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Factors associated with the content of sex education in U.S. public secondary schools.



CONTEXT: While sex education is almost universal in U.S. schools, its content varies considerably. Topics such as abstinence abstinence: see fasting; temperance movements. , and basic information on HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States.  and other sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted diseases

Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely
 (STDs), are commonly taught; birth control and how to access STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country.  and contraceptive contraceptive /con·tra·cep·tive/ (-sep´tiv)
1. diminishing the likelihood of or preventing conception.

2. an agent that so acts.
 services are taught less often. Factors potentially associated with these variations need to be examined.

METHODS: Data on 1,657 respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  to a 1999 national survey of teachers providing sex education in grades 7-12 were assessed for variation in topics covered. Logistic regression In statistics, logistic regression is a regression model for binomially distributed response/dependent variables. It is useful for modeling the probability of an event occurring as a function of other factors.  was used to ascertain factors associated with instruction on selected topics.

RESULTS: The content of sex education varied by region and by instructors' approach to teaching about abstinence and contraception contraception: see birth control.
contraception

Birth control by prevention of conception or impregnation. The most common method is sterilization. The most effective temporary methods are nearly 99% effective if used consistently and correctly.
. For example, teaching abstinence as the only means of pregnancy and STD prevention was more common in the South than in the Northeast “Northeastern” redirects here. For the Boston college, see Northeastern University, Boston.

Northeast or north east is the ordinal direction halfway between north and east. It is the opposite of southwest. See boxing the compass.
 (30% vs. 17%). Emphasizing the ineffectiveness in·ef·fec·tive  
adj.
1. Not producing an intended effect; ineffectual: an ineffective plea.

2. Inadequate; incompetent: an ineffective teacher.
 of contraceptives was less common in the Northeast (17%) than in other regions (27-32%). Instructors teaching that methods are ineffective and presenting abstinence as teenagers' only option had significantly reduced odds of teaching various skills and topics (odds ratios, 0.1-0.5).

CONCLUSIONS: Instructors' approach to teaching about methods is a very powerful indicator of the content of sex education. Given the well-documented relationship between what teenagers learn about safer sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life.  and their use of methods when they initiate INITIATE. A right which is incomplete. By the birth of a child, the husband becomes tenant by the curtesy initiate, but his estate is not consummate until the death of the wife. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1725.  sexual activity, sex education in all U.S. high schools should include accurate information about condoms and other contraceptives.

**********

As in most other countries, men and women in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  typically begin having sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
 or coitus or copulation

Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system).
 during late adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. : at a median age of 16.9 years for men and 17.4 for women. (1) To make healthy and responsible decisions about whether to have intercourse Verb 1. have intercourse - have sexual intercourse with; "This student sleeps with everyone in her dorm"; "Adam knew Eve"; "Were you ever intimate with this man?"  and how to protect themselves and their partners from unwanted pregnancies unwanted pregnancy Obstetrics A pregnancy that is not desired by one or both biologic parents. See Teen pregnancy.  and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), young men and women need relevant information and education. (2)

National organizations such as the American Medical Association American Medical Association (AMA), professional physicians' organization (founded 1847). Its goals are to protect the interests of American physicians, advance public health, and support the growth of medical science. , the American Academy of Pediatrics The American Academy of Pediatrics ("AAP") is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Its motto is: "Dedicated to the Health of All Children.  and the National Academy of Sciences have recommended that schools implement comprehensive sex education strategies. Such strategies not only teach students that abstinence is the best way to prevent unintended pregnancy and STDs, but also provide students with the information and skills they need to reduce their number of partners and to use contraceptive and disease prevention methods effectively when they become sexually active. (3)

In contrast, federal legislation since the late 1990s has funded abstinence-only programs, which promote abstinence exclusively. Such legislation explicitly excludes advocating contraceptive use or teaching about contraceptive methods Noun 1. contraceptive method - birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery
contraception

birth control, birth prevention, family planning - limiting the number of children born
, except to stress their failure rates. (4) Abstinence-only programs gained prominence prominence /prom·i·nence/ (prom´i-nins) a protrusion or projection.

frontonasal prominence
 in 1998, when Section 510 of the Social Security Act began providing $50 million in annual grants, to be matched with $37.5 million annually in state funds. In almost every jurisdiction, programs funded under Section 510 support school-related activities. (5) Since Section 510 was established, two other federal programs-the Adolescent ad·o·les·cent
adj.
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.

n.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager.
 Family Life Act and the maternal MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line.  and child health block grant's Grant's is a blended Scotch whisky bottled by William Grant & Sons in Scotland. History
In 1886, William Grant founded the Glennfiddich Distillery in Dufftown, Scotland. Glenfiddich single malt Scotch whisky first ran from the stills on Christmas Day, 1887.
 Special Projects of Regional and National Significance-have specified that their funds cannot be used to discuss contraceptives, except to emphasize their failure rates. (6)

Although comprehensive sex education and abstinence-only education are often contrasted against one another in policy arenas, (7) the way in which these approaches are implemented in the nation's schools is largely unknown. In this article, we report findings from our analysis of data from a nationally representative survey of sex education teachers in U.S. schools that examined whether and how abstinence, contraception and other topics were taught.

SEX EDUCATION IN U.S. SCHOOLS

Sex education is taught in almost all public secondary schools in the United States (93%); more than 95% of 15-19-year-olds have had sex education instruction. (8) However, the content of sex education-notably, the emphasis teachers give to abstinence and their coverage of the effectiveness of contraceptive methods-varies widely. (9)

A 1998 survey found significant regional differences in school district policies on whether sex education should be taught and, if so, how abstinence and contraceptive methods should be presented. (10) Sixty-nine percent of U.S. school districts had a policy to teach sex education. In 35% of these districts, the policy was to teach abstinence as the only positive option outside of marriage, and to highlight the ineffectiveness of methods for preventing pregnancy and STDs (if these methods were covered at all). Among districts with a policy, those in the South were significantly more likely than those in other regions to require teaching abstinence as the only option for unmarried teenagers (55% vs. 20-35%). These differences in policies raise questions about whether regional patterns exist in instructors' approaches to teaching about abstinence and contraceptive methods-including whether they teach specific skills and topics.

Regional differences in contextual factors, such as local public opinion on teaching students about birth control and STD prevention, may help explain variations in sex education instruction. Analyses from the General Social Survey have demonstrated that adults living in the South typically have less permissive permissive adj. 1) referring to any act which is allowed by court order, legal procedure, or agreement. 2) tolerant or allowing of others' behavior, suggesting contrary to others' standards.


PERMISSIVE.
 attitudes about sexuality Sexuality
Flowers of Evil, The

thoroughly explore the possibilities of vice, depravity, and sin. [Fr. Poetry: Baudelaire The Flowers of Evil in Magill III, 399]

Hite Report

surveys men’s sexual habits and performance.
 than do those in other regions (as gauged gauge also gage  
n.
1.
a. A standard or scale of measurement.

b. A standard dimension, quantity, or capacity.

2. An instrument for measuring or testing.

3.
 by attitudes toward premarital and extramarital sex Noun 1. extramarital sex - sexual intercourse between individuals who are not married to one another
free love

criminal congress, unlawful carnal knowledge - forbidden or tabu sexual intercourse between individuals
, and homosexuality homosexuality, a term created by 19th cent. theorists to describe a sexual and emotional interest in members of one's own sex. Today a person is often said to have a homosexual or a heterosexual orientation, a description intended to defuse some of the long-standing ). This may reflect more traditional values Traditional values refer to those beliefs, moral codes, and mores that are passed down from generation to generation within a culture, subculture or community. Since the late 1970s in the U.S.  and attitudes generally among Southern residents, and a relatively high proportion who belong to fundamentalist fundamentalist

An investor who selects securities to buy and sell on the basis of fundamental analysis. Compare technician.
 religious denominations For other senses of this word, see denomination.
A religious denomination (also simply denomination) is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
. (11)

A region's proportion of youth who are sexually active, and its pregnancy rate relative to other regions, also may be related to the content of sex education; however, relationships are likely to be complex, and their direction hard to identify. For example, relatively low rates of teenage sexual activity and pregnancy may reflect a region's lower need for sex education compared with other regions', or they may result from more widespread sex education. Similarly, a relatively high STD prevalence prevalence /prev·a·lence/ (prev´ah-lins) the number of cases of a specific disease present in a given population at a certain time.

prev·a·lence
n.
 among adolescents may increase community support for sex education or may reflect deficits in current programs.

Comparisons between the United States and other countries might help inform our understanding of regional patterns in the United States. In many Western, developed countries with adolescent pregnancy adolescent pregnancy See Teenage pregnancy.  and STD rates lower than U.S. rates, there is not only greater societal so·ci·e·tal  
adj.
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.



so·cie·tal·ly adv.

Adj.
 acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers, but also more comprehensive and balanced sex education and greater access to condoms and other forms of birth control. (12) Thus, regional variations in the United States in societal acceptance of sexual activity among adolescents and approval of sex education could be associated with differences in what is taught in schools.

Factors other than region and instructors' approach to teaching abstinence and method effectiveness may also be related to the content of sex education classes. For example, health educators This is a list of educators. See also: Education, List of education topics.
External link:

General
Category:
 receive more training in sex education than physical education teachers do. (13) Moreover, because schools with a large student enrollment or a high proportion of impoverished im·pov·er·ished  
adj.
1. Reduced to poverty; poverty-stricken. See Synonyms at poor.

2. Deprived of natural richness or strength; limited or depleted:
 students generally have a relatively high proportion of sexually active students, they may receive increased support from officials and the local community for instruction on birth control and STD prevention. (14)

In this article, we establish a context in which to understand regional patterns of sex education, and we report survey findings on how instructors approach the teaching of abstinence and method effectiveness, according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 region. We also examine differences in the proportion of instructors teaching 27 selected topics and skills, according to region and to a measure of how instructors teach abstinence and method effectiveness. Finally, we examine whether region, teaching approach and other factors are independently associated with the proportions of instructors teaching selected key topics and skills related to preventing sexual behavior, pregnancy and STDs, and to accessing contraceptives and STD services.

METHODS

Sample and Survey of Teachers

We analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
 data collected by The Alan Guttmacher Alan Frank Guttmacher (1898-1974) was an American physician.

He served as president of Planned Parenthood and vice-president of the American Eugenics Society, founded the Association for the Study of Abortion in 1964, was a member of the Association for Voluntary
 Institute (AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) A machine intelligence that resembles that of a human being. Considered impossible by many, most artificial intelligence (AI) research, projects and products deal with specific applications such as industrial robots, playing chess, ) in a 1999 nationally representative survey of public school teachers of grades 7-12 who are responsible for the subject areas that usually include sex education-biology, health education, family and consumer science (also known as home economics), and physical education-and school nurses. In all, 3,754 teachers responded to the survey, representing 49% of eligible participants. Our analysis is based on the 1,657 respondents who had taught sex education in the current or preceding school year.

Market Data Retrieval supplied a systematic random sample of teacher names, stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.

strat·i·fied
adj.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata.
 by teaching specialty; their company also provided data on each teacher's school, including state, number of students enrolled and the proportion of students living in poverty. More information about the survey methods has been described previously. (15)

To measure how a teacher approached abstinence, the survey asked, "Which one of the following best describes the way you teach about abstinence from intercourse INTERCOURSE. Communication; commerce; connexion by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, as by interchange of commodities, treaties, contracts, or letters.  in your sexuality education instruction?" Respondents could indicate that they presented abstinence as one alternative, as the best alternative or as the only alternative for pregnancy and STD prevention, or that they do not teach about abstinence. *

Instructors' approaches to teaching about condoms and birth control were assessed through two questions. First, "Which one of the following best describes the way you teach about condoms in your sexuality education instruction?" Respondents could indicate one of three options: They emphasize that condom 1. condom - The protective plastic bag that accompanies 3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the write protect tab, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of SEX but has also been shown to have a high failure  use can be an effective means of preventing STDs among sexually active persons, they emphasize that it is ineffective, or they do not teach about condom use to prevent STDs. The second question asked, "Which one of the following best describes the way you teach about birth control in your sexuality education instruction?" Response choices indicated emphasizing that use of birth control methods can be an effective mean of pregnancy prevention for sexually active person, emphasizing that it is ineffective or never teaching about birth control.

Other Data Sources

To consider other factors that may be related to geographic variation in sex education, we examined regional data from additional sources. Public opinion data come from unpublished tabulations of a 1999 national poll of 1,050 adults, conducted by Hickman-Brown Research for Advocates for Youth and the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States SIECUS, the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States is a United States organization dedicated to sexuality education, sexual health, and sexual rights. ; at a 95% confidence level the survey had a sampling error of plus or minus three percentage points. (16) Data on 20-24-year-old women come from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. (17) Finally, rates of pregnancies, births, abortions and miscarriages were calculated from previously reported AGI data. (18) To calculate regional-level estimates, we aggregated the state-level data within each region, taking into account state differences in the number of female residents aged 15-17.

Statistical Analysis

Data from the survey of teachers were weighted to reflect the national distribution of sex education teachers in 1999. To analyze an·a·lyze
v.
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. To separate a chemical substance into its constituent elements to determine their nature or proportions.

3.
 data from this complex, stratified sample Noun 1. stratified sample - the population is divided into strata and a random sample is taken from each stratum
proportional sample, representative sample
, we performed t-tests to assess significant differences among proportions by using Stata Stata (Statistics/Data Analysis) is a statistical program created in 1985 by Statacorp that is used by many businesses and academic institutions around the world. Most of its users work in research, especially in the fields of economics, sociology, political science, and  software, version 7.0. (This software package uses the unweighted number of cases and incorporates information from the sample weights and stratified sample design to inflate inflate - deflate  the standard errors for significance testing.)

We conducted multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model.  logistic regression analysis to ascertain whether region and contextual factors were independently associated with instructors' approach to teaching about abstinence and method effectiveness. Moreover, we conducted additional multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore the potential independent associations between these factors and the likelihood of an instructor's teaching selected key skills and topics representing three broad subject areas: sexual behavior and abstinence (how to say no to sexual intercourse); methods for prevention of pregnancy and infection (the importance of correct, consistent method use; the proper way to use a condom; and specific clinics or physicians where students can get birth control); and other means of prevention of and services specifically for STDs (monogamy monogamy: see marriage.  as a way to prevent STDs and the names of clinics or other resources for STD services). The independent variables included teacher-reported levels of community and school administration support for sex education, the source of the school's sex education policy, school enrollment, the proportion of the student body living in poverty, the instructor's area of specialty, and the instructor's approach to teaching abstinence and contraceptive effectiveness.

RESULTS

Variations in Context

In 1999, one-third of Americans believed that sexual intercourse should occur only in marriage (Table 1); the proportions in the Midwest Midwest or Middle West, region of the United States centered on the western Great Lakes and the upper-middle Mississippi valley. It is a somewhat imprecise term that has been applied to the northern section of the land between the Appalachians  and South (34% and 40%, respectively) were higher than those in the West and Northeast (29% and 26%, respectively). However, the level of public support for teaching sex education in schools-93% of U.S. adults supported such instruction in high school, and 84% in junior high school-did not vary by region. Support for teaching specific topics was high-93-96% for abstinence, 89-95% for contraception and 89-93% for condoms-although for some topics, it was lower in the South and Midwest than in the Northeast and West.

Nationally, 47% of women aged 20-24 in 1995 had had intercourse by age 17; a small sample size precluded our detecting statistically significant differences by region. Regions varied little in the proportion of females aged 15-19 reporting nonuse of a contraceptive at their first intercourse (range, 22-28%) or most recent intercourse (18-29%) (not shown).

Sixty-two per 1,000 U.S. women aged 15-17 became pregnant in 1996; 34 per 1,000 of these adolescent women gave birth, 19 had abortions and nine had miscarriages. The West and South had the highest rates of teenage pregnancy teenage pregnancy Adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy Social medicine Pregnancy by a ♀, age 13 to 19; TP is usually understood to occur in a ♀ who has not completed her core education–secondary school, has few or no marketable skills, is . The South had the highest birthrate birth·rate or birth rate
n.
The ratio of total live births to total population in a specified community or area over a specified period of time, often expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year.
; the West and Northeast had the highest abortion abortion, expulsion of the products of conception before the embryo or fetus is viable. Any interruption of human pregnancy prior to the 28th week is known as abortion.  rates. More current national data show that birthrates and abortion rates have declined; regional data are not available beyond 1996, but differences probably have not changed substantially. (19)

Variations in Teaching Approach

In 1999, 23% of sex education teachers taught abstinence as the only option for preventing pregnancy and STDs (Table 2). Sixty percent of sex education teachers presented birth control as an effective means of preventing pregnancy among sexually active persons, condoms as an effective means of preventing HIV and other STDs, or both; the rest emphasized em·pha·size  
tr.v. em·pha·sized, em·pha·siz·ing, em·pha·siz·es
To give emphasis to; stress.



[From emphasis.]

Adj. 1.
 the ineffectiveness of preventive preventive /pre·ven·tive/ (pre-vent´iv) prophylactic.

pre·ven·tive or pre·ven·ta·tive
adj.
Preventing or slowing the course of an illness or disease; prophylactic.

n.
 methods (28%) or did not teach about them at all (12%). Therefore, the proportion of sex education instructors emphasizing the ineffectiveness of methods or not teaching about methods at all (40%) was substantially higher than the proportion teaching abstinence as the only option (23%).

The South had the highest proportion of instructors teaching abstinence only (30%), and the Northeast had the lowest (17%). Regional differences in teaching approaches were greater for method effectiveness than for abstinence. Whereas 72% of teachers in the Northeast emphasized that contraceptive methods can be effective, only 55% in the South and Midwest did so. Seventeen percent of teachers in the Northeast emphasized the ineffectiveness of methods, compared with 27-32% in other regions.

Instructors' approach to teaching abstinence did not perfectly reflect their approach to teaching method effectiveness, as we found when we combined both variables to form a four-category measure. Nationally, 51% of sex education teachers used what might be called a comprehensive approach to sex education: They taught that abstinence is the best option for young people to prevent pregnancy and STDs, and also taught that contraception and condoms can be effective for preventing pregnancy and STDs. Fewer than half of teachers in the South and Midwest used this approach, compared with three-fifths in the Northeast. In contrast, the approach of 14% of all teachers followed more closely the federal definition of abstinence-only education-teaching that abstinence is the only option, and either not teaching about other preventive methods or emphasizing heir ineffectiveness. A significantly greater proportion of teachers in the South, Midwest and West (14-19%) than in the Northeast (6%) reported using this approach.

Roughly one-third of teachers nationwide taught abstinence and method use in a manner inconsistent Reciprocally contradictory or repugnant.

Things are said to be inconsistent when they are contrary to each other to the extent that one implies the negation of the other.
 with the positions of advocates of abstinence-only education and advocates for comprehensive sex education: Twenty-six percent taught that abstinence is the best option and that methods are ineffective, and 9% taught that abstinence is the only option and that methods are effective. Teachers using these approaches together formed a substantial group in all regions.

Variations in Specific Content

* Regional differences. No significant differences were found by region in the proportion of instructors teaching how alcohol and drug use affects behavior, negative consequences of sexual intercourse, how to resist peer pressure to have sexual intercourse, signs and symptoms of STDs, or that only some STDs are curable cur·a·ble
adj.
Capable of being cured or healed.
 (Table 3). These topics were taught by at least 84% of instructors in each region. In addition, all but four of the 27 topics and skills were taught by similar proportions of teachers in the West and Northeast. However, a significantly higher proportion of teachers in the Northeast than in the South provided instruction on 19 of the 27 skills and topics examined, including all those related to STD services or to pregnancy and STD prevention. Regional differences were greatest for the following topics and skills: sexual orientation sexual orientation
n.
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces.
, which methods can be purchased over the counter and which require a medical visit, the proper way to use a condom, and the importance of using both a condom and a more effective birth control method to avoid pregnancy and STDs (difference between proportions teaching these topics in the Northeast and South, 19-27 percentage points).

Similar proportions of instructors in the Midwest and Northeast taught most topics related to sexual behavior and abstinence, and STD facts and prevention. However, instruction on most topics related to STD services and to pregnancy and STD prevention was less common among Midwestern Mid·west   or Middle West

A region of the north-central United States around the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi Valley. It is generally considered to include Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and
 teachers than among Northeastern north·east  
n.
1. Abbr. NE The direction or point on the mariner's compass halfway between due north and due east, or 45° east of due north.

2. An area or region lying in the northeast.

3.
 teachers.

* Differences by approach to abstinence and method effectiveness instruction. In general, instructors' approach to teaching abstinence and method effectiveness was related to the specific topics and skills they taught, except for sexual abstinence Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. Common reasons to deliberately abstain from the physical expression of sexual desire include religious or philosophical reasons (e.g.  as a form of STD prevention (Table 3). For most of the topics and skills examined in bivariate bi·var·i·ate  
adj.
Mathematics Having two variables: bivariate binomial distribution.

Adj. 1.
 analyses, the proportion of instructors covering each topic or skill was significantly lower among instructors emphasizing method ineffectiveness, regardless of abstinence approach, than among instructors emphasizing method effectiveness and teaching abstinence as the best option.

Among teachers emphasizing method effectiveness, we observed some differences between those teaching abstinence as the only option and those teaching abstinence as the best option. Nonetheless, the findings of our bivariate analyses show that instructors' approach to teaching method effectiveness may be an important determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant.  of the topics and skills taught in sex education classes.

* Differences by other factors. Teachers' inclusion of specific topics and skills generally was associated with contextual factors. For example, teachers' concern about possible adverse community reaction, and teaching in a school without a district-or school-level sex education policy, each had a positive association with instruction on topics related to abstinence and had a negative association with instruction on topics related to pregnancy and STD prevention (not shown). We subsequently performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to ascertain which variables are associated independently with teachers' presentation of specific topics and skills.

Multivariate Results

* Method effectiveness and abstinence. In our analyses controlling for contextual factors (Table 4, page 266), teachers in the South, Midwest and West were more likely than those in the Northeast to emphasize the ineffectiveness of methods for preventing pregnancy and STDs or not to cover methods at all (odds ratios, 1.7-2.4). Similarly, teachers in the South and Midwest were more likely than teachers in the Northeast to teach abstinence as the only option (1.6-2.7).

Teachers concerned about the potential for adverse community reaction to sex education were more likely than other teachers to emphasize method ineffectiveness or not to discuss preventive methods (1.9). Compared with respondents in schools with a district-level policy on sex education, respondents in schools without a district-or school-level policy had reduced odds of presenting abstinence as the only option (0.7).

There were few differences by school enrollment, or by relative affluence of the student body, in teachers' approach to presenting method effectiveness or abstinence. However, teachers in the largest schools (student enrollment of at least 1,000 pupils) were less likely than those in the smallest schools (fewer than 300 students) to teach abstinence as the only option (odds ratio, 0.5); teachers at schools with at least 30% of students living in poverty were less likely than teachers at schools with fewer than 6% in poverty to emphasize method ineffectiveness (0.6).

Family and consumer science teachers and biology teachers each were less likely than health education teachers to teach abstinence as the only method of prevention. Physical education teachers were more likely than health education teachers to emphasize the ineffectiveness of methods or not to teach the topic at all.

* Sexual behavior and abstinence. Teachers concerned about potential adverse community reaction, or teaching in a school and district with no sex education policy, had reduced odds of teaching students how to say no to a boyfriend A boyfriend is a male partner in a non-marital romantic relationship. Scope
The term is most commonly used to describe any male person, who is in a romantic relationship with another person.
 or girlfriend This article is about a female partner. For other uses, see Girlfriend (disambiguation).

A girlfriend is a female partner in a non-marital romantic relationship.
 who wants to have sex. Biology teachers and nurses were less likely than health teachers to cover this topic. However, odds of teaching this topic were higher for teachers who presented method use as effective and abstinence as the only option than for instructors who presented method use as effective but taught abstinence as the best of several options (odds ratio, 2.3).

* Methods for pregnancy and STD prevention. Southern teachers were significantly less likely than Northeastern instructors to teach the importance of correct and consistent contraceptive use (odds ratio, 0.6) or the proper way to use a condom (0.3), or to provide information on specific sources of birth control (0.7). Midwestern teachers differed significantly from Northeastern teachers on only one of these variables-instruction on proper condom use (0.5). Teachers generally were less likely to teach these pregnancy prevention and service topics if they had concerns, or perceived per·ceive  
tr.v. per·ceived, per·ceiv·ing, per·ceives
1. To become aware of directly through any of the senses, especially sight or hearing.

2. To achieve understanding of; apprehend.
 that their school administration had concerns, about possible adverse community reaction (odds ratios, 0.4-0.7).

Teachers were more likely to discuss the topics related to pregnancy prevention and services if they taught at one of the largest schools instead of one of the smallest (odds ratio, 1.7-2.2). Teachers in schools with at least 6% but fewer than 30% of students living in poverty were more likely than teachers at the most affluent schools to discuss proper condom use and specific sources of birth control. Biology teachers were less likely than health education teachers to teach each of the pregnancy prevention and services topics. Family and consumer science teachers had elevated odds of discussing the importance of correct, consistent method use, and school nurses had elevated odds of providing information on specific sources of birth control.

Teachers who emphasized the ineffectiveness of contraception, regardless of how they presented abstinence, were considerably less likely to teach the three pregnancy prevention topics than were instructors who teach that method use is effective and abstinence is best. Instructors who teach that method use is ineffective and abstinence is the only option had the lowest odds of teaching these three topics (odds ratios, 0.1-0.2). And among teachers who emphasize the effectiveness of contraceptives, those using an abstinence-only approach were less likely than those using an abstinence-best approach to teach two of these three topics.

* Prevention and services for HIV and other STDs. Few variables showed significant variation in the likelihood of an instructor's teaching about monogamy as a form of STD prevention. In part, this was probably because most teachers (80%) reported that they taught this topic. However, instructors who taught that method use is ineffective and that abstinence is the best or only option for adolescents were substantially less likely to teach about monogamy than were teachers who taught that method use is effective and abstinence is the best option (odds ratios, 0.4).

Teachers emphasizing the ineffectiveness of method use or not teaching about method use had reduced odds of providing students with names of specific places offering STD a services (0.5). Teachers in schools with the largest student enrollments, or with 6% to nearly 30% of students living in poverty, had increased odds of providing information about places where students can obtain STD services (1.4-2.1).

DISCUSSION

Current controversies over sex education imply that the disagreements are primarily about whether instruction should stress abstinence. However, there appears to he little disagreement over this point in the United States: Surveys show overwhelming support among adults in the general public and among sex education teachers for teaching adolescents to be abstinent. (20) In fact, almost all sex education teachers in our survey presented abstinence as the only or the best option for teenagers.

According to our findings, the controversy between abstinence education and more comprehensive approaches centers, instead, on what information should be presented to students about how sexually active people can prevent unwanted pregnancy and STDs. Although public support for instruction on condoms and other contraceptives is almost as high as that for abstinence instruction, recipients of federal funds Federal Funds

Funds deposited to regional Federal Reserve Banks by commercial banks, including funds in excess of reserve requirements.

Notes:
These non-interest bearing deposits are lent out at the Fed funds rate to other banks unable to meet overnight reserve
 for education programs promoting abstinence are prohibited pro·hib·it  
tr.v. pro·hib·it·ed, pro·hib·it·ing, pro·hib·its
1. To forbid by authority: Smoking is prohibited in most theaters. See Synonyms at forbid.

2.
 from using their grants to advocate contraceptive use.

Furthermore, our findings suggest that federal requirements are out of step not only with the desires of almost all the general public, but also with how sex education is taught in the majority of U.S. public schools: Six in 10 sex education teachers in our survey reported teaching contraceptive method use as an effective means of preventing pregnancy and STDs among sexually active people.

Since public education is generally a local or state responsibility, it is not surprising that instruction in most schools does not follow the federal concept of abstinence education. Still, a high proportion of secondary school sex education instructors reported presenting abstinence as the only way of preventing pregnancy and STDs (23%), and an even greater proportion reported presenting methods as ineffective (28%) or not teaching about them at all (12%). These findings are of grave concern because they indicate that students are not receiving accurate information, or are receiving no information at all, on methods in their sex education classes.

We found that instructors who stressed the ineffectiveness of methods-regardless of their approach to teaching about abstinence-had significantly reduced odds of teaching most of the topics and skills examined in our multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.

multivariate analysis,
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously.
. In particular, instructors teaching that contraceptives are ineffective and abstinence is the only option were the least likely to teach the topics and skills related to pregnancy prevention. In contrast, instructors presenting abstinence as the best among multiple options and stressing method effectiveness were more likely than other instructors to teach nearly all topics and skills related to pregnancy and STD prevention and services.

At the same time, our analyses show that teachers' approaches to covering abstinence and method effectiveness are not the only factors that potentially explain the specific skills and topics taught. Teachers in the South, the Midwest and, to a lesser extent, the West were significantly more likely than those in the Northeast to emphasize method ineffectiveness or not to cover methods at all. And while fewer than half of sex education teachers in the Northeast and West (41-49%) taught the proper way to use a condom or provided information about specific places where students can access birth control services, the proportions among Southern and Midwestern teachers were even lower.

Worry about adverse community reaction was associated with reduced odds of teaching skills and topics related to prevention of pregnancy. In contrast, teaching in schools with a moderate to high proportion of students in poverty was associated with increased odds of teaching most of these topics and skills.

Teaching students that contraceptive methods are ineffective, and not providing them information on how to use methods effectively, may contribute to poor use or even nonuse. (21) Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a biannual survey of adolescent health risk and health protective behaviors such as smoking, drinking, drug use, diet, and physical activity conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  demonstrate that condom use among high school students significantly increased during the 1990s, but the rate of increase slowed by the end of the decade. (22)

Federally sponsored abstinence-only funding has increased substantially since our survey of teachers was conducted in 1999. Future research is needed to examine to what extent these funds have influenced public school instruction-especially whether they have increased teachers' likelihood of emphasizing the ineffectiveness of contraceptive methods, and decreased their likelihood of instructing students on how to use contraceptives effectively. If a trend toward emphasizing contraceptive ineffectiveness exists, we would expect that regional differences will be exacerbated, and students in the South and Midwest will be even less likely than students living elsewhere to receive accurate information about pregnancy and STD prevention.

Our study has several limitations. Of note, although the survey captured whether instructors taught certain topics and skills, it did not measure the quality of instruction, the amount of time spent on topics, details of what was taught on each topic or the message delivered about specific topics. In addition, the teaching of sex education and regional variation may be influenced by characteristics that we were unable to measure directly, such as religiosity re·li·gi·os·i·ty  
n.
1. The quality of being religious.

2. Excessive or affected piety.

Noun 1. religiosity - exaggerated or affected piety and religious zeal
religiousism, pietism, religionism
 and conservatism of the local area.

Young people who are taught both that they should delay becoming sexually active and that they should use methods if and when they do have sex are more likely than others to engage in these preventive behaviors. (23) These facts and the data presented here make clear that it is time to shift the debate about sex education instruction from whether and how to teach abstinence to whether and how condoms and other methods are taught in sex education classes. Instructors' approach to teaching about methods is a very powerful indicator of the content of sex education today.
TABLE 1. Selected measures of public opinion on premarital sex and
sex education, and of young women's sexual behavior and reproductive
experience, United States, by region

Measure                      Total   Northeast   South   Midwest   West

Public opinion, 1999
% who believe sex should
  occur only in marriage     33      26          40 *    34 *      29
% who support the teaching
  of sex education in high
  school                     93      94          92      92        93
% who support the teaching
  of sex education in
  junior high school         84      82          82      85        87
% who agree that by grades
  11-12, the following
  topics are appropriate to
  be taught
Abstinence                   95      96          93      96        93
Contraception                91      94          90 *    89 *      95
Condoms                      90      93          89 *    89 *      93

Sexual behavior/
reproductive experience
% of sexually experienced
  20-24 year-old women who
  had had sex by age 17,
  1995                       47      43          47      49        46
Rate per 1,000 women aged
15-17, 1996
  Pregnancies ([dagger])     62      56          67      50        69
  Births                     34      24          41      29        36
  Abortions                  19      25          16      14        24

* Differs significantly from proportion in the Northeast at p <.05.
([dagger]) Includes miscarriages. Note: The four U.S. regions are as
follows: Northeast--Connecticut Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, New York Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont.
South--Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida,
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina,
Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.
Midwest--Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin.
West--Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. Sources:
Public opinion--unpublished tabulations of a nationwide poll of 1,050
respondents, aged 18 or older (reference 16). Sexual
behavior--reference 17. Reproductive experience--calculated from
previously reported findings by The Alan Guttmacher Institute
(reference 18).

TABLE 2. Percentage distribution of U.S. public secondary school sex
education teachers, by their presentation of abstinence and the
effectiveness of methods for preventing pregnancy and STDs, according
to region, 1999

Presentation of        Total       Northeast   South       Midwest
topics                 (N=1,657)   (N=305)     (N=510)     (N=560)

Abstinence
The only option         23.4        16.8        29.7 ***    22.4
One option/the          71.8        78.1        64.9 ***    72.6
  best option
Not taught               4.8         5.1         5.4         5.0

Method effectiveness
([dagger])
Effective               60.3        72.2        55.3 ***    54.9 ***
Ineffective             27.5        17.1        29.1 ***    32.3 ***
Not taught              12.2        10.7        15.6 *      12.8

Method effectiveness
and abstinence
([double dagger])
Methods effective,      51.2        62.1        45.5 ***    47.4 ***
  abstinence best
Methods effective,       9.1        10.4        10.2         8.1
  abstinence only
Methods ineffective,    25.5        21.3        25.0        30.2 **
  abstinence best
Methods ineffective,    14.2         6.2        19.4 ***    14.3 ***
  abstinence only

Total                  100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0

Presentation of        West
topics                 (N=282)

Abstinence
The only option         21.1
One option/the          75.9
  best option
Not taught               3.1

Method effectiveness
([dagger])
Effective               64.4
Ineffective             26.8 **
Not taught               8.8

Method effectiveness
and abstinence
([double dagger])
Methods effective,      57.2
  abstinence best
Methods effective,       7.4
  abstinence only
Methods ineffective,    21.9
  abstinence best
Methods ineffective,    13.5 **
  abstinence only

Total                  100.0

* Differs significantly from proportion in the Northeast at
p<.05. ** Differs significantly from proportion in the Northeast at
p<.01. *** Differs significantly from proportion in the Northeast at
p<.001. ([dagger]) "Effective" includes instructors who taught that
use of birth control can be an effective means of preventing pregnancy,
condom use can be an effective means of preventing STDs or both. The
category does not include teachers emphasizing that birth control or
condoms are ineffective. "Ineffective" includes instructors emphasizing
the ineffectiveness of birth control methods for pregnancy prevention,
the ineffectiveness of condoms for STD prevention or both.
([double dagger]) Instructors not teaching about abstinence were
included with "abstinence best"; those not teaching about pregnancy
prevention methods and STD prevention methods were included with
"methods ineffective." Notes: Ns are unweighted. For a list of states
by region, see note to Table 1.

TABLE 3. Percentage of U.S. public secondary school sex education
teachers covering selected topics and skills, by region and approach to
teaching about abstinence and method effectiveness, 1999

Topics and             Total   Region ([dagger])
skills                         North-   South      Midwest    West
                               east

Sexual behavior
and abstinence
How alcohol/drug
use affects behavior   91.2    92.3     90.4       91.3       91.3
Negative
  consequences
  of intercourse       91.1    90.8     88.8       92.2       93.4
How to resist peer
pressure to have
intercourse            85.7    84.8     84.1       85.4       90.3
Sexuality as a
natural and healthy
part of life           83.1    85.7     77.0 **    84.3       89.3
How to refuse
intercourse            77.0    77.8     74.9       78.2       77.7
Consensual vs.
  forced sexual
  contact              68.7    74.9     63.0 ***   69.9       69.9
Importance of both
  partners' agreeing
  to any sexual
  behavior             68.2    74.6     61.1 ***   71.4       67.3
Abortion-factual
  information          63.0    69.7     58.1 **    62.3 *     65.7
Abortion-ethical
  issues               57.4    61.8     53.5 *     57.0       60.2
Sexual orientation/
  homosexuality        51.3    65.2     39.5 ***   54.2 **    51.5 **
How to negotiate
  sexual Iimits        47.1    51.2     43.0 *     48.7       46.6

STD facts and
prevention
Sexual abstinence
  as a way to
  prevent STDs         94.6    92.8     93.8       95.4       96.7 *
STD symptoms can
  be hidden, absent
  or unnoticed         93.6    90.7     93.1       94.4       96.1 **
Only some STDs are
  curable              91.7    89.4     91.6       92.9       92.0
Signs and symptoms
  of STDs              91.7    89.6     91.7       92.3       93.1
Monogamy as way to
  prevent STDs         80.1    82.1     73.5 **    82.1       86.1
STD risk from oral/
  anal sex             80.4    84.5     71.8 ***   84.5       83.8

STD services
Importance of
  notifying all
  sexual partners
  if infected          78.1    82.2     75.6 *     78.3       78.0
Confidential
  services
  available without
  parental consent     62.7    71.2     58.1 ***   60.5 **    65.9
Specific sources of
  STD services         58.7    64.6     54.7 **    56.9 *     63.0
Methods for
pregnancy/STD
prevention
Condom use to
  prevent STDs         78.0    84.0     71.7 ***   78.4       82.2
Importance of
  correct,
  consistent method
  use                  61.8    71.2     55.7 ***   59.8 **    67.0
Importance of using
  dual methods to
  avoid pregnancy/
  infection            60.2    71.3     52.5 ***   58.5 ***   65.7
Which methods can be
  purchased at a
  store, and which
  require physician
  /clinic visit        50.3    62.2     43.3 ***   48.8 ***   53.3 *
How to communicate
  with partner about
  birth control        47.0    55.6     40.7 ***   47.5 *     48.1
Specific sources of
  birth control        35.3    43.3     28.7 ***   32.8 **    43.8
Proper way to use
  condoms              33.4    48.8     22.3 ***   31.5 ***   40.8
///
Topics and             Teaching approach (double dagger])
skills                 Methods effective         Methods ineffective

                       Abstinence   Abstinence   Abstinence   Abstinen-
                       best         only         best         ce only

Sexual behavior
and abstinence
How alcohol/drug
use affects behavior   91.7         95.8 *       88.7         91.1
Negative
  consequences
  of intercourse       92.7         97.3 *       85.4 **      92.6
How to resist peer
pressure to have
intercourse            86.9         90.5         79.0 **      89.8
Sexuality as a
natural and healthy
part of life           87.5         80.5         75.5 ***     84.8
How to refuse
intercourse            77.0         90.0 ***     70.3 *       83.5 **
Consensual vs.
  forced sexual
  contact              73.6         78.1         57.7 ***     65.5 *
Importance of both
  partners' agreeing
  to any sexual
  behavior             75.5         78.9         56.6 ***     57.7 ***
Abortion-factual
  information          74.1         63.3 *       50.3 ***     45.6 ***
Abortion-ethical
  issues               67.0         59.3         44.9 ***     41.3
Sexual orientation/
  homosexuality        63.3         61.3         34.1 ***     32.0 ***
How to negotiate
  sexual Iimits        51.3         55.6 *       40.6 **      40.3 **

STD facts and
prevention
Sexual abstinence
  as a way to
  prevent STDs         97.4         99.1         86.0         98.5
STD symptoms can
  be hidden, absent
  or unnoticed         96.3         99.0 *       86.7 **      93.8
Only some STDs are
  curable              95.7         98.6 **      82.5 ***     89.8 **
Signs and symptoms
  of STDs              95.3         99.2 ***     83.4 ***     90.1 *
Monogamy as way to
  prevent STDs         86.2         81.8         71.6 ***     73.0 ***
STD risk from oral/
  anal sex             88.4         85.4         68.3 ***     70.5 ***

STD services
Importance of
  notifying all
  sexual partners
  if infected          84.6         88.2         66.2 ***     69.4 ***
Confidential
  services
  available without
  parental consent     72.7         71.7         49.9 ***     44.5 ***
Specific sources of
  STD services         66.7         68.5         45.6 ***     50.9 ***
Methods for
pregnancy/STD
prevention
Condom use to
  prevent STDs         94.3         84.7 **      61.7 ***     44.3 ***
Importance of
  correct,
  consistent method
  use                  80.4         69.8 *       38.8 ***     32.1 ***
Importance of using
  dual methods to
  avoid pregnancy/
  infection            78.7         73.5         36.1 ***     27.4 ***
Which methods can be
  purchased at a
  store, and which
  require physician
  /clinic visit        49.2         41.0         18.7 ***     14.3 ***
How to communicate
  with partner about
  birth control        60.7         54.8         28.7 ***     26.2 ***
Specific sources of
  birth control        47.2         31.7 **      19.6 ***      8.5 ***
Proper way to use
  condoms              68.4         52.3 **      28.8 ***     22.6 ***

* p <.05. ** p <.01. *** p <.001. ([dagger]) Significance levels refer
to the difference between the specified proportion and the proportion
for the Northeast. ([double dagger]) Significance levels refer to the
difference between the specified proportion and the proportion for
"methods effective, abstinence best." "Effective" includes instructors
who taught that use of birth control can be an effective means of
preventing pregnancy, condom use can be an effective means of
preventing STDs or both. The category does not include teachers
emphasizing that birth control or condoms are in effective."
Ineffective includes instructors emphasizing the ineffectiveness of
birth control methods for pregnancy prevention, the ineffectiveness of
condoms for STD prevention or both. Instructors not teaching about
abstinence were included with "abstinence best"; those not teaching
about pregnancy prevention methods and STD prevention methods were
included with "methods ineffective." Notes: Ns are unweighted. For
a list of states by region, see note to Table 1.

TABLE 4. Percentage distribution of U.S. public secondary school sex
education teachers, by selected contextual characteristics, and odds
ratios from multivariate logistic regression analyses of the
association between those characteristics and teachers' presentation of
selected topics

Characteristic          %      Methods not       Abstinence   How to
                               taught or         only         refuse
                               ineffectiveness                inter-
                               emphasized                     course
Region ([dagger])
Northeast (ref)         18.9   1.00              1.00         1.00
South                   31.1   2.36 ***          2.71 ***     1.00
Midwest                 33.6   2.33 ***          1.57 *       1.31
West                    16.4   1.68 *            1.32         1.13

Consider
administration
nervous about
community reaction to
sex education
No (ref)                78.1   1.00              1.00         1.00
Yes                     21.9   0.98              1.39         1.06

Concerned about
community reaction to
sex education
No (ref)                68.0   1.00              1.00         1.00
Yes                     32.0   1.91 ***          1.18         0.64 *

Sex education policy
District-level (ref)    68.3   1.00              1.00         1.00
School-level             7.4   0.77              0.94         0.57
Up to teacher           24.3   1.02              0.67 *       0.49 ***

No. of students
enrolled at the
school
< 300 (ref)             10.9   1.00              1.00         1.00
300-499                 14.9   1.37              0.73         0.92
500-999                 36.8   1.42              0.73         0.99
[greater than or
equal to] 1,000         37.4   0.97              0.47 ***     1.39

% of student body in
poverty
<6.0 (ref)              16.3   1.00              1.00         1.00
6.0-15.9                41.0   0.87              0.94         0.93
16.0-29.9               31.3   0.81              0.74         1.11
[greater than or
  equal to] 30.0        11.4   0.58 *            0.75         1.74

Instructor's
specialty
Health (ref)            30.0   1.00              1.00         1.00
Family/consumer
  science               18.2   0.78              0.56 **      1.06
Biology                 21.0   1.30              0.42 ***     0.05 ***
Nurse                    2.7   0.95              0.79         0.37 ***
Physical education      28.1   1.43 *            1.31         0.72

Instructor's approach
to presenting
preventive method use
and abstinence
([double dagger])
Methods effective,
  abstinence best
  (ref)                 51.2   na                na           1.00
Methods effective,
  abstinence only        9.1   na                na           2.31 *
Methods ineffective,
  abstinence best       25.5   na                na           0.90
Methods ineffective,
  abstinence only       14.2   na                na           1.40

Characteristic          Importance    Proper way   Specific
                        of correct,   to use       sources of
                        consistent    condoms      birth
                        method use                 control
Region ([dagger])
Northeast (ref)         1.00          1.00         1.00
South                   0.63 *        0.31 ***     0.67 *
Midwest                 0.75          0.52 ***     0.76
West                    0.96          0.67         1.12

Consider
administration
nervous about
community reaction to
sex education
No (ref)                1.00          1.00         1.00
Yes                     0.69 *        0.58 **      1.22

Concerned about
community reaction to
sex education
No (ref)                1.00          1.00         1.00
Yes                     0.52 ***      0.43 ***     0.38 ***

Sex education policy
District-level (ref)    1.00          1.00         1.00
School-level            1.05          0.89         1.29
Up to teacher           1.09          0.71 *       1.00

No. of students
enrolled at the
school
< 300 (ref)             1.00          1.00         1.00
300-499                 1.33          0.99         1.23
500-999                 1.21          1.25         1.12
[greater than or
equal to] 1,000         1.69 *        2.22 ***     2.00 **

% of student body in
poverty
<6.0 (ref)              1.00          1.00         1.00
6.0-15.9                1.02          1.67 *       1.62 *
16.0-29.9               1.14          2.13 ***     1.67 *
[greater than or
  equal to] 30.0        0.72          1.57         1.32

Instructor's
specialty
Health (ref)            1.00          1.00         1.00
Family/consumer
  science               2.69 ***      1.14         1.41
Biology                 0.35 ***      0.23 ***     0.31 ***
Nurse                   1.15          0.98         2.50 ***
Physical education      1.05          1.16         1.32

Instructor's approach
to presenting
preventive method use
and abstinence
([double dagger])
Methods effective,
  abstinence best
  (ref)                 1.00          1.00         1.00
Methods effective,
  abstinence only       0.53 **       0.44 ***     0.74
Methods ineffective,
  abstinence best       0.16 ***      0.33 ***     0.28 ***
Methods ineffective,
  abstinence only       0.12 ***      0.10 ***     0.17 ***

Characteristic          Monogamy       Specific sources
                        as a way to    of STD services
                        prevent STDs

Region ([dagger])
Northeast (ref)         1.00           1.00
South                   0.77           0.68
Midwest                 1.15           0.83
West                    1.38           0.81

Consider
administration
nervous about
community reaction to
sex education
No (ref)                1.00           1.00
Yes                     0.92           0.90

Concerned about
community reaction to
sex education
No (ref)                1.00           1.00
Yes                     0.69 *         0.86

Sex education policy
District-level (ref)    1.00           1.00
School-level            1.13           1.20
Up to teacher           0.82           0.77

No. of students
enrolled at the
school
< 300 (ref)             1.00           1.00
300-499                 1.04           1.31
500-999                 1.09           1.20
[greater than or
equal to] 1,000         1.19           2.06 ***

% of student body in
poverty
<6.0 (ref)              1.00           1.00
6.0-15.9                1.25           1.44 *
16.0-29.9               1.39           1.91 ***
[greater than or
  equal to] 30.0        0.91           1.35

Instructor's
specialty
Health (ref)            1.00           1.00
Family/consumer
  science               0.79           1.07
Biology                 0.28 ***       0.18 ***
Nurse                   0.61 *         1.33
Physical education      0.68           0.95

Instructor's approach
to presenting
preventive method use
and abstinence
([double dagger])
Methods effective,
  abstinence best
  (ref)                 1.00           1.00
Methods effective,
  abstinence only       0.59           1.01
Methods ineffective,
  abstinence best       0.42 ***       0.47 ***
Methods ineffective,
  abstinence only       0.41 ***       0.47 ***

* p <.05. ** p <.01. *** p <.001. ([dagger]) For a list of U.S. states
by region, see note to Table 1. ([double dagger]) "Effective" includes
instructors who taught that use of birth control can be an effective
means of preventing pregnancy, condom use can bean effective means of
preventing STDs or both. The category does not include teachers
emphasizing that birth control or condoms are ineffective.
"Ineffective" includes instructors emphasizing the ineffectiveness of
birth control methods for pregnancy prevention, the ineffectiveness of
condoms for STD prevention or both. Instructor, not teaching about
abstinence were included with "abstinence best"; those not teaching
about pregnancy prevention methods and STD prevention methods were
included with "methods ineffective." Notes: Percentages are weighted.
na=not applicable. ref-=reference category.


Acknowledgments See About this product.

The authors thank Suzette Suzette is a commune of the Vaucluse département in southern France.

Coordinates:  
 Audam for programming assistance and Advocates for Youth and the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States for providing unpublished public opinion tabulations by region. The research on which this article is based was supported by a grant from the Marion Marion.

1 City (1990 pop. 14,545), seat of Williamson co., S Ill.; inc. 1841. It is the commercial and retail center of a farm and coal area and has a large soft drink bottling plant. A maximum-security federal prison is nearby.
 Cohen cohen
 or kohen

(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male.
 Memorial Foundation.

* Questionnaire questionnaire,
n a series of questions used to gather information.

questionnaire,
n a form usually filled out by patients that provides data concerning their dental and general health.
 items about STDs usually used the term "STDs/HIV." In this article, we have generally shortened short·en  
v. short·ened, short·en·ing, short·ens

v.tr.
1. To make short or shorter.

2.
 the term to "STDs.

REFERENCES

(1.) The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI), in Their Own Right: Addressing he Sexual and Reproductive Health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene  Needs of American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of  Men, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: AGI, 2002; Darroch JE et al., Teenage Sexual and Reproductive Behavior Reproductive behavior

Behavior related to the production of offspring; it includes such patterns as the establishment of mating systems, courtship, sexual behavior, parturition, and the care of young.
 in Developed Countries: Can More Progress Be Made? Occasional Report, New York: AGI, 2001, No. 3; and AGI, Into a New World: Young Women's Sexual and Reproductive re·pro·duc·tive
adj.
1. Of or relating to reproduction.

2. Tending to reproduce.



reproductive

subserving or pertaining to reproduction.
 Lives, New York: AGI, 1998.

(2.) National Guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 Task Force, Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education: Kindergarten-12th Grade, second ed., New York: Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS SIECUS Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States ), 1996.

(3.) Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association (AMA (Automatic Message Accounting) The recording and reporting of telephone calls within a telephone system. It includes the calling and called parties and start and stop times of the call. ), Report 7 of the Council on Scientific Affairs: Sexuality Education, Abstinence and Distribution of Condoms in Schools, Chicago Chicago, city, United States
Chicago (shĭkä`gō, shĭkô`gō), city (1990 pop. 2,783,726), seat of Cook co., NE Ill., on Lake Michigan; inc. 1837.
: AMA, 1999; American Academy of Pediatrics, Welfare reform: a review of abstinence education and transitional medical assistance, statement to the House Subcommittee sub·com·mit·tee  
n.
A subordinate committee composed of members appointed from a main committee.


subcommittee
Noun
 on Health, House Energy and Commerce Committee, Washington Washington, town, England
Washington, town (1991 pop. 48,856), Sunderland metropolitan district, NE England. Washington was designated one of the new towns in 1964 to alleviate overpopulation in the Tyneside-Wearside area.
, DC, Apr. 23, 2002, <http://www.aap.org/advocacy/ washing/review%5Fof%5Fabstinence%5Fed.htm>, accessed Nov. 21, 2002; and Committee on HIV Prevention Strategies in the United States, Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine, No Time to Lose: Getting More from HIV Prevention, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

(4.) Advocates for Youth and SIECUS, Toward a Sexually Healthy America America [for Amerigo Vespucci], the lands of the Western Hemisphere—North America, Central (or Middle) America, and South America. The world map published in 1507 by Martin Waldseemüller is the first known cartographic use of the name. : Roadblocks Imposed by the Federal Government's Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education Program, Washington, DC, and New York: Advocates for Youth and SIECUS, 2001; and Dailard C, Abstinence promotion and teen family planning family planning

Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources.
: the misguided mis·guid·ed  
adj.
Based or acting on error; misled: well-intentioned but misguided efforts; misguided do-gooders.



mis·guid
 drive for equal funding, Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, 2002, 5(1):1-3.

(5.) Sonfield A and Gold RB, States' implementation of the Section 510 Abstinence Education Program, FY 1999, Family Planning Perspectives, 2001, 33(4):166-171.

(6.) Dailard C, 2002, op. cit. (see reference 4).

(7.) Collins C et al., Abstinence Only vs. Comprehensive Sex Education: What Are the Arguments? What Is the Evidence? Policy Monograph Series, San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden : AIDS Research Institute, University of California The University of California has a combined student body of more than 191,000 students, over 1,340,000 living alumni, and a combined systemwide and campus endowment of just over $7.3 billion (8th largest in the United States). , 2002.

(8.) Lindberg LD, Ku L and Sonenstein F, Adolescents' reports of reproductive health education, 1988 and 1995, Family Planning Perspectives, 2000, 32(5):220-226.

(9.) Darroch JE, Landry Lan·dry   , Thomas Wade Known as "Tom." 1924-2000.

American football player and coach. He coached the Dallas Cowboys (1960-1988), leading the team to five Super Bowls.
 DL and Singh S For the fictional global crime syndicate, see .
Singh is a Sanskrit word meaning "lion". It is used as a common surname and middle name in North India by many communities, especially by the Sikhs and the Rajputs.
, Changing emphases in sexuality education in U.S. public secondary schools, 1988-1999, Family Planning Perspectives, 2000, 32(5):204-211 & 265.

(10.) Landry DJ, Kaeser L and Richards Rich·ards , Dickinson Woodruff 1895-1973.

American physician. He shared a 1956 Nobel Prize for developing cardiac catheterization.
 CL, Abstinence promotion and the provision of information about contraception in public school district sexuality education policies, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31 (6): 280-286.

(11.) Smith TW, Attitudes towards sexual permissiveness: trends, correlates and behavioral behavioral

pertaining to behavior.


behavioral disorders
see vice.

behavioral seizure
see psychomotor seizure.
 connections, Social Change Report, 1992, No. 35.

(12.) Darroch JE et al., 2001, op. cit. (see reference 1).

(13.) Rodriguez Rodriguez or Rodrigues (rōdrē`gəs), island (1996 est. pop. 34,883), 42 sq mi (109 sq km), in the Indian Ocean, c.350 mi (560 km) E of Mauritius, of which it is a dependency.  M et al., Teaching our teachers to teach: a SIECUS study on training and preparation for HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  prevention and sexuality education, SIECUS Report, 1995, 28(2):1-11.

(14.) McNeely CA, Nonnemaker JM and Blum Blum   , Léon 1872-1950.

French socialist politician who served as premier (1936-1937, 1938, and 1946-1947). He was imprisoned (1940-1945) by the Vichy government during World War II.
 RW, Promoting school connectedness: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (also called Add Health) is the first and only nationally-representative study of adolescent sexuality, which has spawned over one thousand peer-reviewed publications on many issues related to adolescent health and , Journal of School Health, 2002, 72(4):138-146; and Singh S and Darroch JE, Trends in sexual activity among adolescent American women: 1982-1995, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(5): 212-219.

(15.) Darroch JE, Landry DL and Singh S, 2000, op. cit. (see reference 9).

(16.) Advocates for Youth, Americans support sexuality education including information on abstinence and contraception, 1999, <http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/factsfigures/suppsexed.htm>, accessed Dec. 18, 2002; and SIECUS, Public support for sexuality education reaches highest level, 1999, <http://www.siecus.org/ parent/pare0003.html>, accessed Dec. 18, 2002.

(17.) Frost JJ et al., Teenage Sexual and Reproductive Behavior in Developed Countries: Country Report for the United States, Occasional Report, New York: AGI, 2001, No. 8.

(18.) Henshaw Henshaw may refer to:

People with the surname Henshaw:
  • Alex Henshaw, British test pilot
  • Colin Henshaw (born 1949), co-discoverer of Supernova 1987A
  • David Henshaw (1791-1852), 14th United States Secretary of the Navy
 SK and Feivelson DJ, Teenage abortion and pregnancy statistics by state, 1996, Family Planning Perspectives, 2000, 32(6):272-280.

(19.) Jones RK, Darroch JE and Henshaw SK, Patterns in the socio-economic socio-economic adjsocioeconómico

socio-economic adjsocioéconomique 
 characteristics of women obtaining abortions in 2000-2001, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2002, 34(5):226-235.

(20.) The Henry J. Kaiser Henry John Kaiser (May 9, 1882—August 24, 1967) was an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. Early life
Beginning as a cashier in a dry-goods shop in Utica, New York, Kaiser moved many times as he pursued the
 Family Foundation, Sex Education in America: A Series of National Surveys of Students, Parents, Teachers and Principals, Menlo Park Menlo Park.

1 Residential city (1990 pop. 28,040), San Mateo co., W Calif.; inc. 1874. Electronic equipment and aerospace products are manufactured in the city. Menlo College and a Stanford Univ. research institute are there.

2 Uninc.
, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2000.

(21.) Bearman Bearman is the surname of:
  • Greg Bearman, Canadian Football League player
  • Peter Bearman, American sociologist
See also
  • Noah Baerman

This page or section lists people with the surname Bearman.
 PS and Bruckner Bruck·ner   , Anton 1824-1896.

Austrian organist and composer whose major works include nine symphonies, a requiem (1848-1849), and Te Deum in C (1881).

Noun 1.
 H, Promising the future: virginity pledges Virginity pledges (or abstinence pledges) are commitments made by teenagers and young adults to refrain from sexual intercourse until marriage. They are most common in the United States, especially among Evangelical Christian denominations.  and first intercourse, American Journal of Sociology Established in 1895, the American Journal of Sociology (AJS) is the oldest scholarly journal of sociology in the United States. It is published bimonthly by The University of Chicago Press.

AJS is edited by Andrew Abbott of the University of Chicago.
, 2001, 106(4):859-912; and Jemmott JB III, Jemmott LS and Fong Fong can refer to:
  • the Hong Kong Government Cantonese romanization of the Fang surname. (方; Pinyin: Fāng)
  • the Bulu tribe of the Beti-Pahuin people of Cameroon.
Famous people with this surname include:
  • Fong Sai-Yuk, Chinese folk hero.
 GT, Abstinence and safer sex HIV risk-reduction interventions for African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race.  adolescents: a randomized controlled trial A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scientific procedure most commonly used in testing medicines or medical procedures. RCTs are considered the most reliable form of scientific evidence because it eliminates all forms of spurious causality. ,Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal, published 48 times per year by the American Medical Association. JAMA is the most widely circulated medical journal in the world. , 1998, 279(19):1529-1536.

(22.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. , Trends in sexual risk behaviors among high school students-United States, 1991-2001, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 5 June 1981 issue of the MMWR published the cases of five men in what turned out to be the first report of AIDS. , 2002, 51(38):856-859.

(23.) Kirby Kirby is a common place name, surname, and given name. Other common uses include:
  • Kirby (Nintendo), a popular video game character (see also: Kirby (series) and List of Kirby games)
  • Kirby Company, the manufacturer of Kirby vacuum cleaners
Places
 D, Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2001.

Author contact: dlandry@guttmacher.org See .org.

(networking) org - The top-level domain for organisations or individuals that don't fit any other top-level domain (national, com, edu, or gov). Though many have .org domains, it was never intended to be limited to non-profit organisations.

RFC 1591.


David J David J. Haskins (b. April 24, 1957, in Northampton, England) is a British alternative rock musician. He was the bassist for the seminal gothic rock band Bauhaus. Life and work . Landry is senior research associate, Jacqueline Jacqueline, 1401–36, countess of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland (1417–33). The daughter and heiress of William IV, duke of Bavaria and count of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland, and of Margaret of Burgundy, Jacqueline was passed over for the succession to the  E. Darroch is senior vice president and vice president for science, and Susheela Singh is director of research, all at The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI), New York. At the time this article was written, Jenny jenny: see ass.  Higgins Higgins may refer to:

People with the surname Higgins:
  • Higgins (surname)
Other:
  • Higgins Armory Museum, in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
  • Higgins boat, a landing craft used in amphibious warfare
 was research intern intern /in·tern/ (in´tern) a medical graduate serving in a hospital preparatory to being licensed to practice medicine.

in·tern or in·terne
n.
 at AGI.
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Author:Higgins, Jenny
Publication:Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 2003
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