Farmworkers and Pesticides: Community-Based Research.In this paper we summarize sum·ma·rize
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum the results of a workshop conducted to disseminate dis·sem·i·nate
v. dis·sem·i·nat·ed, dis·sem·i·nat·ing, dis·sem·i·nates
1. To scatter widely, as in sowing seed.
2. information about community-based research on the environmental health risks of exposure of farmworkers to pesticides. Community-based research is an approach that is advocated for addressing issues of environmental justice such as exposure of farmworkers to pesticides. This workshop brought together scientists, community organization members, and agency representatives to review and discuss the research methods and organizational relationships that have been successful in conducting past community research so these principles can be applied to new situations. The objectives of this workshop were to a) be a forum in which those conducting community-based research with farmworkers could share what they had learned; b) delineate the successes and barriers across different projects to further develop models and methods for conducting community-based research; and c) determine future directions and needs of farmworker community-based research for environmental justice. Key words:, agricultural health, community participation, environmental health, environmental justice, farmworkers, health disparities
Health disparities (also called health inequalities in some countries) refer to gaps in the quality of health and health care across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. , migrant mi·grant
1. One that moves from one region to another by chance, instinct, or plan.
2. An itinerant worker who travels from one area to another in search of work.
Migratory. health, minority health, pesticides, translational research. Environ en·vi·ron
tr.v. en·vi·roned, en·vi·ron·ing, en·vi·rons
To encircle; surround. See Synonyms at surround.
[Middle English envirounen, from Old French environner Health Perspect 108:787-792 (2000). [Online 13 July 2000] http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2000/108p787-792arcury/abstract.html
Pesticide pesticide, biological, physical, or chemical agent used to kill plants or animals that are harmful to people; in practice, the term pesticide is often applied only to chemical agents. exposure is a constant risk for farmworkers, as well as anyone else who works on a contemporary farm. Although pesticides are meant to assist humans through crop protection and enhanced production, they can pose a serious health threat to those who work most closely with them (1-4). Today more than 85% of the fruits and vegetables produced in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. are hand harvested or cultivated by workers who are disenfranchised and often lack access to the knowledge needed to control their exposure to agricultural chemicals (5).
Accurate data about farmworker pesticide exposure on a national or comparative level are sparse sparse - A sparse matrix (or vector, or array) is one in which most of the elements are zero. If storage space is more important than access speed, it may be preferable to store a sparse matrix as a list of (index, value) pairs or use some kind of hash scheme or associative memory. (1,6). The commitment of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is one of 27 Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH),which is a component of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The Director of the NIEHS is Dr. David A. Schwartz. to fund several individual projects and center programs focusing on farmworkers and pesticides is a response to a growing recognition of the need to better document and address the risks of farmworker pesticide exposure (3,7-9).
Community-based prevention research has been advanced as an effective and appropriate approach to develop, deliver, and evaluate interventions aimed at reducing disparities in health status among communities (10-13). In such an approach, community members and scientists form a partnership to identify and solve local problems. A community-based approach is particularly appropriate for addressing the environmental and occupational health problems of pesticide exposure among seasonal and migrant farmworkers because such groups often have unique values and practices that are best understood with input from community members. As with other examples of environmental justice research (14,15), members of the farmworker community originally brought the environmental health hazards There are numerous health hazards that can affect people in their natural environment. Examples of environmental health hazards are :
With community-based approaches gaining credibility, scientists and community members conducting community-based research need to evaluate the research methods and organizational relationships that have been successful in conducting past community-based research and apply these principles to new situations (17-20). The workshop "Farmworkers and Pesticides: Community-Based Research" at the 1999 American Public Health Association The American Public Health Association (APHA) is Washington, D.C.-based professional organization for public health professionals in the United States. Founded in 1872 by Dr. Stephen Smith, APHA has more than 30,000 members worldwide. annual meeting brought together scientists, community-based organization members, and agency representatives currently involved in collaborative environmental health research on farmworker pesticide exposure to continue the development of common organizational frameworks and research methods to promote effective community-based prevention research. Most of the presenters are working on community-based research projects funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) as part of its translational research program. This 1-day workshop was supported by a grant from the NIEHS.
This workshop had three objectives. The first was to serve as a forum in which those conducting community-based research projects with farmworker communities aimed at reducing the environmental health risk of pesticide exposure would have the opportunity to share what they had learned with each other and with others seeking to develop similar projects. The second objective was to delineate the successes and barriers across the different projects to further develop models and methods for conducting community-based environmental health research. The final goal was to determine future directions and needs of community-based research for environmental justice, particularly regarding pesticide safety among farmworkers.
In this article we summarize the findings presented and discussed at the workshop.
We first present a definition of community-based research and briefly review some of the difficulties in conducting this research. We then describe community participation models used in research on pesticide exposure among farmworkers. We review issues in research design and methods used in community-based projects. Approaches to the evaluation of community-based projects are then discussed. Finally, future directions and needs are presented for community-based research with farmworkers to reduce their exposure to environmental health risks.
Models for Community-Based Research with Farmworkers
Israel and colleagues (10,11) reviewed the growing literature on community-based participatory research Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is research that is conducted as an equal partnership between traditionally trained "experts" and members of a community. In CBPR projects, the community participates fully in all aspects of the research process. , particularly regarding occupational health and safety (21). They define community-based research in public health as a partnership approach to research that equitably involves community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process to enhance understanding of a given phenomenon and integrate the knowledge gained with action to improve the health and well-being of community members (11). Although several scholars and activists have discussed the value of community-based research, there is a growing recognition that collaboration between scientists and community members poses several distinct challenges. For example, Cornwall and Jewkes (18) discussed several problems of community-based research, including residents being skeptical of the value of the research, being uninterested in it, or feeling that it lacks local relevance. Community members may lack motivation, time, or resources to participate, or they may simply not value participation. Finally, even within small, geographically bounded communities, there are differences in values, sentiments, and needs; and these change over time, so that there are competing definitions of what it means to "represent" a community. Israel et al. (11) examined three categories of challenges associated with conducting community-based research: issues related to developing and maintaining research partnerships, methodological issues, and broader social, political, economic, institutional, and cultural issues. Arcury et al. (17) extended the discussion of community-based research problems to those that result from working with inaccessible inaccessible Surgery adjective Unreachable; referring to a lesion that unmanageable by standard surgical techniques–eg, lesions deep in the brain or adjacent to vital structures–ie, not accessible. See Accessible. or elusive populations such as farmworkers. Farmworker communities are often not locality 1. locality - In sequential architectures programs tend to access data that has been accessed recently (temporal locality) or that is at an address near recently referenced data (spatial locality). This is the basis for the speed-up obtained with a cache memory.
2. based because farmworkers are very mobile. There are communication difficulties because farmworkers often do not speak English; in fact, the first language for many farmworkers is an indigenous language Noun 1. indigenous language - a language that originated in a specified place and was not brought to that place from elsewhere
language, linguistic communication - a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols; "he taught foreign other than Spanish. Farmworkers often do not have telephones or mailing addresses. There are transportation difficulties, as many farmworkers do not own cars. Often, farmworkers are not represented by or do not belong to community-based organizations. Therefore, presenting models of successful collaborations with farmworkers is important for continuing and expanding research with farmworker communities.
Arcury et al. (17) described a multidomain, multimethod model for farmworker community-based research (Reducing Farmworkers' Exposures to Agricultural Chemicals; grant R21 ES08739). They argued for a model that recognizes the wide variability in the ability of different community members to be involved in research, community-driven or otherwise. Community members can be engaged in the research process at different levels or domains of involvement. These range from consultation (the least amount of participation), in which community members are kept informed about the research, through planning, in which community members help make decisions about what should be done and how it should be done, to implementation, in which community members are actual members of the staff conducting the research. The modes for involvement in each domain are potentially unlimited and can be unique to each community-based project. For example, in-depth interviews and community presentations can be used to consult with the community, while members of a community-based organization can collaborate in planning and implementing the research process.
Another model for involving farmworkers in community-based research is to work through an established organization (Reducing Pesticide Exposure in Minority Families; grant R21 ES08707; L. McCauley, Oregon Health Sciences University). This may include community-based farmworker organizations (i.e., whose boards are composed largely of farmworkers) or farmworker advocacy groups that have a history of providing services to migrant farmworker populations. These organizations need not be focused solely on the topic specific to the research project, but the research program should not be contradictory to the functions of the organization. For example, research on child pesticide exposure is different from but compatible with an organization that provides services to families through migrant Head Start programs. This model illustrates how participatory research programs can maximize their effectiveness by building partnerships with groups that hold the community's trust and who already include community participation in the delivery of services. In turn, the researcher-community partnership allows the community-based agency to develop the capacity to obtain reliable and valid data that will be used to advocate for the population and improve the quality of service for an underserved community.
In some communities, there may be no community-based or advocacy organizations that have the trust of the various constituencies involved. Other procedures must then be used to mobilize mo·bi·lize
1. To make mobile or capable of movement.
2. To restore the power of motion to a joint.
3. To release into the body, as glycogen from the liver. community members around the issue under study. One model for doing this is based on recruiting representatives from a wide range of constituencies. For research on pesticide issues, these constituencies are likely to include farmworkers, growers, grower groups, representatives from the department of agriculture, labor and industry representatives, the health department, health care workers in private and public clinics, representatives from farmworker unions, and representatives from other groups that have an interest in pesticides. In-depth interviews and focus groups with members of each constituency can produce an understanding of the barriers and bridges that are important for the diverse groups to work together. Such a qualitative analysis Qualitative Analysis
Securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on nonquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations. can help build an organizational structure This article has no lead section.
To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written. that supports widespread community participation.
An application of such a community mobilization mobilization
Organization of a nation's armed forces for active military service in time of war or other national emergency. It includes recruiting and training, building military bases and training camps, and procuring and distributing weapons, ammunition, uniforms, process took place in Washington State (Center for Child Environmental Health Risk Research, grant P01 ES09601; B. Thompson, Fred Hutchinson
Relating to or characteristic of an adversary; involving antagonistic elements: "the chasm between management and labor in this country, an often needlessly adversarial . . . groups can work together.
There are several characteristics common to the different models that have been successful in establishing farmworker collaboration in pesticide exposure research. The first characteristic is time. Whether working with an organization that has invested the time in gaining community recognition, taking the time to exchange information with the community through meetings and forums, or devoting the time to interview a broad spectrum of stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. , community-based research requires investigators to take time to build relationships when projects are being planned, and it requires the continued investment of time to maintain these relationships throughout the project. A second characteristic is the involvement of multiple community segments and multiple stakeholder stakeholder n. a person having in his/her possession (holding) money or property in which he/she has no interest, right or title, awaiting the outcome of a dispute between two or more claimants to the money or property. groups. This involvement allows the researcher to understand the different perspectives that usually exist within a single community. Each of the models developed a procedure for valuing indigenous or community knowledge. Learning from community members is not simply a means of showing respect for the community, but can show the researcher important variables or characteristics not previously considered. A common method for learning from the community is the use of qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. methods. Standards for the systematic application of qualitative research methods are now widely available for the interested investigator (22,23).
Community-Based Research Methods with Farmworkers
Those who wish to conduct community-based research must think in terms of different designs, as well as adapting methods creatively within more standard designs. Standard epidemiological epidemiological
emanating from or pertaining to epidemiology.
the associative relationships between the frequency of occurrence of a disease and its determinants, its predisposing and precipitating and survey designs may not be appropriate or successful in community-based research. It is important to be willing to modify research activities and data collection methods to make them culturally appropriate. As we have seen, designs that incorporate qualitative methods may be extremely important to the successful infusion of community participation. The researcher must also be prepared to explain the design and methods being used in a form that community members understand. Although critically important to scientific inquiry, random samples and power calculations for sample size may not be important to community members who want the project to collect data from a farmworker they know was poisoned with pesticides. Community members often want to be studied personally and individually. However, from a scientific view point, this is not the only way, and sometimes it is not the best way, to conduct etiologic e·ti·ol·o·gy also ae·ti·ol·o·gy
n. pl. e·ti·ol·o·gies
a. The study of causes or origins.
b. The branch of medicine that deals with the causes or origins of disease.
a. research. The challenge is achieving scientific rigor rigor /rig·or/ (rig´er) [L.] chill; rigidity.
rigor mor´tis the stiffening of a dead body accompanying depletion of adenosine triphosphate in the muscle fibers. in a context in which community members are comfortable.
Community-based projects have found success with a variety of methods to collect information with farmworkers. The selection of a method depends on the characteristics of local farmworker communities, as well as on the type of information to be collected and the purpose for which the data will be used. Researchers using community-based designs must also be aware of special issues of informed consent and procedures for developing study instruments.
Two designs that researchers have found to be successful in conducting community-based farmworker pesticide research are based in social marketing and popular education. Social marketing is an approach that uses commercial marketing methods to design, implement, and evaluate programs that change behaviors in ways that benefit individuals in a target audience or society as a whole (24). The methods typically used in designing a social marketing strategy--focus group and in-depth interviews--are accessible to both scientists and community members, making a social marketing approach readily integrated in a community-based project (25). For example, the Florida Together for Agricultural Safety project used social marketing to develop a behavioral change program to reduce pesticide exposure (A Community-Based Environmental Health Intervention health intervention Health care An activity undertaken to prevent, improve, or stabilize a medical condition , grant R21 ES08766; L.L. Clark, University of Florida University of Florida is the third-largest university in the United States, with 50,912 students (as of Fall 2006) and has the eighth-largest budget (nearly $1.9 billion per year). UF is home to 16 colleges and more than 150 research centers and institutes. ). University and community partners collaboratively completed the tasks required to design this social marketing program (e.g., limited surveys, focus groups, and in-depth interviews). The university partners contributed technical expertise (activity design, training, and analytical capability); the community partners contributed cultural expertise (culturally appropriate data collection and context for interpreting results).
Popular education is a dialogical di·a·log·ic also di·a·log·i·cal
Of, relating to, or written in dialogue.
dia·log problem-posing process in which all partners ("student" and "teacher") share in a learning process characterized by equality and mutual respect (26). Although popular education is generally a method of community intervention aimed at improving health, this approach has been modified by the Farmworker Health and Safety Institute, Glassboro, New Jersey Glassboro is a Borough in Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States. As of the United States 2000 Census, the borough population was 19,068.
What is now Glassboro was originally formed as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 11, 1878, from portions , as a community-based research design called the "Diagnostico" or Diagnostic Evaluation diagnostic evaluation Workup Medtalk An evaluation used to diagnose disease Components Medical Hx, CXR or other images, collection of specimens from blood for lab analysis (27). Collecting information through structured and in-depth interviews, as well as observation, the Diagnostico allows the researchers, who are current or former farmworkers, to record employer compliance of the Worker Protection Standard, thereby documenting farmworkers' risk for pesticide exposure. The unit of analysis, however, is the site or farm rather than the individual farmworker. Therefore, multiple visits are made to each site. In building relationships over several visits, the researcher is able to look for changes or inconsistencies in the data collected from a site. In this way, the researcher can confront respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. when interview and other data are in conflict, and thus collect more accurate data.
Engaging community members in the
research process is an important concern because community members often want to be involved in all aspects of a project. They do not want to be limited to project planning project planning - project management and oversight; they demand the shared ownership that includes being active partners in data collection, data analysis, and reporting research results (including coauthorship of papers). Involving community members must be accomplished in a manner that reflects their interest and investment in participation and ownership, while meeting the professional requirements of sound research technique and limited bias. For example, to conduct formative formative /for·ma·tive/ (for´mah-tiv) concerned in the origination and development of an organism, part, or tissue. research using an in-depth interview design in a community-based project in North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. , community members collaborated in writing and pretesting the interview guide, recruiting respondents, conducting interviews, and completing data analysis (Reducing Farmworkers' Exposures to Agricultural Chemicals, grant R21 ES08739; T.A. Arcury, Wake Forest University School of Medicine Wake Forest University School of Medicine, along with North Carolina Baptist Hospital and Wake Forest University Physicians, is part of the Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center system. ) (28). Community members received training in each aspect of the process at the time that aspect was being completed (e.g., interview training occurred before the interviews were conducted; training to code data was completed just before coding began). This method successfully incorporates farmworkers as researchers and respondents.
Although qualitative and case-study designs can be used to understand farmworker pesticide exposure, there are few epidemiologic studies epidemiologic study A study that compares 2 groups of people who are alike except for one factor, such as exposure to a chemical or the presence of a health effect; the investigators try to determine if any factor is associated with the health effect of pesticide health effects in farmworkers. This results partly from the perception that the farmworker population is inaccessible for research. Collaboration with a farmworker community-based organization can help to overcome this inaccessibility in·ac·ces·si·ble
Not accessible; remote or unapproachable.
inac·ces . For example, researchers from the NIEHS collaborated with the Farmworkers Association of Florida (FWAF FWAF Farmworker Association of Florida, Inc.
FWAF Factory with A Future ) to establish a sampling frame and recruit participants for an epidemiologic study of neurologic neurologic /neu·ro·log·ic/ (-loj´ik) pertaining to neurology or to the nervous system.
Having to do with the nervous system. effects of pesticide exposure. With the collaboration of the FWAF, the researchers were able to access the membership roles of a farmworker community credit union as a sampling frame. FWAF members also helped to locate and recruit participants with a high response rate; in two locations, 90% and 94% of contacted workers were screened, and 79% and 85%, respectively, of screened workers participated.
An important but seldom discussed question in community-based research is the protection of human subjects. This becomes an important issue because community involvement is a process that can result in community-initiated research design that changes up to the moment data collection commences, but institutional review boards (IRB IRB
See: Industrial Revenue Bond ) require time to review defined research protocols. It becomes necessary for the researcher collaborating in a community-based project to instruct in·struct
v. in·struct·ed, in·struct·ing, in·structs
1. To provide with knowledge, especially in a methodical way. See Synonyms at teach.
2. To give orders to; direct.
v. community members about the rights of individuals as study participants and to inform the IRB about the need for flexibility in the review of research protocols. This is also a juncture junc·ture
The point, line, or surface of union of two parts. at which the researcher can educate the institution about the benefits of community-based projects (e.g., fulfillment ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. of university mission of community service; involvement of minority groups in research; mentoring minority youth).
The key commonalities across the research designs and methods discussed at the workshop are flexibility and creativity. It is unlikely that textbook research applications will work well in community-based projects. Rather, researchers and community members must be flexible in conducting research so that the needs of the community are met and the basic tenets of scientific integrity are maintained.
Most community-based projects focused on farmworker pesticide exposure have used qualitative methods. It is important that the systematic application of qualitative methods be maintained for their empirical validity (28). One of the strengths of qualitative research designs is that these methods are more amenable AMENABLE. Responsible; subject to answer in a court of justice liable to punishment. to modification in the course of the research process than are standard epidemiological or toxicological methods. However, innovation can improve the application of quantitative methods as well. In the epidemiological study An Epidemiological study is a statistical study on human populations, which attempts to link human health effects to a specified cause. of neurologic outcomes among Florida farmworkers, community-based organization resources (credit union membership lists and community members locating selected respondents) were engaged to accrue To increase; to augment; to come to by way of increase; to be added as an increase, profit, or damage. Acquired; falling due; made or executed; matured; occurred; received; vested; was created; was incurred. the sample. This facilitated the high response rate this study enjoyed.
The need to collect survey interview and epidemiological data in community-based research For quantification quan·ti·fy
tr.v. quan·ti·fied, quan·ti·fy·ing, quan·ti·fies
1. To determine or express the quantity of.
2. of farmworker pesticide exposure and ascertainment ascertainment /as·cer·tain·ment/ (a?ser-tan´ment) in genetics, the method by which persons with a trait are selected or discovered by an investigator. of the relationships of pesticide exposure to health are also important. These data are important for developing generalizable gen·er·al·ize
v. gen·er·al·ized, gen·er·al·iz·ing, gen·er·al·iz·es
a. To reduce to a general form, class, or law.
b. To render indefinite or unspecific.
2. and measurable outcomes needed in health and environmental regulation and policy. There are many difficult problems that must be overcome in order to collect these quantitative data: sample design, trust and recruitment, and culturally appropriate and valid questions. These issues, as they pertain to pertain to
verb relate to, concern, refer to, regard, be part of, belong to, apply to, bear on, befit, be relevant to, be appropriate to, appertain to regulation, should be the focus of future workshops. Community-based research on topics other than farmworker pesticide exposure can also be a source of successful models of community participation (29,30).
Another area important for addressing farmworker pesticide exposure that could challenge community-based research is the collection of biological data. How can community members be involved in collecting blood, urine, saliva saliva
Thick, colourless fluid constantly present in the mouth, composed of water, mucus, proteins, mineral salts, and amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starches. One to two litres are produced daily by the salivary glands. , or other specimens? As discussed below, one of the major needs in research on the health effects of human exposure to pesticides is for simple, reliable, and affordable biomarker biomarker /bio·mark·er/ (bi´o-mahr?ker)
1. a biological molecule used as a marker for a substance or process of interest.
2. tumor marker.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Farmworker Community-Based Research
There are important ideological or political as well as scientific reasons for using a community-based approach for conducting research that addresses environmental justice issues such as farmworker pesticide exposure. However, we also need to evaluate community-based research to judge a) the degree to which community participation actually occurred, b) whether projects accomplished their obiectives, and c) the degree to which the science that was conducted with community participation achieved professional and disciplinary standards. The last point is extremely important because it demonstrates the acceptability of project results for public health policy, remediation, and the foundation for further research. A frequent drawback DRAWBACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation. of community participation research is that the results are difficult to apply beyond the local level and are not easily integrated into "mainstream" scientific inquiry (31). This workshop demonstrated the need for community-based researchers in farmworker health to share research findings and to generate knowledge that is useful beyond the local confines con·fine
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit. of individual projects. Community-based research projects must ultimately result in scientifically valid and meaningful results in order for their conclusions to be accepted and acted upon by the larger public health, regulatory, and scientific communities.
Standard process and product evaluation criteria can be applied to community-based research. Each of the NIEHS-funded projects discussed at this workshop have a planned method of evaluation. Although health outcomes of specific community interventions need to be documented, community-based researchers can also add significantly to the field by documenting the structural and process indicators that impede im·pede
tr.v. im·ped·ed, im·ped·ing, im·pedes
To retard or obstruct the progress of. See Synonyms at hinder1.
[Latin imped or facilitate the implementation of community-based research. The process of community involvement needs to be documented, in parr parr
a juvenile salmonid, especially Salmo spp., at a stage before it becomes a smolt; characterized by parallel transverse bands on its sides. to substantiate To establish the existence or truth of a particular fact through the use of competent evidence; to verify.
For example, an Eyewitness might be called by a party to a lawsuit to substantiate that party's testimony. the wide variety and usefulness of models currently used. All stakeholders need to be involved in the process. Particularly enlightening en·light·en
tr.v. en·light·ened, en·light·en·ing, en·light·ens
1. To give spiritual or intellectual insight to: are the convergent or divergent di·ver·gent
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.
2. Departing from convention.
3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.
4. views on the success of the project from both researchers and community members. In addition to traditional evaluation criteria, three other considerations must be addressed to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based research: community changes for the benefit of members and their health, meaningfully integrating the research process and findings into the community, and the sustainability or increased capacity of the community to engage in research or change after the research project is completed.
Beyond standard process and product evaluation, additional criteria can be applied for evaluating translational research. That is, how do both scientists and community members evaluate the conduct and outcome of such research from a personal or professional point of view? Given the time and effort needed to overcome barriers such as cultural differences and competing demands, what needs of each party must be met to make such a partnership worthwhile? For the conduct of research, community partners need for research issues to be community-generated and significant to the community. They expect the community's knowledge and expertise to be respected and valued. In short, research should be conducted with the community, not on it. Scientists need research to be conducted using systematic procedures for sampling, measurement, and analysis; they, too, expect respect for their knowledge and expertise. For outcomes, communities are interested in legitimization of community concerns and capacity building in the community. Scientists need to arrive at results that can be defended to scientific peers. Both seek solving problems and establishment of an ongoing partnership. By attending to how communities' and scientists' needs in the research process are similar and different, it is possible to arrive at a partnership that is satisfying and mutually beneficial Adj. 1. mutually beneficial - mutually dependent
dependent - relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed; "dependent children"; "dependent on moisture" .
There are several indirect indicators for evaluating the different components of community-based research. Projects that are successful result in long-term changes in a community. For example, the Rural Health Research Program at the University of Mississippi The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. Founded in 1848, the school is composed of the main campus in Oxford and three branch campuses located in Booneville, Tupelo, and Southaven. has a continuous 28-year-relationship with communities in the Mississippi Delta This article is about the geographic region of the U.S. state of Mississippi. For other uses, see Mississippi Delta (disambiguation).
The Mississippi Delta is the distinct northwest section of the state of Mississippi that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo . A further indicator of successful academic-community collaboration is the willingness of community organizations and community members to come to researchers with new problems and new project ideas. Community members' support for the researchers when they are exposed to political and legal pressure (an all too familiar occurrence when the research addresses issues of environmental and occupational justice) is a further indicator of successful community-based research. For example, in a recent case in North Carolina, community members were the first to call state legislators and other officials when their university researcher partner faced legal action from an industry group over his reporting results that could have a negative effect on industry regulations. A final indicator of a successful community-based research project occurs when community members are inspired to become politically active, to pursue a research career, or when they are able to use the results to further their public policy work in advocating for their community's rights.
Another indirect but widely accepted indicator for measuring the degree to which the science conducted in community-based research achieves professional and disciplinary standards is publication in refereed journals refereed journal,
n a professional or literary journal or publication in which articles or papers are selected for publication by a panel of readers or referees who are experts in the field. . Some of the projects using community-based approaches to investigate and intervene with farmworker exposure to pesticides are too new to have produced results that can be submitted for peer review. It can also be expected that true partnership of community members and researchers could prolong pro·long
tr.v. pro·longed, pro·long·ing, pro·longs
1. To lengthen in duration; protract.
2. To lengthen in extent. the time that it normally would take to achieve published results due to the multiple participants in the writing of a manuscript. However, this process has begun, and several papers from these projects are published or are in press (28,32-37).
Conclusions and Future Directions
The objectives of this workshop included analyzing common features of successful community-based research to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure and determining the needs and directions for future community-based farmworker research. Commonalities for successful collaborations between farmworker community members and scientists involve models of organizational relationships, research design and methods, and tools for evaluating the products of these collaborations. In each of these areas, specific procedures were not selected as better than others; rather, general characteristics of successful approaches were delineated de·lin·e·ate
tr.v. de·lin·e·at·ed, de·lin·e·at·ing, de·lin·e·ates
1. To draw or trace the outline of; sketch out.
2. To represent pictorially; depict.
3. . There is no single successful organizational relationship between farmworker communities and research organizations. However, all successful relationships have common characteristics: the partners invest time, input is sought from all community stakeholders, and community and scientific knowledge is valued and shared. In this regard, the ideology or willingness that allows the voice of both parties to be heard may be the most important organizational requirement to develop and maintain a community-based research program that incorporates scientifically sound methods.
Most of the projects discussed in this workshop used qualitative research methods. The use of these methods should not be seen as a requirement of community-based research. Rather, qualitative methods have three characteristics that nuke them extremely valuable in community-based research designs: the application of qualitative methods is flexible, they are excellent techniques for learning from the community, and their format of dialogue and conversation provides a familiar setting that encourages community participation. We advise those who wish to use qualitative methods that they must have the expertise for their appropriate application.
Qualitative research is not doing a single focus group. It is taking a systematic approach to the collection, analysis, and reporting of data that strives to understand the meanings that the members of a community have for phenomena. Like quantitative research Quantitative research
Use of advanced econometric and mathematical valuation models to identify the firms with the best possible prospectives. Antithesis of qualitative research. , qualitative research is concerned with issues of sampling, data quality, and rigorous data analysis (22,23,38,39).
Other research methods have also been applied in community-based research. Like researchers who employ qualitative designs, those using quantitative methods must strive for the utmost representativeness of their samples and use culturally appropriate tools with demonstrated reliability and validity. The most important characteristics for developing research designs and incorporating methods into community-based research are flexibility and creativity.
Workshop participants identified two major areas that need development for future community-based research on farmworker pesticide exposure. The first of these is conducting rigorous epidemiological and survey research that produces generalizable results. We cannot depend on case-study analyses to remediate re·me·di·a·tion
The act or process of correcting a fault or deficiency: remediation of a learning disability.
re·me the risks of pesticide exposure in this population and to influence environmental and occupational regulations. A few studies have used survey and epidemiological design, but more of this work is needed. Some of the obstacles in applying these survey designs include the difficulty in locating representative samples, problems of recruiting farmworkers who fear employer reprisal reprisal, in international law, the forcible taking, in time of peace, by one country of the property or territory belonging to another country or to the citizens of the other country, to be held as a pledge or as redress in order to satisfy a claim. or investigation by the Immigration and Naturalization Service Noun 1. Immigration and Naturalization Service - an agency in the Department of Justice that enforces laws and regulations for the admission of foreign-born persons to the United States
INS , and the lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate instruments for this diverse population. The second major need is for procedures to measure biological exposure to pesticides among farmworkers. The difficulties in doing this are discussed elsewhere (1). Both exposure assessment and methods of biological monitoring require that environmental scientists be active participants in these projects. Most of those participating in this workshop were health educators, epidemiologists, and community activists. They fully appreciate the difficulty in assessing pesticide exposure through questionnaire methods. Biomarker procedures that are simple, valid, and inexpensive will improve diagnosis of farmworker pesticide exposure and the ability to evaluate exposure reduction interventions.
Evaluation of community-based projects must consider criteria in addition to those normally applied. These criteria must reflect what benefits are left in the community as well as increasing scientific understanding. Community criteria include increased capacity and skills of community members and the continued relationship between community and research institution. Evaluation criteria among researchers include acceptance of study results by peers and the publication of findings.
Finally, the projects discussed in this workshop are each addressing behavioral change among farmworkers to reduce their pesticide exposure. Although individual behavior change Behavior change refers to any transformation or modification of human behavior. Such changes can occur intentionally, through behavior modification, without intention, or change rapidly in situations of mental illness. is important, it must be accompanied by change in the work environment, as well as in pesticides, to reduce exposure risks among farmworkers.
There is tremendous potential to be derived from collaborative research with farmworker communities. A major requirement for continued efforts for community-based health research is the availability of funding and the requirement by funding agencies that community-based efforts be used. There are strong indications that both of these requirements will be met. Under the direction of Kenneth Olden old·en
Of, relating to, or belonging to time long past; old or ancient: olden days.
[Middle English : old, old; see old + -en, adj. , the NIEHS has sponsored several translational research initiatives that require or strongly encourage community participation. These include "Environmental Justice: Partnerships for Communication," "Community-Based Prevention/Intervention Research," "Health Disparities: Linking Biological and Behavioral Mechanisms with Social and Physical Environments," "Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research," and "Environmental Health Science as an Integrative Context for Learning." The most recent Superfund Basic Research Program The Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP) was created within the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in 1986 under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). competition also included an option for community-based projects. Other institutes in NIH have started their own community-based research initiatives (e.g., National Cancer Institute), as have other agencies within the Public Health Service (e.g., Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. ), and other federal agencies (e.g., Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), independent agency of the U.S. government, with headquarters in Washington, D.C. It was established in 1970 to reduce and control air and water pollution, noise pollution, and radiation and to ensure the safe handling and ).
In summary, a strong foundation has been laid for farmworker community-based research to reduce the risks of pesticide exposure. Aspects of this work have been found practicable in several situations. Those collaborating with farmworker communities must consider the features of community-based research common to other populations. Other significant areas need to be developed for the continued growth of these efforts. Communities and scientists are fortunate to be working at a time when there are several agencies in the federal government, as well as in the private sector, that understand the importance of community-based approaches to redressing environmental and other health disparities and who are willing to support these efforts financially as well as philosophically.
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Speakers Thomas A. Arcury Freya Kamel Wake Forest University NIEHS School of Medicine Eddie W. Logan Colin K. Austin Durant, MS MDC, Inc. Linda McCauley Marco Beltran Oregon Health AED Migrant Head Start Sciences University Allen Dearry Teresa Niedda NIEHS Farmworker Health and Safety Institute Joan Flocks University of Florida Sara A. Quandt Wake Forest University Dennis A. Frate School of Medicine University of Mississippi Beti Thompson Barbara A. Israel Fred Hutchinson Cancer University of Michigan Research Center
Address correspondence to T.A. Arcury, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157-1084 USA. Telephone: (336) 716-9438. Fax: (336) 716-3206. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org This workshop was supported by NIH grant R13-ES10197 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Received 4 February 2000; accepted 11 April 2000.
Thomas A. Arcury,(1) Sara A. Quandt,(2) and Linda McCauley(3)
(1) Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Winston-Salem is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 185,776; in 2004 the city annexed an additional 17,483 raising the population to 203,259. , USA; (2) Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA; (3) Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology toxicology, study of poisons, or toxins, from the standpoint of detection, isolation, identification, and determination of their effects on the human body. Toxicology may be considered the branch of pharmacology devoted to the study of the poisonous effects of drugs. and School of Nursing, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA