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Faith-based prevention model: a rural African-American case study.



Abstract: This study was designed to assess how a Faith-Based In the United States of America, the term faith-based is used to describe organizations that are religious in nature and distinguish those organizations from government, public or private secular organizations.  Prevention Model impacted elementary school elementary school: see school. , middle school, and high school youths' views on five risk factors: accessibility to alcohol, tobacco or other drugs, academic achievement, self-concept self-concept
n.
An individual's assessment of his or her status on a single trait or on many human dimensions using societal or personal norms as criteria.
, peer behavior, and interactions between parent and child. Investigators found the model to significantly impact each risk factor positively, in particular, youths' views on accessibility of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Males were more responsive to the intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant.  in every area except parent-child interaction time. These results suggest that a Faith-Based Prevention Model can positively affect participating youths.

**********

President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13198 creating Centers for Faith-Based and Community Initiatives in five separate cabinet departments: Health and Human Services Noun 1. Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
Department of Health and Human Services, HHS
, Housing and Urban Development, and the Departments of Education, Labor and Justice. The order instructed every department to conduct an audit, identifying barriers to the participation of faith-based and other community organizations in the delivery of social services social services
Noun, pl

welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs

social services nplservicios mpl sociales 
 (White House, 2002).

The President asserts, "faith-based programs, volunteers, and grassroots groups are indispensable partners with nonprofit A corporation or an association that conducts business for the benefit of the general public without shareholders and without a profit motive.

Nonprofits are also called not-for-profit corporations. Nonprofit corporations are created according to state law.
 service providers and government programs to serve the poor, renew families, and rebuild neighborhoods" (Zoeller, 2002). Further, "federal agencies will continue to become more hospitable hos·pi·ta·ble  
adj.
1. Disposed to treat guests with warmth and generosity.

2. Indicative of cordiality toward guests: a hospitable act.

3.
 to grassroots and small-scale programs ... because they have unique strengths that the government cannot duplicate DUPLICATE. The double of anything.
     2. It is usually applied to agreements, letters, receipts, and the like, when two originals are made of either of them. Each copy has the same effect.
" (Zoeller). The impetus Impetus is a stimulus or impulse, a moving force that sparks momentum.

Impetus may also refer to:
  • Theory of impetus, an obsolete scientific theory on projectile motion, superseded by the modern theory of inertia
 underlying faith-based and community initiatives is threefold. Properly implemented, they should allow grassroots leaders to competitively compete for federal dollars, receive greater private support and federal funding education, and face fewer bureaucratic bu·reau·crat  
n.
1. An official of a bureaucracy.

2. An official who is rigidly devoted to the details of administrative procedure.



bu
 barriers.

The federal government's interest in faith-based and community initiatives is more than cursory cur·so·ry  
adj.
Performed with haste and scant attention to detail: a cursory glance at the headlines.



[Late Latin curs
; it represents a growing trend across America to develop additional faith-based programs and foster those already in existence. For example, the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  Health and Human Services web site has increased the accessibility to the Center for Faith-Based and Community Initiatives and also provides valuable supplemental resources; including information on grant guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
, lists sources for funding, addresses hot topics and issues concerning faith-based prevention, and publicizes community volunteer opportunities. The White House has also devoted a section of its web site to this initiative. Their web site provides information concerning grant eligibility, application instructions, funding opportunities, and provides information on grants available to faith-based organizations.

This article is designed to assess the impact of faith-based alcohol, tobacco and other drug prevention among elementary school, middle school, and high school youths, through the evaluation of the Faith-Based Prevention Model as applied in three rural Jackson County, Florida Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. The population as of the 2000 census was 46,755. As of 2005, the population was 48,985 [1]. Its county seat is Marianna, Florida6. History
Jackson County was created in 1822.
 churches. Sample process and outcome data were obtained to evaluate the model's effectiveness.

RATIONAL FOR CHURCH-BASED PREVENTION ACTIVITIES IN THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAITH COMMUNITY

Faith-based organizations are actively attempting to improve and strengthen the same populations as those of existing non-faith-based prevention programs. The church maintains many characteristics that make it a practical source for health education and health promotion interventions. These characteristics include:

* ability to influence community values and norms

* a network to provide leadership and educational opportunities

* a large pool of willing and concerned volunteers

* emotional and social support to those who are in times of crisis

* a forum for the dispersion dispersion, in chemistry
dispersion, in chemistry, mixture in which fine particles of one substance are scattered throughout another substance. A dispersion is classed as a suspension, colloid, or solution.
 of news and exchange of informatiom (Turner et al., 1995)

In addition, the faith-based community A faith-based community is a community with members who all believe in the same religious concepts, or at least they did when it was founded. Many faith-based communities are communes, although this is not a requirement.  has the potential to reach a broader range of the population than other sectors, due to its ability to reach all ages, socioeconomic so·ci·o·ec·o·nom·ic  
adj.
Of or involving both social and economic factors.


socioeconomic
Adjective

of or involving economic and social factors

Adj. 1.
 levels, and ethnicities (Svendsen & Griffin, 1991). These organizations play a crucial role in promoting a healthy lifestyle, working with at-risk youth, deterring family violence, and building a strong sense of community (Benson, 1998).

Miller et al. (2000) examined substance abuse and religiosity re·li·gi·os·i·ty  
n.
1. The quality of being religious.

2. Excessive or affected piety.

Noun 1. religiosity - exaggerated or affected piety and religious zeal
religiousism, pietism, religionism
 among youth, and contends "adolescents who claim to have a personal relationship with the Divine are only half as likely to become alcoholics or drug addicts, or for that matter even try contraband contraband, in international law, goods necessary or useful in the prosecution of war that a belligerent may lawfully seize from a neutral who is attempting to deliver them to the enemy.  drugs" Reporting from the National Institute for Healthcare Research, Miller concluded that active spiritual or religious involvement could reduce the risk of alcohol or other drug abuse (Miller, 1998). Researchers also document religious teenagers experiencing less emotional stress and a decreased likelihood of having psychological problems than a similar group of teenagers who were not religious (Cook, 2000). Cook asserts that the church helps youth develop self-regulating abilities; thus, helping them refrain from negative behaviors and encouraging them to engage in positive activities.

Churches are crucial to the faith-based network. They form the backbone of the social networks necessary for people to change their values, behaviors, develop new skills, and nurture NURTURE. The act of taking care of children and educating them: the right to the nurture of children generally belongs to the father till the child shall arrive at the age of fourteen years, and not longer. Till then, he is guardian by nurture. Co. Litt. 38 b.  leadership development. The church also sets social norms and provides a source of identification and solution (Eng, Hatch Hatch may refer to: Actions and objects
  • Hatching, also called "cross-hatching", an artistic technique used to create tonal or shading effects using closely spaced parallel lines. Also it is used to create curvature and shape to drawn objects.
, & Callan, 1985).

In particular, Eng et al. observes that "The African-American church can provide an effective and culturally appropriate entry portal into the African-American community for primary prevention initiatives.... The uniqueness of the black church as both a unit of identity and solution make it a potentially effective unit of practice for health professionals." The practicality of these observations are exhibited by the fact that 82% of African-American versus 67% of Caucasians identify themselves as church members, 92% of African-Americans versus 55% of Caucasians declare that religion is "very important in their life," and 86% of African-Americans versus 60% of Caucasians believe that religion "can answer all or most of today's problems" (Gallup, 1995). Levin lev·in  
n. Archaic
Lightning.



[Middle English levene, levin; see leuk- in Indo-European roots.]
 (1984) summarized the importance of the African-American church, stating "the black church is the most important social institution in the black community and is the conservator conservator n. a guardian and protector appointed by a judge to protect and manage the financial affairs and/or the person's daily life due to physical or mental limitations or old age.  of the black ethos e·thos  
n.
The disposition, character, or fundamental values peculiar to a specific person, people, culture, or movement: "They cultivated a subversive alternative ethos" Anthony Burgess.
." Many other studies of faith-based programs in African-American communities demonstrate and support the promise of these efforts (Trulear, 2001; White & de Marcellus, 1998; Foundation Center, 2001).

THEORETICAL BASIS

The Faith-Based Prevention Model has integrated the Risk and Protective Factor Theory to assist in clarifying the underlying factors that lead to delinquency/gangs, alcohol and other drug abuse, teen pregnancy, and school drop out (Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller, 1992). Various home, school, and community protective factors assist in the development of youth resilience resilience (r·zilˑ·yens),
n
 and the choice not to become involved in life-compromising situations. Specific risk factors addressed include interaction with antisocial antisocial /an·ti·so·cial/ (-so´sh'l)
1. denoting behavior that violates the rights of others, societal mores, or the law.

2. denoting the specific personality traits seen in antisocial personality disorder.
 peers, social/family bonding, self-concept, favorable fa·vor·a·ble  
adj.
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.

2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.

3.
 attitudes toward drug use and academic failure.

Protective factors addressed by the Faith-Based Prevention Model include social competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
     2.
; the personal qualities of responsiveness, flexibility, responsibility, empathy empathy

Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing.
 and caring; communication skills; and problem-solving skills. Additional protective factors addressed are autonomy, a strong sense of independence; a sense of empowerment em·pow·er  
tr.v. em·pow·ered, em·pow·er·ing, em·pow·ers
1. To invest with power, especially legal power or official authority. See Synonyms at authorize.

2.
; self-discipline; educational aspiration aspiration /as·pi·ra·tion/ (as?pi-ra´shun)
1. the drawing of a foreign substance, such as the gastric contents, into the respiratory tract during inhalation.

2.
; and persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second. . These specific factors are impacted by the prevention model, resulting in a decrease in reported risk factors and an increase in reported protective factors, relative to similar aged youth as measured against local, state, and national data.

The Faith-Based Prevention Model also incorporates the National Institute on Drug Abuses' Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents (1997) prevention program principles. These principles have integrated components, such as:

* Utilization of media and community education strategies to increase public awareness, to attract community support, to reinforce a school-based curriculum for students and parents, and to keep the public informed of program progress.

* Program components coordinated with other community efforts to motivate or to reinforce prevention messages.

* A structured organizational plan that progresses from needs assessment through planning, implementation, and program review/redesign including communication with the community at all stages.

* Specific objectives and activities that are time-limited, feasible, and integrated in an effort to evaluate program progress and outcomes.

The integration of Risk and Protective Theory Factor Theory and Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents (1997) from the National Institute on Drug Abuse The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction. , allows the Faith-Based Prevention Model to effectively address key prevention risk and protective factors in a structured, specific manner.

METHOD

The Faith-Based Prevention Model, as applied in Jackson County, Florida, is a constellation Constellation, ship
Constellation (kŏnstĭlā`shən), U.S. frigate, launched in 1797. It was named by President Washington for the constellation of 15 stars in the U.S. flag of that time.
 of planning and program strategies that when combined, have a positive impact on youth, church members, and the community as a whole. The model is implemented in four different phases: (1) community development, readiness, and empowerment; (2) church leader training and action planning; (3) program implementation and evaluation; and (4) program redesign re·de·sign  
tr.v. re·de·signed, re·de·sign·ing, re·de·signs
To make a revision in the appearance or function of.



re
.

The initial phase of the model is dedicated to learning about organizations and leaders within the community, fostering relationships with local churches that may qualify for participation, and determining the readiness of the community and churches to support a prevention initiative. The project staff interview key members of the community to assess important community needs, level of project interest, and other pertinent PERTINENT, evidence. Those facts which tend to prove the allegations of the party offering them, are called pertinent; those which have no such tendency are called impertinent, 8 Toull. n. 22. By pertinent is also meant that which belongs. Willes, 319.  community information (Sutherland Sutherland or Sutherlandshire, former county, N Scotland. Under the Local Government Act of 1973, Sutherland became (1975) part of the new Highland region (now a council area).  & Harris, 2001).

The second phase includes church prevention committee members participating in an initial eight-week in-service in-service In-service training adjective Referring to any form of on-the-job training noun In-service training of an employee  training, followed by monthly meetings. The in-service and monthly follow up meetings are conducted by project staff to address alcohol and tobacco knowledge, basic community development skills, effective utilization of community agencies, program planning, implementation, evaluation skills, and project reporting procedures using project related materials (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).

The prevention committee is then responsible for developing an action plan and fiscal plan. In order to accomplish this, members utilize the information gained from initial surveys and interviews. They also use information the committee has learned about effective prevention strategies to inform their decisions. Youth participants are then identified, their needs considered, goals set, and activities outlined for the remainder of the year. To implement intervention activities, the prevention committee includes activities in following areas: large and small group instruction (weekly drug-related information, drama, and life-skills training); competitive and cooperative activities between churches; recognition of excellence among youth; mentoring and parenting; supporting school achievement; quarterly drug awareness sessions; and public relation campaigns (Table 1). Most of these activities take place within the church setting, and all activities are under the guidance and supervision of the church prevention committees (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).

Phase three of the model includes the implementation of the individual church prevention committee action/fiscal plans. Churches are monitored on a monthly basis to ensure that their planned programs are being implemented and appropriate adjustments are made. Prevention committee member training remains ongoing throughout the project. Each prevention committee participates in monthly two-hour training sessions (Table 2). The training agenda focuses upon program implementation, evaluation, and activity documenting topics (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).

Youth instruction lessons last one hour and focus on stress management, self-esteem self-esteem

Sense of personal worth and ability that is fundamental to an individual's identity. Family relationships during childhood are believed to play a crucial role in its development.
 building, problem solving problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.
 skills, substance abuse education, peer resistance skills, and overall health instruction. As indicated in phase two, each church prevention committee identifies special activities in their respective action/fiscal plans; such as alternative activities, youth leisure nights, tobacco/drug summits, and cooperative activities between churches. The actual programs and activities that are implemented might differ from church to church based upon their specific characteristics and established goals (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).

The fourth and final phase of the Faith-Based Prevention Model involves the ongoing adjustment of program activities. These activities are partially determined by prevention committee perceptions and ongoing data analysis. There are three general activities that will occur: process evaluation, outcome evaluation, and program update and redesign. The process evaluation involves keeping a record of the activities conducted and the individuals participating in those activities. Outcome evaluation is performed to determine if program activities are making desired changes (i.e., are participating youth avoiding alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use, achieving in school, and choosing to spend time with positive peer influences; Sutherland & Harris, 2001).

SUBJECTS

Fifty-one students, a sample of convenience of elementary, middle and high school youth participated in a baseline The horizontal line to which the bottoms of lowercase characters (without descenders) are aligned. See typeface.

baseline - released version
 assessment. Ninety-one youth completed the posttest post·test  
n.
A test given after a lesson or a period of instruction to determine what the students have learned.
 instrument. Participants were youth from Jackson County, Florida, a rural Northern Panhandle panhandle, in geography, a strip of land projecting from the main body of an area and shaped like the handle of a pan, such as the panhandles of West Virginia, Texas, and Alaska.  community. While most youth were members of the church community, they did not have to be members of the church or regularly attend church services in order to participate in the intervention. No youth were excluded from involvement in activities.

SETTING

Jackson County Jackson County is the name of 23 counties and one parish in the United States:
  • Jackson County, Alabama
  • Jackson County, Arkansas
  • Jackson County, Colorado
  • Jackson County, Florida
  • Jackson County, Georgia
  • Jackson County, Illinois
 spans an area 916 square miles A square mil is a unit of area, equal to the area of a square with sides of length one mil. A mil is one thousandth of an international inch. This unit of area is usually used in specifying the area of the cross section of a wire or cable. , consisting of approximately 47,495 residents and having a density of 52 people per square mile. The primary minority population is African-American (29.8%). In 2001, there were 7,832 students enrolled in Jackson Jackson.

1 City (1990 pop. 37,446), seat of Jackson co., S Mich., on the Grand River; inc. 1857. It is an industrial and commercial center in a farm region.
 County's elementary, middle, and high schools (grades 1-12). The high school graduation Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. The event itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation.  rate was 53%, well below the state average of 63.8%. Of those Jackson County graduates, only 60.5% continued their education (University of Florida University of Florida is the third-largest university in the United States, with 50,912 students (as of Fall 2006) and has the eighth-largest budget (nearly $1.9 billion per year). UF is home to 16 colleges and more than 150 research centers and institutes. , 2002).

Average earnings per job in Jackson County for the year 2000 were $24,523. 7,139 individuals were employed in 2000; the unemployment rate was 4.3%. The median household income The median household income is commonly used to provide data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more.  for 1999 was $28,369, with 16.7% of the county residents living in poverty. In 2001 there were 34 violent youth offenders and 247 youth referred for delinquency delinquency

Criminal behaviour carried out by a juvenile. Young males make up the bulk of the delinquent population (about 80% in the U.S.) in all countries in which the behaviour is reported.
 (University of Florida, 2002).

INSTRUMENTS

Elementary, middle, and high school participating youth (pre N=51, post N=91) completed a jury-validated, 44-item, scientific instrument. The instrument consisted of yes/no questions assessing the participants' views of self-concept (5 items), academic achievement (8 items), behavior of peer friends (11 items), interaction between parents and youth (4 items), and accessibility of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (3 items). Prior to this study, the instrument had successfully been utilized in other Madison County, Florida Madison County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 18,733. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county is 19,902 [1]. Its county seat is Madison, Florida. 6. Madison County is one of Florida's five dry counties.  schools, and The Florida Department Florida is a department (departamento) of Uruguay. Population and Demographics
As of the census of 2004, there were 68,181 people and 21,938 households in the department. The average household size was 3.1. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males.
 of Children and Families Faith Program.

DATA COLLECTION

The intervention time period lasted approximately 21 months. Prevention leaders from each respective church administered the instrument to participating youth at their church site two separate times; once during the first project month and then again during the final month of the project. This pretest/posttest process was used to acquire the necessary outcome data required to evaluate the youths' behavior.

Monthly activity reporting was conducted to ensure each faith community site appropriately conducted their planned programs throughout the intervention. It also assisted in ensuring project fidelity. Participating youth could partake in Verb 1. partake in - be active in
participate, take part - share in something

2. partake in - have, give, or receive a share of; "We shared the cake"
partake, share
 several of the same sessions addressing a particular prevention area (Table 2). Monthly activity reporting involved the adult church leaders submitting reports of which prevention activity was conducted, a detailed description of the activity process, which youth were present, and a list of volunteers and other community resources used to help conduct the prevention activity. This was performed throughout the case study to gather process data.

The process data (Table 2) details the activities conducted by the participating churches used throughout the prevention. The three topic areas that were most widely utilized during the time period were drug education (244), life skills instruction (445), and tutoring/mentoring (252). Drug education activities addressed the negative effects of alcohol, tobacco, or other drug use, issues concerning second-hand smoke second-hand smoke Passive smoking, see there , the addictive ad·dic·tive
adj.
1. Causing or tending to cause addiction.

2. Characterized by or susceptible to addiction.


addictive (
 nature of drugs, drug dependence, smoking cessation smoking cessation Public health Temporary or permanent halting of habitual cigarette smoking; withdrawal therapies–eg, hypnosis, psychotherapy, group counseling, exposing smokers to Pts with terminal lung CA and nicotine chewing gum are often ineffective. , perceptions and misconceptions Misconceptions is an American sitcom television series for The WB Network for the 2005-2006 season that never aired. It features Jane Leeves, formerly of Frasier, and French Stewart, formerly of 3rd Rock From the Sun.  about drug use, and overall factual information about drug interactions and the human body. Life skills instruction activities taught the youth skills to handle and counteract peer pressure, how to say "no", proper study habits, effective communication skills, conflict resolution, self-concept building skills, overall wellness habits, and general respect for others. Tutoring/mentoring activities were used to help the participating youth develop personally and academically. Conducted tutoring/ mentoring activities included homework assistance, sharing of personal experiences, one-on-one interactions, and group counseling. All prevention activities were either conducted on a one-on-one basis between the youth and a trained committee member, or in a small group forum overseen by a trained church volunteer.

Cultural field trips, youth leisure nights, and alternative activities were also used in an effort to keep the youth interested and invested in the program and increase recruitment of other participants. Examples of these activities include church lock-ins, where youths gather in the church for a night of recreation and group activities under the supervision of trained volunteers; various group field trips to sporting events or museums; and social gatherings, such as cook outs, where youth participants and church members had the opportunity to interact with one another.

ANALYSIS

Analysis of the data consisted of several components. Using simple frequencies, the data was first analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
 to identify differences in reported percentages from pretest pre·test  
n.
1.
a. A preliminary test administered to determine a student's baseline knowledge or preparedness for an educational experience or course of study.

b. A test taken for practice.

2.
 and posttest (Table 3).

To isolate isolate /iso·late/ (i´sah-lat)
1. to separate from others.

2. a group of individuals prevented by geographic, genetic, ecologic, social, or artificial barriers from interbreeding with others of their kind.
 the models' effectiveness on specific risk factors, the 44-item instrument was divided into subsets of items: accessibility (3-items), self-concept (3-items), academics (4-items), friend behavior (4-items), and parent-child interaction time (2-items). Accessibility items examined youths' views on the ease of finding alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs with the intent to use each substance. Self-Concept items determined how youth viewed themselves as compared to others. For example, youth were asked if they thought they were "good," or if they enjoyed engaging in dangerous activities. Items addressing the risk factor of academics determined the youths' views on their letter-grade performance, intention to graduate high school, and their support systems at school. The subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original.  of friend behavior examined the activities occurring within the last thirty days among the youths' peers, in relation to stealing, smoking cigarettes, damaging school property, and carrying a weapon on school grounds. Items concerned with parent-child interaction time determined if the youth could talk to a parent if faced with a problem, and whether television was watched as a family unit.

Participant responses to instrument questions were dummy coded In computer programming, dummy code is inserted in a program skeleton to simulate processing and avoid compilation error messages. It may involve empty function declarations, or functions that return a correct result only for a simple test case where the expected response of the  in the following manner: indicated "yes" responses to instrument items were assigned as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

2.
 a value of one, while "no" responses were assigned a value of two. The mean difference was used to indicate the positive or negative change between the averages of all responses for a single subset item on the pretest, as compared to responses for that item on the posttest.

The final data analysis consisted of an independent sample t-test t-test,
n an inferential statistic used to test for differences between two means (groups) only. This statistic is used for small samples (e.g.,
N < 30). Also called
t-ratio, stu-dent's t.
 conducted to determine if the frequencies showing positive outcomes were significant. Outcome significance was tested for both gender and total group participation (Table 3). Accessibility significance was tested by total group, gender, and individual faith community site (Table 4).

RESULTS

Frequencies of survey responses revealed that a greater percentage of males reported a positive, significant change due to the prevention intervention as compared to their female counterparts (Table 3). Males also reported an extremely positive outlook on their academic achievement, behavior of their friends, and self-concept. Most notably, 100% of male posttest respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  believed that they were able to do things as well as most people, going to graduate from high school, and could get extra help with their schoolwork at school. In addition, male participants also reported a much higher pretest percentage of friends who carried a gun or knife to school, damaged school property, smoked cigarettes, and stole something within the last thirty days. Over 63% of all male pretest respondents revealed that a friend had stolen something within the past thirty days. Posttest results showed a 39.3% reduction of friends who stole something as a result of the intervention. Only 2.6% of all posttest males reported a friend smoking a cigarette or carrying a weapon to school after the intervention.

Female respondents also showed positive outcomes as a result of the intervention. For the risk factor of friend behavior, posttest results were all positively impacted by the intervention. Since the reported pretest frequencies were inherently low, these positive changes were not as significant as those witnessed by the male participants. Academics were affected in a similar manner. Positive outcomes were shown, but since females already displayed a strong sense of academic achievement, significance was not found. Females, however, did report a significant impact when addressing parent-child interaction time. There was a 45% increase among females who spent time watching television with one or both of their parents, from pretest to posttest. Additionally, 98.1% of female respondents believed that they could talk to their parents when they had a problem.

Overall, total group findings reported significance among all risk factor subsets. The only items that did not report significance for the entire group as a result of the intervention were, "When I have a problem, I can talk to one of my teachers," "During the last month did your friends steal something," and "When I have a problem, I can talk to one of my parents." These instrument items, however, were found to be significant when determined by gender.

Of all the risk factors addressed by the prevention model, youths' views on accessibility of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs were the most salient. The greatest decrease in frequency of response was found in males' responding to "It is easy to find cigarettes to smoke;" a reduction of 41.4% from pretest to posttest. Likewise, the greatest decrease for female participants was also for the instrument question "It is easy to find cigarettes to smoke;" a 32% decrease from pretest to posttest.

The risk factor of accessibility was further analyzed by comparing items for each participating church. Faith Community Site #3 reported that zero percent of the posttest youth believed it was easy to find cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs to use. Respective reductions from pretest to posttest results were 66.7% for "It is easy to find cigarettes to smoke," 46.7% for "It is easy to find alcohol to drink," and 53.3% for "It is easy to find drugs to use." Faith Community Site #2 also reported significant findings on questions concerning accessibility; youths' belief that "It is easy to find cigarettes to smoke" was reduced by 49%, youths' belief that "It is easy to find alcohol to drink" was decreased by 40.3%, and youths' feeling that "it is easy to find other drugs to use" was reduced by 32.3%. No significant outcomes were found for Faith Community Site #1.

DISCUSSION

Church-based health promotion is defined as a "large-scale effort by the church community to improve the health of its members through any combination of education, screening, referral, treatment, and group support" (Ransdell & Rehling, 1996). Successful components of effective church-based health promotion programs include volunteers, the use of a model, needs assessment, committee formation, duty delegation, and pastor involvement (Ransdell & Rehling). The present study used a sample of Jackson County, Florida, elementary school, middle school, and high school youth to investigate the effects of the Faith-Based Prevention Model in three rural Florida African-American churches. The studied model utilized each successful characteristic of an effective program identified by Ransdell and Rehling. Utilzing a model, assessing the needs of the community, forming prevention committees, involving church members and pastors, and assigning as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

2.
 roles to the volunteers and prevention committee members were all important components in this case study, ensuring the effectiveness of the Faith-Based Prevention Model.

Koenig et al. (2001) investigated 175 studies that dealt with the relationship between substance abuse and religion. Of the studies examined, 147 suggested that "Religion may be a deterrent de·ter·rent  
adj.
Tending to deter: deterrent weapons.

n.
1. Something that deters: a deterrent to theft.

2.
 to alcohol or drug abuse in children, adolescents, and adult populations." Koenig went on to identify the mechanisms for reducing substance abuse through religion, including "reducing the likelihood of choosing friends who use or abuse substances, instilling in·still also in·stil  
tr.v. in·stilled, in·still·ing, in·stills also in·stils
1. To introduce by gradual, persistent efforts; implant: "Morality . . .
 moral values, increasing coping skills A coping skill is a behavioral tool which may be used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage, or disability without correcting or eliminating the underlying condition. Virtually all living beings routinely utilize coping skills in daily life. , and reducing the likelihood of turning to alcohol or other drugs during times of stress" (Koenig et al.). Examining the impact of the model on the participating youths' views on accessibility to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, the results in the current case study echo those documented in Koenig's review of the faith-based literature.

The Faith-Based Prevention Model positively affected participating youths' feelings of self worth, academic achievement, communication with parents, behavior of peers, and views on accessibility to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The model had the greatest impact upon youths' views on accessibility. The results identified that females and males exhibited varying views and patterns of behavior in the different risk factors addressed, and therefore may require separate objectives and program strategies. Overall, the male participants demonstrated greater responsiveness and positive outcomes than did the female participants.

Our results were compatible with a number of other current studies demonstrating promise for faith-based interventions and confirming the notion that an African-American faith-based community can effectively implement a positive prevention program. The final analysis suggests that male participants will experience the greatest benefit from faith-based interventions. Notwithstanding, positive changes were noted in both genders.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Justice, Safe and Drug Free Communities Program, Grant #: D52-01-501. The following organizations were critical in the development of the Faith-Based Prevention Model: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract  Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) is an agency of the United States government under the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). ; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Noun 1. Department of Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
Health and Human Services, HHS
, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. , Offices of Minority Health, Diabetes, and Chronic Disease; U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Minority Health; U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice, Community Partnership Program; U.S. Department of Education, Safe and Drug Free School Communities; Florida Department of Elder Affairs; Florida Department of Health Florida Department of Health is a category of Government of Florida. Orange County Health Department is one of the branches of Florida Department of Health and Government of Florida.  & Rehabilitative re·ha·bil·i·tate  
tr.v. re·ha·bil·i·tat·ed, re·ha·bil·i·tat·ing, re·ha·bil·i·tates
1. To restore to good health or useful life, as through therapy and education.

2.
 Services, Aging and Adult Services Office; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, charitable organization devoted exclusively to health care issues. It was established in 1936 by Robert Wood Johnson (1893–1968), board chairman of the Johnson & Johnson medical products company. ; Morehouse School of Medicine Morehouse School of Medicine is a medical school in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Originally part of African-American all-male Morehouse College, it was founded in 1975 during the tenure of college president Hugh M.
, Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine preventive medicine, branch of medicine dealing with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health practices. Until recently preventive medicine was largely the domain of the U.S. ; Florida A&M University, College of Allied Health Department of Social Work; Florida State University Florida State University, at Tallahassee; coeducational; chartered 1851, opened 1857. Present name was adopted in 1947. Special research facilities include those in nuclear science and oceanography. , Institute on Aging; Council of Church-Based Health Programs Inc., Jackson, Bay, and Madison Counties Madison County is the name of twenty counties in the United States, named after President James Madison:
  • Madison County, Alabama
  • Madison County, Arkansas
  • Madison County, Florida
  • Madison County, Georgia
  • Madison County, Idaho
  • Madison County, Illinois
.

REFERENCES

Benson, P. L. (1998). Mobilizing mobilizing,
v 1. freeing or making loose and able to move.
2. observing any ongoing movements in a client's body, whether small or large, assisted or not, that identify strengths and weaknesses, as well as the client's physical and
 communities to promote developmental assets: A promising strategy for the prevention of high-risk behaviors high-risk behavior Public health A lifestyle activity that places a person at ↑ risk of suffering a particular condition. See Safe sex practices. . Family Science Review II (3), 220-239.

Cook, K. V. (2000). You have to have somebody watching your back, and if that's God, then that's mighty big: the church's role in the resilience of inner-city youth. Adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. , 35, 71-730.

Eng, E., Hatch, J., & Callan, A. (1985). Institutionalizing social support through the church and into the community. Health Education Quarterly, 12, 81-92.

Foundation Center. (2001, March 30). Pew PEW. A seat in a church separated from all others, with a convenient space to stand therein.
     2. It is an incorporeal interest in the real property. And, although a man has the exclusive right to it, yet, it seems, he cannot maintain trespass against a person
 trust to help faith-based organizations deliver social services. The Philanthropy philanthropy, the spirit of active goodwill toward others as demonstrated in efforts to promote their welfare. The term is often used interchangeably with charity.  News Digest Digest: see Corpus Juris Civilis.


(1) A compilation of all the traffic on a news group or mailing list. Digests can be daily or weekly.

(2) Any compilation or summary.
, 6(13).

Gallup, G. (1995, October/November). Religion in America
  • Religion in North America
  • Religion in the United States
  • Religion in South America
: Will the vitality vi·tal·i·ty
n.
1. The capacity to live, grow, or develop.

2. Physical or intellectual vigor; energy.
 of churches be the surprise of the next century. The Public Perspective, 4,.

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.

Koenig, H. G., McCullough, M. E., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Handbook
For the handbook about Wikipedia, see .

This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
"Pocket reference" redirects here.
 of religion and health. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
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Levin, J. (1984). The role of the black church in community medicine. Journal of the National Medical Association, 75(5), 477-482.

Levin, J. S., Chatters, L. M., & Taylor, R. J. (1995) Religious affects on health status and life satisfaction among black Americans. Journal of Gerontology gerontology: see geriatrics.  Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 50, S154-S163.

Miller, L., Davies, M., & Greenwald, S. (2000). Religiosity and substance use and abuse among adolescents in the national comorbidity co·mor·bid·i·ty
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A concomitant but unrelated pathological or disease process.


comorbidity
 survey. Journals of the American Academy The American Academy in Berlin is a non-partisan academic institution in Berlin. It was founded in September 1994 by a group of prominent Americans and Germans, among them Richard Holbrooke, Henry Kissinger, Richard von Weizsäcker, Fritz Stern and Otto Graf Lambsdorff and opened in  of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry A branch of psychiatry that specialises in work with children, teenagers, and their families. History
An important antecedent to the specialty of child psychiatry was the social recognition of childhood as a special phase of life with its own developmental stages, starting with
, 39, 1190-1197.

Miller, W. R. (1998). Researching the spiritual dimensions of alcohol and other drug problems. Addiction addiction: see drug addiction and drug abuse. , 93, 979-990.

Ransdell, L. B. & Rehling, S. L. (1996). Church-based health promotion: A review of the current literature. American Journal of Health Behavior 20(4), 195-207.

Sutherland, M. S. & Harris, G. J. (2001). Faith based prevention model implementation manual. Tallahassee, FL: Health Promotion Program Initiatives, Inc.

Svendsen, R., & Griffin, T. (1991). Alcohol and other drugs: A planning guide for congregations (Prepared for the Minnesota Prevention Resource Center). St. Paul St. Paul

as a missionary he fearlessly confronts the “perils of waters, of robbers, in the city, in the wilderness.” [N.T.: II Cor. 11:26]

See : Bravery
, MN: Health Promotion Resources.

Trulear, H.D. (2000, Spring). Faith based institutions and high-risk high-risk adjective Referring to an ↑ risk of suffering from a particular condition Infectious disease Referring to an ↑ risk for exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which occurs with blood bank technicians, dental professionals, dialysis unit  youth: First report to the field. Philadelphia, PA: Public Private Ventures.

Turner, L., Sutherland, M. S., Harris, G. J., & Barber A barber (from the Latin barba, "beard") is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, give shaves, and trim beards. In previous times, barbers also performed surgery and dentistry. , M. (1995). Cardiovascular cardiovascular /car·dio·vas·cu·lar/ (-vas´ku-ler) pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.

car·di·o·vas·cu·lar
adj.
Abbr.
 health promotion in rural north Florida African-American churches. Journal of Health Values, 19(2), 3-9.

National Institute on Drug Addiction drug addiction
 or chemical dependency

Physical and/or psychological dependency on a psychoactive (mind-altering) substance (e.g., alcohol, narcotics, nicotine), defined as continued use despite knowing that the substance causes harm.
 (1997). Preventing Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents (NIH "Not invented here." See digispeak.

NIH - The United States National Institutes of Health.
 Publication No. 04-4212(B)). Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS),
n.pr a cabinet-level government organization comprising 12 agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
.

University of Florida. (2002). County perspectives: Jackson county. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Research.

White House. (2002). Unlevel playing field: Barriers to participation by faith-based and community organizations in federal social service programs. Retrieved November 19, 2006 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/ 08/unlevelfield.html

White, J. & de Marcellus, M. (1998). Faith-based outreach Outreach is an effort by an organization or group to connect its ideas or practices to the efforts of other organizations, groups, specific audiences or the general public.  to at-risk youth in Washington, D.C.: Report of the partnership for research on religion and at-risk youth (The Jeremiah Project Report No. 1). Philadelphia, PA: Public Private Ventures.

Zoeller, D. (2002). The role of faith-based organizations in prevention. Prevention Forum 22, 6-10.

RESPONSIBILITES AND COMPETENCIES IN HEALTH EDUCATION

Responsibility III--Implementing Health Education Programs

Responsibility IV--Evaluating Effectiveness of Health Education Programs

Adam Barry, MS, is a Health Education PhD student at Texas A&M University, in the Department of Health and Kinesiology kinesiology

Study of the mechanics and anatomy of human movement and their roles in promoting health and reducing disease. Kinesiology has direct applications to fitness and health, including developing exercise programs for people with and without disabilities, preserving
. Mary Sutherland, EdD, is a Professor of Middle and Secondary Education, Health Education Program at Florida State University. Gregory J. Harris, MASS, is a PhD student at Florida State University in the College of Human Sciences, Department of Family and Child Sciences, Associate Director of Health Promotion Program Initiatives, Inc. and Executive Director for the Council of Church Based Health Programs, Inc. Please address all correspondence to Mary S. Sutherland Dr. Mary S. Sutherland is professor of health education at Florida State University, where she holds appointments in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction and the Department of Human Services and Studies. She is the coauthor of more than 50 papers in peer-reviewed journals. , PhD, 2639 North Monroe Street, Suite 118-B, Tallahassee, FL 32303; PHONE: (850)385-1205; FAX: (850)385-0983; EMAIL See e-mail. : hppi@nettally.com.
Table 1. Strategies and Dosages

Strategy                      Number of Session

Life Skills Instruction       26 Weekly Session. May
                              vary due to youth maturity

Social Skills--Drama          40
throughout
academic year

Tutoring/Mentoring            Weekly during academic year
Academic Activities           Bi-weekly during summer

Youth Leisure Nights          8-Apr

Alternative Activities        Weekly

Youth Tobacco/Drug            Quarterly
Summit

Cultural Field Trip           Quarterly
Quarterly

Competitive/Cooperative       4-8
Quarterly
Church Activities

Public Relations              40

Parenting Activities          40
Quarterly

Pastor Training               Quarterly
Quarterly

Prevention Committee          Monthly
Monthly
Training

Data Collection               Quarterly & Annually
Quarterly & Annually

Strategy                      Length of Session

Life Skills Instruction       One Hour (Unless other
                              wise noted in curriculum)

Social Skills--Drama          1-2 Hours
throughout
academic year

Tutoring/Mentoring            Varies depending on
Academic Activities           youth needs

Youth Leisure Nights          1-12 Hours

Alternative Activities        Two Hours

Youth Tobacco/Drug            1-2 Hours
Summit

Cultural Field Trip           Varies per activity
Quarterly

Competitive/Cooperative       Varies per activity
Quarterly
Church Activities

Public Relations              Weekly

Parenting Activities          Weekly
Quarterly

Pastor Training               Two Hours
Quarterly

Prevention Committee          2-3 Hours
Monthly
Training

Data Collection               1 Hour
Quarterly & Annually

Strategy                              Time Range

Life Skills Instruction           26 to 40 Weeks

Social Skills--Drama                      Weekly
throughout
academic year

Tutoring/Mentoring            Weekly during year
Academic Activities             Bi-weekly during
                                          summer

Youth Leisure Nights                   Quarterly

Alternative Activities                    Weekly

Youth Tobacco/Drug                     Quarterly
Summit

Cultural Field Trip
Quarterly

Competitive/Cooperative
Quarterly
Church Activities

Public Relations                          Varies

Parenting Activities
Quarterly

Pastor Training
Quarterly

Prevention Committee
Monthly
Training

Data Collection
Quarterly & Annually

Table 2. Twenty Month Process Data

                                Total           Faith
Activities                      Program         Site #1
Conducted                       Sessions        Sessions

Drug Prevention Education       244             198
Life Skills Instruction         445             192
Youth Leisure Nights            187             15
Cultural Field Trips            161             14
Alternative Activities          295             --
Youth Tobacco/Drug Summit       346             29
Tutoring & Mentoring            252             66

                                Faith           Faith
Activities                      Site #2         Site #3
Conducted                       Sessions        Sessions

Drug Prevention Education       15              31
Life Skills Instruction         107             146
Youth Leisure Nights            121             51
Cultural Field Trips            79              68
Alternative Activities          133             162
Youth Tobacco/Drug Summit       283             34
Tutoring & Mentoring            107             79

Table 3. Twenty-Month Gender and Total Outcome Data

                                                        Total
Content Areas                                      Pre        Post
                                                   N= 51      N=91

Self Concept
--I like to do things that are a little            37.3%      19.4% **
dangerous
--I am able to do things as well as most people    88.2%      97.2% **
--Sometimes I think I am no good at all            33.3%      12.9% **
Academics
--When I have a problem, I can talk to on of       66.7%      94.6%
my teachers
--My grades in school are good                     84.3%      95.7% **
--I am going to graduate from high school          76.5%      96.8% **
--I can get extra help with my schoolwork at       78.4%      96.8% **
school

Friend Behavior
--During the last month, did any friends carry     17.6%      1.1% **
a gun or knife to school
--During the last month, did any of your           25.5%      1.1% *
friends damage school property
--During the last month, did any of your           25.5%      10.8% **
friends smoke cigarettes
--During the last month, did your friends          23.5%      11.8%
steal something

Parent Child Interaction Time
--I watch TV with one or both of my parents at     56.9%      87.1% *
night
--When I have a problem, I can talk to one of      88.2%      94.6%
my parents

                                                       Total
Content Areas                                      df         Mean
                                                              Dif.

Self Concept
--I like to do things that are a little            88.5       -.17
dangerous
--I am able to do things as well as most people    50.0       .12
--Sometimes I think I am no good at all            79.0       -.20
Academics
--When I have a problem, I can talk to on of       73.2       .23
my teachers
--My grades in school are good                     59.2       .13
--I am going to graduate from high school          53.4       .22
--I can get extra help with my schoolwork at       49.0       .20
school

Friend Behavior
--During the last month, did any friends carry     54.3       -.17
a gun or knife to school
--During the last month, did any of your           53.3       -.24
friends damage school property
--During the last month, did any of your           79.7       -.14
friends smoke cigarettes
--During the last month, did your friends          83.3       -.11
steal something

Parent Child Interaction Time
--I watch TV with one or both of my parents at     72.7       .32
night
--When I have a problem, I can talk to one of      67.4       .08
my parents

                                                        Male
Content Areas                                      Pre        Post
                                                   N=27       N=39

Self Concept
--I like to do things that are a little            40.7%      28.2%
dangerous
--I am able to do things as well as most people    85.2%      100% **
--Sometimes I think I am no good at all            33.3%      12.8%
Academics
--When I have a problem, I can talk to on of       59.3%      92.1% **
my teachers
--My grades in school are good                     81.5%      97.4%
--I am going to graduate from high school          74.1%      100% **
--I can get extra help with my schoolwork at       69.2%      100% **
school

Friend Behavior
--During the last month, did any friends carry     22.2%      2.6% **
a gun or knife to school
--During the last month, did any of your           37.0%      2.6% **
friends damage school property
--During the last month, did any of your           33.3%      10.5% **
friends smoke cigarettes
--During the last month, did your friends          63.6%      24.3% **
steal something

Parent Child Interaction Time
--I watch TV with one or both of my parents at     66.7%      87.2%
night
--When I have a problem, I can talk to one of      96.3%      94.9%
my parents

                                                        Male
Content Areas                                      df         Mean
                                                              Dif.

Self Concept
--I like to do things that are a little            52.5       -.13
dangerous
--I am able to do things as well as most people    26         .15
--Sometimes I think I am no good at all            43.5       -.21
Academics
--When I have a problem, I can talk to on of       37         .33
my teachers
--My grades in school are good                     31.9       .16
--I am going to graduate from high school          26         .26
--I can get extra help with my schoolwork at       25         .31
school

Friend Behavior
--During the last month, did any friends carry     31.5       -.20
a gun or knife to school
--During the last month, did any of your           30         -.34
friends damage school property
--During the last month, did any of your           41.2       -.23
friends smoke cigarettes
--During the last month, did your friends          44.1       -.20
steal something

Parent Child Interaction Time
--I watch TV with one or both of my parents at     43.5       .21
night
--When I have a problem, I can talk to one of      64         -.01
my parents

                                                       Female
Content Areas                                      Pre        Post
                                                   N=24       N=52

Self Concept
--I like to do things that are a little            33.3%      13.7%
dangerous
--I am able to do things as well as most people    91.7%      100%
--Sometimes I think I am no good at all            33.3%      13.5%
Academics
--When I have a problem, I can talk to on of       75.0%      88.5%
my teachers
--My grades in school are good                     87.5%      98.1%
--I am going to graduate from high school          79.2%      98.1%
--I can get extra help with my schoolwork at       91.7%      100%
school

Friend Behavior
--During the last month, did any friends carry     12.5%      0%
a gun or knife to school
--During the last month, did any of your           12.5%      0%
friends damage school property
--During the last month, did any of your           16.7%      11.5%
friends smoke cigarettes
--During the last month, did your friends          12.5%      11.5%
steal something

Parent Child Interaction Time
--I watch TV with one or both of my parents at     45.8%      90.4% *
night
--When I have a problem, I can talk to one of      79.2%      98.1% **
my parents

                                                       Female
Content Areas                                      df         Mean
                                                              Dif.

Self Concept
--I like to do things that are a little            34.7       -.20
dangerous
--I am able to do things as well as most people    23         .08
--Sometimes I think I am no good at all            34.3       -.20
Academics
--When I have a problem, I can talk to on of       34.7       .13
my teachers
--My grades in school are good                     26.6       .11
--I am going to graduate from high school          25.4       .19
--I can get extra help with my schoolwork at       23         .08
school

Friend Behavior
--During the last month, did any friends carry     23         -.13
a gun or knife to school
--During the last month, did any of your           23         -.13
friends damage school property
--During the last month, did any of your           74         -.05
friends smoke cigarettes
--During the last month, did your friends          74         -.01
steal something

Parent Child Interaction Time
--I watch TV with one or both of my parents at     30.5       .45
night
--When I have a problem, I can talk to one of      25.4       .19
my parents

* Significance level of .0001

** Significance level of .05

Percents reported from a YES response to the Instrument question

Table 4. Twenty Month Accessibility Data

                                                    Total
Content Areas                                Pre           Post
                                             N= 51         N=91

Accessibility
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     51.0%         14.0% *
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         39.2%         14.4% **
--It is easy to find drugs to use            41.2%         14.4% **

                                               Faith Community
                                                   Site #1

Content Areas                                Pre           Post
                                             N=11          N=37
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     18.2%         35.1%
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         9.1%          35.1%
--It is easy to find drugs to use            27.3%         35.1%

                                                    Total
Content Areas                                df            Mean
                                                           Dif.

Accessibility
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     139           -.37
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         139           -.25
--It is easy to find drugs to use            139           -.27

                                               Faith Community
                                                  Site #1

Content Areas                                df            Mean
                                                           Dif.
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     36            .19
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         36            .32
--It is easy to find drugs to use            36            .10

                                                    Male
Content Areas                                Pre           Post
                                             N=27          N=39

Accessibility
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     51.9%         10.5% **
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         40.7%         13.2% **
--It is easy to find drugs to use            40.7%         13.2% **

                                               Faith Community
                                                   Site #2

Content Areas                                Pre           Post
                                             N=25          N=26
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     56%           7.7% *
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         48%           7.7% *
--It is easy to find drugs to use            40%           7.7% *

                                                    Male
Content Areas                                df            Mean
                                                           Dif.

Accessibility
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     63            -.28
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         63            -.28
--It is easy to find drugs to use            63            -.28

                                              Faith Community
                                                  Site #2

Content Areas                                df            Mean
                                                           Dif.
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     47            -.56
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         47            -.48
--It is easy to find drugs to use            47            -.40

                                                   Female
Content Areas                                Pre           Post
                                             N=24          N=52

Accessibility
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     50.0%         18.0% **
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         39.2%         14.0% **
--It is easy to find drugs to use            41.7%         16.0% **

                                               Faith Community
                                                   Site #3

Content Areas                                Pre           Post
                                             N=15          N=30
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     66.7%         0% *
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         46.7%         0% **
--It is easy to find drugs to use            53.3%         0% **

                                                  Female
Content Areas                                df            Mean
                                                           Dif.

Accessibility
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     72            -.32
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         72            -.22
--It is easy to find drugs to use            72            -.26

                                                Faith Community
                                                    Site #3

Content Areas                                df            Mean
                                                           Dif.
--It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke     43            -.67
--It is easy to get alcohol to drink         43            -.47
--It is easy to find drugs to use            43            -.53

* Significance level of .0001

** Significance level of .05

Percents reported from a YES response to the Instrument question
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