Family engagement: a collaborative, systemic approach for middle school counselors.Early adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. is a period of intrapersonal in·tra·per·son·al
Existing or occurring within the individual self or mind.
intra·per and interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. transformation; thus, middle school counselors A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. need to provide services that appropriately match their students' and families' developmental needs. A collaborative, systemic systemic /sys·tem·ic/ (sis-tem´ik) pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.
1. Of or relating to a system.
2. approach is one way that counselors can work with other school-based professionals to support parental/caregiver involvement. In this article, the authors discuss family disengagement disengagement /dis·en·gage·ment/ (dis?en-gaj´ment) emergence of the fetus from the vaginal canal.
n. in the middle school years and the middle school counselor as a collaborator of systemic change.
Middle school research consistently demonstrates the importance of family involvement as a powerful influence on students' achievement in school (Burkhardt, 2004; Downs, 2001; Epstein, 2004). When families are involved in their children's education, early adolescents attend school more regularly, earn higher grades and receive higher test scores, complete more homework, demonstrate more positive attitudes and behaviors, have higher graduation Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. The event itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation. rates, express higher aspirations aspirations npl → aspiraciones fpl (= ambition); ambición f
aspirations npl (= hopes, ambition) → aspirations fpl , and are more likely to enroll in higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. than students with less involved families (Deslandes & Bertrand Bertrand - (Named after the British mathematician Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)). Wm. Leler. Rule-based specification language based on augmented term rewriting. Used to implement constraint languages. The user must explicitly specify the tree-search and the constraint propagation. , 2005; National Association of School Psychologists The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) is the first and largest national professional organization created for the purpose of serving school psychologists. , 2002; U.S. Department of Education, 1997). Furthermore, it has been suggested that the most influential contributor to students' academic achievement is not socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. , but rather family involvement in their student's educational development (Hawes Coordinates:
For other uses, see Hawes (disambiguation).
Hawes is a small market town in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England. & Plourde, 2005; Henderson Henderson.
1 City (1990 pop. 25,945), seat of Henderson co., NW Ky., on the Ohio River, in an oil, coal, tobacco, corn, and livestock area; founded 1797, inc. as a city 1867. & Berla, 1994). Thus, increasing family involvement in the education of early adolescents is an important goal for schools and educators.
For this reason, the American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of School Counselor Association (ASCA ASCA American School Counselor Association
ASCA Australian Shepherd Club of America
ASCA Arab Society of Certified Accountants
ASCA American Swimming Coaches Association
ASCA American Society of Consulting Arborists
ASCA Association of State Correctional Administrators , 2003a), in the ASCA National Model[R], advocates that school counselors foster collaborative relationships with caregivers to support early adolescents' academic achievement. Additionally, ASCA (2004a) suggests that professional school counselors collaborate "with other stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. to promote student achievement" (p. 1). More specific to middle schools, the National Middle School Association (NMSA NMSA National Middle School Association
NMSA New Mexico Statutes Annotated
NMSA National Meteorological Services Agency
NMSA National Manufacturing Skills Academy (UK)
NMSA Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate , 2003), in This We Believe: Successful Schools for Young Adolescents, a NMSA position statement, advocates that "successful middle schools promote family involvement and take the initiative to develop needed home-school home·school or home-school
v. home·schooled, home·school·ing, home·schools
To instruct (a pupil, for example) in an educational program outside of established schools, especially in the home. bonds. The involvement of family is linked to higher levels of student achievement and improved student behavior" (p. 2).
If schools and families are to work collaboratively as partners, then schools must provide families with the developmentally appropriate opportunities and support necessary to promote and increase involvement in their students' education. Therefore, developing effective partnerships with families requires that all school personnel (i.e., teachers, administrators, and student support personnel including school counselors) create a school environment that is accessible, inviting, and welcoming to caregivers. Developing these collaborative partnerships also requires that school personnel reach out to and provide caregivers with the information and support they need to become involved in their students' education.
Schools that have been successful in engaging families in their early adolescents' learning have looked beyond the traditional definitions of caregiver care·giv·er
1. An individual, such as a physician, nurse, or social worker, who assists in the identification, prevention, or treatment of an illness or disability.
2. involvement (i.e., participation in caregiver teacher organizations, signing report cards, attendance at sporting events) to a broader definition of caregivers as collaborative partners and companions in their early adolescents' education (U.S. Department of Education, 1997). In addition, schools that have developed successful partnerships with families view students' academic, career, and personal/social development as a shared responsibility among all stakeholders--for example, caregivers, family members, administrators, teachers, school support personnel, and the community (ASCA, 2003a). If families are to work with schools as full partners in the education of their early adolescents, schools must provide them with the opportunities and support they need for success.
The provision of these opportunities requires a concerted effort among school-based professionals and staff. The one school-based professional in the best position to coordinate such a collaborative, systemic effort in the middle school is the school counselor. The ASCA National Model (2003a) promotes the themes of school counselors as leaders, advocates, collaborative team members, and supporters of systemic change. Additionally, school counselors are well positioned to support family engagement because of their specialized spe·cial·ize
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.
2. education in human development, collaborative services, and systems change. Another benefit is that students often have the same school counselor for all 3 years of the early adolescent's middle school experience.
The purpose of this article is to explore the developmental and contextual influences of disengagement (developmental changes during early adolescence, family life-cycle life-cycle - software life-cycle transitions, and potential systemic barriers in schools) of families or caregivers of middle school students. Then, the article will address the role of the middle school counselor as a collaborative, systemic change agent in facilitating and supporting family/caregiver engagement in early adolescents' education.
FAMILY DISENGAGEMENT DURING THE MIDDLE SCHOOL YEARS
Traditionally, family involvement decreases dramatically during the middle school years. Specifically, caregiver engagement tends to decease significantly from the time a student is enrolled at the elementary level to middle school (Allen Al·len , Edgar 1892-1943.
American anatomist who is noted for his studies of hormones and for the discovery (1923) of estrogen. & Migliore Migliore is the name of a chain of department stores in South Korea that specializes on selling clothing and fashion accessories. It opened the first store in Dongdaemun shopping district in Seoul in 1998, and another in Myeongdong, one of the premier shopping districts in Korea, , 2005; Downs, 2001; Elkind, 1998; Johnston Johnston, town (1990 pop. 26,542), Providence co., N central R.I., a suburb of Providence; inc. 1759. Among its manufactures are jewelry, textiles, and fabricated metals. Johnston is the home of several insurance companies. , 1998). Downs reported that caregivers of middle school students are only half as likely as the caregivers of elementary school elementary school: see school. students to attend student conferences with teachers. In addition, Johnston found that less than half of students in middle school report that their caregivers are actively engaged in school programs. Meanwhile, Brough Brough may mean or refer to: Products
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc middle school counselors' roles and responsibilities. These include (a) developmental changes during early adolescence, (b) family life-cycle issues, and (c) potential systemic barriers in schools.
Developmental Changes During Early Adolescence
Early adolescents experience multiple personal changes. Their physical growth is apparent; however, significant changes are occurring in their psychological, cognitive, social, and moral development. The developmental changes experienced during early adolescence may be the most intense transformations in the human life cycle (Lounsbury, 2004). A hallmark hallmark, mark impressed on silverwork or goldwork to signify official approval of the standard of purity of the metal, also called plate mark. The hallmark was introduced by statute in England in 1300 and enforced by the Goldsmiths' Hall, London. of this developmental stage is the struggle for autonomy and independence. During early adolescence, the level of caregiver-adolescent conflict is the highest (Allison
Allison, which may come from a medieval Norman nickname for Alice, meaning "noble type", or from the Irish name "Iseult", meaning "fair lady". & Schultz Schultz may refer to
Responding excessively to the stimulus of a foreign agent, such as an allergen; abnormally sensitive.
hy to circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or where they feel others are asserting as·sert
tr.v. as·sert·ed, as·sert·ing, as·serts
1. To state or express positively; affirm: asserted his innocence.
2. To defend or maintain (one's rights, for example). power over them" (Lambie, 2004, p. 269) or simply talking about them. For this reason, many early adolescents discourage their caregivers from becoming involved in their school activities and education. Instead, they maintain that everything at school is "fine" or they will "handle" any potential problems.
Family Life-Cycle Development
The development of the family life-cycle is often underestimated as an aspect that may contribute to the lack of family engagement during early adolescence. Carter and McGoldrick (1998) defined family life-cycle as "the natural context within which to frame individual identity and development and to account for the effects of the social system" (p. 1). For families with early adolescents, particularly those entering middle school, this is normally the time of the family life-cycle when caregivers are renegotiating their roles with children in terms of more independence for and from them. In addition, caregivers of early adolescents may be placed in the position of becoming the primary caregivers for their own aging parents, as well as restructuring restructuring - The transformation from one representation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject system's external behaviour (functionality and semantics). their careers (Preto, 1999). Thus, it is not only the early adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. who is experiencing a developmental transition, but rather the entire family.
As a result of these competing forces in the family life-cycle pattern, caregivers may inadvertently become "less available" in helping to meet the educational needs of their middle school children, thinking that their early adolescents' sense of growing independence is sufficient for negotiating middle school challenges on their own. In fact, Downs (2001) noted that caregivers of early adolescents may misinterpret mis·in·ter·pret
tr.v. mis·in·ter·pret·ed, mis·in·ter·pret·ing, mis·in·ter·prets
1. To interpret inaccurately.
2. To explain inaccurately. their children's push for greater independence as evidence to become less involved in their schooling. Similarly, Elkind (1998) found that caregivers overestimate o·ver·es·ti·mate
tr.v. o·ver·es·ti·mat·ed, o·ver·es·ti·mat·ing, o·ver·es·ti·mates
1. To estimate too highly.
2. To esteem too greatly. the sophistication so·phis·ti·cate
v. so·phis·ti·cat·ed, so·phis·ti·cat·ing, so·phis·ti·cates
1. To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly.
2. of early adolescents in making decisions. He stated that "adolescents often have a premature adulthood thrust upon them" (p. 7).
Potential Systemic Barriers in School
Middle schools, being larger systems than elementary schools, hold innate challenges to caregiver involvement. First, the middle school enrollment is larger and students have multiple teachers, complicating com·pli·cate
tr. & intr.v. com·pli·cat·ed, com·pli·cat·ing, com·pli·cates
1. To make or become complex or perplexing.
2. To twist or become twisted together.
1. communication significantly. As the number of people (teachers, students, family members) increases, so does the challenge of effective communication among all parties. Second, as systems increase in size, so too does the bureaucracy. Thus, pragmatically prag·mat·ic
1. Dealing or concerned with facts or actual occurrences; practical.
2. Philosophy Of or relating to pragmatism.
3. it is more of a challenge to support family engagement at the middle school level when compared to that at the elementary level. Third, often the most prevalent form of caregiver involvement at the elementary school level (caregivers volunteering in the classroom and on school field trips) may be viewed as inappropriate at the middle school level where early adolescents tend to become embarrassed of their caregivers being at their school (Baker, 2000).
Fragmentation (1) Storing data in non-contiguous areas on disk. As files are updated, new data are stored in available free space, which may not be contiguous. Fragmented files cause extra head movement, slowing disk accesses. A defragger program is used to rewrite and reorder all the files. and compartmentalization of services are also potential systemic barriers to school-family connections. They have been documented as problems needing reform and restructuring to support a collaborative school-family connection (Amatea, Daniels Daniels is a surname that may refer to:
Property of certain types of electromagnetic radiation in which the direction and magnitude of the vibrating electric field are related in a specified way. " (Amatea et al., p. 50) between home and school. These types of non-coordinated functions among school-based professionals are not uncommon in middle schools (Baker, 2001; Boyer Boy´er
n. 1. (Naut.) A Flemish sloop with a castle at each end. & Bishop, 2004). In contrast, coordination is generally managed more effectively at the elementary school level where students often have only one primary teacher who serves as the facilitator for most school interactions.
Without an identifiable hierarchy or coordinator, it is difficult for caregivers to know who to contact at the school if they want to become involved. Further, logistical lo·gis·tic also lo·gis·ti·cal
1. Of or relating to symbolic logic.
2. Of or relating to logistics.
[Medieval Latin logisticus, of calculation constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.
["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)]. such as time, scheduling, transportation, and child care often limit caregiver involvement (Baker, 2001). To address these systemic issues, a school's hierarchy (leadership) needs to be established (e.g., school counselors and administers working collaboratively) that appreciates the barriers to caregiver involvement and works to make organizational accommodations to limit the impact of potential obstacles. Additional systemic barriers to family/caregiver engagement include trivialization of the caregiver role and poor communication between home and school.
Trivialization of the caregiver's role. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Johnston (1998), the trivialization of caregivers' role in the engagement of early adolescents' education is an often-noted aspect contributing to the disengagement of caregivers at the middle school level. Specifically, Johnston provided an example of caregiver role trivialization:
Volunteering in the library, or sponsoring fund-raising events, or serving on the PTA council, while important for the overall functioning of the school, may be seen as trivial by parents because, while these activities support the school and its programs, they do little to support, directly, the success of a parent's individual child. (p. 195)
It is clear from this statement, as well as from other findings in middle school education, that many caregivers simply do not know exactly how to help their early adolescents with schoolwork and other aspects of their middle level education or are being guided to roles within the school that are not directly related to students' learning (Burkhardt, 2004; Downs, 2001; Waiters, Knowlton Knowlton may refer to Places
Poor communication between home and school. Despite cumulative findings that more frequent communication between home and school can contribute to more consistent positive academic achievement for middle school students, there continues to be resistance for doing so (Adams & Christenson, 2000; Baker, 2001; Downs, 2001). Although there are multiple reasons for this resistance, it appears clear that both schools and homes contribute equally to this complex dynamic. Specifically, Downs found that reluctance on the part of teachers to contact home may be influenced by lack of appreciation into the insights that caregivers may have about their early adolescents' learning. Further, many teachers feel exclusively responsible for classroom learning, and that caregivers and other school personnel should only be involved if a teacher cannot resolve a student's difficulties (Amatea et al., 2004). Oftentimes of·ten·times also oft·times
Adv. 1. oftentimes - many times at short intervals; "we often met over a cup of coffee"
frequently, oft, often, ofttimes , school personnel only communicate home when there is a problem severe enough to warrant caregiver involvement. Caregivers may avoid contacting the school because their only experiences with the school have been unproductive, frustrating frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: , and hostile, resulting in perceptions of caregiver blame or incompetence in·com·pe·tence or in·com·pe·ten·cy
1. The quality of being incompetent or incapable of performing a function, as the failure of the cardiac valves to close properly.
2. (Johnston, 1998).
Additionally and as noted previously, the level of trust between families and schools significantly decreases at the middle school level. In relation to communication between families and schools, Adams and Christenson (2000) found that improving home-school communication was the most effective method of enhancing trust. The better the home-school communication is, the greater the level of trust there will be, supporting increased family engagement and student success.
THE MIDDLE SCHOOL COUNSELOR AS A COLLABORATOR OF SYSTEMIC CHANGE
As noted, there are a variety of reasons families disengage dis·en·gage
v. dis·en·gaged, dis·en·gag·ing, dis·en·gag·es
1. To release from something that holds fast, connects, or entangles. See Synonyms at extricate.
2. from their early adolescents' middle school education. Middle school counselors have an essential role in facilitating and supporting family engagement. ASCA (2004b), in Why Middle School Counselors, has outlined the roles and functions of the middle school counselor. With respect to working with families and school-based personnel, the middle school counselor should take a leadership role in designing and delivering a comprehensive school counseling program that proactively engages all stakeholders (families, teachers, school personnel and staff, and the community) through collaborative and coordinated programs in an effort to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of middle school students. Further, ASCA stated that "middle school counselors do not work in isolation; rather they are integral to the total educational program" (p. 1), collaborating with caregivers, teachers, administrators, students, and the community. Thus, to address the needs of families to increase engagement in their early adolescents' middle school education, the middle school counselor is the primary school-based professional for supporting a collaborative, systemic approach in restructuring middle schools' response and facilitating systemic change.
While counseling, consultation, and coordination (the three "Cs") are widely known as integral functions of the school counselor (ASCA, 2003a), these functions may best be executed within an underlying model of collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software. (Keys & Green, 2005). The collaborative function is an interactive process and has been defined in various ways, including an emphasis on "teamwork (product, software, tool) Teamwork - A SASD tool from Sterling Software, formerly CADRE Technologies, which supports the Shlaer/Mellor Object-Oriented method and the Yourdon-DeMarco, Hatley-Pirbhai, Constantine and Buhr notations. and recognition that each person contributes a unique expertise to the problem-solving process" (Keys & Green, p. 363). ASCA defined systemic change as "change affecting the entire system; transformational; ... focus of the change is upon the dynamic of the environment, not the individual" (p. 131). Further, "school counselors use their leadership and advocacy skills to promote systemic change" (p. 43) in an effort to reduce organizational barriers to students' academic success.
Through a collaborative, systemic approach with school-based professionals, all with their unique expertise, the middle school counselor can begin building the necessary teamwork or partnership within the school to help families become increasingly engaged and connected with their early adolescents' middle school. Based on the literature, it becomes clear that schools and families could benefit from an organization restructuring process within the school in an effort to better communicate how schools can invite caregivers into the middle school process (Allen & Migliore, 2005; Amatea et al., 2004; Baker, 2001).
Amatea et al. (2004) presented a process that can be used as a framework for middle school counselors to apply their expertise in collaboration and systemic change to support stronger home-school relations and family engagement. Amatea et al. assessed the current structure of home-school relations in a comprehensive school, which included middle-level education, identifying barriers within the school that prevented increased positive home-school coordination. They then implemented strategies to promote involvement among school-based professionals and families. They presented four steps that middle school counselors, as collaborators of systemic change, could adapt to promote family engagement and support early adolescents' development and achievement.
Step 1: Initial Assessment
The first step in any effective program implementation involves a needs assessment. ASCA (2003a) advocates that school counselors, as systemic change agents, examine current school policies and procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental to evaluate their impact on students' academic development. Further, because of the organizational changes between elementary and middle schools (i.e., larger enrollment, more teachers, increased bureaucracy, and educating early adolescents), it is important for middle school counselors to conduct an initial assessment of attitudes and practices of the school and its personnel relative to family-school communication. Amatea et al. (2004) found through interviews with teachers and other personnel that there existed a lack of coordination among school-based staff regarding home-school connections. Teachers merely contacted home to inform parents "of the nature of the instructional program and the child's progress in that program" (p. 50). As a result, there was no meaningful two-way dialogue between the school and families, but merely a reporting of information and progress.
Middle school counselors should conduct an initial assessment of the current practice of communication between school personnel and families. The following are examples of questions to include in the assessment: (a) "What are the main reasons that school personnel contact early adolescents' families?" (b) "What are the school's policies regarding early adolescents' familial familial /fa·mil·i·al/ (fah-mil´e-il) occurring in more members of a family than would be expected by chance.
adj. contact?" (c) "What are school personnel's current feelings and thoughts about interacting with early adolescents' caregivers?" and (d) "When are the middle school's family-school meetings scheduled?" The data collected from this assessment of the current attitudes, practices, and policies of school-family interactions should guide middle school counselors in supporting systemic change.
Step 2: Educating School Personnel
The second step involves education for all school personnel relating to school-family communication and working with early adolescents. Middle school counselors' expertise in interpersonal communications Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information between two or more people. Types of Interpersonal Communication
This kind of communication is subdivided into dyadic communication, Public speaking, and small-group communication. , systemic change, and child development makes them an excellent resource to help other educators learn about family engagement (Davis & Adams, 1998; Lambie & Sias, 2005). Amatea et al. (2004) began by educating school personnel concerning the importance of collaboration among the various school-based professionals with a focus on how teacher-family relationships needed to change. To begin this process, it is important for middle school counselors to model collaboration by seeking teacher input in a manner that purposively blocks "the blaming that undermines many family-school problem-solving routines and engage in joint problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. " (Amatea et al., pp. 50-51).
This should be followed by opportunities for teachers to meet with families and students. With the recognition that both caregivers and students should be influential and active participants in school-based meetings, emphasis needs to be placed on them becoming no-fault co-decision-makers in the educational process. The inclusion of middle school students in their educational decision-making decision-making,
n the process of coming to a conclusion or making a judgment.
n a type of informal decision-making that combines clinical expertise, patient concerns, and evidence gathered from supports the increasing responsibility and autonomy characteristic of early adolescents. With the understanding, too, that it might not be possible for all caregivers to come to the school, collaboration in the decision-making process with families needs to be promoted by affirming families' caring for their child and finding alternative ways to communicate with them (i.e., e-mail, telephone, and personal letters).
Additionally, adults working with early adolescents (i.e., caregivers, teachers, school counselors, and administrators) need to make accommodations to their style of interacting with these students. When an adult approaches an early adolescent in a confrontational style, the adolescent will likely respond with "resistance" in an attempt to maintain his or her feeling of personal freedom (autonomy). Thus, the more an adult directly confronts, the more the early adolescent will react with a defense mechanism (i.e., anger, resistance, denial, and minimization). Therefore, adults need to adapt their communication style to the developmental needs of the early adolescents and provide them with a "voice" within their decision-making (Lambie, 2004), while providing them with consistent and stable boundaries. The second step concludes with the development of strategies to increase opportunities for "non-problematic family-school interactions ... to maximize student learning" (Amatea et al., 2004, p. 51).
Step 3: Restructuring Family-School Interactional Patterns
The third step involves restructuring or revising the manner in which family-school meetings are traditionally conducted. Scheduling time for school-based professionals to meet together and to meet with families and students is perhaps one of the most difficult tasks (Davis & Garrett, 1998). Amatea et al. (2004) worked collaboratively with teachers and counselors to develop grade-level instructional teams, which met biweekly bi·week·ly
1. Happening every two weeks.
2. Happening twice a week; semiweekly.
n. pl. bi·week·lies
A publication issued every two weeks.
1. Every two weeks. . This format allowed for more time-efficient and consistent contact among teachers and counselors. Regular grade-level instructional team meetings allowed for caregivers and students to participate in educational decisions, using the co-decision and no-fault approach to facilitate more positive interactions. Additionally, at the middle school level, interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y
Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.
Adjective collaborative teaming is a common practice (Boyer & Bishop, 2004).
Equally important for these meetings, Amatea et al. employed two methods: (a) Meetings that were scheduled used a nonproblematic approach, and (b) student-led conferences were held in which students participated in the decision-making process related to their own education along with caregivers and school-based staff (supporting the early adolescent's drive for autonomy). Lambie (2004) stated, "When students feel that they are choosing to do something for their own self-interest, their motivation can be intense" (p. 269). Thus, providing early adolescents with a "voice" in their own educational process supports their feelings of self-efficacy self-efficacy (selfˈ-eˑ·fi·k and their intrinsic intrinsic /in·trin·sic/ (in-trin´sik) situated entirely within or pertaining exclusively to a part.
1. Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing.
2. motivation to be successful. As a result, schools discontinue dis·con·tin·ue
v. dis·con·tin·ued, dis·con·tin·u·ing, dis·con·tin·ues
1. To stop doing or providing (something); end or abandon: the pattern of teacher-led conferences in which caregivers are passive recipients of information, and students and/or any other school-based professionals do not attend.
Another consideration in reconfiguring family-school interaction patterns is to make caregiver involvement more convenient. According to Baker (2001), caregivers spoke positively about school engagement when it was "made easier for them to be involved" (p. 139). For this reason, it is important for school personnel to be flexible in their scheduling of meetings to better match caregivers' schedules. However, it is worth noting that middle school personnel should be supported in this effort and not simply be required to work more hours to meet with caregivers during the evening. For example, the second author when working as a school counselor would be awarded "release time" for the evening hours he allotted al·lot
tr.v. al·lot·ted, al·lot·ting, al·lots
1. To parcel out; distribute or apportion: allotting land to homesteaders; allot blame.
2. for meeting with families.
Transitioning is another factor to consider in reconfiguring family-school interaction patterns. Although many elementary and middle schools do have some type of transition program, there is still room to strengthen school, student, and family connections through the transition process (Rotchford, 2002). This process from elementary to middle school is a valuable opportunity for elementary and middle school counselors to coordinate and collaborate. For example, as opposed to this being the typical one-day event one-day event
a contraction of the three-day event but like that contest is aimed at selecting the best all-round horse and rider. The events usually contested are show-jumping, dressage and cross-country. squeezed into the school day, school counselors at the elementary and middle levels, along with other school personnel and teachers from both schools, can organize this process around a Saturday afternoon event (e.g., barbeque, field day) for students and their caregivers. It could include informational sessions for caregivers regarding the transition process and what they might expect for themselves, their families, and their children over the middle school experience. Because middle school counselors have a background in human and family development, they can help families understand the middle school transition as a family life-cycle transition, meaning there will be change for the entire family including their roles and expectations for one another.
Step 4: Evaluation and Accommodation
As with any implemented intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. and/or program to support systemic change, it is important to receive feedback. Therefore, the final step is to elicit e·lic·it
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.
b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.
2. feedback from students, caregivers, teachers, and other middle school personnel regarding the effectiveness of this collaborative, systemic approach. According to ASCA (2003a), evaluation of the services provided as part of a comprehensive school counseling program is a necessity. A reading of Amatea et al. (2004) is suggested for a more comprehensive discussion regarding the home-school collaborative effort that was designed by a school counseling team.
The collaborative, systemic approach presented demonstrates a process that may be implemented to support families' increased engagement in the educational process of their middle school early adolescents. Although not a single solution, it begins a process of going beyond traditional means by increasing contact with families and responding to the needs identified relative to the potential reasons some families may feel disengaged dis·en·gage
v. dis·en·gaged, dis·en·gag·ing, dis·en·gag·es
1. To release from something that holds fast, connects, or entangles. See Synonyms at extricate.
2. in the middle school years. Specifically, for families that feel there is poor communication between the school and themselves, or feel their caregiver role is trivialized, as Johnston (1998) identified, this type of systemic restructuring to increase family engagement may bring a more consistent and nonproblematic interface between home and school.
Futhermore, more consistent and meaningful contact between home and school allows dialogue to address ways that caregivers can help their early adolescents at the middle school level (Burkhardt, 2004; Downs, 2001; Waiters et al., 2003). One resource developed by school media specialists to help caregivers is a series of videos that demonstrate how specific assignments are to be completed, strategies for helping students think more critically about their schoolwork and skill development, information about the school, and general information on early adolescent development (Downs; Waiters et al.). The videos have been translated into several languages, and families can borrow them along with a VCR VCR: see videocassette recorder.
in full videocassette recorder
Electromechanical device that records, stores on a videotape cassette, and plays back on a TV set recorded images and sound. from the school's library to watch at home. School counselors as part of their collaborative, systemic approach can easily collaborate with teachers and media specialists to prepare resources like these and make them available.
As noted, one potential reason for family disengagement during the middle school years is the influence of the family life-cycle. ASCA (2003a, 2003b, 2004b) supports middle school counselors providing school-sponsored family and caregiver educational opportunities that emphasize the integration of home and school life. While evidence exists that middle school counselors can and do provide some time-limited, school-based educational and counseling programs to engage caregivers (Davis, 2001; Whiston & Bouwkamp, 2005), it is still recognized that school counselors need to have knowledge of and make referrals to community agencies for families.
Further, to help support families that may be experiencing difficult developmental changes in the early adolescent and family life-cycle, middle school counselors can use their collaborative and systems change expertise to help families connect with appropriate community services. It is important to remember that it is normal and developmentally appropriate for early adolescents to work to differentiate themselves from their caregivers, often "pushing them out." Nevertheless, it is important that caregivers stay engaged in their early adolescents' lives.
Although there is overwhelming evidence in the middle school literature to support family engagement as an important positive contributor to early adolescents' holistic Holistic
A practice of medicine that focuses on the whole patient, and addresses the social, emotional, and spiritual needs of a patient as well as their physical treatment.
Mentioned in: Aromatherapy, Stress Reduction, Traditional Chinese Medicine development, there are a variety of reasons that caregiver involvement sharply declines. Schools that have been successful in engaging families in their early adolescents' middle school learning have looked beyond the traditional definitions of caregiver involvement. Through a collaborative, systemic process of restructuring how a school includes caregivers of middle school students into the educational process, as well as using expertise in community-based resources, middle school counselors have an opportunity to model collaboration to other school-based personnel. Collaboration and advocacy for systems change are established and integral aspects of the role of middle school counselors. Using their expertise, middle school counselors have a key role in helping their schools and staff to enhance caregivers' engagement in early adolescents' education and to facilitate home-school interactions.
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The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs (Eds.), The community of the school (pp. 127-153). Lincoln Lincoln, city and district, England
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AII Agence de l'Innovation Industrielle (French Agency for Industrial Innovation)
AII Active Input Interface (used in UNI PMD specs for Copper/Fiber)
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Keith M. Davis, Ph.D., is with the Department of Human Development & Psychological Counseling, Appalachian State University History
Appalachian State University began in the summer of 1899 when a group of citizens of Watauga County, NC, under the leadership of D.D. Dougherty and B.B. Dougherty, began a movement to establish a good school in Boone, NC. Land was donated by D.B. , Boone, NC. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Glenn W. Lambie, Ph.D., is with the Department of Child, Family, & Community Sciences, University of Central Florida “UCF” redirects here. For other uses, see UCF (disambiguation).
UCF is a member institution of the State University System of Florida. UCF was founded in 1963 as Florida Technological University with the goal of providing highly trained personnel to support the Kennedy , Orlando. E-mail. email@example.com