Fast food growth boosts frozen potato consumption.Potatoes are the most important vegetable vegetable, term originally used for any plant, now the name for many food plants, most of them annuals, and for their edible parts. There is no clear botanical distinction between vegetables and fruits. crop in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . The crop's 1999 farm receipts totaled $2.7 billion, or 18% of all vegetable and melon melon, fruit of Cucumis melo, a plant of the family Curcurbitaceae (gourd family) native to Asia and now cultivated extensively in warm regions. There are many varieties, differing in taste, color, and skin texture—e.g. farm cash receipts.
Potatoes, rich in vitamin C vitamin C
or ascorbic acid
Water-soluble organic compound important in animal metabolism. Most animals produce it in their bodies, but humans, other primates, and guinea pigs need it in the diet to prevent scurvy. , potassium potassium (pətăs`ēəm), a metallic chemical element; symbol K [Lat. kalium=alkali]; at. no. 19; at. wt. 39.0983; m.p. 63.25°C;; b.p. 760°C;; sp. gr. .862 at 20°C;; valence +1. , and other vital nutrients, are a staple food A staple food is a food that forms the basis of a traditional diet, particularly that of the poor. Staple foods vary from place to place, but are typically inexpensive starchy foods of vegetable origin that are high in food energy (Calories) and carbohydrate and that can be stored in the United States.
The 1999 per capita [Latin, By the heads or polls.] A term used in the Descent and Distribution of the estate of one who dies without a will. It means to share and share alike according to the number of individuals. consumption of vegetables was 454 pounds, fresh-weight equivalent, of which 142 pounds, or 31%, were potatoes. Pound for pound among U.S. crops, potatoes are topped only by wheat wheat, cereal plant of the genus Triticum of the family Gramineae (grass family), a major food and an important commodity on the world grain market. Wheat Varieties and Their Uses
flour flour, finely ground, usually sifted, meal of grain, such as wheat, rye, corn, rice, or buckwheat. Flour is also made from potatoes, peas, beans, peanuts, etc. Usually it refers to the finely ground and bolted (i.e. in importance in the U.S. diet. The most significant changes in potato consumption over the past several decades have been the rise of frozen potato use and the decline of fresh potato use.
In 1960, U.S. per capita consumption of fresh potatoes was 81 pounds (farm weight) per year, while per capita consumption of all processed potatoes was only 25 pounds per year. By 1971, per capita consumption of all processed potatoes, driven largely by frozen products, surpassed fresh potato consumption. While consumption of fresh potatoes has averaged about 50 pounds per person since 1975, consumption of frozen potato products rose steadily to 63 pounds in 1999 (fig fig, name for members of the genus Ficus of the family Moraceae (mulberry family). This large genus contains some 800 species of widely varied tropical vines (some of which are epiphytic); shrubs; and trees, including the banyan, the peepul, or bo tree, and . 1). Dehydrated de·hy·drate
v. de·hy·drat·ed, de·hy·drat·ing, de·hy·drates
1. To remove water from; make anhydrous.
2. To preserve by removing water from (vegetables, for example). potatoes (14 pounds), potato chips (16 pounds), and canned potatoes (2 pounds) represented smaller segments of the market.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The growth of the fast food industry spurred the shift toward frozen potato products. USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (USDA) ) shows that most U.S. fresh potato consumption--as well as consumption of potato chips, dehydrated potatoes, and canned potatoes--occurs at home. Frozen french fries French fry
A thin strip of potato fried in deep fat. Often used in the plural. are sold predominately for away-from-home consumption, with fast food establishments accounting for 67% of the frozen french fry market, followed by a 13% share for restaurants.
CSFII data show distinct regional variations in the use of potato products. French fry consumption is much higher in the South and Midwest Midwest or Middle West, region of the United States centered on the western Great Lakes and the upper-middle Mississippi valley. It is a somewhat imprecise term that has been applied to the northern section of the land between the Appalachians than in the Northeast “Northeastern” redirects here. For the Boston college, see Northeastern University, Boston.
Northeast or north east is the ordinal direction halfway between north and east. It is the opposite of southwest. See boxing the compass. and West. Consumers in the Midwestern Mid·west or Middle West
A region of the north-central United States around the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi Valley. It is generally considered to include Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and States consume more fresh potatoes, potato chips, and dehydrated potatoes than consumers elsewhere. Rural residents tend to consume more potato products than consumers living in metropolitan cities and suburban areas.
CSFII data also show that African-Americans consume more potato chips and french fries, on a per capita basis, than other Americans. Seniors favor consumption of fresh and canned potatoes, while teenagers consume more chips and french fries than other age groups.
These findings are taken from an analysis of the 1994-96 CSFII, USDA's most recent food consumption survey. Each year of the CSFII's 3-year data set comprises a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized adj. 1. not committed to an institution; - op people. Opposite of institutionalized nt>.
Adj. 1. noninstitutionalized - not committed to an institution
noninstitutionalised persons residing in 50 States and Washington Washington, town, England
Washington, town (1991 pop. 48,856), Sunderland metropolitan district, NE England. Washington was designated one of the new towns in 1964 to alleviate overpopulation in the Tyneside-Wearside area. , DC.
Survey respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were interviewed in person on two nonconsecutive days and asked to recall all the food and beverages F&B is a common abbreviation in the United States and Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong. F&B is typically the widely accepted abbreviation for "Food and Beverage," which is the sector/industry that specializes in the conceptualization, the making of, and delivery of foods. they had consumed con·sume
v. con·sumed, con·sum·ing, con·sumes
1. To take in as food; eat or drink up. See Synonyms at eat.
a. in the last 24 hours. More than 15,300 individuals provided dietary di·e·tar·y
Of or relating to diet.
1. pertaining to diet.
2. a course or system of diet.
dietary hepatic necrosis
see hepatosis dietetica. data for both days. The respondents provided a list of foods consumed as well as information on where, when, and how much of each food was eaten. The survey collected an array of economic, social, and demographic characteristics for each respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. .
USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS ARS
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Argentine Peso.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. ) has developed recipes that list ingredients and their quantities for over 7,300 foods. For each food, ARS has also developed the number of servings relative to USDA USDA,
n.pr See United States Department of Agriculture. Food Guide Pyramid Food Guide Pyramid
A food pyramid devised by the US Department of Agriculture in 1992, in which grains and cereals represent the base beneath layers for fruits and vegetables, meats and dairy products, and fats and sweets at the peak. dietary recommendations. Servings data comprise the five major food groups--grain, vegetable, fruit, dairy, and meat--as well as their subgroups. For example, the vegetable group has six subgroups, including potatoes. The ARS recipe files include 33 potato products. These 33 products are grouped into six categories: fresh potatoes, chips, debydrated potatoes, frozen french fries (called french fries), other frozen potatoes (such as hash browns hash browns
Chopped cooked potatoes, fried until brown. Also called hash brown potatoes. and Tater Tots Tater Tots, also known as "Tots", a registered trademark for a commercial form of hash browns, is a side-dish made from deep-fried, grated potatoes. Tater Tots are widely recognized for their crispiness, cylindrical shape and small size. ), and canned potatoes (see box on potato use in the United States).
Our analysis of the CSFII data shows that fresh potatoes and french fries are the two most frequently consumed potato products in the United States. On a given day, more than a quarter of consumers (26%) ate fresh potatoes and 13% ate french fries (fig. 2). French fries accounted for about 95% of the total servings of all frozen potatoes. About 1 in every 12 consumers (8%) ate potato chips on a given day. Other potato products, including dehydrated, other frozen potatoes, and canned potatoes, were consumed less frequently.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Fresh Potatoes Prepared At Home, French Fries Prepared Away
Eating out is increasingly popular in the United States. In 1970, American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of consumers spent 33% of total food expenditures away from home. By 1999, that number had risen to 47.5%. USDA survey data show that fast food places and restaurants each accounted for only 3% of Americans' total caloric caloric /ca·lo·ric/ (kah-lor´ik) pertaining to heat or to calories.
1. Of or relating to calories.
2. Of or relating to heat. intakes during 1977-78. By 1994-96, fast food places accounted for 11% of Americans' caloric intakes, and restaurants accounted for 8%.
This study classifies foods as "at home" and "away from home" based on where the food was obtained or prepared, not where it was consumed. For example, a bagged lunch prepared at home and consumed at work is classified as food at home. A commercially prepared pizza pizza
Food of Neapolitan origin. It consists of a flattened disk of bread dough, typically topped with olive oil, tomatoes, and mozzarella cheese, baked quickly, and served hot. Pizza is eaten throughout Italy, with regional variations in toppings. Pizza came to the U.S. delivered and consumed at home is classified as food away from home.
Food at home is generally obtained at a retail store, such as a supermarket, grocery store, or a convenience store. Food consumed at other people's homes is also classified as food at home. Food away from home is generally purchased from commercial foodservice The foodservice (or food service) industry (US English; catering industry in British English) encompasses those places, institutions, and companies responsible for any meal eaten away from home. establishments but can also be obtained in such places as school cafeterias, community feeding programs, or child / adult care centers. In this study, fast food places are foodservice establishments where food is ordered and picked up at a counter, restaurants are places that have wait staff, and school cafeterias include daycare facilities and summer camps. The category "other" is a catchall catch·all
1. A receptacle or storage area for odds and ends.
2. Something that encompasses a wide variety of items or situations: category that includes community feeding centers, bars/taverns, vending machines vending machine, coin-operated, automatic device for selling goods. Many vending machines are capable of making change, and some of the more sophisticated ones accept paper money or credit cards. , and other sources of foods.
CSFII data show that about 2% of consumers did not eat any at-home at-home
n. also at home
An informal reception in one's home.
1. Being, occurring, or functioning in one's home: at-home workers; at-home care.
2. food on a given day (table 1). More than half of consumers (55%) ate at least one away-from-home food on a given day. The most-frequented foodservice outlets were fast food establishments, with 31% of consumers purchasing at least one food item from these places, followed by restaurants, with 17% of consumers purchasing at least one food item there.
Seven percent of consumers obtained at least one food item from a school cafeteria cafeteria: see restaurant. on any given day, and 13% of consumers obtained at least one food item from other sources.
During 1994-96, the bulk of fresh potatoes, potato chips, dehydrated potatoes, and canned potatoes were purchased at retail stores for home consumption (fig. 3). In 1994-96, 21% of fresh potatoes were prepared away from home, mostly by restaurants. Like fresh potatoes, 21% of potato chips were obtained from away-from-home sources, with other sources accounting for 9% of the market. Vending machines, included in other sources, had a 6% share of the chips market. Eleven percent of dehydrated potatoes were obtained away from home, with 4% from fast food places. Away-from-home sources accounted for 20% of the total canned potato consumption, with a 15% share for restaurants and a 5% share for fast food places.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Away-from-home sources dominated the consumption of french fries with an 88% market share during 1994-96. Fast food places accounted for 67% of french fries, and the amount of french fries obtained at restaurants, 13%, was more than the amount purchased at retail stores, 11%. School cafeterias accounted for 6% of french fry consumption.
Slightly more than half of other frozen potatoes were purchased for home consumption. Other frozen potatoes include such products as Tater Tots, homefries, and potato patties. Fast food places had a 23% share of the market for other frozen potatoes, followed by schools with a 12% share and restaurants with a 9% share.
Potato Dishes Vary By Region and Urbanization
CSFII data show distinct patterns in the consumption of potato products among the four Census regions--Northeast (20% of population), Midwest (24%), South (35%), and West (22%). With a 24% share of the U.S. population, the Midwestern States accounted for 26% of french fry consumption, 28% of fresh potato consumption, 29% of chips consumption, and 34% of dehydrated potato consumption (table 1).
By dividing the consumption share by the population share, we can compare relative consumption, as shown in table 2. For example, table 2 shows that Midwestern States had the highest relative consumption of fresh potatoes, chips and dehydrated potatoes.
Southern consumers ate more french fries than consumers in each of the other three regions. The Southern States Southern States
government of 11 Southern states that left the Union in 1860. [Am. Hist.: EB, III: 73]
popular name for Southern states in U.S. and for song. [Am. Hist. represent 35% of the overall U.S. population and accounted for 42% of french fry consumption, 37% of other frozen potato consumption, and 37% of canned potato consumption. Consumption of french fries and other frozen potatoes was lowest in the Northeast.
About 47% of the U.S. population resides in suburban areas, 32% live in metropolitan areas, and 21% live in rural areas (table 1). Rural area residents ate more potato products, except for debydrated products, than suburban or metro residents (table 2). On a per capita basis, rural area consumers ate 2.7 times as many canned potatoes as suburban consumers. Consumption of fresh potatoes in rural areas was about 24% more than in suburban areas and almost 50% more than in metropolitan areas.
... and By Race and Ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the 1994-96 CSFII, non-Hispanic Whites represented 73% of the U.S. population and, compared with other racial/ethnic groups, favored potatoes in fresh, dehydrated, and other frozen potatoes. Relative to their proportion of the population, non-Hispanic Whites tended to consume slightly fewer french fries and canned potatoes (fig. 4). Non-Hispanic Blacks represented about 13% of the U.S. population. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, this group reported the highest consumption of potato chips and french fries but the lowest consumption of fresh and canned potatoes.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Hispanics tended to eat fewer potatoes than other racial/ethnic groups. Hispanics represented about 11% of the U.S. population and do not appear to have strong preferences or dislikes for any particular potato product. Hispanics accounted for between 7 and 9% of the various potato products consumed in the United States.
Consumption of Chips And Fries Independent Of Income
Food consumption is determined by several factors, including income. Based on consumers' responses to an increase in income, foods can be classified as inferior goods In consumer theory, an inferior good is a good that increases in demand when the consumers income falls, unlike normal goods, for which the opposite is observed. Inferiority, in this sense, is an observable fact rather than a statement about the quality of the good. (consumption declines when income increases), normal goods (consumption rises by a proportion smaller than the rise in income), or luxury goods (consumption rises at a proportion larger than the rise in income).
Consumption of staple foods, such as cereals and potatoes, usually rises with income, but the rise is smaller than the increase in income. Within a food, there exist products of different qualities that may respond differently to a rise in household income. For example, consumers having more to spend on food may decide to consume more steaks and less ground beef. Similarly, households of different income levels may consume different amounts of potato products.
We classified households into three income groups. About 40% of households had high incomes--that is, incomes exceeding 350% of the Federal poverty level. (The Federal poverty level was $15,141 for a family of four in 1995.) Forty-two percent of households had incomes falling between 131 and 350% of poverty level. Nineteen percent of households fell into the low-income low-in·come
Of or relating to individuals or households supported by an income that is below average. group, with incomes no more than 130% of the poverty level.
CSFII data show that consumption of chips and french fries did not vary much with income. Low income households consumed, per person, the least amount of fresh potatoes, chips, and canned potatoes (table 2). Households with incomes between 131 and 350% of the poverty level had the highest per capita consumption of fresh and frozen potato products. High income households consumed more canned potatoes, per person, than other income groups.
Gender and Age Affect Potato Consumption
Males, perhaps because of their larger caloric intake intake /in·take/ (in-tak´) the substances, or the quantities thereof, taken in and utilized by the body.
n the substance or quantities thereof taken in and used by the body. , ate more of all six potato products than did females. This statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.
a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them. may also reflect a long-held perception by some diet-conscious females that potatoes are a high-calorie, diet-unfriendly food. Males ate about 70% more chips, french fries, and other frozen potatoes than females (table 2).
Relative consumption of fresh and canned potatoes increased with age, with seniors age 60 and older reporting the highest consumption for these two products. Consumption of chips and french fries initially rose with age, peaking, not surprisingly, in the teenage years, and then declined, with seniors consuming fewer chips than even toddlers.
Consumption of other frozen potatoes peaked at the 6-to-11-year-old age group (children in elementary school elementary school: see school. ) and then declined with age. Such products as Tater Tots tend to be popular in school lunches and breakfasts. Seniors ate fewer other frozen potatoes than toddlers. Consumption of dehydrated potato products peaked for males during the teenage years. This statistic is likely an extension of the popularity of potato chips and reflects the consumption of extruded chip products and those made from potato flakes.
Outlook for Potato Consumption
Over the last few decades, dining out Dining Out is one of the many traditions held by the military today. The history dates back to when Roman soldiers would hold dinners in honor of an individual. Later, British naval officers held a "guest night" to relax with other military personal and honored guests. has grown in popularity for Americans. Close to half of consumer food expenditures are now spent on eating out. A number of factors contribute to this trend: a growing number of women employed outside the home, more two-earner households, higher incomes, more affordable and convenient fast food outlets, increased advertising and promotion by large foodservice chains, and smaller American households.
These factors are expected to continue to boost eating out. As the bulk of fresh potatoes are consumed at home, and a large proportion of frozen french fries is consumed away from home, increased eating out will favor consumption of french fries at the expense of fresh potatoes (see box on nutrient nutrient /nu·tri·ent/ (noo´tre-int)
1. nourishing; providing nutrition.
2. a food or other substance that provides energy or building material for the survival and growth of a living organism. comparisons).
Other factors should be considered, however. Elderly people had the highest consumption of fresh and canned potatoes and the lowest consumption of potato chips, french fries, and other frozen potato products. On one hand, with the aging of the Nation's population, consumption patterns could begin to favor fresh potatoes. On the other hand, consumption patterns acquired during young ages may change little as consumers age. Today's teenagers could continue heavy consumption of french fries as they age. The future, therefore, is unclear with respect to the consumption growth of fresh potatoes and french fries.
Table 1 Potato Consumption Varies With Income, Gender, Region, and Other Demographics Potatoes Dehy- Item Population (1) Fresh Chips drated Percent Food sources: At home 98 79 79 89 Away from home 55 21 21 11 Fast food 31 6 7 4 Restaurant 17 12 1 1 School 7 1 3 2 Other (2) 13 2 9 2 Census region: Northeast 20 18 20 16 Midwest 24 28 29 34 South 35 35 34 35 West 22 20 17 15 Metropolitan Statistical Area status: Metropolitan 32 27 31 33 Suburban 47 47 44 47 Rural 21 26 25 20 Race/ethnic origin: White, non-Hispanic 73 80 73 78 Black, non-Hispanic 13 8 17 13 Hispanic 11 9 7 7 Others 4 3 3 3 Household income as a percentage of poverty: 0 - 130 percent 19 17 18 22 131 - 350 percent 42 45 42 41 351 percent and above 39 39 40 38 Gender and age: Male: All 49 57 62 53 2 - 5 years 5 2 3 3 6 - 11 years 5 3 6 4 12 - 19 years 6 6 10 9 20 - 59 years 27 36 40 31 60 years and older 7 10 3 7 Female: All 51 43 39 47 2 - 5 years 5 2 3 3 6 - 11 years 4 2 5 4 12 - 19 years 6 4 6 5 20 - 59 years 28 25 22 29 60 years and older 9 10 2 6 Potatoes Frozen french Other Item fries frozen Canned Percent Food sources: At home 12 53 80 Away from home 88 48 20 Fast food 67 23 5 Restaurant 13 9 15 School 6 12 0 Other (2) 2 3 1 Census region: Northeast 16 13 20 Midwest 26 22 24 South 42 37 37 West 19 28 18 Metropolitan Statistical Area status: Metropolitan 31 33 30 Suburban 46 41 31 Rural 23 26 39 Race/ethnic origin: White, non-Hispanic 70 77 72 Black, non-Hispanic 16 12 4 Hispanic 9 9 8 Others 4 3 16 Household income as a percentage of poverty: 0 - 130 percent 19 19 16 131 - 350 percent 42 53 41 351 percent and above 39 28 43 Gender and age: Male: All 62 63 60 2 - 5 years 3 4 2 6 - 11 years 5 10 3 12 - 19 years 12 10 5 20 - 59 years 39 35 38 60 years and older 3 4 13 Female: All 38 38 40 2 - 5 years 3 4 3 6 - 11 years 5 6 2 12 - 19 years 9 4 3 20 - 59 years 20 20 22 60 years and older 2 4 10 (1) The "population column indicates the share of the U.S. population that ate at least one food item on any given day. (2) Six percent of chips came from vending machines, which are included in the category "other". Source: CSFII, 1994-96, 2-day dietary recall data. Table 2 Relative Shares Highlight Differences in Potato Consumption Potatoes Frozen Dehy- french Other Can- Demographic profile Fresh Chips drated fries frozen ned Percent Census region: Northeast 91 101 83 71 68 105 Midwest 118 125 145 108 93 101 South 99 97 101 120 105 107 West 90 77 66 86 127 84 Metropolitan Statistical Area status: Metropolitan 85 98 102 98 103 95 Suburban 100 94 100 98 87 67 Rural 124 117 96 107 125 183 Race/ethnic origin: White, non- Hispanic 110 101 107 97 106 99 Black, non- Hispanic 64 133 100 131 94 33 Hispanic 90 68 65 89 85 77 Others 69 64 65 95 59 863 Household income as a percentage of poverty: 0 - 130 percent 87 96 113 99 99 85 131 - 350 percent 107 101 97 101 126 98 351 percent and above 98 101 96 99 72 110 Gender and age: Male: All 117 126 109 127 128 123 2 - 5 years 44 62 67 65 81 32 6 - 11 years 59 127 76 111 216 62 12 - 19 years 110 178 154 213 169 94 20 - 59 years 132 147 116 144 131 141 60 years and older 153 39 96 36 53 185 Female: All 84 75 91 75 73 78 2 - 5 years 40 69 62 60 77 57 6 - 11 years 50 112 91 107 142 54 12 - 19 years 70 114 96 152 76 53 20 - 59 years 90 80 103 73 72 77 60 years and older 114 20 64 21 39 114 Source: CSFII, 1994-96, 2-day dietary recall data.
Lin Lin , Maya Ying Born 1959.
American sculptor and architect whose public works include the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. (1982).
Noun 1. , B.H., J. Guthrie Guth·rie , Woodrow Wilson Known as "Woody." 1912-1967.
American folk singer and composer of numerous songs about hardship and social injustice, including "This Land Is Your Land" (1940).
Noun 1. , and E. Frazao. Away-From-Home Foods Increasingly Important to Quality of American Diet, Agricultural Information Bulletin No. 749. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 1999.
Plummer Plummer may refer to: Places in the United States
Putnam Put·nam , Israel 1718-1790.
American soldier active in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War. During the Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775), he supposedly issued the order, "Don't one of you shoot until you see the whites of their , J., and J. Allshouse. Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, 1970-99. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, forthcoming.
Talburt, W.F. (ed) Potato Processing, 4th Edition. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Van Nostrand Reinhold Reinhold is a surname and given name, and may refer to:
As a surname:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 1994-96 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey. 1998.
Jack Ampuja Independent Consultant