al. 1990, Farias et al. 1998), oysters (Ferreiro et al. 1990) and abalone (Litaay et al. 2001). Lipids in abalone eggs are known to partially fuel the metamorphosis metamorphosis (mĕt'əmôr`fəsĭs) [Gr.,=transformation], in zoology, term used to describe a form of development from egg to adult in which there is a series of distinct stages. of the larvae (Jaeckle & Manahan 1989). Variations in lipid content and fatty acid profile have been shown, by Nelson et al. (2002), to be related to seasonal temperature fluctuations and variations of the diet may ultimately affect the success of the progenies.
In this study we determine the fatty acid profiles of eggs spawned from conditioned broodstock (feeding on formulated feed) and wild caught broodstock of Haliotis laevigata. In addition, 3 conditioning diets are tested with one group of female broodstock continually being fed the commercially used broodstock conditioning diet until spawning, the second group fed the green alga green alga
Any of the numerous algae of the division Chlorophyta, such as spirogyra and sea lettuce, that have chlorophyll unmasked by other pigments. Ulva australis and the third group fed a red seaweed seaweed, name commonly used for the multicellular marine algae. Simpler forms, consisting of one cell (e.g., the diatom) or of a few cells, are not generally called seaweeds; these tiny plants help to make up plankton. diet (Gracilaria flagelliformis, Champia parvula) for the last 3 mo before spawning, to examine if a dietary change affects the fatty acid composition of the eggs. The aim is to determine how the lipid quality of the broodstock diet affects the fatty acid composition of H. laevigata eggs and to evaluate the biologic consequences such as larval hatch rate, larval survival, and settlement performance. This information contributes to the knowledge on abalone broodstock quality as well as larval nutrition.
Broodstock Collection and Maintenance
All broodstock was collected from the Southern Ocean in Western Australia Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital. , from waters between Augusta (115[degrees]16'E; 34[degrees]32'S) and Hopetown (120[degrees]13'E; 33[degrees]95'S). The term "conditioning" describes the process to induce gonad development, to the state of spawnability, in adult abalone outside of the normal spawning season. The conditioned broodstock were held indoors at a commercial abalone farm (Great Southern Marine Hatcheries, Albany, Western Australia-GSMH) for a period of 18-20 mo prior to this study. These animals were maintained in round plastic tubs (ca. 30 L volume) fitted with a central standpipe standpipe, tank or pipe for holding water in an elevated position to create pressure in a water supply system. For a tall building, where the pressure from the mains at street level is insufficient to raise the water to the upper floors, water is pumped up to the and airstones. The seawater seawater
Water that makes up the oceans and seas. Seawater is a complex mixture of 96.5% water, 2.5% salts, and small amounts of other substances. Much of the world's magnesium is recovered from seawater, as are large quantities of bromine. was provided at a flow rate of 1-1 x L [min.sup.-1] at constant water temperature of 17.0[degrees]C [+ or -] 0.2[degrees]C ([+ or -] SE). Animals were fed daily in excess with a formulated conditioning diet (Adam & Amos Foods Pty Ltd PTY LTD Propriety Limited (company structure in Australia) , South Australia South Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. ). Conditioned broodstock were on average 137 [+ or -] 7.2 mm ([+ or -] SE) in shell length and had a total weight of 461 [+ or -] 67.4 g ([+ or -]SE). The wild caught broodstock were larger and averaged 169 [+ or -] 2.9 mm ([+ or -] SE) and 745 [+ or -] 45.9 g ([+ or -] SE).
Fatty Acid Composition of Broodstock Diets and Feed Intake
Samples of all abalone diets (seaweeds and formulated feed) were taken during the study and the fatty acid composition determined. Feed intake of the conditioned broodstock was determined daily over a 2-too period.
Egg Sample Collection and Preparation
Broodstock was induced to spawn To launch another program from the current program. The child program is spawned from the parent program.
(operating system) spawn - To create a child process in a multitasking operating system. E.g. with ultraviolet-irradiated water. Egg samples were collected from a routine operation at GSMH GSMH Gayri Safi Milli Hasýla (Turkish: Gross National Product) over 2 spawning seasons (1st season: November 2001 to January 2002, 2nd season: October 2002 to December 2002). Seven batches of conditioned and 12 batches of wild caught broodstock were compared. Two additional batches derived from selected conditioned female broodstock, previously fed on the formulated feed, were fed on a mix of red seaweed (Champia parvula, Gracilaria flagelliformis) or Ulva australis for 3 mo prior to spawning. Approximately 6 g wet weight of eggs (ca. 400,000 eggs) was collected per batch. Samples were filtered onto pre-weighed glass fiber filters (Whatman GF/C, 4.7 cm diameter) and washed 3x with 0.5 M ammonium formate Ammonium formate is the ammonium salt of formic acid. It is a colorless, hygroscopic, crystalline solid. Pure ammonium formate decomposes into formamide and water (molecule) when heated, and this is its primary use in industry. to remove residual salts. Samples were labeled, frozen in liquid nitrogen Noun 1. liquid nitrogen - nitrogen in a liquid state
atomic number 7, N, nitrogen - a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living , stored at -70[degrees]C and freeze-dried (Edwards Modulyo Model E2M-18).
Egg Diameter and Offspring Performance
The diameter (egg cytoplasm cytoplasm: see protoplasm.
Portion of a eukaryotic cell outside the nucleus. The cytoplasm contains all the organelles (see eukaryote). and vitelline vitelline /vi·tel·line/ (vi-tel´in) pertaining to or resembling a yolk.
Of, relating to, or associated with the yolk of an egg.
The yolk of an egg. layer) of 30 unfertilized Adj. 1. unfertilized - not having been fertilized; "an unfertilized egg"
infertile, sterile, unfertile - incapable of reproducing; "an infertile couple" eggs was measured under an inverted microscope An inverted microscope is a microscope with its light source and condenser on the top above the stage pointing down, and the objectives and turret are below the stage pointing up. at x400 magnification Magnification
A measure of the effectiveness of an optical system in enlarging or reducing an image. For an optical system that forms a real image, such a measure is the lateral magnification m and averaged for each batch. Eggs were collected within 30 min after spawning started and measured immediately ca. 10-15 min after collection without using any fixative fixative /fix·a·tive/ (fik´sit-iv) an agent used in preserving a histological or pathological specimen so as to maintain the normal structure of its constituent elements.
Fertilization fertilization, in biology, process in the reproduction of both plants and animals, involving the union of two unlike sex cells (gametes), the sperm and the ovum, followed by the joining of their nuclei. and hatch rates, larval survival and estimates of settlement, as well as survival at 2-wk postsettlement were recorded for seven of these batches.
Eggs of each batch (1 female abalone) were fertilized fer·til·ize
v. fer·til·ized, fer·til·iz·ing, fer·til·iz·es
1. To cause the fertilization of (an ovum, for example).
2. with 5-10 sperm sperm or spermatozoon (spûr'mətəzō`ən, –zō`ŏn), in biology, the male gamete (sex cell), corresponding to the female ovum in organisms that reproduce sexually. per egg for 15 min. Eggs were washed in filtered seawater for 15 min after fertilization to remove excess sperm and to avoid polyspermy polyspermy /poly·sper·my/ (-sper´me) fertilization of an oocyte by more than one spermatozoon; occurring normally in certain species (physiologic p.) and sometimes abnormally in others (pathologic p.) . . The fertilization rate of each batch was determined by counting the eggs that were dividing after 1 h (indicating that eggs have been successfully fertilized) in three 1-mL samples and expressing these as a percentage of total number of eggs in the batch.
Eggs of each batch were placed into separate hatch tubs and formed a monolayer mon·o·lay·er
1. A film or layer one molecule thick formed at the interface between water and either oil or air by a substance such as a partially esterified fatty acid that contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups in the same on the bottom of the tub. All tubs were set up with low water flow and low aeration aeration /aer·a·tion/ (ar-a´shun)
1. the exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen by the blood in the lungs.
2. the charging of a liquid with air or gas.
n. . The water was turned off ca. 2 h before hatch out started. The hatch rate (expressed as percentage) was determined by counting the number of unhatched eggs in three 1-mL samples, calculating the total of unhatched eggs, and subtracting these from the total number of successfully fertilized eggs.
Larvae were reared in 300-L conical conical /con·i·cal/ (kon´i-k'l) cone-shaped.
con·i·cal or con·ic
Of, relating to, or shaped like a cone. fiberglass tanks at a stocking density of up to 20 larvae per milliliter milliliter /mil·li·li·ter/ (mL) (-le?ter) one thousandth (10-3) of a liter.
n. Abbr. . All tanks were set up with low aeration and water flow after the larval shell was completely formed. The survival at the end of the larval rearing period (ca. 6 days at 18[degrees]C) was determined by counting the number of larvae in three 1-mL samples at the time of settlement multiplied by the total volume of the larval tank and dividing them by the total number of larvae successfully hatched.
Larvae were settled on commercially used PVC PVC: see polyvinyl chloride.
in full polyvinyl chloride
Synthetic resin, an organic polymer made by treating vinyl chloride monomers with a peroxide. settlement plates (40 x 60 cm) covered by Ulvella lens, which was cultured on the plates for 2-3 wk prior to larval settlement. Larvae were released into each of three semicommercial fiberglass tanks at a standard density of 100,000 (0.2 larvae [ml.sup.-1]). Settlement tanks were ca. 490 L and set up with three baskets holding 20 settlement plates each. Settlement rate of each batch was determined 48 h after larval release. The term "settlement" describes the permanent attachment of the larvae to the substrate after shedding of the velum velum /ve·lum/ (ve´lum) pl. ve´la [L.] a covering structure or veil.ve´lar
velum interpo´situm ce´rebri membranous roof of the third ventricle. to complete metamorphosis complete metamorphosis
The complete form of metamorphosis in which an insect passes through four separate stages of growth, as embryo, larva, pupa, and imago. Also called holometabolism. . Postlarvae were counted again after 2 wk to determine their survival.
Fatty Acid Analyses
Samples (abalone eggs and diets) were analyzed at the State Chemistry Laboratory, Werribee, Victoria Werribee is a city near Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Its local government area is the City of Wyndham.
Werribee is about 32 km south-west of Melbourne, located halfway to Geelong on the Princes Highway. , Australia. Lipid was extracted from the samples using a modified Bligh Dyer method (Bligh & Dyer 1959). The fatty acid profiles were determined by gas chromatography gas chromatography (GC)
Type of chromatography with a gas mixture as the mobile phase. In a packed column, the packing or solid support (held in a tube) serves as the stationary phase (vapour-phase chromatography, or VPC) or is coated with a liquid stationary phase (Varian Model 3400) with a BPX-70 column (SGE SGE Sun Grid Engine (cluster computing)
SGE Starport: Galactic Empires (online game)
SGE Siegerland Airport (Airport Code)
SGE Small Group Evaluation
SGE Support Group Europe Australia) on the methyl methyl (mĕth`əl), CH3, organic free radical or alkyl group derived from methane by the removal of one hydrogen atom. esters esters (esˑ·terz),
n.pl organic compounds synthesized from acids and alcohols, typically possessing fruity aromas. of the extract from each sample.
Statistical analyses were carried out using the STATISTICA 6.1 (Stat Soft, Inc. 2002) computer package. The assumptions of normality normality, in chemistry: see concentration. and homogeneity Homogeneity
The degree to which items are similar. of variance were confirmed graphically for each data set using boxplots. Egg diameter, moisture, and lipid content of eggs spawned from conditioned and wild caught broodstock during both spawning seasons were compared with a two factor ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there with spawning season and conditioned or wild broodstock as fixed factors. Egg sizes and moisture content of unfertilized and fertilized eggs were compared with a t-test. T-tests were also used to compare individual PUFA and PUFA ratios between eggs from wild and conditioned broodstock. Relationships between the broodstock shell length and weight and egg diameter and batch size, as well as egg characteristics, and the performance of the larvae were explored using simple regression Noun 1. simple regression - the relation between selected values of x and observed values of y (from which the most probable value of y can be predicted for any value of x)
regression toward the mean, statistical regression, regression analyses.
Fatty Acid Composition of Broodstock Diets and Feed Intake
Fatty acid composition of abalone diets (seaweeds and formulated feed) is given in Table 1. The formulated feed is lower in saturated fatty acids (SFA See sales force automation.
SFA - Sales Force Automation ) than all algal samples. The formulated feed is higher in monounsaturated fatty acids (MFA See multifactor authentication. ) than the red algae red algae: see seaweed; Rhodophyta. Champia parvula and Gracilaria flagelliformis and the green alga Ulva australis. The total amounts of PUFA are highest in the red alga red alga
Any of various predominantly marine algae of the division Rhodophyta, characteristically red or reddish in color.
red alga Gracilaria flagelliformis, followed by the formulated feed and the other algal diets. The relative amounts of PUFAs varied significantly. Formulated feed is high in linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and low in ARA (20:4n-6), whereas both red and green seaweed is low in linoleic acid. The red seaweeds, especially Gracilaria flagelliformis, are high in ARA.
Feed intake of the conditioned broodstock, feeding on a dry formulated teed, was estimated to be 0.10 [+ or -] 0.03% body weight per day. Broodstock feeding on Ulva sp. or a mix of red seaweed (Champia parvula, Gracilaria flagelliformis) were consuming ca. 1.05 [+ or -] 0.08% ([+ or -] SE) or 0.96 [+ or -] 0.08% ([+ or -] SE) of their body weight per day respectively.
Egg Diameter, Batch Size, Proximate proximate /prox·i·mate/ (prok´si-mit) immediate or nearest.
Closely related in space, time, or order; very near; proximal.
immediate; nearest. Analyses
The egg diameter, number of eggs per batch, weight ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1]) and proximate composition of abalone eggs derived from conditioned and wild broodstock are displayed in Table 2. There were no significant differences in average diameter of the eggs from conditioned broodstock (199.6 [+ or -] 2.5 [micro]m) and the batches of wild caught broodstock (199.2 [+ or -] 3.1 [micro]m), the percentage moisture of the eggs (90.1 [+ or -] 0.7%, 88.6 [+ or -] 0.8% respectively), or the total lipid of the eggs (231.2 [+ or -] 17.8 mg [g.sup.-1], 212.8 [+ or -] 20.2 mg [g.sup.-1] respectively) (Table 3A). There was, however a significant difference between the two spawning seasons in egg diameter and total lipid, but not the moisture of abalone eggs (Table 3A). Eggs were larger during the second season compared with the first spawning season (204.0 [+ or -] 2.3 [micro]m, 193.5 [+ or -] 2.4 [micro]m respectively, Table 2), but had less total lipid (178.9 [+ or -] 12.4 mg [g.sup.-1], 276.8 [+ or -] 10.4 mg [g.sup.-1] respectively). However, batches were larger during the first spawning season, particularly from conditioned broodstock. There was a significant correlation between broodstock shell length and weight and batch size across the two spawning season (Table 4) indicating that larger broodstock are more fecund fe·cund
Capable of producing offspring; fertile. . A significant relationship between broodstock shell length or weight and egg diameter was not detected.
Conditioned eggs were significantly heavier with more moisture than eggs derived from wild caught broodstock but had similar amounts of lipid (Table 3B, Table 2). Eggs derived from conditioned and wild broodstock, collected during the second spawning season, were heavier (dry weight) with no significant difference in moisture or lipid (Table 3B, Table 2). The percentage moisture and percentage lipid per egg (% of individual egg weight) were significantly higher during the first spawning season (Table 3C) with lower % lipid per egg in eggs from wild broodstock spawned during the second season (Table 2). Fertilized eggs were 5-10 Ixm larger than unfertilized eggs (t = 2.24, P = 0.049) and usually contained more moisture (Table 5, t = 2.49, P = 0.03).
Fatty Acid Analyses
Relative amounts (%) of fatty acids in eggs derived from conditioned and wild caught broodstock are presented in Table 6A and 6B respectively. Saturated fatty acids comprised on average 32% of total fatty acids in conditioned and 34% in eggs of wild broodstock, monounsaturates (MFA) made up 47% of conditioned eggs and 45% of eggs from wild broodstock whereas PUFAs were present only at 12% (5% and 7% for short and long chain PUFA) and 9% (1% and 7% for short and long chain PUFA) in conditioned and wild broodstock eggs respectively (Table 6A, 6B). The ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFA of 1.5 was significantly lower in eggs of conditioned broodstock than the 2.1 ratio in eggs of wild caught broodstock (t = -2.6, P = 0.02). Similarly, the ratio of ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid eicosapentaenoic acid /ei·co·sa·pen·ta·eno·ic ac·id/ (EPA) (i-ko?sah-pen?tah-e-no´ik) an omega-3, polyunsaturated, 20-carbon fatty acid found almost exclusively in fish and marine animal oils. (EPA EPA eicosapentaenoic acid.
n.pr See acid, eicosapentaenoic.
n. ) was significantly lower in eggs of conditioned broodstock than from wild broodstock (0.4 and 0.8 respectively; t = -4.68, P < 0.001).
Palmitic acid palmitic acid /pal·mit·ic ac·id/ (pal-mit´ik) a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid found in most fats and oils, particularly associated with stearic acid; one of the most prevalent saturated fatty acids in body lipids. (16:0) was the dominant saturated fatty acid saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid, such as stearic acid, whose carbon chain contains no unsaturated linkages between carbon atoms and hence cannot incorporate any more hydrogen atoms. and oleic acid oleic acid /ole·ic ac·id/ (o-le´ik) a monounsaturated 18-carbon fatty acid found in most animal fats and vegetable oils; used in pharmacy as an emulsifier and to assist absorption of some drugs by the skin. (18:1) the dominant monounsaturated fatty acid in eggs of both wild caught and conditioned broodstock. The dominant PUFA was EPA (20:5n-3) for both conditioned and wild broodstock derived eggs. ARA (20:4n-6) was present in significantly higher proportion in eggs of wild caught broodstock (t = -6.24, P < 0.001), linoleic acid (LOA Loa (lō`ä), longest river of Chile, 275 mi (443 km) long, flowing S from the Andes, N Chile, then W and N through the Atacama Desert, before turning W to the Pacific Ocean. , 18:2n-6), linolenic acid linolenic acid /lin·o·len·ic ac·id/ (lin?o-len´ik) a polyunsaturated 18-carbon essential fatty acid occurring in some fish oils and many seed-derived oils. (LNA LNA Low-Noise Amplifier
LNA Locked Nucleic Acid (Link Technologies Ltd.)
LNA Linolenic Acid
LNA Licensed Nursing Assistant
LNA Launch Numerical Aperture
LNA Ladies National Association
LNA Leading National Advertisers, Inc. , 18:3n-3) and decosahexaenoic acids (DHA DHA docosahexaenoic acid.
n.pr See acid, docosahexaenoic. , 22:6n-3) were significantly more abundant in eggs of conditioned broodstock (t = 5.99, P < 0.001 ; t = 3.11, P = 0.006, t = 2.58, P = 0.02 respectively). The relative amount of ARA was more than twice as high in wild broodstock, whereas the eggs of conditioned broodstock showed 10 times more of the LOA. Batch 7 was derived from broodstock that had been feeding on formulated teed for a period of 3.5 mo only and showed intermediate levels of both ARA and LOA. Two samples (Batch 15 and 18) were derived from conditioned female broodstock that had been transferred from a formulated diet onto red or green seaweed 3 mo prior to spawning (Table 6A). Eggs from broodstock that had been feeding on Ulva australis showed intermediate levels of LOA and similar levels of ARA when compared with the eggs derived from conditioned broodstock. Eggs from red seaweed-fed broodstock showed intermediate levels of LOA and levels of ARA similar to eggs derived from wild caught broodstock.
The results of larval and postlarval performance of seven selected batches are shown in Table 7. The hatch rate was usually higher during the first spawning season, the best larval survival and overall survival was obtained from offspring derived from one female broodstock that was conditioned on formulated feed but was fed red seaweed for 3 mo prior to spawning during the second spawning season (Batch 15).
Correlation analyses were undertaken for all combinations of egg characteristics and the performance of the larvae (Table 8). There were strong and significant negative correlations Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation between egg diameter and total lipid content (r = -0.89), between egg diameter and hatch rate (r = -0.93), and a positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation between total lipid content of the eggs and hatch rate. There was a strong negative correlation between the percentage moisture of the eggs and the performance at settlement (r = -0.95). There was also a positive correlation between the survival of the larvae during larval rearing and the survival of the postlarvae 2 wk after settlement (r = 0.99).
This study showed high variability in diameter, weight, and biochemical composition of abalone eggs between spawning seasons. In addition, the total number of eggs per batch declined during the second spawning season particularly in batches spawned from conditioned broodstock. However, broodstock spawned during the second season were slightly smaller. Overall animals were spawned on average 1 mo earlier during the second spawning season compared with the animals spawned during the first spawning season. Both could have contributed to the smaller batch sizes during the second season and the observed differences in moisture and lipid between the two spawning seasons. Other studies have established that temperature and conditioning intervals influence egg production of greenlip and blacklip abalone (Plant 2002, Grubert & Ritar 2003). Shepherd et al. (1992) demonstrated a relationship between broodstock size and fecundity fecundity /fe·cun·di·ty/ (fe-kun´dit-e)
1. in demography, the physiological ability to reproduce, as opposed to fertility.
2. ability to produce offspring rapidly and in large numbers. of six wild populations of Haliotis laevigata. In this study we found a positive correlation between broodstock size and weight and the batch size of spawned eggs.
Compared with the proximate composition of Haliotis rubra eggs from the wild (Litaay et al. 2001), Haliotis laevigata eggs in this study were about two to three times heavier containing 10% to 15% more moisture and ca. 10% more lipid per egg during the first spawning season but similar amounts during the second spawning season. The difference in moisture between eggs of these studies might be partially explained by differences in time elapsed e·lapse
intr.v. e·lapsed, e·laps·ing, e·laps·es
To slip by; pass: Weeks elapsed before we could start renovating.
n. between spawning and measuring of the eggs (e.g., eggs might have been more hydrated hy·drat·ed
Chemically combined with water, especially existing in the form of a hydrate.
Adj. 1. hydrated - containing combined water (especially water of crystallization as in a hydrate)
hydrous ). In this study, special care was taken that samples were measured approximately at the same time and no fixative was used. However, differences in total lipid cannot have been influenced by different sampling techniques. Total lipid expressed in mg [g.sup.-1] was not given in the study by Litaay et al. (2001). Total lipid (mg [g.sup.-1]) of digestive gland tissue of the abalone Haliotis fulgens (Nelson et al. 2002) was, however, much lower than total lipid in eggs of the abalone H. laevigata determined in this study. Nelson et al. (2002) determined the lipid content of gonad tissue over a 1-y period and showed variations between 18 and 101 mg [g.sup.-1]. In this study we collected eggs during two concurrent natural spawning seasons of H. laevigam and noticed significant differences between the two spawning seasons in both eggs derived from conditioned and wild broodstock with total lipid as Lipid A is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for toxicity of Gram-negative bacteria. It is the innermost of the three regions of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) molecule, and its hydrophobic nature allows it to anchor the LPS to the outer low as 118 mg [g.sup.-1] (1st spawning season) and as high as 350 mg [g.sup.-1] (2nd spawning season). Egg samples were taken earlier in the season during the second spawning season, the sampling started in early October and finished in December with most of the samples collected during October to November 2002. Samples during the first spawning season were mainly taken during December 2001 and January 2002. It is conceivable that eggs were not quite as mature during the second spawning season and thus smaller than during the first spawning season. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between egg size, biochemical composition, and maturity of abalone eggs.
Nelson et al. (2002) demonstrated that [C.sub.20] PUFA in the digestive gland can vary between seasons and that variations over the year coincided with variation in their macroalgal diet. Similarly, Dunstan et al. (1996) found elevated levels of short chain linoleic acid (LOA) and reduced levels of ARA (ARA, 20:4n-6) in juvenile abalone feeding on formulated feeds, despite the fact that the formulated feed contained high proportions of the ARA precursor LOA (18:2n-6). Australian species of abalone have a preference for red seaweed such as Gracilaria spp. (Shepherd & Steinberg 1992), which are rich in the PUFAs, ARA, and EPA (Mai et al. 1996, Dunstan et al. 2000, Table 1). A formulated feed used in Australia, however, is low in ARA (Dunstan et al. 1996, Table 1). Results of the present study indicate that the PUFA composition of the broodstock diets influenced the PUFA profile in abalone eggs. Eggs derived from wild caught broodstock were higher in ARA, the formulated feed used is high in LOA (Table 1), and eggs from broodstock feeding on this formulated feed showed a much higher level of this PUFA. In accordance with our findings, Soudant et al. (1996) showed that the PUFA composition of the diets influenced the PUFA profiles in eggs of the great scallop. Results of our study also indicate that 3 mo of feeding on an altered diet is sufficient to alter the fatty acid profile of the eggs. Notably the progeny PROGENY - 1961. Report generator for UNIVAX SS90. from one particular batch of formulated diet fed conditioned broodstock that was transferred onto a red seaweed diet showed the best performance.
Arachidonic acid is essential for marine fish (Sargent et al. 1999), and until recently the importance of this fatty acid had been largely overlooked (Bell & Sargent 2003). Whether ARA is essential to abalone needs to be examined (Dunstan et al. 1996). However, Dunstan et al. (2002) demonstrated that most of the final tissue ARA originated from dietary linoleic acid (LOA) and, because formulated feed contains large amounts of this fatty acid, they concluded that it is unlikely that ARA is limiting in abalone. Although high levels of ARA may not be required for muscle growth, it may be required for ovogenesis and embryogenesis Embryogenesis
The formation of an embryo from a fertilized ovum, or zygote. Development begins when the zygote, originating from the fusion of male and female gametes, enters a period of cellular proliferation, or cleavage. . ARA is a major precursor of prostaglandins, which influence reproduction in molluscs (Osada et al. 1989). There is growing evidence that ARA is important in reproduction of marine fish (Bell & Sargent 2003) and Soudant et al. (1996) demonstrated that DHA, EPA, and ARA were preferentially incorporated into the polar lipid fraction of scallop eggs. They suggested that the higher levels of ARA in eggs than in larvae of the scallop indicated its specific role during ovogenesis. Recently, Nelson et al. (2002) showed that ARA was markedly lower in the digestive gland than in the foot tissue of the abalone Haliotis fulgens and concluded that this fatty acid may have been converted to prostaglandins, which indicates its function in gametogenesis Gametogenesis
The production of gametes, either eggs by the female or sperm by the male, through a process involving meiosis. In animals, the cells which will ultimately differentiate into eggs and sperm arise from primordial germ cells set aside from the . In accordance with our findings, Dunstan et al. (1996) reported that ARA was present at 0.4% in formulated diets and at 1.1% in the macroalga Ulva australis. These results together with our findings indicate that ARA was preferentially incorporated into the eggs of broodstock feeding on formulated feed and Ulva australis. In our study, the levels of ARA were higher in eggs than in the respective diets of the broodstock, except of the Gracilaria diet. In addition, several authors have indicated that beyond this, certain fatty acids play a vital role in determining the success of metamorphosis in bivalves (Helm et al. 1973, Kraeuter et al. 1982, Wilson et al. 1986). Abalone have lecithotrophic larvae, which cannot digest particles but are able to take up nutrients from seawater (Jaeckle & Manahan 1989). Consequently the lipid of the eggs must fuel major parts of the energetics en·er·get·ics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
1. The study of the flow and transformation of energy.
2. The flow and transformation of energy within a particular system. of larval metamorphosis. Jensen et al. (1990) showed that the metamorphosis of H. rufescens larvae was influenced by free fatty acids, especially ARA. A very low relative amount of PUFAs compared with SFA and MUFA was found in the abalone eggs. On average, PUFAs contributed only 10% of the total fatty acid pool. In contrast, Soudant et al. (1996) demonstrated that up to 50% of the fatty acids were PUFAs in scallop eggs. PUFAs in abalone diets (algal diets and formulated feed) on the other hand, contribute about 35% to 56% but this was not reflected in the eggs. Nelson et al. (2002) showed high variability in relative amounts of PUFAs in digestive gland tissue of H. fulgens between seasons and diets, ranging between 7% and 42%. In this study, however, the relative proportions of saturated, monounsaturated, and PUFAs in eggs of the abalone H. laevigata were very consistent in all samples regardless of the broodstock diet probably because of the metabolic necessity to maintain equilibrium between these fatty acid groups. It is conceivable that SFA and MUFA are stored in abalone eggs and used as an energy source for the developing larvae.
Correlation analyses indicated that smaller eggs had higher lipid content and that larvae from these batches hatched better; larvae hatching from eggs with lower moisture content performed better at settlement.
The results of this study demonstrate high variability in proximate biochemical composition and fatty acid profiles of abalone eggs between batches derived from conditioned and wild broodstock as well as between two consecutive spawning seasons. Our preliminary results provide initial evidence that biochemical composition of abalone eggs are influenced by the broodstock diets and these in turn may affect the performance of the progenies. The results related to offspring performance have to be treated carefully because only seven batches were compared during the two spawning seasons. Further work is planned to provide more information on egg provisioning and offspring performance in relation to the composition of the broodstock diets, particularly in relation to fatty acid content. If abalone aquaculture aquaculture, the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. is to become more advanced and sustainable, broodstock have to be successfully conditioned on farms to secure high quality eggs and larvae, because this will enable selective breeding programs for a further development of the industry.
TABLE 1. Fatty acid composition (%) of different abalone diets used in this study. Green Red Red Alga Alga Alga Ulva Champia Gracilaria Formulated Name australis parvula flagelliformis Feed Saturated fatty acid (SFA) C12:0 0.7 1.5 0.0 0.2 C14:0 1.4 7.6 2.9 2.0 C15:0 1.4 1.5 2.9 0.3 C16:0 27.2 30.3 22.9 16.3 C17:0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.3 C18:0 4.1 1.5 2.9 3.5 C20:0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 Total 35.4 42.4 31.4 22.8 Monounsaturated (MUFA) C14:1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 C16:1 (n-9) 3.4 3.0 0.0 2.8 C17:1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 C18:1 (n-9) 6.8 9.1 5.7 13.2 C18:1 (total) 16.3 10.6 5.7 15.8 Total 27.9 22.7 11.4 33.8 Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) C18:2 (n-6) 4.1 0.0 0.0 25.0 C18:3 (n-3) 5.4 0.0 0.0 3.0 C18:3 (n-3) 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.3 C18:4 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 C20:2 (n-9) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 C20:4 (n-6) 0.7 4.5 28.6 0.3 C20:5 (n-3) 1.4 3.0 0.0 3.4 C22:5 (n-3) 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.9 C22:6 (n-3) 1.4 0.0 0.0 4.7 Others 17.7 27.3 28.6 5.1 Total 36.7 34.8 57.1 43.4 TABLE 2. Mean egg diameter ([+ or -] SE), mean number of eggs per batch ([+ or -] SE), mean weight ([+ or -] SE) and mean proximate composition ([+ or -] SE) of Haliotis laevigata eggs derived from conditioned and wild caught broodstock during two spawning seasons. Conditioned Broodstock 1. Season (n = 5) 2. Season (n = 4) Diameter ([micro]m) 198 [+ or -] 2.0 202 [+ or -] 5.4 No. of eggs per hatch (x[10.sup.6]) 4.4 [+ or -] 1.1 2.1 [+ or -] 1.5 Weight ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] wet weight) 16.5 [+ or -] 2.4 13.4 [+ or -] 1.6 Weight ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] dry weight) 1.4 [+ or -] 0.1 1.6 [+ or -] 0.2 Moisture ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] wet weight) 15.1 [+ or -] 2.4 11.8 [+ or -] 1.4 Moisture (% wet weight) 91.1 [+ or -] 1.2 88.0 [+ or -] 0.3 Lipid (% dry weight) 26.6 [+ or -] 0.5 18.6 [+ or -] 2.9 Total Lipid (mg [g.sup.1] dry weight) 266.0 [+ or -] 5.1 168.8 [+ or -] 26.8 Wild Broodstock 1. Season (n = 5) 2. Season (n = 7) Diameter ([micro]m) 189 [+ or -] 3.3 206 [+ or -] 2.1 No. of eggs per hatch (x[10.sup.6]) 5.2 [+ or -] 0.5 4.8 [+ or -] 1.6 Weight ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] wet weight) 8.6 [+ or -] 1.0 11.4 [+ or -] 1.1 Weight ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] dry weight) 0.9 [+ or -] 0.1 1.4 [+ or -] 0.1 Moisture ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] wet weight) 7.7 [+ or -] 0.9 10.0 [+ or -] 1.1 Moisture (% wet weight) 89.6 [+ or -] 0.7 87.5 [+ or -] 1.3 Lipid (% dry weight) 28.8 [+ or -] 2.1 17.1 [+ or -] 1.3 Total Lipid (mg [g.sup.1] dry weight) 287.5 [+ or -] 22.9 170.0 [+ or -] 15.9 TABLE 3. Two factor ANOVAs with spawning season and conditioned versus wild broodstock as fixed factors. A. using data set relating to whole sample and sample weights (mg [g.sup.-1]). B, C. using data set expressed for individual egg weight ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1]). Significant effects (<0.05) are in italics. Egg Diameter df MS F p A Source Conditioned vs wild 1 3.7 0.07 0.797 Spawning season 1 474.3 8.7 0.009# Cond. vs wild x season 1 166.1 3.05 0.099 Error 17 54.5 % Moisture df MS F p A Source Conditioned vs wild 1 1.7 0.2 0.664 Spawning season 1 8.90 1.01 0.330 Cond. vs wild x season 1 0.00 0.01 0.950 Error 17 8.8 Total Lipid (mg [g.sup.-1] df MS F p A Source Conditioned vs wild 1 2.3 0.002 0.97 Spawning season 1 43331.1 30.04 0.0001# Cond. vs wild x season 1 1589.9 1.10 0.31 Error 16 1422.6 Egg Weight ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1]) B df MS F p Source Conditioned vs wild 1 0.67 7.34 0.016# Spawning season 1 0.67 7.31 0.015# Cond. vs wild x season 1 0.06 0.59 0.451 Error 17 13.02 Moisture ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] B df MS F p Source Conditioned vs wild 1 107.7 9.1 0.008# Spawning season 1 1.2 0.1 0.758 Cond. vs wild x season 1 40.9 3.5 0.080 Error 17 11.8 Lipid ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] B df MS F p Source Conditioned vs wild 1 0.040 3.89 0.066 Spawning season 1 0.004 0.40 0.539 Cond. vs wild x season 1 0.001 0.14 0.715 Error 16 0.010 % Moisture ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] C df MS F p Source Conditioned vs wild 1 5.6 0.86 0.367 Spawning season 1 33.9 5.18 0.036# Cond. vs wild x season 1 1.3 0.19 0.666 Error 17 6.6 % Lipid ([micro]g [ind.sup.-1] C df MS F p Source Conditioned vs wild 1 0.49 0.033 0.858 Spawning season 1 457.13 30.69 0.0001# Cond. vs wild x season 1 15.87 1.066 0.317 Error 16 14.89 Note: Significant effects (<0.051 are indicated with #. TABLE 4. Correlation between broodstock shell length and weight and egg diameter and batch size. Number of Broodstock Broodstock Egg Eggs her Length Weight Diameter Batch Broodstock length 1.00 0.95 0.10 0.69# Broodstock weight 0.95# 1.00 0.13 0.76# Egg diameter 0.10 0.13 1.00 -0.02 Number of eggs 0.69# 0.76 -0.02 1.00 Note: Figures in bold indicated with #. Significant effects are shown in bold and italics (n -12). TABLE 5. Mean diameter ([+ or -] SE; n = 6) of unfertilized and fertilized eggs spawned from broodstock Haliotis laevigata. Diameter Moisture Eggs ([micro]m) (%) Unfertilized 189.2 [+ or -] 2.7 88.9 [+ or -] 1.0 Fertilized 196.8 [+ or -] 2.1 92.2 [+ or -] 1.4 TABLE 6A. Relative amounts (%) of individual fatty acids of eggs spawned from conditioned Haliotis laevigata broodstock. Saturated Fatty Acids Batch 1 7 * 8 9 10 C12:0 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 C14:0 6.0 7.5 5.6 6.6 5.7 C15:0 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 C16:0 25.9 25.6 25.5 26.1 24.8 C17:0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 C18:0 2.9 1.8 2.7 2.4 2.6 Total 35.5 35.8 34.5 35.8 33.8 Monounsaturated fatty acids C14:1 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.4 C16:1 (n-9) 5.6 7.4 5.1 6.4 5.6 C16:1 (total) 6.6 8.6 5.9 7.4 6.5 C18:1 (11-9) 17.8 15.7 18.1 17.9 17.7 C18:1 (n-7) n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. C18:1 (total) 34.2 35.0 34.0 35.0 34.0 C20:1 (n-9) 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.2 1.4 C20:1 (total) 5.4 4.8 5.7 4.7 5.5 Total 46.6 49.2 46.0 47.6 46.6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids C16:2 (total) 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.8 C16:4 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. C18:2 (n-6) LOA 2.9 1.1 3.0 2.7 2.8 C18:3 (n-6) n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. C18:3 (n-3) LNA 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.6 C20:2 (n-9) n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. C20:2 (total) 2.1 0.6 1.9 1.8 2.2 C20:4 (n-6) ARA 0.7 1.6 1.0 0.6 0.8 C20:5 (n-3) EPA 2.0 2.3 2.0 1.7 2.3 C22:5 (n-3) 1.4 2.3 1.6 1.3 1.6 C22:6 (n-3) DHA 0.7 0.2 0.8 0.7 0.9 Others 6.1 5.4 6.7 5.6 6.7 Total 11.8 9.7 12.7 10.9 12.9 Saturated Fatty Acids Mean S.E. 15 ** 18 ** C12:0 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.3 C14:0 6.3 0.4 7.3 4.7 C15:0 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.1 C16:0 25.6 0.2 22.5 21.8 C17:0 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.2 C18:0 2.4 0.2 1.7 2.3 Total 35.1 0.4 32.4 29.5 Monounsaturated fatty acids C14:1 0.5 0.1 0.6 0.3 C16:1 (n-9) 6.0 0.4 5.9 4.1 C16:1 (total) 7.0 0.5 7.1 4.9 C18:1 (11-9) 17.4 0.4 12.0 15.9 C18:1 (n-7) n.d. n.d. 14.4 13.1 C18:1 (total) 34.5 0.2 26.7 29.3 C20:1 (n-9) 1.4 0.1 1.2 1.5 C20:1 (total) 5.2 0.2 4.2 5.1 Total 47.2 0.6 38.6 39.6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids C16:2 (total) 1.6 0.1 1.3 1.3 C16:4 n.d. n.d. 0.2 0.3 C18:2 (n-6) LOA 2.5 0.4 0.5 1.9 C18:3 (n-6) n.d. n.d. 0.2 0.1 C18:3 (n-3) LNA 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.0 C20:2 (n-9) n.d. n.d. 0.4 1.6 C20:2 (total) 1.7 0.3 0.7 1.9 C20:4 (n-6) ARA 0.9 0.2 1.9 0.5 C20:5 (n-3) EPA 2.1 0.1 2.3 1.9 C22:5 (n-3) 1.7 0.2 1.9 1.3 C22:6 (n-3) DHA 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.7 Others 6.1 0.3 4.9 7.0 Total 11.6 0.6 9.6 11.4 * Batch 7 derived from broodstock, which was only conditioned for a period of 3.5 months. ** Batch 15 and 18 derived from broodstock, which were conditioned on formulated feed but fed Seaweed for 3 months perior to spawnings: batch 15 fed red seaweeds, hatch 18 fed Ulva sp. TABLE 6B. Relative amounts (%) of individual fatty acids of eggs spawned from wild caught Haliotis laevigata broodstock. Saturated Fatty Acids Batch 2 3 4 5 6 C12:0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 C14:0 7.4 6.9 6.8 7.3 6.4 C15:0 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 C16:0 26.2 26.4 25.8 28.0 26.6 C17:0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 C18:0 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 Total 36.6 36.4 35.7 38.5 36.2 Monounsaturated fatty acids C14:1 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 5.0 C16:1 (n-9) 8.5 6.8 7.7 7.1 7.0 C16:1 (total) 9.7 7.9 8.8 8.2 7.9 C18:1 (11-9) 15.6 17.7 18.1 16.7 18.4 C18:1 (n-7) n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. C18:1 (total) 33.8 36.4 37.4 34.5 36.8 C20:1 (n-9) 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.4 C20:1 (total) 4.7 5.4 4.9 5.1 5.3 Total 48.9 50.3 51.7 48.3 50.6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids C16:2 (total) 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 C16:4 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. C18:2 (n-6) LOA 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 C18:3 (n-6) n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. C18:3 (n-3) LNA 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 C20:2 (n-9) n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. C20:2 (total) 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 C20:4 (n-6) ARA 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.9 1.9 C20:5 (n-3) EPA 3.6 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.8 C22:5 (n-3) 2.7 2.2 1.5 2.1 2.0 C22:6 (n-3) DHA 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 Others 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 Total 10.0 8.7 7.8 8.5 8.5 Saturated Fatty Acids 11 12 13 14 16 C12:0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 C14:0 7.0 7.1 6.7 6.6 7.0 C15:0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 C16:0 23.8 22.9 22.2 21.4 21.1 C17:0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 C18:0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.2 Total 33.3 33.5 31.3 30.2 30.2 Monounsaturated fatty acids C14:1 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.9 C16:1 (n-9) 7.6 7.0 6.3 7.2 8.0 C16:1 (total) 8.8 8.1 7.2 8.4 9.2 C18:1 (11-9) 12.8 12.2 11.2 12.9 11.1 C18:1 (n-7) 15.3 16.1 12.8 16.7 15.4 C18:1 (total) 28.4 28.7 24.3 29.8 26.9 C20:1 (n-9) 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.7 C20:1 (total) 3.9 4.1 3.5 3.8 3.5 Total 41.7 41.6 35.7 42.8 40.5 Polyunsaturated fatty acids C16:2 (total) 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 C16:4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 C18:2 (n-6) LOA 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 C18:3 (n-6) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 C18:3 (n-3) LNA 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 C20:2 (n-9) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 C20:2 (total) 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.6 C20:4 (n-6) ARA 2.0 2.3 1.9 2.1 2.0 C20:5 (n-3) EPA 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.4 C22:5 (n-3) 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.9 C22:6 (n-3) DHA 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Others 3.8 3.9 3.2 4.0 3.8 Total 8.7 9.2 8.0 8.2 8.6 Saturated Fatty Acids 19 20 Mean S.E. C12:0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.0 C14:0 6.1 5.6 6.7 0.5 C15:0 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.0 C16:0 22.7 23.6 24.2 2.3 C17:0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.0 C18:0 1.8 2.1 1.8 0.4 Total 31.5 32.2 33.7 2.8 Monounsaturated fatty acids C14:1 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.1 C16:1 (n-9) 5.8 5.2 7.0 0.9 C16:1 (total) 6.7 6.0 8.1 1.0 C18:1 (11-9) 14.8 16.4 14.8 2.7 C18:1 (n-7) 15.1 14.7 15.2 1.2 C18:1 (total) 30.1 31.4 31.5 4.2 C20:1 (n-9) 1.3 1.3 1.1 0.3 C20:1 (total) 4.2 4.6 4.4 0.7 Total 41.5 42.4 44.7 5.1 Polyunsaturated fatty acids C16:2 (total) 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.1 C16:4 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 C18:2 (n-6) LOA 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 C18:3 (n-6) 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 C18:3 (n-3) LNA 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 C20:2 (n-9) 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 C20:2 (total) 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.2 C20:4 (n-6) ARA 1.8 1.7 1.9 0.2 C20:5 (n-3) EPA 2.4 -1.4 2.6 0.4 C22:5 (n-3) 2.0 1.9 2.0 0.3 C22:6 (n-3) DHA 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Others 4.1 4.1 4.2 0.5 Total 8.7 8.5 8.6 0.6 TABLE 7. Hatch rate (%) and larval survival to settlement (%), performance at settlement and post-larval survival 2 weeks after settlement of selected hatched derived from conditioned (c) and wild (w) caught broodstock during the two spawning seasons. Post- Hatch Larval larval Treat- Rate Survival Settlement Survival Season ment Batch (%) (%) (%) (%) 1 c 1 95 15 -- -- 7 * 95 15 -- -- w 2 100 25 61 0.3 3 99 30 36 29 6 4 29 <30 -- 2 c 15 ** 77 100 64 69 w 20 80 16 76 7 * Batch 7 derived from broodstock that was only conditioned for a period of 3.5 months. ** Batch 15 derived from broodstock that were conditioned on formulated feed hot fed red seaweed for 3 months prior to spawning. -- Larvae were not settled. TABLE 8. Correlation between egg characteristics and larval performance. Egg Moisture Lipid Hatch Diameter (%) (%) (%) Egg diameter -0.36 -0.89 -0.93 Moisture -0.36 0.74 0.66 Lipid (%) -0.89 0.74 0.98 Hatch (%) -0.93 0.66 0.98 Larval survival (%) 0.48 -0.47 -0.50 -0.63 Set (%) 0.35 -0.95 -0.72 -0.64 Post-larval survival (%) 0.60 -0.51 -0.62 -0.74 Larval Set Survival (%) Egg diameter 0.48 0.35 Moisture -0.47 -0.95 Lipid (%) -0.50 -0.72 Hatch (%) -0.63 -0.64 Larval survival (%) 0.30 Set (%) 0.30 Post-larval survival (%) 0.99 0.37 Significant effects are shown in bold and italics (n = 7).
The authors thank the staff for their help and support during spawnings and Dr Greg Maguire, Dr Brett Glencross, and Dr Sagiv Kolkovski for their helpful comments. Great Southern Marine Hatcheries in Albany, Western Australia Albany (IPA: /æl'bənɪ/) is the largest regional city in Western Australia, situated around a port on its southern coast. hosted this experiment.
Bell, J. G. & J. R. Sargent. 2003. Arachidonic acid in aquaculture feeds: current status and future opportunities. Aquaculture 218:491-499.
Bligh, E. G. & W. J. Dyer. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Capt. J. Biochem. 37:911-917.
Dunstan, G. A., H. J. Baillie, S. M. Barrett & J. K. Volkman. 1996. Effect of diet on the lipid composition of wild and cultured abalone. Aquaculture 140:115-127.
Dunstan, G. A., J. K. Volkman & G. B. Maguire. 2000. Optimisation of Essential Lipids in Artificial Feeds for Australian Abalone. Final Report FRDC FRDC Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia)
FRDC Food Research and Development Centre (Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada)
FRDC Florida Research and Development Center Project 1994(85):68.
Dunstan, G.A., M.R. Brown, J. K. Volkman & G.B. Maguire. 2002. Formulated feeds of newly settled juvenile abalone based on natural feeds (diatoms diatoms
a series of unicellular algae, microscopic in size, with cell walls containing silica. Members of the family Diatomaceae. Their remains accumulate as geological deposits and are mined. See diatomaceous earth. and crustose crus·tose
Of or relating to a lichen whose thallus is thin, crusty, and closely adherent to or embedded in the surface on which it grows.
[Latin cr coralline algae coralline algae: see Rhodophyta. ). Final Report FRDC Project 1996(386):79.
Farias, A., I. Uriarte & J. C. Castilla. 1998. A biochemical study of the larval and postlarval stages of the Chilean scallop. Aquaculture 166: 37-47.
Ferreiro, M.J., A. Perez-Camacho, U. Labarta, R. Beiras, M. Planas & M. J. Fernandez-Reiriz. 1990. Changes in the biochemical composition of Ostrea edulis larvae fed on different food regimes. Aquaculture 140:5-53.
Gallager, S. M. & R. Mann. 1986. Growth and survival of larvae of Mercenaria mercenaria (L.) and Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) relative to broodstock conditioning and lipid content of the eggs. Aquaculture 56:105-121.
Grubert, M. A. & A. J. Ritar. 2003. The effect of temperature and conditioning interval on the spawning success of wild-caught blacklip and greenlip (H. laevigata) abalone fed an artificial diet. Aquaculture. In A. E. Fleming, editor. Proceedings of the 10th annual abalone aquaculture workshop, November, 2003, Port Lincoln, Australia. Fisheries fisheries. From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long Research and Development Corporation, Abalone Aquaculture Supprogram, Canberra, Australia. pp. 5-25.
Helm, M.M., D.L. Holland & R.R. Stephenson. 1973. The effect of supplementary algal feeding of a hatchery hatchery
a commercial establishment dedicated to the hatching of bird eggs to provide day old chicks and poults to the poultry industry.
the contents of unfertilized eggs. Used in petfood manufacture. breeding stock of Ostrea edulis L. on larval vigour. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK. 53:673-684.
Jaeckle, W. B. & D. T. Manahan. 1989. Feeding by a "nonfeeding" larva larva, in zoology
larva, independent, immature animal that undergoes a profound change, or metamorphosis, to assume the typical adult form. Larvae occur in almost all of the animal phyla; because most are tiny or microscopic, they are rarely seen. : uptake of dissolved amino acids amino acid (əmē`nō), any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins. from seawater by lecithotrophic larvae of the gastropod gastropod, member of the class Gastropoda, the largest and most successful class of mollusks (phylum Mollusca), containing over 35,000 living species and 15,000 fossil forms. Haliotis rufescens. Mar. Biol. 103:87-94.
Jensen, R.A., D.E. Morse, R.L. Petty & N. Hooker. 1990. Artificial induction of larval metamorphosis by free fatty acids. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 67:55-71.
Kraeuter, J. N., M. Castagna & R. Van Dessel. 1982. Egg size and larval survival of Mercenaria mercenaria (L.) and Argopecten irradians (Lamarck). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 56:3-8.
Laing, I. & P. F. Millican. 1986. Relative growth and growth efficiency of Ostrea edulis L. spat fed various algal diets. Aquaculture 54:245-262.
Litaay, M., S.S. De Silva sil·va also syl·va
n. pl. sil·vas or sil·vae
1. The trees or forests of a region.
2. A written work on the trees or forests of a region. & R. M. Gunasekera. 2001. Changes in the amino acid profiles during embryonic em·bry·on·ic or em·bry·on·al
Of, relating to, or being an embryo.
In the life cycle of the round worm, a very early life stage occurring within the uterus of the female round worm. development of the blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra). Aquat. Living Resources 14:335-342.
Mai. K., J. P. Mercer & J. Donlon. 1996. Comparative studies on the nutrition of two abalone, Haliotis tuberculata and Haliotis discus discus /dis·cus/ (dis´kus) pl. dis´ci [L.] disk.
n. pl. dis·ci
A flat circular surface; a disk.
pl. disci [L.]
1. hannai Ino. The role of polyunsaturated polyunsaturated /poly·un·sat·u·rat·ed/ (-un-sach´er-at-ed) denoting a chemical compound, particularly a fatty acid, having two or more double or triple bonds in its hydrocarbon chain. acids of macroalgae in abalone nutrition. Aquaculture 139:77-89.
Nelson, M. M., D. L. Leighton, C. F. Phleger & P. D. Nichols. 2002. Comparison of growth and lipid composition in the green abalone, Haliotis Jidgens, provided specific macroalgal diets. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 131B:695-712.
Osada, M.. M. Nishikawa & T. Nomura. 1989. Involvement of prostaglandins in the spawning of the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 94C:595-601.
Plant, R. J. 2002. Conditioning and spawning the greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) in an aquaculture facility. Hons. Thesis. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne
In 2006, Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne 22nd in the world. Because of the drop in ranking, University of Melbourne is currently behind four Asian universities - Beijing University, . 46 pp.
Sargent, J.R., L.A. McEvory, A. Estevez, J.G. Bell, M.V. Bell, R. J. Henderson & D. R. Tocher. 1999. Lipid nutrition of marine fish during early development: current status and future directions. Aquaculture 179:217-229.
Shepherd. S.A. & P.D. Steinberg. 1992. Food preference of three Australian abalone species with a review of algal food of abalone. In: S. A. Shepherd, M. Tegner & S. A. Guzman de Proo, editors. Abalone of the world. Biology, fisheries and culture. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd. pp. 169-181.
Shepherd, S. A., C. Godoy & S.M. Clarke. 1992. Studies on southern Australian abalone (genus genus, in taxonomy: see classification.
Biological classification. It ranks below family and above species, consisting of structurally or phylogenetically (see Haliotis) XV. Fecundity of H. laevigata. J. Malac. Soc. Aust. 13:115-121.
Slattery, M. 1992. Larval settlement and juvenile survival in the red abalone The red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is a large brick colored mollusk that feeds on kelp and other algae along the coast of Oregon to Baja California. Being the largest, and most common abalone in the state it is the only species of abalone still commonly harvested in (Haliotis rufescens): an examination of inductive inductive
1. eliciting a reaction within an organism.
a form of radiofrequency hyperthermia that selectively heats muscle, blood and proteinaceous tissue, sparing fat and air-containing tissues. cues and substrate selection. Aquaculture 102:143-153.
Soudant, P., Y. Marty, J. Moal, C. Robert, J. R. Quere, J. R. Le Coz & J.F. Samain. 1996. Effect of food fatty acid and sterol Sterol
Any of a group of naturally occurring or synthetic organic compounds with a steroid ring structure, having a hydroxyl (—OH) group, usually attached to carbon-3. quality on Peeten maximus gonad composition and reproduction process. Aquaculture 143:361-378.
Uki, N. & T. Watanabe. 1992. Review of the nutritional requirements nutritional requirements,
n the food and liquids necessary for normal physiologic function. of abalone (Haliotis spp.) and development of more efficient artificial diets. In: S. A. Shepherd, M.J. Tegner & S.A. Guzman de Proo, editors. Abalone of the world. Biology, fisheries and culture. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 504-517.
Webber, H.H. 1970. Changes in the metabolic composition during the reproductive cycle reproductive cycle
The cycle of physiological changes that begins with conception and extends through gestation and parturition. of the abalone Haliotis cracheroidii (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Physiol. Zool. 43:213-231.
Whyte, J. N. C., N. Bourne Bourne, town (1990 pop. 16,064), Barnstable co., SE Mass., crossed by Cape Cod Canal; settled 1627, inc. 1884. Bourne Bridge (1935), across the canal, made the town an entry point to Cape Cod and a resort and commercial center. & N. G. Ginther. 1990. Biochemical and energy changes during embryogenesis in the rock scallop Crassadoma gigantea. Mar. Biol. 106:239-244.
Wilson, J. A., O. R. Chaparro & R. J. Thompson. 1986. The importance of broodstock nutrition on the viability of larvae and spat in the Chilean oyster oyster, edible bivalve mollusk found in beds in shallow, warm waters of all oceans. The shell is made up of two valves, the upper one flat and the lower convex, with variable outlines and a rough outer surface. Ostrea chilensis. Aquaculture 139:63-75.
SABINE DAUME (1) * AND STEPHEN RYAN (1,2)
(1) Department of Fisheries, Research Division, PO Box 20, North Beach, WA 6920, Australia; (2) Great Southern Marine Hatcheries, PO Box L34, Little Grove, Albany WA 6330, Australia
* Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org