Faith-based prevention model: a rural African-American case study.
President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13198 creating Centers for Faith-Based and Community Initiatives in five separate cabinet departments: Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, and the Departments of Education, Labor and Justice. The order instructed every department to conduct an audit, identifying barriers to the participation of faith-based and other community organizations in the delivery of social services (White House, 2002).
The President asserts, "faith-based programs, volunteers, and grassroots groups are indispensable partners with nonprofit service providers and government programs to serve the poor, renew families, and rebuild neighborhoods" (Zoeller, 2002). Further, "federal agencies will continue to become more hospitable to grassroots and small-scale programs ... because they have unique strengths that the government cannot duplicate" (Zoeller). The impetus underlying faith-based and community initiatives is threefold. Properly implemented, they should allow grassroots leaders to competitively compete for federal dollars, receive greater private support and federal funding education, and face fewer bureaucratic barriers.
The federal government's interest in faith-based and community initiatives is more than cursory; it represents a growing trend across America to develop additional faith-based programs and foster those already in existence. For example, the United States Health and Human Services web site has increased the accessibility to the Center for Faith-Based and Community Initiatives and also provides valuable supplemental resources; including information on grant guidelines, lists sources for funding, addresses hot topics and issues concerning faith-based prevention, and publicizes community volunteer opportunities. The White House has also devoted a section of its web site to this initiative. Their web site provides information concerning grant eligibility, application instructions, funding opportunities, and provides information on grants available to faith-based organizations.
This article is designed to assess the impact of faith-based alcohol, tobacco and other drug prevention among elementary school, middle school, and high school youths, through the evaluation of the Faith-Based Prevention Model as applied in three rural Jackson County, Florida churches. Sample process and outcome data were obtained to evaluate the model's effectiveness.
RATIONAL FOR CHURCH-BASED PREVENTION ACTIVITIES IN THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAITH COMMUNITY
Faith-based organizations are actively attempting to improve and strengthen the same populations as those of existing non-faith-based prevention programs. The church maintains many characteristics that make it a practical source for health education and health promotion interventions. These characteristics include:
* ability to influence community values and norms
* a network to provide leadership and educational opportunities
* a large pool of willing and concerned volunteers
* emotional and social support to those who are in times of crisis
* a forum for the dispersion of news and exchange of informatiom (Turner et al., 1995)
In addition, the faith-based community has the potential to reach a broader range of the population than other sectors, due to its ability to reach all ages, socioeconomic levels, and ethnicities (Svendsen & Griffin, 1991). These organizations play a crucial role in promoting a healthy lifestyle, working with at-risk youth, deterring family violence, and building a strong sense of community (Benson, 1998).
Miller et al. (2000) examined substance abuse and religiosity among youth, and contends "adolescents who claim to have a personal relationship with the Divine are only half as likely to become alcoholics or drug addicts, or for that matter even try contraband drugs" Reporting from the National Institute for Healthcare Research, Miller concluded that active spiritual or religious involvement could reduce the risk of alcohol or other drug abuse (Miller, 1998). Researchers also document religious teenagers experiencing less emotional stress and a decreased likelihood of having psychological problems than a similar group of teenagers who were not religious (Cook, 2000). Cook asserts that the church helps youth develop self-regulating abilities; thus, helping them refrain from negative behaviors and encouraging them to engage in positive activities.
Churches are crucial to the faith-based network. They form the backbone of the social networks necessary for people to change their values, behaviors, develop new skills, and nurture leadership development. The church also sets social norms and provides a source of identification and solution (Eng, Hatch, & Callan, 1985).
In particular, Eng et al. observes that "The African-American church can provide an effective and culturally appropriate entry portal into the African-American community for primary prevention initiatives.... The uniqueness of the black church as both a unit of identity and solution make it a potentially effective unit of practice for health professionals." The practicality of these observations are exhibited by the fact that 82% of African-American versus 67% of Caucasians identify themselves as church members, 92% of African-Americans versus 55% of Caucasians declare that religion is "very important in their life," and 86% of African-Americans versus 60% of Caucasians believe that religion "can answer all or most of today's problems" (Gallup, 1995). Levin (1984) summarized the importance of the African-American church, stating "the black church is the most important social institution in the black community and is the conservator of the black ethos." Many other studies of faith-based programs in African-American communities demonstrate and support the promise of these efforts (Trulear, 2001; White & de Marcellus, 1998; Foundation Center, 2001).
The Faith-Based Prevention Model has integrated the Risk and Protective Factor Theory to assist in clarifying the underlying factors that lead to delinquency/gangs, alcohol and other drug abuse, teen pregnancy, and school drop out (Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller, 1992). Various home, school, and community protective factors assist in the development of youth resilience and the choice not to become involved in life-compromising situations. Specific risk factors addressed include interaction with antisocial peers, social/family bonding, self-concept, favorable attitudes toward drug use and academic failure.
Protective factors addressed by the Faith-Based Prevention Model include social competency; the personal qualities of responsiveness, flexibility, responsibility, empathy and caring; communication skills; and problem-solving skills. Additional protective factors addressed are autonomy, a strong sense of independence; a sense of empowerment; self-discipline; educational aspiration; and persistence. These specific factors are impacted by the prevention model, resulting in a decrease in reported risk factors and an increase in reported protective factors, relative to similar aged youth as measured against local, state, and national data.
The Faith-Based Prevention Model also incorporates the National Institute on Drug Abuses' Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents (1997) prevention program principles. These principles have integrated components, such as:
* Utilization of media and community education strategies to increase public awareness, to attract community support, to reinforce a school-based curriculum for students and parents, and to keep the public informed of program progress.
* Program components coordinated with other community efforts to motivate or to reinforce prevention messages.
* A structured organizational plan that progresses from needs assessment through planning, implementation, and program review/redesign including communication with the community at all stages.
* Specific objectives and activities that are time-limited, feasible, and integrated in an effort to evaluate program progress and outcomes.
The integration of Risk and Protective Theory Factor Theory and Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents (1997) from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, allows the Faith-Based Prevention Model to effectively address key prevention risk and protective factors in a structured, specific manner.
The Faith-Based Prevention Model, as applied in Jackson County, Florida, is a constellation of planning and program strategies that when combined, have a positive impact on youth, church members, and the community as a whole. The model is implemented in four different phases: (1) community development, readiness, and empowerment; (2) church leader training and action planning; (3) program implementation and evaluation; and (4) program redesign.
The initial phase of the model is dedicated to learning about organizations and leaders within the community, fostering relationships with local churches that may qualify for participation, and determining the readiness of the community and churches to support a prevention initiative. The project staff interview key members of the community to assess important community needs, level of project interest, and other pertinent community information (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).
The second phase includes church prevention committee members participating in an initial eight-week in-service training, followed by monthly meetings. The in-service and monthly follow up meetings are conducted by project staff to address alcohol and tobacco knowledge, basic community development skills, effective utilization of community agencies, program planning, implementation, evaluation skills, and project reporting procedures using project related materials (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).
The prevention committee is then responsible for developing an action plan and fiscal plan. In order to accomplish this, members utilize the information gained from initial surveys and interviews. They also use information the committee has learned about effective prevention strategies to inform their decisions. Youth participants are then identified, their needs considered, goals set, and activities outlined for the remainder of the year. To implement intervention activities, the prevention committee includes activities in following areas: large and small group instruction (weekly drug-related information, drama, and life-skills training); competitive and cooperative activities between churches; recognition of excellence among youth; mentoring and parenting; supporting school achievement; quarterly drug awareness sessions; and public relation campaigns (Table 1). Most of these activities take place within the church setting, and all activities are under the guidance and supervision of the church prevention committees (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).
Phase three of the model includes the implementation of the individual church prevention committee action/fiscal plans. Churches are monitored on a monthly basis to ensure that their planned programs are being implemented and appropriate adjustments are made. Prevention committee member training remains ongoing throughout the project. Each prevention committee participates in monthly two-hour training sessions (Table 2). The training agenda focuses upon program implementation, evaluation, and activity documenting topics (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).
Youth instruction lessons last one hour and focus on stress management, self-esteem building, problem solving skills, substance abuse education, peer resistance skills, and overall health instruction. As indicated in phase two, each church prevention committee identifies special activities in their respective action/fiscal plans; such as alternative activities, youth leisure nights, tobacco/drug summits, and cooperative activities between churches. The actual programs and activities that are implemented might differ from church to church based upon their specific characteristics and established goals (Sutherland & Harris, 2001).
The fourth and final phase of the Faith-Based Prevention Model involves the ongoing adjustment of program activities. These activities are partially determined by prevention committee perceptions and ongoing data analysis. There are three general activities that will occur: process evaluation, outcome evaluation, and program update and redesign. The process evaluation involves keeping a record of the activities conducted and the individuals participating in those activities. Outcome evaluation is performed to determine if program activities are making desired changes (i.e., are participating youth avoiding alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use, achieving in school, and choosing to spend time with positive peer influences; Sutherland & Harris, 2001).
Fifty-one students, a sample of convenience of elementary, middle and high school youth participated in a baseline assessment. Ninety-one youth completed the posttest instrument. Participants were youth from Jackson County, Florida, a rural Northern Panhandle community. While most youth were members of the church community, they did not have to be members of the church or regularly attend church services in order to participate in the intervention. No youth were excluded from involvement in activities.
Jackson County spans an area 916 square miles, consisting of approximately 47,495 residents and having a density of 52 people per square mile. The primary minority population is African-American (29.8%). In 2001, there were 7,832 students enrolled in Jackson County's elementary, middle, and high schools (grades 1-12). The high school graduation rate was 53%, well below the state average of 63.8%. Of those Jackson County graduates, only 60.5% continued their education (University of Florida, 2002).
Average earnings per job in Jackson County for the year 2000 were $24,523. 7,139 individuals were employed in 2000; the unemployment rate was 4.3%. The median household income for 1999 was $28,369, with 16.7% of the county residents living in poverty. In 2001 there were 34 violent youth offenders and 247 youth referred for delinquency (University of Florida, 2002).
Elementary, middle, and high school participating youth (pre N=51, post N=91) completed a jury-validated, 44-item, scientific instrument. The instrument consisted of yes/no questions assessing the participants' views of self-concept (5 items), academic achievement (8 items), behavior of peer friends (11 items), interaction between parents and youth (4 items), and accessibility of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (3 items). Prior to this study, the instrument had successfully been utilized in other Madison County, Florida schools, and The Florida Department of Children and Families Faith Program.
The intervention time period lasted approximately 21 months. Prevention leaders from each respective church administered the instrument to participating youth at their church site two separate times; once during the first project month and then again during the final month of the project. This pretest/posttest process was used to acquire the necessary outcome data required to evaluate the youths' behavior.
Monthly activity reporting was conducted to ensure each faith community site appropriately conducted their planned programs throughout the intervention. It also assisted in ensuring project fidelity. Participating youth could partake in several of the same sessions addressing a particular prevention area (Table 2). Monthly activity reporting involved the adult church leaders submitting reports of which prevention activity was conducted, a detailed description of the activity process, which youth were present, and a list of volunteers and other community resources used to help conduct the prevention activity. This was performed throughout the case study to gather process data.
The process data (Table 2) details the activities conducted by the participating churches used throughout the prevention. The three topic areas that were most widely utilized during the time period were drug education (244), life skills instruction (445), and tutoring/mentoring (252). Drug education activities addressed the negative effects of alcohol, tobacco, or other drug use, issues concerning second-hand smoke, the addictive nature of drugs, drug dependence, smoking cessation, perceptions and misconceptions about drug use, and overall factual information about drug interactions and the human body. Life skills instruction activities taught the youth skills to handle and counteract peer pressure, how to say "no", proper study habits, effective communication skills, conflict resolution, self-concept building skills, overall wellness habits, and general respect for others. Tutoring/mentoring activities were used to help the participating youth develop personally and academically. Conducted tutoring/ mentoring activities included homework assistance, sharing of personal experiences, one-on-one interactions, and group counseling. All prevention activities were either conducted on a one-on-one basis between the youth and a trained committee member, or in a small group forum overseen by a trained church volunteer.
Cultural field trips, youth leisure nights, and alternative activities were also used in an effort to keep the youth interested and invested in the program and increase recruitment of other participants. Examples of these activities include church lock-ins, where youths gather in the church for a night of recreation and group activities under the supervision of trained volunteers; various group field trips to sporting events or museums; and social gatherings, such as cook outs, where youth participants and church members had the opportunity to interact with one another.
Analysis of the data consisted of several components. Using simple frequencies, the data was first analyzed to identify differences in reported percentages from pretest and posttest (Table 3).
To isolate the models' effectiveness on specific risk factors, the 44-item instrument was divided into subsets of items: accessibility (3-items), self-concept (3-items), academics (4-items), friend behavior (4-items), and parent-child interaction time (2-items). Accessibility items examined youths' views on the ease of finding alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs with the intent to use each substance. Self-Concept items determined how youth viewed themselves as compared to others. For example, youth were asked if they thought they were "good," or if they enjoyed engaging in dangerous activities. Items addressing the risk factor of academics determined the youths' views on their letter-grade performance, intention to graduate high school, and their support systems at school. The subset of friend behavior examined the activities occurring within the last thirty days among the youths' peers, in relation to stealing, smoking cigarettes, damaging school property, and carrying a weapon on school grounds. Items concerned with parent-child interaction time determined if the youth could talk to a parent if faced with a problem, and whether television was watched as a family unit.
Participant responses to instrument questions were dummy coded in the following manner: indicated "yes" responses to instrument items were assigned a value of one, while "no" responses were assigned a value of two. The mean difference was used to indicate the positive or negative change between the averages of all responses for a single subset item on the pretest, as compared to responses for that item on the posttest.
The final data analysis consisted of an independent sample t-test conducted to determine if the frequencies showing positive outcomes were significant. Outcome significance was tested for both gender and total group participation (Table 3). Accessibility significance was tested by total group, gender, and individual faith community site (Table 4).
Frequencies of survey responses revealed that a greater percentage of males reported a positive, significant change due to the prevention intervention as compared to their female counterparts (Table 3). Males also reported an extremely positive outlook on their academic achievement, behavior of their friends, and self-concept. Most notably, 100% of male posttest respondents believed that they were able to do things as well as most people, going to graduate from high school, and could get extra help with their schoolwork at school. In addition, male participants also reported a much higher pretest percentage of friends who carried a gun or knife to school, damaged school property, smoked cigarettes, and stole something within the last thirty days. Over 63% of all male pretest respondents revealed that a friend had stolen something within the past thirty days. Posttest results showed a 39.3% reduction of friends who stole something as a result of the intervention. Only 2.6% of all posttest males reported a friend smoking a cigarette or carrying a weapon to school after the intervention.
Female respondents also showed positive outcomes as a result of the intervention. For the risk factor of friend behavior, posttest results were all positively impacted by the intervention. Since the reported pretest frequencies were inherently low, these positive changes were not as significant as those witnessed by the male participants. Academics were affected in a similar manner. Positive outcomes were shown, but since females already displayed a strong sense of academic achievement, significance was not found. Females, however, did report a significant impact when addressing parent-child interaction time. There was a 45% increase among females who spent time watching television with one or both of their parents, from pretest to posttest. Additionally, 98.1% of female respondents believed that they could talk to their parents when they had a problem.
Overall, total group findings reported significance among all risk factor subsets. The only items that did not report significance for the entire group as a result of the intervention were, "When I have a problem, I can talk to one of my teachers," "During the last month did your friends steal something," and "When I have a problem, I can talk to one of my parents." These instrument items, however, were found to be significant when determined by gender.
Of all the risk factors addressed by the prevention model, youths' views on accessibility of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs were the most salient. The greatest decrease in frequency of response was found in males' responding to "It is easy to find cigarettes to smoke;" a reduction of 41.4% from pretest to posttest. Likewise, the greatest decrease for female participants was also for the instrument question "It is easy to find cigarettes to smoke;" a 32% decrease from pretest to posttest.
The risk factor of accessibility was further analyzed by comparing items for each participating church. Faith Community Site #3 reported that zero percent of the posttest youth believed it was easy to find cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs to use. Respective reductions from pretest to posttest results were 66.7% for "It is easy to find cigarettes to smoke," 46.7% for "It is easy to find alcohol to drink," and 53.3% for "It is easy to find drugs to use." Faith Community Site #2 also reported significant findings on questions concerning accessibility; youths' belief that "It is easy to find cigarettes to smoke" was reduced by 49%, youths' belief that "It is easy to find alcohol to drink" was decreased by 40.3%, and youths' feeling that "it is easy to find other drugs to use" was reduced by 32.3%. No significant outcomes were found for Faith Community Site #1.
Church-based health promotion is defined as a "large-scale effort by the church community to improve the health of its members through any combination of education, screening, referral, treatment, and group support" (Ransdell & Rehling, 1996). Successful components of effective church-based health promotion programs include volunteers, the use of a model, needs assessment, committee formation, duty delegation, and pastor involvement (Ransdell & Rehling). The present study used a sample of Jackson County, Florida, elementary school, middle school, and high school youth to investigate the effects of the Faith-Based Prevention Model in three rural Florida African-American churches. The studied model utilized each successful characteristic of an effective program identified by Ransdell and Rehling. Utilzing a model, assessing the needs of the community, forming prevention committees, involving church members and pastors, and assigning roles to the volunteers and prevention committee members were all important components in this case study, ensuring the effectiveness of the Faith-Based Prevention Model.
Koenig et al. (2001) investigated 175 studies that dealt with the relationship between substance abuse and religion. Of the studies examined, 147 suggested that "Religion may be a deterrent to alcohol or drug abuse in children, adolescents, and adult populations." Koenig went on to identify the mechanisms for reducing substance abuse through religion, including "reducing the likelihood of choosing friends who use or abuse substances, instilling moral values, increasing coping skills, and reducing the likelihood of turning to alcohol or other drugs during times of stress" (Koenig et al.). Examining the impact of the model on the participating youths' views on accessibility to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, the results in the current case study echo those documented in Koenig's review of the faith-based literature.
The Faith-Based Prevention Model positively affected participating youths' feelings of self worth, academic achievement, communication with parents, behavior of peers, and views on accessibility to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The model had the greatest impact upon youths' views on accessibility. The results identified that females and males exhibited varying views and patterns of behavior in the different risk factors addressed, and therefore may require separate objectives and program strategies. Overall, the male participants demonstrated greater responsiveness and positive outcomes than did the female participants.
Our results were compatible with a number of other current studies demonstrating promise for faith-based interventions and confirming the notion that an African-American faith-based community can effectively implement a positive prevention program. The final analysis suggests that male participants will experience the greatest benefit from faith-based interventions. Notwithstanding, positive changes were noted in both genders.
This project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Justice, Safe and Drug Free Communities Program, Grant #: D52-01-501. The following organizations were critical in the development of the Faith-Based Prevention Model: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Offices of Minority Health, Diabetes, and Chronic Disease; U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Minority Health; U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice, Community Partnership Program; U.S. Department of Education, Safe and Drug Free School Communities; Florida Department of Elder Affairs; Florida Department of Health & Rehabilitative Services, Aging and Adult Services Office; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Morehouse School of Medicine, Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine; Florida A&M University, College of Allied Health Department of Social Work; Florida State University, Institute on Aging; Council of Church-Based Health Programs Inc., Jackson, Bay, and Madison Counties.
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RESPONSIBILITES AND COMPETENCIES IN HEALTH EDUCATION
Responsibility III--Implementing Health Education Programs
Responsibility IV--Evaluating Effectiveness of Health Education Programs
Adam Barry, MS, is a Health Education PhD student at Texas A&M University, in the Department of Health and Kinesiology. Mary Sutherland, EdD, is a Professor of Middle and Secondary Education, Health Education Program at Florida State University. Gregory J. Harris, MASS, is a PhD student at Florida State University in the College of Human Sciences, Department of Family and Child Sciences, Associate Director of Health Promotion Program Initiatives, Inc. and Executive Director for the Council of Church Based Health Programs, Inc. Please address all correspondence to Mary S. Sutherland, PhD, 2639 North Monroe Street, Suite 118-B, Tallahassee, FL 32303; PHONE: (850)385-1205; FAX: (850)385-0983; EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Table 1. Strategies and Dosages Strategy Number of Session Life Skills Instruction 26 Weekly Session. May vary due to youth maturity Social Skills--Drama 40 throughout academic year Tutoring/Mentoring Weekly during academic year Academic Activities Bi-weekly during summer Youth Leisure Nights 8-Apr Alternative Activities Weekly Youth Tobacco/Drug Quarterly Summit Cultural Field Trip Quarterly Quarterly Competitive/Cooperative 4-8 Quarterly Church Activities Public Relations 40 Parenting Activities 40 Quarterly Pastor Training Quarterly Quarterly Prevention Committee Monthly Monthly Training Data Collection Quarterly & Annually Quarterly & Annually Strategy Length of Session Life Skills Instruction One Hour (Unless other wise noted in curriculum) Social Skills--Drama 1-2 Hours throughout academic year Tutoring/Mentoring Varies depending on Academic Activities youth needs Youth Leisure Nights 1-12 Hours Alternative Activities Two Hours Youth Tobacco/Drug 1-2 Hours Summit Cultural Field Trip Varies per activity Quarterly Competitive/Cooperative Varies per activity Quarterly Church Activities Public Relations Weekly Parenting Activities Weekly Quarterly Pastor Training Two Hours Quarterly Prevention Committee 2-3 Hours Monthly Training Data Collection 1 Hour Quarterly & Annually Strategy Time Range Life Skills Instruction 26 to 40 Weeks Social Skills--Drama Weekly throughout academic year Tutoring/Mentoring Weekly during year Academic Activities Bi-weekly during summer Youth Leisure Nights Quarterly Alternative Activities Weekly Youth Tobacco/Drug Quarterly Summit Cultural Field Trip Quarterly Competitive/Cooperative Quarterly Church Activities Public Relations Varies Parenting Activities Quarterly Pastor Training Quarterly Prevention Committee Monthly Training Data Collection Quarterly & Annually Table 2. Twenty Month Process Data Total Faith Activities Program Site #1 Conducted Sessions Sessions Drug Prevention Education 244 198 Life Skills Instruction 445 192 Youth Leisure Nights 187 15 Cultural Field Trips 161 14 Alternative Activities 295 -- Youth Tobacco/Drug Summit 346 29 Tutoring & Mentoring 252 66 Faith Faith Activities Site #2 Site #3 Conducted Sessions Sessions Drug Prevention Education 15 31 Life Skills Instruction 107 146 Youth Leisure Nights 121 51 Cultural Field Trips 79 68 Alternative Activities 133 162 Youth Tobacco/Drug Summit 283 34 Tutoring & Mentoring 107 79 Table 3. Twenty-Month Gender and Total Outcome Data Total Content Areas Pre Post N= 51 N=91 Self Concept --I like to do things that are a little 37.3% 19.4% ** dangerous --I am able to do things as well as most people 88.2% 97.2% ** --Sometimes I think I am no good at all 33.3% 12.9% ** Academics --When I have a problem, I can talk to on of 66.7% 94.6% my teachers --My grades in school are good 84.3% 95.7% ** --I am going to graduate from high school 76.5% 96.8% ** --I can get extra help with my schoolwork at 78.4% 96.8% ** school Friend Behavior --During the last month, did any friends carry 17.6% 1.1% ** a gun or knife to school --During the last month, did any of your 25.5% 1.1% * friends damage school property --During the last month, did any of your 25.5% 10.8% ** friends smoke cigarettes --During the last month, did your friends 23.5% 11.8% steal something Parent Child Interaction Time --I watch TV with one or both of my parents at 56.9% 87.1% * night --When I have a problem, I can talk to one of 88.2% 94.6% my parents Total Content Areas df Mean Dif. Self Concept --I like to do things that are a little 88.5 -.17 dangerous --I am able to do things as well as most people 50.0 .12 --Sometimes I think I am no good at all 79.0 -.20 Academics --When I have a problem, I can talk to on of 73.2 .23 my teachers --My grades in school are good 59.2 .13 --I am going to graduate from high school 53.4 .22 --I can get extra help with my schoolwork at 49.0 .20 school Friend Behavior --During the last month, did any friends carry 54.3 -.17 a gun or knife to school --During the last month, did any of your 53.3 -.24 friends damage school property --During the last month, did any of your 79.7 -.14 friends smoke cigarettes --During the last month, did your friends 83.3 -.11 steal something Parent Child Interaction Time --I watch TV with one or both of my parents at 72.7 .32 night --When I have a problem, I can talk to one of 67.4 .08 my parents Male Content Areas Pre Post N=27 N=39 Self Concept --I like to do things that are a little 40.7% 28.2% dangerous --I am able to do things as well as most people 85.2% 100% ** --Sometimes I think I am no good at all 33.3% 12.8% Academics --When I have a problem, I can talk to on of 59.3% 92.1% ** my teachers --My grades in school are good 81.5% 97.4% --I am going to graduate from high school 74.1% 100% ** --I can get extra help with my schoolwork at 69.2% 100% ** school Friend Behavior --During the last month, did any friends carry 22.2% 2.6% ** a gun or knife to school --During the last month, did any of your 37.0% 2.6% ** friends damage school property --During the last month, did any of your 33.3% 10.5% ** friends smoke cigarettes --During the last month, did your friends 63.6% 24.3% ** steal something Parent Child Interaction Time --I watch TV with one or both of my parents at 66.7% 87.2% night --When I have a problem, I can talk to one of 96.3% 94.9% my parents Male Content Areas df Mean Dif. Self Concept --I like to do things that are a little 52.5 -.13 dangerous --I am able to do things as well as most people 26 .15 --Sometimes I think I am no good at all 43.5 -.21 Academics --When I have a problem, I can talk to on of 37 .33 my teachers --My grades in school are good 31.9 .16 --I am going to graduate from high school 26 .26 --I can get extra help with my schoolwork at 25 .31 school Friend Behavior --During the last month, did any friends carry 31.5 -.20 a gun or knife to school --During the last month, did any of your 30 -.34 friends damage school property --During the last month, did any of your 41.2 -.23 friends smoke cigarettes --During the last month, did your friends 44.1 -.20 steal something Parent Child Interaction Time --I watch TV with one or both of my parents at 43.5 .21 night --When I have a problem, I can talk to one of 64 -.01 my parents Female Content Areas Pre Post N=24 N=52 Self Concept --I like to do things that are a little 33.3% 13.7% dangerous --I am able to do things as well as most people 91.7% 100% --Sometimes I think I am no good at all 33.3% 13.5% Academics --When I have a problem, I can talk to on of 75.0% 88.5% my teachers --My grades in school are good 87.5% 98.1% --I am going to graduate from high school 79.2% 98.1% --I can get extra help with my schoolwork at 91.7% 100% school Friend Behavior --During the last month, did any friends carry 12.5% 0% a gun or knife to school --During the last month, did any of your 12.5% 0% friends damage school property --During the last month, did any of your 16.7% 11.5% friends smoke cigarettes --During the last month, did your friends 12.5% 11.5% steal something Parent Child Interaction Time --I watch TV with one or both of my parents at 45.8% 90.4% * night --When I have a problem, I can talk to one of 79.2% 98.1% ** my parents Female Content Areas df Mean Dif. Self Concept --I like to do things that are a little 34.7 -.20 dangerous --I am able to do things as well as most people 23 .08 --Sometimes I think I am no good at all 34.3 -.20 Academics --When I have a problem, I can talk to on of 34.7 .13 my teachers --My grades in school are good 26.6 .11 --I am going to graduate from high school 25.4 .19 --I can get extra help with my schoolwork at 23 .08 school Friend Behavior --During the last month, did any friends carry 23 -.13 a gun or knife to school --During the last month, did any of your 23 -.13 friends damage school property --During the last month, did any of your 74 -.05 friends smoke cigarettes --During the last month, did your friends 74 -.01 steal something Parent Child Interaction Time --I watch TV with one or both of my parents at 30.5 .45 night --When I have a problem, I can talk to one of 25.4 .19 my parents * Significance level of .0001 ** Significance level of .05 Percents reported from a YES response to the Instrument question Table 4. Twenty Month Accessibility Data Total Content Areas Pre Post N= 51 N=91 Accessibility --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 51.0% 14.0% * --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 39.2% 14.4% ** --It is easy to find drugs to use 41.2% 14.4% ** Faith Community Site #1 Content Areas Pre Post N=11 N=37 --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 18.2% 35.1% --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 9.1% 35.1% --It is easy to find drugs to use 27.3% 35.1% Total Content Areas df Mean Dif. Accessibility --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 139 -.37 --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 139 -.25 --It is easy to find drugs to use 139 -.27 Faith Community Site #1 Content Areas df Mean Dif. --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 36 .19 --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 36 .32 --It is easy to find drugs to use 36 .10 Male Content Areas Pre Post N=27 N=39 Accessibility --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 51.9% 10.5% ** --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 40.7% 13.2% ** --It is easy to find drugs to use 40.7% 13.2% ** Faith Community Site #2 Content Areas Pre Post N=25 N=26 --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 56% 7.7% * --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 48% 7.7% * --It is easy to find drugs to use 40% 7.7% * Male Content Areas df Mean Dif. Accessibility --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 63 -.28 --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 63 -.28 --It is easy to find drugs to use 63 -.28 Faith Community Site #2 Content Areas df Mean Dif. --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 47 -.56 --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 47 -.48 --It is easy to find drugs to use 47 -.40 Female Content Areas Pre Post N=24 N=52 Accessibility --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 50.0% 18.0% ** --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 39.2% 14.0% ** --It is easy to find drugs to use 41.7% 16.0% ** Faith Community Site #3 Content Areas Pre Post N=15 N=30 --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 66.7% 0% * --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 46.7% 0% ** --It is easy to find drugs to use 53.3% 0% ** Female Content Areas df Mean Dif. Accessibility --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 72 -.32 --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 72 -.22 --It is easy to find drugs to use 72 -.26 Faith Community Site #3 Content Areas df Mean Dif. --It is easy to get a cigarette to smoke 43 -.67 --It is easy to get alcohol to drink 43 -.47 --It is easy to find drugs to use 43 -.53 * Significance level of .0001 ** Significance level of .05 Percents reported from a YES response to the Instrument question
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|Author:||Harris, Gregory J.|
|Publication:||American Journal of Health Studies|
|Date:||Jun 22, 2006|
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