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Family violence in Asian communities, combining research and community development.

Abstract

This study aimed to begin to fill gaps in research on family violence in Asian communities in Aotearoa New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. , and increase understanding of what can be done to prevent its occurrence and reduce its impacts on families, relatives and friends. The study employed interviews with migrants from China, South Asia This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. For geophysical treatments, see Indian subcontinent.
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia
 and South East Asia East Asia

A region of Asia coextensive with the Far East.



East Asian adj. & n.
 who used family violence services, key informant informant Historian Medtalk A person who provides a medical history  interviews with practitioners working in the family violence field, and focus groups with service users, practitioners and trainees. The study found the triggers for family violence within these New Zealand Asian communities related to difficulties in adjusting to living in a new country, in particular, finding suitable employment and experiencing financial hardship. Men's dominance in some Asian families was an issue, especially when men saw control over their wives as a last resort to protect their cultural values and traditions. The racism and discrimination some women experienced in this study, when they attempted to find paid jobs or solve their financial dependency issues, put women at extreme risk of abuse and violence. The barriers to preventing or dealing with family violence related to perceptions in the Asian communities researched that family violence is a private matter, and to the women's desire to keep the marriage/relationship intact and limited responsiveness.

BACKGROUND

While there is some research on family violence in Pacific, Maori and Pakeha communities, there is limited research conducted on family violence in Asian communities within the cultural context of New Zealand. Little is known about the factors that trigger family violence in Asian communities in Aotearoa New Zealand, and the consequences of violent behaviours at home, particularly the impacts on people. More importantly, how can a strengths-based approach be utilised to prevent the occurrence of family violence in Asian communities and reduce its horrific hor·rif·ic  
adj.
Causing horror; terrifying.



[Latin horrificus : horrre, to tremble + -ficus, -fic.
 impacts on families, relatives and friends in New Zealand?

For the purpose of this report, the term "family violence" is adopted over other commonly used terms, like "domestic violence" or "intimate partner violence", for two reasons. First, in the context of this study, the family is considered to be the basic unit of analysis and, when the term "domestic violence" is used, the abused woman tends to be the unit of analysis (Kurz 1989). The "family" is a system of social relations with unique properties that make it a particularly fertile fer·tile
adj.
1. Capable of conceiving and bearing young.

2. Fertilized. Used of an ovum.
 ground for violence (Gelles 1993), and the triggers for spouse spouse  A legal marriage partner as defined by state law  abuse lie in the structure of the contemporary family (Kurz 1989). Second, the notion of "family violence" has greater salience sa·li·ence   also sa·li·en·cy
n. pl. sa·li·en·ces also sa·li·en·cies
1. The quality or condition of being salient.

2. A pronounced feature or part; a highlight.

Noun 1.
 or "buy in" with Asian communities, where the family is seen as the fundamental unit of society and source of strength, and a family member's problems are often considered a threat to the balanced or harmonised Adj. 1. harmonised - involving or characterized by harmony
consonant, harmonical, harmonized, harmonic

harmonious - musically pleasing
 relationships of the family unit. The primary focus of this study is "spouse/partner abuse" (physical, sexual and psychological violence among adult partners).

For the purpose of this report, the term "Asian peoples Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism. " is used to represent the diversity and plurality The opinion of an appellate court in which more justices join than in any concurring opinion.

The excess of votes cast for one candidate over those votes cast for any other candidate.

Appellate panels are made up of three or more justices.
 within the Asian communities. More specifically, this project focuses on South Asians and Chinese. "South Asians" refers to people from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (srē läng`kə) [Sinhalese,=resplendent land], formerly Ceylon, ancient Taprobane, officially Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, island republic (2005 est. pop.  and to Indian Fijians. "Chinese" covers individuals from China, Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov. , Taiwan and the South-east Asian region including Malaysia and Singapore. Within the Asian population, the immigrant communities are the focal point focal point
n.
See focus.
 of the present investigation. The reason for choosing the South Asian peoples and Chinese immigrants to study is that they are the two largest population groups under the umbrella term A term used to cover a broad category of functions rather than one specific item. In many cases, a term is so catchy that it tends to be used for technologies that are a stretch from the original concept. See middleware and virtualization.  "Asian" in New Zealand. Also, 70% of Chinese and 59% of Indians INDIANS. The aborigines of this country are so called.
     2. In general, Indians have no political rights in the United States; they cannot vote at the general elections for officers, nor hold office.
 are recent immigrants (people born overseas who have arrived in New Zealand in the last 10 years) and two-thirds of the Asian population live in the Auckland urban area (Statistics New Zealand Statistics New Zealand (In Māori, Tatauranga Aotearoa) is the state sector organisation of New Zealand which is responsible for the country's official statistics, under the authority of the 1975 Statistics Act.  2002), where this research was carried out.

The overall aim of this project was to utilise a capacity-building approach to address issues surrounding sur·round  
tr.v. sur·round·ed, sur·round·ing, sur·rounds
1. To extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle.

2. To enclose or confine on all sides so as to bar escape or outside communication.

n.
 family violence in the immigrant and refugee refugee, one who leaves one's native land either because of expulsion or to escape persecution. The legal problem of accepting refugees is discussed under asylum; this article considers only mass dislocations and the organizations that help refugees.  communities in New Zealand. The specific objectives of this project were:

* to explore the contextual issues of social, cultural and economic triggers of family violence in Asian communities

* to identify and articulate articulate /ar·tic·u·late/ (ahr-tik´u-lat)
1. to pronounce clearly and distinctly.

2. to make speech sounds by manipulation of the vocal organs.

3. to express in coherent verbal form.

4.
 community (and family) cultural/belief systems and mechanisms for responding to the needs of those affected by family violence

* to identify any underlying positive aspects such as creativity, leadership building, self-determination self-determination

Process by which a group of people, usually possessing a degree of political consciousness, form their own state and government. The idea evolved as a byproduct of nationalism.
, and how these aspects could contribute to preventing family violence.

METHODOLOGY

There were five groups of participants involved in the present project:

* women who left their abusive Tending to deceive; practicing abuse; prone to ill-treat by coarse, insulting words or harmful acts. Using ill treatment; injurious, improper, hurtful, offensive, reproachful.  relationship and currently live in a safe house

* women who have left a safe house and may or may not have returned to their family (the aim is to investigate their experiences and how they re-integrated into the community--or did not in some cases)

* women who have used family violence services (e.g. counselling, support and mediation mediation, in law, type of intervention in which the disputing parties accept the offer of a third party to recommend a solution for their controversy. Mediation has long been a part of international law, frequently involving the use of an international commission, ), thus dealing with family violence, but not left their abuser or used safe-house facilities

* husbands / partners who have abused wives / partners

* key informants: professionals working in the sector to provide services to individuals affected by family violence.

Demographic Background of Participants

The demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data.  of the 56 Asian immigrant participants (50 women and 6 men) are described in Tables 1-4.

Table 1 shows the distribution by ethnic background: 23.2% of participants were Chinese, 21.4% were Indian, 19.6% were Bangladeshi and approximately 15% were Indian Fijian or Pakistani respectively.

Table 2 shows that approximately 43% of participants (n=24) have lived in New Zealand between two to three years.

Table 3 shows almost 30% of participants came to New Zealand in the family category (e.g. joining their parents, and some women, according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the interview data, entered into a pre-arranged marriage relationship); 80% of participants were citizens or permanent residents in New Zealand. The 20% who were not permanent residents were not eligible for the same family violence support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services  as the permanent residents. Participants whose current immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important.  or citizenship status was "Other" include individuals whose applications for residency A duration of stay required by state and local laws that entitles a person to the legal protection and benefits provided by applicable statutes.

States have required state residency for a variety of rights, including the right to vote, the right to run for public office, the
 under the Domestic Violence Act or on humanitarian grounds were being processed.

This study involved people who had a range of experiences with regard to the use of family violence services. In this study, the men were not "clients" presenting to services, but they might be asked to undergo training in anger management. Table 4 shows that approximately 65% (n=33) of the women in this study did not use the safe house facility to deal with violence at home. The qualitative interview data suggests some of the women stayed with relatives as a temporary shelter from violence inflicted by their husband or partner.

The focus group participants were 13 women: clients, service coordinator, support workers and social work trainees from tertiary tertiary (tûr`shēârē), in the Roman Catholic Church, member of a third order. The third orders are chiefly supplements of the friars—Franciscans (the most numerous), Dominicans, and Carmelites.  institutions. Their countries of origin included mainly India, China, Fiji and Bangladesh.

Recruitment

Women who lived in a safe house or had left a safe house were contacted through the various safe houses' management based in Auckland. Women who faced family violence but did not use safe-house services were contacted by social workers or counsellors from relevant agencies. Male perpetrators were approached through the case social worker or counsellors (e.g. peer support groups for men with addiction addiction: see drug addiction and drug abuse.  problems) or through the researchers' community networks. Key informants were identified through community support people.

The three key informants interviewed to gain their perspectives on family violence within the Asian immigrant communities in New Zealand were selected on the basis of their experiences in the field, and their ability to reflect and articulate on the relevant issues.

Data Collection

The project researchers were competent in Hindi, Punjabi, Telugu, Kannada, Bengali, Urdu, Tamil, Gujrati, Cantonese or Mandarin Mandarin (măn`dərĭn) [Port. mandar=to govern, or from Malay mantri=counselor of state], a high official of imperial China. For each of the nine grades there was a different colored button worn on the dress cap. ; English was used where appropriate. The data collection was carried out in the participant's preferred language, and then the notes were translated into English and used for further analysis. When the data were interpreted and analysed, appropriate cultural expertise, input and validation See validate.

validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements.
 was sought. The two main data collection methods were in-depth individual interviews and a focus group.

* In-depth interviews were held with women victims, perpetrators, family members, legal service providers, safe-house service providers and other relevant personnel.

* A focus group was used to explore the contextual factors related to family violence and to find out the means to address the issues. The focus group was co-facilitated by the author and an experienced family violence researcher.

Data Analysis

Data collection and analysis were concurrent and reflexive (theory) reflexive - A relation R is reflexive if, for all x, x R x.

Equivalence relations, pre-orders, partial orders and total orders are all reflexive.
. Analysis began following the first interview. The initial information was analysed as a case analysis and served as a basic framework to identify emerging concepts, which were linked to themes and sub-themes, with new categories created as required. To maximise the credibility of the findings, a small number of participants and key informants and experienced researchers in the field were consulted after the interviews and focus group to check the closeness of fit between their experiences and the emerging research analysis, as well as the ease of comprehension comprehension

Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined.
. The key themes included in the results are:

* triggers for family violence within Asian immigrant communities

* barriers in tackling family violence in Asian communities

* strengths and capacities in preventing and reducing family violence.

The following sections of this paper summarise Verb 1. summarise - be a summary of; "The abstract summarizes the main ideas in the paper"
sum, sum up, summarize

sum up, summarize, summarise, resume - give a summary (of); "he summed up his results"; "I will now summarize"
 the findings of the study. The quotes are examples of responses expressed by participants in this research, however they do not necessarily represent the voice of every individual involved in this study.

TRIGGERS AND FACTORS

This section covers the sub-themes that emerged from the study regarding factors and triggers for family violence in Asian immigrant communities.

Factors Related to Cultural Beliefs and Customs

Some cultural beliefs and values were seen by participants as influencing violence against women. Participants explained how some aspects of the traditional Asian culture tend to reinforce violent behaviours against women at home. Several Chinese women shared a similar sentiment:

"[Chinese traditions say] ... a man should always control his wife ... he should never accept different opinions from his wife."

A South Asian woman said:

"How you grow up, your background, what your grandpa teaches you, not answering back ... it's what you learn from your elders and learn from your family."

Both men and women have internalised these cultural values and customs from their early childhood. A key informant explained:

"Men are brought up to be aggressive. They are brought up in a special manner. They are treated specially, have special rights. Women are brought up to service men, to be obedient, to be submissive sub·mis·sive  
adj.
Inclined or willing to submit.



sub·missive·ly adv.

sub·mis
."

Participants felt that some traditional values Traditional values refer to those beliefs, moral codes, and mores that are passed down from generation to generation within a culture, subculture or community. Since the late 1970s in the U.S.  sanction sanction, in law and ethics, any inducement to individuals or groups to follow or refrain from following a particular course of conduct. All societies impose sanctions on their members in order to encourage approved behavior.  and tolerate tol·er·ate
v.
1. To allow without prohibiting or opposing; permit.

2. To put up with; endure.

3. To have tolerance for a substance or pathogen.
 family violence, that sometimes women are seen as the men's property, and some Asian men believe they have authority to do whatever they want. One focus group participant said:

"Your body belongs to him until he dies ... he can do anything he wants to do--there is no concept of marital Pertaining to the relationship of Husband and Wife; having to do with marriage.

Marital agreements are contracts that are entered into by individuals who are about to be married, are already married, or are in the process of ending a marriage.
 rape."

Another group member added:

"If I complained, my mother would turn around and ask, 'What did you do? You must have done something wrong'. They don't want to know ... no one wants to address the issue."

Sometimes cultural and religious norms are subject to misinterpretations. One participant explained:

"When you are married you are in the service of your husband. He is like a God; he is most important. There is a proverb proverb, short statement of wisdom or advice that has passed into general use. More homely than aphorisms, proverbs generally refer to common experience and are often expressed in metaphor, alliteration, or rhyme, e.g.  in India--'Pati Parmeshwar' which in English means 'the husband is like God'. There can be no faults in him. If there are problems, you are the person who will be judged."

One participant quickly challenged the above statement, saying, "(That) is not said in the Book".

Here we make two observations. Firstly, religious texts can be variously interpreted which leads to confusion and misinterpretation of what behaviour is acceptable and what is not. Secondly, we do not know whether or how cultural and religious norms are associated with violence within Asian families. It is a sensitive issue that requires a more careful discourse among researchers, workers in the field, and members and leaders of the Asian communities.

Some participants said that husbands might marry for the sake of the dowry dowry (dou`rē), the property that a woman brings to her husband at the time of the marriage. The dowry apparently originated in the giving of a marriage gift by the family of the bridegroom to the bride and the bestowal of money upon the bride by  or New Zealand residency. The dowry system is a cultural institution practiced in Asia, particularly the South Asian region. The system of dowry demands a sizeable amount of money and goods, such as gold, land, house or other valuable goods, be given by the bride's family to the groom's family. A current study found some men who have permanent residence or citizenship went to the women's home country for the wedding and received large dowries, including cash, jewellery, furniture, clothing and other items. A dowry is believed to be one of the reasons to marry a girl from overseas. The following quotes provide some examples. One South Asian women said:

"He did not want to marry me ... I had ornaments Ornaments are a frequent embellishment to music. Sometimes different symbols represent the same ornament, or vice versa. Different ornament names can refer to an ornament from a specific area or time period.  and money and he took $10,000 from me ... because I gave him money, thinking we are nearly married. He took money to get sponsorship only."

Factors Related to Immigration

A number of women participants in this study revealed that they came to New Zealand on their husband's sponsorship. Some women from Asian countries Noun 1. Asian country - any one of the nations occupying the Asian continent
Asian nation

country, land, state - the territory occupied by a nation; "he returned to the land of his birth"; "he visited several European countries"
 speak limited English, have few work skills and have no knowledge about New Zealand culture, making them particularly vulnerable to threats and abuse. A woman participant recalled what her husband said to her:

"If you don't do things my way I am going to send you back ... this is what is going to happen to you and your family back home."

A counsellor who has worked with migrant mi·grant  
n.
1. One that moves from one region to another by chance, instinct, or plan.

2. An itinerant worker who travels from one area to another in search of work.

adj.
Migratory.
 women victims for a long period summarised:

"Most of these women [in the safe houses] get sponsorship from their respective husbands. They legally are married and come here with a visitor's visa. They have no work permit, permanent residence or anything. They have only got a visitor's visa but after a few months it expires. They have no say in the household. They face domestic violence. They are tortured by their husband and by their mother-in-law MOTHER-IN-LAW. In Latin socrus. The mother of one's wife, or of one's husband. , so they come to the safe house. Most of them are burned or cut. Some have been terribly tortured. They come with signs of abuse. These women have no protection whatsoever. Their family doesn't want them either. They are told to go back to their mother-in-law and husband."

Participants found that there were sometimes clashes between traditional values and values of the new host country. One focus group member put it succinctly suc·cinct  
adj. suc·cinct·er, suc·cinct·est
1. Characterized by clear, precise expression in few words; concise and terse: a succinct reply; a succinct style.

2.
:

"Back home, it's OK. You don't argue, you can't prove your point ... but when you come to a new country, problems arise because you start asking questions and challenging authority."

The women's awareness of their rights to love and care, free from abuse, generally increased when they come to New Zealand. Many tried to adopt a new set of values but this change was not welcomed by their men, seemingly seem·ing  
adj.
Apparent; ostensible.

n.
Outward appearance; semblance.



seeming·ly adv.
 because the men are afraid they may no longer have control over their women. In the group discussion, women explained how conflicts increase in the family when recently arrived immigrant women want to assimilate as·sim·i·late
v.
1. To consume and incorporate nutrients into the body after digestion.

2. To transform food into living tissue by the process of anabolism.
 to the host culture:

"As women come to New Zealand and see Kiwi kiwi (kē`wē) or apteryx (ăp`tərĭks), common name for the smallest member of an order of primitive flightless birds related to the ostrich, the emu, and the cassowary. , Maori or Pakeha women out working and earning as a part of a family, they want to do it themselves. They want to be part of New Zealand society, basically to integrate ... Women want to be in New Zealand society themselves, but men want women to remain traditional."

However when women want to continue making those changes, they are confronted by strong resistance. The focus group discussion suggested that some ethnic communities or men become even more traditional, "more oppressive" (quoted from one group member) when living in a new country than they would when living in their home country. This was thought to be a result of clinging to traditional values in the face of uncertainty embedded Inserted into. See embedded system.  in the new environment. Men started resorting to violence as a means to reinforce social customary practice when they were fearful of losing control and power over women.

This was not a problem confined con·fine  
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines

v.tr.
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit.
 to marriage to Asian men. Some Asian women who married a New Zealand Pakeha on a visitor's visa found they were treated by the men as a second-class person with no rights. A woman victim clarified:

"Men have got more rights here ... For me and my kids we don't have anything, but he has everything ... He was so arrogant ar·ro·gant  
adj.
1. Having or displaying a sense of overbearing self-worth or self-importance.

2. Marked by or arising from a feeling or assumption of one's superiority toward others:
, saying that he has his own way, like he has residence and he has his own house, so he wants it the way he likes."

Some participants said that unemployment, an unsettled future and financial hardship were all important factors in their experience of family violence. When men who had migrated recently could not find work and had money problems, anger could follow. A participant said:

"[A couple started to] hit each other ... and the children were involved in the violence ... A simple statement triggers an argument ... Money pressures don't help."

A key informant estimated:

"I think most of the violence, approximately 90%, is caused by financial situations. If they don't have enough money to look after their family and children, men may get depressed and take out their frustration on the family."

Some participants experienced clashes between the younger and older generations in the family. Often parents or older family members want to hold on to their culture and heritage links whereas children adopt a different set of values and worldview world·view  
n. In both senses also called Weltanschauung.
1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.

2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group.
 in a new country. According to some focus group members, this often results in arguments and physical violence against children or young people.

Factors Related to Marital Problems

Family violence among Asian peoples in New Zealand may be related to pre-immigration marriage difficulties that are exacerbated by adjustment problems after arriving in New Zealand. A Chinese man described such a situation:

"We had a three-year separation prior to coming to New Zealand. She was in [one place] and studied, whereas I worked in [another place] doing the dishes and cleaning clothes. We didn't feel good for a long time. It was a very stressful and frustrating frus·trate  
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
1.
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart:
 marriage ... Our psychological and physical health deteriorated."

A husband having a girlfriend was found to be a trigger for violence for some South Asian couples. One woman said bitterly:

"There were some good times between me and my husband when we stayed alone. I always thought he loved me, but later I actually realised that there was no love between us ... The violence started again when another girl came into his life. She was working with him."

Another woman remembered vividly:

"Actually he started to phone other women and had sex with them. His ex-girlfriend arrived and he is living with her now."

Among the participants, some marriages were arranged. One of many instances is the following:

"My husband is a New Zealand citizen. He came to my country to marry me. His parents and my parents organised the marriage through one of our neighbours This article is about an Australian soap opera. For other articles with similar names, see Neighbours (disambiguation).
Neighbours is a long-running Australian soap opera, which began its run in March 1985.
 ... After a few months of marriage I faced violence when he became involved with his girlfriend ... I wasn't his choice. It was an arranged marriage The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. As suggested by the term, an arranged marriage is typically arranged by someone other than the persons getting married, curtailing or avoiding the ."

One participant described an extreme situation of a marriage she had not chosen:

"He kidnapped Kidnapped

caught in the intrigues of Scottish factions, David Balfour and Alan Breck are shipwrecked, escape from the king’s soldiers, and undergo great dangers. [Br. Lit.: R. L. Stevenson Kidnapped]

See : Adventurousness
 me and married me at gunpoint ... My parents didn't accept me after it happened. Since then, I've been living with him with nowhere else to go."

Factors Related to Social Fragmentation (1) Storing data in non-contiguous areas on disk. As files are updated, new data are stored in available free space, which may not be contiguous. Fragmented files cause extra head movement, slowing disk accesses. A defragger program is used to rewrite and reorder all the files.  

Racism, discrimination, language barriers, isolation and oppression The offense, committed by a public official, of wrongfully inflicting injury, such as bodily harm or imprisonment, upon another individual under color of office.

Oppression, which is a misdemeanor, is committed through any act of cruelty, severity, unlawful exaction, or
 of Asian women were indirect factors leading to family violence at home. Asian women felt they were discriminated against when applying for jobs and, in turn, this made them dependent on men. A woman with a graduate degree talked about her frustrations:

"I have made approximately 30-40 applications and they were all rejected ... I didn't grow up here, but I can speak English, I can communicate and I can understand people. But where exactly is the problem and how come I can't get a job?"

Paid employment gave women identity, status, a life role and bargaining power in the household. It helped make their voice heard at home. Unfortunately these migrant women found it very difficult to secure a paid job even if they had educational qualifications and experiences. A woman said:

"I had an identity when I was in my country because I could work there. I was a [high-status professional]. But what is my identity here? I am just a housewife. It impacted on our relationship. My self-esteem self-esteem

Sense of personal worth and ability that is fundamental to an individual's identity. Family relationships during childhood are believed to play a crucial role in its development.
 and self-confidence were reduced. One thing is related to the other. If I have a job, I have an identity and I may enjoy my life. My husband will value me and my children will respect me."

A woman participant explained how unemployment and subsequent financial hardship further burdened an already strained relationship:

"Employment issues and the effects on the children affect both men and women. If you don't have money and you don't have food, what will happen then? You can imagine that the relationship will die."

Language barriers limited women's ability to communicate with members from wider society, access information and seek support when marriage problems or family violence emerge. Language barriers also put women in a very vulnerable position since men had so much power and control over them. A woman said:

"The language problem is a big problem, because she isn't fluent fluent /flu·ent/ (floo´int) flowing effortlessly; said of speech.  in English. That's why she doesn't have the courage to go out and speak to people. She has a sense of inferiority."

Being in a new country and having no extended family around meant minor problems usually became big problems. Having little idea where to seek help made it even harder for everyone concerned. In some cases, men thought they could do whatever they liked because their women did not know anything about this new country. One woman said:

"It isn't too bad for a woman in her own country as she can go to her mother and, once in a while, she can come back. Compared with here, she knew her own country, her own place. She had a few relatives around her, but here she doesn't have any. Things are different here, people are different, and they don't make friends easily here. Isolation, frustration and the reduction of a man's status makes them control women more."

Issues to do with Extended Family

Women victims shared how in-laws could be uncaring, and abusive or allowed their sons to act violently against their wives. The in-laws' abuse toward or control over women might be in a financial, emotional or physical way. One woman from a South Asian country described:

"Actually, problems with my husband started just after our wedding. My husband's family never actually wanted me. Just after my marriage, they were thinking about going to [another place to live], so they asked him to leave me."

Another tragic account was:

"[Mother-in-law] gave me a hard time ... She knew that I was pregnant, but she made me carry heavy things, do all the housework work then go to work without having a break first. My miscarriage miscarriage: see abortion.
miscarriage
 or spontaneous abortion

Spontaneous expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus before it can live outside the mother.
 happened because of stress."

In some cases, girls were used as slaves when they came here after marriage. A young girl said:

"I used to do all the housework, like cooking, cleaning and washing. Even my mother-in-law gave me all her dirty clothes during her menstruation menstruation, periodic flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in humans and most other primates, occurring about every 28 days in women. Menstruation commences at puberty (usually between age 10 and 17).  period for washing ... She had many men friends. When they are around I have to prepare meals for them. Sometimes I believe that her son has learned these things "These Things" is an EP by She Wants Revenge, released in 2005 by Perfect Kiss, a subsidiary of Geffen Records. Music Video
The music video stars Shirley Manson, lead singer of the band Garbage. Track Listing
1. "These Things [Radio Edit]" - 3:17
2.
 from his mother."

Conflict sometimes occurred when women wanted their family members to come here and live with them. One woman illustrated:

"If a woman has a family in an overseas country and she wants her mother to come and stay, that normally causes conflict. His immediate family might live with her and her husband, and it might cause big conflicts. If a husband and in-laws live together, then it's difficult for the woman to bring her family to New Zealand."

Addiction Problems Contributing to Family Violence

In this study, a number of men and women identified drug and alcohol addiction and problem gambling Problem gambling is an urge to gamble despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop. The term is preferred to compulsive gambling among many professionals, as few people described by the term experience true compulsions in the clinical sense of the word.  as being the primary factors leading to family violence.

"We always had violence at home. After coming to New Zealand I found him doing drugs and addicted ad·dict·ed
adj.
1. Physiologically or psychologically dependent on a habit-forming substance.

2. Compulsively or habitually involved in a practice or behavior, such as gambling.
 to alcohol, so violence was a daily event in my house ... He stopped giving me money."

A Chinese man admitted he began acting violently against his wife:

"It was because of loneliness, role reversal In psychodrama, role reversal is a technique where the protagonist is asked, by the psychodrama director, to exchange roles with another person (an auxiliary ego) on the psychodrama stage. The former assumes as many of the roles of the other as possible and vice versa. , looking after children at home. It's boring. I was also accused of not doing useful things, but I didn't want to come here anyway. We argued over trivial TRIVIAL. Of small importance. It is a rule in equity that a demurrer will lie to a bill on the ground of the triviality of the matter in dispute, as being below the dignity of the court. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4237. See Hopk. R. 112; 4 John. Ch. 183; 4 Paige, 364.  matters. I started gambling, which resulted in financial problems. I had limited English skills and had to rely on her for everything. I feel very angry."

Contributing factors and triggers for violence vary but, from the interviews conducted, there are clear factor groupings as summarised in Box 1.
Box 1 What Triggers Family Violence in Asian (South Asian Peoples
and Chinese) Immigrant Communities?

Categories of factors influencing family violence in Asian
immigrant communities

Cultural beliefs          Immigration         Marital
and customs                                   problems

Cultural beliefs          Women have          Pre-immigration
and values                no permanent        marital problems
reinforce violence        residency
against women

Traditional values        Clashes between     Husbands'
sanction and              the traditional     infidelity
accept family             values and values
violence                  of the new host
                          country

Misinterpretations        Unemployment,       Arranged
of cultural and           unsettled future    marriage
religious norms           and financial
                          hardship

Husbands marry            Clashes between
for dowry or New          younger and
Zealand residency         older generation

Cultural beliefs          Social              Other factors
and customs               fragmentation

Cultural beliefs          Racism and          Living with in-laws
and values                discrimination
reinforce violence
against women

Traditional values        If women have       Women wanting to
sanction and              no paid job, they   support their birth
accept family             have no identity    family
violence

Misinterpretations        Language barriers   Addiction problems
of cultural and                               lead to family
religious norms                               violence

Husbands marry            Isolation
for dowry or New
Zealand residency


BARRIERS IN TACKLING FAMILY VIOLENCE WITHIN ASIAN COMMUNITIES

Family Violence is a Private Matter

Women can hide family violence as a private matter, which then becomes a barrier in preventing or reducing family violence within Asian communities and to providing assistance to women experiencing this:

"Family violence is a private matter. When arguments happen with my husband, I think it's the saddest thing in my life. We are human beings-arguments occur when two people live together, but it's a private business."

"Women can't make complaints against their husband ... Women don't talk like that."

"Sometimes, as Indian women, we don't want to be open. Our private lives are kept to ourselves, we are brought up in this way ... Most of the time we need to hide things, thinking what will happen if anybody knows."

"You see if I am going to stand up and talk about my husband, nobody will support me. That's why normally we don't talk about what we are going through."

Keeping the Marriage Together, No Matter What

Research participants of South Asian origin said the first priority in a woman's life is to keep the marriage together, it does not matter how a husband treats his wife. As discussed above, girls are taught by their fathers or any other elderly person before marriage that they should not leave the husband's house. A young woman illustrated:

"My father told me during my wedding that when you get married, that is your home ... It is only your dead body that leaves this house."

One key informant reflected on the cost of doing that:

"Women want a secure life with their husband's family in an Asian culture. But for this they suffer and make sacrifices. At each stage they put their marriage first and try to keep it going. Yes, in many cases it does work. [But in other cases] we see it ending up with suicide or murder."

Participants said that women are socialised Adj. 1. socialised - under group or government control; "socialized ownership"; "socialized medicine"
socialized

liberal - tolerant of change; not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or tradition
 to be submissive to men, regardless of what he does to her to make her husband happy. Divorce or separation is unacceptable in most cases and seen to bring shame and a bad name to the couple's families.

Women Have No One to Support their Cases

Several women found it hard to make their case against their abusive husbands because the other members of the household were related to the husband and supported his account of events. They believed that they required witnesses, even though family violence often does not have witnesses.

Community groups could have an important role informing women about their rights in these situations and, together with personal support systems, help women when they are being pressured, as in the situations described below:

"I had some neighbours who helped me. One went back to his country and the other went to [place name]. I don't know Don't know (DK, DKed)

"Don't know the trade." A Street expression used whenever one party lacks knowledge of a trade or receives conflicting instructions from the other party.
 their full names."

"I applied for a protection order and then I withdrew it because of the pressure from my husband."

Unresponsive unresponsive Neurology adjective Referring to a total lack of response to neurologic stimuli  Community

Participants in this study strongly felt that the Asian communities hide family violence. They are ashamed to disclose it to outsiders as they consider family violence is a private matter. It damages the whole community reputation and brings shame to the country, children and parents. A legal practitioner described how the community is unresponsive to family violence:

"Some communities cover it up. Like they don't let it get out. It's also accepted as well, that as you are a woman you can be treated as a second-class citizen second-class citizen
n.
A person considered inferior in status or rights in comparison with some others: "He believes women . . . are second-class citizens under the Constitution" Edward M.
. I know for some of my clients, their culture accepts domestic violence. Women are treated like enemies. They are supposed to listen to their husbands and they're supposed to be submissive."

If women start to disclose violence, it becomes a "community affair". One focus group member said:

"Community leaders turn up in your home and talk about it ... A very inhuman in·hu·man  
adj.
1.
a. Lacking kindness, pity, or compassion; cruel. See Synonyms at cruel.

b. Deficient in emotional warmth; cold.

2.
 experience ... It makes you feel more guilty ... It makes women responsible."

Women are not supposed to bring their family into disrepute dis·re·pute  
n.
Damage to or loss of reputation.


disrepute
Noun

a loss or lack of good reputation

Noun 1.
 in the community:

"Women represent the ambassadors of their country. Women feel that they have to take the violence rather than speaking up."

Participants said that women who marry New Zealand men face a different kind of "unresponsiveness un·re·spon·sive  
adj.
Exhibiting a lack of responsiveness.



unre·spon
". They cannot talk to their own family and cannot return to their home country when abuse happens. Families from Asian countries somehow believe, "There is no violence in Western society ... white men are all good". There is a myth in Asian culture that women married to men in a Western country are protected by law, respected by their husband and given all the freedom they want. Therefore, parents back home have difficulty accepting violence against their married daughters:

"They won't accept this is what is happening ... They think you must have done something wrong for your husband to beat you up ... Women have no place to go."

Limited Capacity

Very few individuals from Asian communities have the capacity to prevent and reduce family violence. A participant affected by family violence said:

"It requires a lot of strength [to be open about one's personal experiences as a family violence victim] ... [it takes] 20 years to grow a leader ... "

Box 2 summarises the barriers to dealing with family violence within Asian migrant communities.
Box 2 Barriers in Tackling Family Violence within Asian Communities

Categories of barriers in tackling family violence within Asian
communities

Family violence    Keeping the   Women       Unresponsive    Limited
is a private       marriage      have no     community,      capacity
matter             together no   witnesses   for women who
                   matter what               marry in or
                                             marry
                                             Europeans


STRENGTHS AND CAPACITIES IN PREVENTING AND REDUCING FAMILY VIOLENCE

Individual Strengths

Towards the end of the focus group, one member said:

"If we are stronger we can ... we have the power from our heart to stand up ... I learned, I grew ... I was able to stop the violence."

The sources of strength may also come from family. One participant attributed her source of strength to her parents and her children:

"I have been in an abusive relationship for three years ... It was not my husband who gave me a life, it was my parents, they gave me this life."

Other participants agreed and added:

"My children are my strength. That's why I've been in an abusive situation for 21 years. I want them to be cared for more, have proper food, sports, friends, recreation."

During the focus group discussion, it was mentioned that women can enhance their strengths, if they could see someone affected by family violence as a role model who could lead the way to fight against family violence.

Another two participants mentioned how they enhanced their strengths by participating in regular activities or studying (or doing other things) that helped to distract them from their problems and provided enjoyment. One of them said:

"I continued to study, got recharged ... I could disperse disperse /dis·perse/ (dis-pers´) to scatter the component parts, as of a tumor or the fine particles in a colloid system; also, the particles so dispersed.

dis·perse
v.
1.
 my focus from those bad things."

A number of individuals said they learned to use their religious beliefs to fight against the violence at home:

"With continuous prayers, I could gain strength from God. I was nearly crushed by my husband and my family's attitude ... God is my only strength to overcome the hardship. If you are fully dependent on Him, He will give you more blessings."

Meeting with people from a similar background was another source of strength:

"I joined the weekly solo mother support group. I think it is a very good group where women with similar experience in family relationships get together. We share, empathise and support each other without any shame, guilt and worry. Through this group, we gain strength to continue living."

Lastly, a couple of participants found that working as a volunteer was also a helpful way to nurture NURTURE. The act of taking care of children and educating them: the right to the nurture of children generally belongs to the father till the child shall arrive at the age of fourteen years, and not longer. Till then, he is guardian by nurture. Co. Litt. 38 b.  one's strengths:

"I act as volunteer and talk to people and feel good, rather than sitting at home and being lonely."

For some individuals the above "self-care self-care
n.
The care of oneself without medical, professional, or other assistance or oversight.
" strategies or ways to enhance one's strengths were considered as useful ways to help leave a safe house and return to the community.

Collective Strengths

* Various sources of collective strength in existence were identified as preventing or reducing the harm caused by family violence:

* media, especially the ethnic or language-specific radio programmes and newspapers

* existing community groups or organisations

* existing support services (specific family violence and general services) and safe houses where women can go

* support and resources from government

* translation of information sheets and pamphlets on family violence to Asian languages.

On the whole, research participants (in both individual interviews and the focus group) were not very enthusiastic about discussing the individual or collective strengths or capacities to combat family violence. However, participants were more comfortable in elaborating what they have found helpful when confronted by family violence. The material covered here concentrates on what was helpful in dealing with a crisis and the subsequent reintegration reintegration /re·in·te·gra·tion/ (-in-te-gra´shun)
1. biological integration after a state of disruption.

2. restoration of harmonious mental function after disintegration of the personality in mental illness.
 associated with family violence among Asian communities, according to participants' first-hand experiences.

Help from Family

Several participants described in detail how they were cared for by their family:

"My family overseas sent me clothes, they cried for me."

"[My husband's sister-in-law] lives in New Zealand and she introduced me to a lawyer, so I am applying for a protection order, custody and divorce [separation] with this lawyer's help."

Another participant mentioned that the ethnic community can help:

"My family, the [ethnic] community, and auntie and uncle can help."

Evidently in this study, it is rather uncommon to receive support from family, parents and friends in the case of family violence. Most help comes from neighbours, the wider community and professionals.

Help from Neighbourhood and Community Organisations

According to several participants, neighbours played an important role in terms of providing practical assistance to the family. In two extreme cases, they went over to rescue the battered bat·ter 1  
v. bat·tered, bat·ter·ing, bat·ters

v.tr.
1. To hit heavily and repeatedly with violent blows.

2. To subject to repeated beatings or physical abuse.

3.
 women and children.

"My nice neighbour helped me a lot. They empathised with my situation and offered great help. They scared my husband away."

"It's a good neighbourhood ... I've been saved by them."

A few participants talked about their "good, kind landlord", "good people from the European community European Community: see European Union.
European Community (EC)

Organization formed in 1967 with the merger of the European Economic Community, European Coal and Steel Community, and European Atomic Energy Community.
", and "helpful, kind workmates', and several participants mentioned obtaining help from church and "language school teachers and classmates Classmates can refer to either:
  • Classmates.com, a social networking website.
  • Classmates (film), a 2006 Malayalam blockbuster directed by Lal Jose, starring Prithviraj, Jayasurya, Indragith, Sunil, Jagathy, Kavya Madhavan, Balachandra Menon, ...
".

Regardless of where the help came from, participants recalled friends and neighbours alike were crucial in providing practical assistance, such as transport and urgent childcare.

Making contact with organisations like the Citizen Advice Bureau (CAB), childcare centres or the City Mission was helpful:

"The CAB helped my grandson Grandson (gräNsôN`), Ger. Grandsee, town (1990 pop. 2,473), Vaud canton, W Switzerland, at the southwestern end of the Lake of Neuchâtel.  with school and supervision."

"I'm getting food support from the City Mission."

Participants considered group support helpful in their ordeal ordeal, ancient legal custom whereby an accused person was required to perform a test, the outcome of which decided the person's guilt or innocence. By an ordeal, appeal was made to divine authority to decide the guilt or innocence of one accused of a crime or to :

"A Chinese counsellor started a solo mother support group a few weeks ago. I was encouraged to join in and found it's quite supportive. Eight to 10 women with similar backgrounds gather together to share, to cry, to laugh."

Three participants commented that employment courses, job training and evening classes were helpful in equipping e·quip  
tr.v. e·quipped, e·quip·ping, e·quips
1.
a. To supply with necessities such as tools or provisions.

b.
 them with work skills, and in turn improve their employability.

Help from Professional Services (job) professional services - A department of a supplier providing consultancy and programming manpower for the supplier's products.  

Most of the participants were recruited from domestic/family violence services, and a number of people found their services very helpful:

"Staff in the women's refuge Refuge
See also Concealment.

Adullam

cave where David hid from Saul. [O. T.: I Samuel 22:1]

Alsatia

(white friars) London monastery; former refuge for lawless characters. [Br. Hist.
 helped me apply for a protection order [not approved] and legal aid."

"The safe house helped me apply for public housing, to read English letters and filter calls by my husband."

"[Name of family violence services] gave me a support letter for the IRD IRD Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (French)
IRD Inland Revenue Department (New Zealand's tax revenue collection department)
IRD Integrated Receiver Decoder
 and helped me with banking matters."

In terms of the multitude of services required, one participant summed it up:

"Emergency food benefit, friends, talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
lecture, speech

rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to
 people, safe-shelter, pregnancy help, health care, social network, telephone facilities, counselling, transport, social work."

No one single organisation can provide all these services. According to participants' personal accounts of family violence, a whole range of professionals or offices (e.g. social welfare, budgeting services, legal advice services, police) have to cooperate in order to provide optimal outcomes for individuals and families affected by family violence.

Help from Legislation and the Legal Framework

Protection Order: The majority of women found a Protection Order very helpful to secure some level of security. However some women commented that a Protection Order was a double-edged sword. Once women get a Protection Order it means they are taking legal action against the man. Police could arrest the man and he could go to jail. All of these issues could affect a man's employment, as well as the future of the family. So it closes the door for any further negotiation with their husband or family.

The Domestic Violence Act and permanent residency Permanent residency refers to a person's visa status: the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within a country despite not having citizenship. A person with such status is known as a permanent resident. : Women participants with non-permanent resident status regard the approval of permanent residency as the ultimate solution to their problems, be it for employment or accessing services like health care and income support benefits. Some women indicated that without permanent residency, they lived in constant fear and uncertainty.

Box 3 summarises the strengths and capacities available to migrant Asian women to help prevent and reduce family violence and mitigate mit·i·gate
v.
To moderate in force or intensity.



miti·gation n.
 its impact.
Box 3 Strengths and Capacities in Preventing and Reducing Family
Violence Categories of strengths and capacities

Individual       Collective strengths       Sources of help in
strengths                                   dealing with
                                            family violence

Family           Ethnic specific media      Help from family

Role models      Existing organisations/    Help from neighbourhood
                 groups                     and community groups

Religious        Existing family violence   Help from professional
beliefs          services                   services

Peer support     Translated printed         Help from legislation
groups           material on family         and the legal framework
                 violence

Working as a
volunteer


DISCUSSION

This study identified a range of factors and triggers for family violence within New Zealand Asian communities. The key issues are related to difficulties in adjusting to living in a new country, such as finding suitable employment and financial hardship. Men's dominance in some Asian families remains a concern, in particular when men see controlling or abusing their wives as the last resort to protect their cultural values and traditions. The power men hold over their immigrant wife's residency status, coupled with the racism and discrimination some women experienced in this study when they attempted to find paid jobs or solve their financial dependency issues, put women at extreme risk of abuse and violence.

The barriers to prevent and reduce family violence within Asian communities are best summarised in Box 4.
Box 4 Summary of Barriers

              Institutional           Cultural          Individual
              barriers                barriers          barriers

Examples      Mono-lingual workers    Values            Values around
of barriers                                             shame and fear

              Racism/discrimination   Isolation         Self-esteem/
                                                        self-confidence

              Lack of service         Shame             Language
              options

              Culturally              Community
              insensitive systems
                                      Religion

                                      No support from
                                      the community

                                      No support from
                                      family

Source: Modified from Warner et al. (no date: 10)


Women in this study indicated that the main sources for their strength and resilience resilience (r·zilˑ·yens),
n
 were peers, religious practices, neighbours and professional services for support and care at the time of adversity ad·ver·si·ty  
n. pl. ad·ver·si·ties
1. A state of hardship or affliction; misfortune.

2. A calamitous event.
.

When we compared the findings between South Asian people and Chinese, there were many more similarities than differences. Participants from both groups showed a strong sense of shame Noun 1. sense of shame - a motivating awareness of ethical responsibility
sense of duty

conscience, moral sense, scruples, sense of right and wrong - motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person's thoughts and actions
 associated with family violence. There was also bitterness about the fact that Asian communities--and some families--are not responsive to incidents of family violence. The majority of participants, both men and women, referred to their adjustment periods after arriving in New Zealand, the difficulties in finding suitable paid employment and their urgent need to improve their English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations.  skills. The effects of violence are very similar across the two population groups. The need for appropriate services provided by safe houses, financial aids, food and childcare are the same for the South Asian peoples and Chinese, particularly for women with nonpermanent resident status. Another common theme that transcends the two categories of participants is men's tendency to be dominant and controlling over women, which creates a lot of friction at home and leads to violent outbursts over trivial matters. The only two apparent differences between Chinese and individuals from the South Asian communities are the customary practice of dowry and the misuse of religious beliefs to suit men's desire to overpower o·ver·pow·er  
tr.v. o·ver·pow·ered, o·ver·pow·er·ing, o·ver·pow·ers
1. To overcome or vanquish by superior force; subdue.

2. To affect so strongly as to make helpless or ineffective; overwhelm.

3.
 women among people from the Indian sub-continent.

The strengths of this study lie in the setting and design. This study involved individuals from multiple ethnicities, women and men from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and Indian Fijians and Chinese. In addition, collecting data from people with a variety of backgrounds, such as women at different stages of using family violence support services (e.g. participants who were still staying in a safe house, women who used community-based services as opposed to residential safe-house facilities, individuals who were new to the country and long-term Long-term

Three or more years. In the context of accounting, more than 1 year.


long-term

1. Of or relating to a gain or loss in the value of a security that has been held over a specific length of time. Compare short-term.
 settlers), key informants from legal or law enforcement backgrounds and helping agencies, reduced the possible bias of people's experiences and views on family violence in Asian communities.

The combination of using individual interviews and a focus group achieved two specific purposes in this study. Firstly, the in-depth individual interviews provided a wealth of information about what contributed to their family violence, participants' experiences and perceptions regarding the difficulties in preventing and reducing family violence in ethnic communities, and the specific context of individual experiences. Secondly, the key informant interviews and the focus group enabled the researchers to explore individual and collective strengths in combating family violence and helped to provide additional information and insights into the means to prevent and reduce family violence in Asian communities.

Like most research studies, the present project is subject to several limitations and qualifications. Firstly, very few representatives of some population groups were interviewed. It is not possible to generalise v. 1. same as generalize.

Verb 1. generalise - speak or write in generalities
generalize

mouth, speak, talk, verbalise, verbalize, utter - express in speech; "She talks a lot of nonsense"; "This depressed patient does not verbalize"
 the research findings to the rest of the Asian population. Secondly, the information and data provided retrospectively ret·ro·spec·tive  
adj.
1. Looking back on, contemplating, or directed to the past.

2. Looking or directed backward.

3. Applying to or influencing the past; retroactive.

4.
 by the participants in both individual interviews and the focus group were probably subject to the problems of response bias and faulty fault·y  
adj. fault·i·er, fault·i·est
1. Containing a fault or defect; imperfect or defective.

2. Obsolete Deserving of blame; guilty.
 recall. For example, research participants who have been free from family violence for over five years might have a tendency to minimise the effect of family violence on their behaviours and general wellbeing. Finally, it has been complex for Asian peoples to be involved in this study (as with all research studies) where they may not have appropriate ethnic models on wellbeing-or, specifically, on family violence--to guide them and there are multiple ethnic, language and religious groups under the umbrella term "Asian". However, it is worth noting the Shakti Community Council has a long-standing commitment to prevent family violence in New Zealand and has pioneered a working model for Asian women and families to deal with the issues since 1995.

The project team would like to make specific recommendations for family violence policy for the Asian migrant communities, drawing on our research and the relevant literature (Fairfield Immigrant and Refugee Women's Network 1996, Abraham 2000, Natarajan 2002, Astbury et al. 2003, Fanslow 2005, National Asian Pacific American [APA (All Points Addressable) Refers to an array (bitmapped screen, matrix, etc.) in which all bits or cells can be individually manipulated.

APA - Application Portability Architecture
] Women's Forum no date, Warrier et al. no date). The recommendations include:

To prevent family violence:

* Channel resources to support leadership development and advocacy training of Asian migrant women to increase their participation in violence prevention programmes and policy development.

* Government agencies collaborate with community organisations and immigrant women's groups to prevent family violence in Asian New Zealand communities, by increasing the awareness and cultural sensitisation Noun 1. sensitisation - the state of being sensitive (as to an antigen)
sensitization

irritation - (pathology) abnormal sensitivity to stimulation; "any food produced irritation of the stomach"
 to social services social services
Noun, pl

welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs

social services nplservicios mpl sociales 
, health, justice, education, faith/religion, media, immigration, employment and government systems.

* Raise awareness of family violence in New Zealand Asian communities to support screening and risk detection.

* Increase visibility of family violence services in the Asian communities.

To respond to the needs of Asian migrant women affected by family violence:

* Development and delivery of a culturally competent educational curriculum to address barriers and stigmas that have been preventing Asian women from speaking out and seeking help.

* Health care practitioners, social workers, income support staff, immigration and police officers should undergo cultural sensitivity training to better assist Asian women. The training should address the various forms of oppression against Asian women, issues relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 gender and culture and effective cross-cultural communication Cross-cultural communication (also frequently referred to as intercultural communication) is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds endeavour to communicate. .

* Provide courts with expert witnesses who can explain the cultural aspects of cases that require such information. Consistent and available interpreter A high-level programming language translator that translates and runs the program at the same time. It translates one program statement into machine language, executes it, and then proceeds to the next statement.  services in Asian languages should be accessible in court. The gender match between interpreters and clients who use the service is important in this context. Interpreters should be trained in the issue of family violence and be held accountable when there is evidence of collusion An agreement between two or more people to defraud a person of his or her rights or to obtain something that is prohibited by law.

A secret arrangement wherein two or more people whose legal interests seemingly conflict conspire to commit Fraud
 with the perpetrator A term commonly used by law enforcement officers to designate a person who actually commits a crime. .

To conduct further research:

* Obtain systematic data about immigrant communities and neighbourhoods, learn more about family structure, religious and customary practices, level of social integration and experiences of racism and discrimination; empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received"
, both qualitative and quantitative, to advance greater knowledge of modifiable risk factors, increase understanding of consequences associated with violence and advance the development and evaluation of new prevention strategies.

* Future research should focus on planning, implementation and evaluation of cultural competence cultural competence Social medicine The ability to understand, appreciate, and interact with persons from cultures and/or belief systems other than one's own  training for a range of professionals and individuals working in the sector of family violence across the legal, immigration, police, social and health care services.

An understanding of family violence in New Zealand would be incomplete without an account of the experiences of those who are often deemed "invisible others" because of their gender, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , class and legal status. This report sought to capture the subtleties of culture, the varying situational contexts, and the relative unfamiliarity of the New Zealand social, legal, economic and other institutional systems. The remaining challenges are to improve inter-agency coordination, collaboration and communication and to establish how to access the difficult-to-reach group of immigrant women. By the nature of family violence, women tend to be very isolated and have little or restricted contact with the outside, such as community or cultural activities. Therefore, it is important to employ multiple strategies to reach those women. This study has to be seen as a first step to assist government ministries, policy advisors and service providers to prevent and reduce the harm caused by family violence among people from diverse cultural, linguistic and religious backgrounds in Aotearoa New Zealand.

REFERENCES

Abraham, M. (2000) Speaking the Unspeakable: Marital Violence among South Asian Immigrants in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , Rutgers University Press Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in Piscataway, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University. The press was founded in 1936, and since that time has grown in size and in the scope of its publishing program. , New Brunswick, New Jersey This article is about the city in New Jersey. For the Canadian province, see New Brunswick.
New Brunswick, also known as "the Healthcare City"[2] or "Hub City",[3] is a city and the county seat of the County of Middlesex, New Jersey, USA.
.

Astbury, J., J. Atkinson, J.E. Duke, P.L. Easteal, S.E. Kurrle, P.R. Tait and J. Turner (2003) "The impact of domestic violence on individuals" Medical Journal of Australia, 173:427-431.

Fairfield Immigrant and Refugee Women's Network (1996) Women Say No to Violence: A Manual for Conducting Anti-Violence Campaigns with Non-English-Speaking Background Communities, Fairfield Immigrant and Refugee Women's Network Fairfield, NSW NSW New South Wales

Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare
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Fanslow, J. (2005) Beyond Zero Tolerance Beyond Zero Tolerance (or Zero Tolerance 2) is a videogame developed by Technopop for the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis console. It was meant to be a sequel to Zero Tolerance, but it was never finished. : Key Issues and Future Directions for Family Violence Work in New Zealand, Families Commission, Wellington.

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(2) A saved copy of a file before it is updated.
 15: Asian People, www.stats.govt. nz/NR/rdonlyres/62184111-57C4-4181-BIB9 F147DOF See depth of field and 6DOF.

DOF - degrees of freedom
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Warrier, S., L. Marin and B. Masaki (no date) (Un)heard Voices: Domestic Violence in the Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can  
n.
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.



A
 Community, Family Violence Prevention Fund, San Francisco, California “San Francisco” redirects here. For other uses, see San Francisco (disambiguation).

The City and County of San Francisco (EN IPA: [sænfrənˈsɪskoʊ] 
.

Samson Tse (1)

Associate Professor in Mental Health Development

Director of the Centre for Asian Health Research and Evaluation

University of Auckland Not to be confused with Auckland University of Technology.
The University of Auckland (Māori: Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau) is New Zealand's largest university.
 

(1) Acknowledgements

The project team would like to thank the study participants for their courage and generosity Generosity
See also Aid, Organizational; Kindness.

Abbé Constantin

self-sacrificing priest; curé of Longueral. [Fr. Lit.: The Abbé Constantin, Walsh Modern, 105]

Amelia

takes interest in Paul. [Br. Lit.
. We hope their voices are captured in this work and, in turn, they help form a safer community for Asian women and children living in New Zealand. I express my sincere appreciation to a number of family violence services that helped at various stages of the project, and to my colleagues: Dr Safia Akhter (Research Fellow) for her contribution to data collection and analysis; Dr Selina Akhter, acting on behalf of the Shakti Community Council, who provided valuable input to collect additional data; Dr Janet Fanslow and Associate Professor Peter Adams William Peter Adams, PC, BA, M.Sc, Ph.D (born April 17, 1936 in the United Kingdom) is a Canadian politician, and a former Liberal Member of Canada's House of Commons. He was a Member of Parliament from 1993 until 2005, representing the riding of Peterborough in eastern Ontario.  for their very useful critique; Ms Yanbing Li and Ms Wenli Li for their assistance in collecting, transcribing and interpreting the data; and Ms Lisa Campbell and Dr Lucinda Li for their editorial assistance. Finally, we acknowledge funding support from the SPEAR Linkages Programme (particularly Raewyn Good). The ethical approval for the present study was obtained from the University of Auckland Human Participants Ethics Committee ethics committee A multidisciplinary hospital body composed of a broad spectrum of personnel–eg, physicians, nurses, social workers, priests, and others, which addresses the moral and ethical issues within the hospital. See DNR, Institutional review board.  on 17 March 2005 for a period of three years, from 17 March 2005 (Reference number 2005/025).

Correspondence

Dr Samson Tse, Associate Professor in Mental Health Development, and Director of the Centre for Asian Health Research and Evaluation, Social and Community Health, School of Population Health, Tamaki Campus, University of Auckland Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand; Phone: 64 9 3737599 ext 86097; Fax: 64 9 3035932.
Table 1 Participants' Ethnic Background (n=56)

Ethnic group               Number of participants

Chinese                              13
Indian                               12
Bangladeshi                          11
Indian Fijian                         9
Pakistani                             8
Other                                 3

Total                                56

Table 2 Participants' Length of Stay in New Zealand

Number of years in NZ      Number of participants

<1 year                               3
2-3 years                            24
4-5 years                             3
6-8 years                             9
9-11 years                            9
>11 years                             7
did not disclose                      1

Total                                56

Table 3 Participants' Change of Immigration Status over Time

Immigration status              Number of
upon arrival                   participants

Family category                     16
Skills category                     15
Spouse as sponsor                    9
Visitor                              9
Refugee                              3
Humanitarian                         1
Student                              1
Investment                           0
Work permit                          0
Other                                2

Total                               56

Current immigration             Number of
status or citizenship          participants

New Zealand citizen                 25
NZ permanent resident               20
Work permit                          5
Student visa                         0
Visitor                              1
Other                                5

Total                               56

Table 4 Participants' Use of Family Violence Services

                                                             Number of
Sex             Use of family violence services             participants

Men (n=6)       Did not use the services                          6
Women (n=50)
                Staying in a safe house during study              7

                Left safe house                                   10

                Used family violence services                     33
                (e.g. counselling, support and mediation)

Total                                                             56
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Author:Tse, Samson
Publication:Social Policy Journal of New Zealand
Date:Jul 1, 2007
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