Factors associated with contraceptive choice and inconsistent method use, United States, 2004.
The overwhelming majority of fertile fer·tile
1. Capable of conceiving and bearing young.
2. Fertilized. Used of an ovum. , sexually active women of reproductive re·pro·duc·tive
1. Of or relating to reproduction.
2. Tending to reproduce.
subserving or pertaining to reproduction. age in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. who do not want to become pregnant practice contraception contraception: see birth control.
Birth control by prevention of conception or impregnation. The most common method is sterilization. The most effective temporary methods are nearly 99% effective if used consistently and correctly. (89% in 2002). (1) Half of all unintended pregnancies--some 1.5 million annually-occur among contraceptive contraceptive /con·tra·cep·tive/ (-sep´tiv)
1. diminishing the likelihood of or preventing conception.
2. an agent that so acts. users; (2) of these, nine in 10 result from inconsistent Reciprocally contradictory or repugnant.
Things are said to be inconsistent when they are contrary to each other to the extent that one implies the negation of the other. or incorrect method use, and only one in 10 from method failure. *
Because contraceptive methods Noun 1. contraceptive method - birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery
birth control, birth prevention, family planning - limiting the number of children born differ in effectiveness and because consistent and correct use is often difficult, estimated perfect-use failure rates and typicabuse failure rates differ widely. For example, oral contraceptives Oral Contraceptives Definition
Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy. They are also known as the Pill, OCs, or birth control pills. have a perfect-use failure rate of 0.3% and a typical-use failure rate of 8%; for condoms, rates are 2% and 15%. (3) Although failing to adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful
2. a medication's requirements can reduce its effectiveness, roughly half of people taking medication medication /med·i·ca·tion/ (med?i-ka´shun)
1. medicine (1).
2. impregnation with a medicine.
3. administration of a medicine or other remedy. do not take it as prescribed pre·scribe
v. pre·scribed, pre·scrib·ing, pre·scribes
1. To set down as a rule or guide; enjoin. See Synonyms at dictate.
2. To order the use of (a medicine or other treatment). . (4-6) It is therefore not surprising that many women and men have difficulty using contraceptives according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. methods' particular requirements. (7-10)
Which method a woman uses has important implications for how successful she will be in preventing pregnancy. Users should select methods that optimize optimize - optimisation effectiveness and ease of use. Much of the early research on contraceptive choice focused on method acceptability, comparing what women said they value in a method (e.g., effectiveness, ease of use, and mild or no side effects Side effects
Effects of a proposed project on other parts of the firm. ) with the attributes of different methods. (11) Other research has evaluated method choice using decision-making decision-making,
n the process of coming to a conclusion or making a judgment.
n a type of informal decision-making that combines clinical expertise, patient concerns, and evidence gathered from theory and behavioral science behavioral science
A scientific discipline, such as sociology, anthropology, or psychology, in which the actions and reactions of humans and animals are studied through observational and experimental methods. , (12-14) or from a user perspective that includes multiple aspects of the context of women's lives. (15,16) Factors associated with contraceptive choice or effectiveness of use include women's personal characteristics and childbearing child·bear·ing
Pregnancy and parturition.
childbearing adj. goals; (17-28) sexual relationship characteristics and partner influences; (23,26,28-37) social and economic characteristics; (30,35,36,38-41) community, family and peer relationships; (19,23,24,28,35,36) service access and provision; (28,35) and method-specific experiences and attitudes. (23,24,27,37,42) For example, women who are ambivalent am·biv·a·lent
Exhibiting or feeling ambivalence.
Adj. 1. toward pregnancy or contraceptive use exhibit practices that increase their risk of unintended pregnancy. (17,43-46)
To date, however, most empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received" on method choice and efficacy has focused narrowly on young people, (18-20,29-33) low-income low-in·come
Of or relating to individuals or households supported by an income that is below average. individuals, (21,22,24,35) people from particular racial and ethnic groups, (23,24,36) and clinic-based samples, (25-28,42,47) and has investigated specific types of method use problems or specific methods. (21,23,24-27,38) The few nationally representative studies available have focused mainly on examining how contraceptive choice and efficacy are associated with basic demographic, socioeconomic so·ci·o·ec·o·nom·ic
Of or involving both social and economic factors.
of or involving economic and social factors
Adj. 1. and relationship characteristics. (37,39-41,48)
In this article, we build upon prior research, presenting findings from the first nationally representative survey of U.S. women to include detailed data on contraceptive behavior and a broad range of explanatory ex·plan·a·to·ry
Serving or intended to explain: an explanatory paragraph.
ex·plan factors. Analyses using these data have shown important associations between women's attitudes and experiences and their likelihood of experiencing periods of contraceptive nonuse while at risk for unintended pregnancy. (49,50) Here, we investigate factors associated with women's method choice and consistency of use among those using the most popular reversible reversible,
adj capable of going through a series of changes in either direction, forward or backward (e.g., reversible chemical reaction).
n See hydrocolloid, reversible. methods--the pill and the male condom 1. condom - The protective plastic bag that accompanies 3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the write protect tab, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of SEX but has also been shown to have a high failure . This information is critical for assessing how to improve contraceptive service provision and better support effective contraceptive use.
In early 2004, trained female interviewers conducted telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,978 women who were aged 18-44 and at risk of unintended pregnancy. * Eligible women were identified through fist-assisted random digit dialing Random digit dialing (RDD) is a method for selecting people for involvement in telephone statistical surveys by generating telephone numbers at random. Random digit dialing has the advantage that it includes unlisted numbers that would be missed if the numbers were selected from a . Among an initial sample of nearly 95,000 telephone numbers, 51% were identified as likely households. Of these, 60% were screened for the presence of a woman aged 18-44; at the others, the person who answered the phone refused to participate in the screening (15%), failed to begin or complete the screening after multiple callbacks (23%) or could not communicate with the interviewer (2%).
Interviewers screened and interviewed participants in either English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is or Spanish Spanish, river, c.150 mi (240 km) long, issuing from Spanish Lake, S Ont., Canada, NW of Sudbury, and flowing generally S through Biskotasi and Agnew lakes to Lake Huron opposite Manitoulin island. There are several hydroelectric stations on the river. , using a computer-assisted telephone interview system; on average, interviews lasted 30 minutes. Some 5,593 (20%) of the screened households included a woman aged 18-44, of whom, 95% were fully screened for study eligibility. A total of 2,670 eligible women were identified, and 2,000 completed interviews, for a completion rate of 75%. We excluded 22 surveys from analysis because the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. had had sterilising operations that they had not reported during screening. The net response rate among all women estimated to be eligible from sampled households was 43%. ([dagger])
* Contraceptive behavior. We defined current contraceptive use as use of a method in the month preceding the interview. Women who reported having used more than one method were classified according to their most effective method; long-acting adj. 1. active over a relatively long period of time.
Adj. 1. long-acting - active over a long period of time
long - primarily temporal sense; being or indicating a relatively great or greater than average duration or passage of time or a methods (i.e., the IUD IUD Definition
An IUD is an intrauterine device made of plastic and/or copper that is inserted into the womb (uterus) by way of the vaginal canal. One type releases a hormone (progesterone), and is replaced each year. , implant implant /im·plant/ (im-plant´) to insert or to graft (tissue, or inert or radioactive material) into intact tissues or a body cavity. , injectable in·ject·a·ble
Capable of being injected. Used of a drug.
A drug or medicine that can be injected. and patch) were considered the most effective, followed by oral contraceptives, male condoms and other methods (i.e., withdrawal, periodic abstinence abstinence: see fasting; temperance movements. , spermicides and other barrier methods). (1)
Current method users answered questions about consistency and correctness of use in the past three months, including frequency of use for coital-related methods (every time they had sex, most of the time, half the time, less than half the time or none of the time); occurrence of condoms' breaking, slipping or being put on late; number of missed pills; and reasons for inconsistent use. We created composite consistency measures for pill and condom users. Women who had not missed a single active pill in the past three months were considered consistent users; (4) variation in the time of day pills were taken was not included, because guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for correct use focus only on missing pills (51) and mistiming mis·time
tr.v. mis·timed, mis·tim·ing, mis·times
To time inaccurately or inappropriately; misjudge the timing of: The basketball team mistimed the final play and lost the game. of pills alone rarely results in conception. (52) Women whose partners had used a condom every time they had sex and had always put it on before beginning sexual contact were considered consistent users. We included the measure of correctness of use because it is essential to effectiveness and is within users' control. We did not include condom breakage or slippage Slippage
The difference between estimated transaction costs and the amount actually paid.
Slippage is usually attributed to a change in the spread.
See also: Spread, Transaction Costs
Slippage , because these events are not always due to users' actions. We did not collect consistency information for users of long-acting methods or periodic abstinence.
* Explanatory factors. Women answered questions about their socioeconomic and sexual partnership characteristics, and their method- and provider-related experiences and attitudes. Complete details about measurements of some explanatory factors have been published elsewhere (49,50) or are available from the authors.
Socioeconomic characteristics measured in the survey were women's age, race and ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , nativity Nativity
See also Christmas.
Neglectfulness (See CARELESSNESS.)
Nervousness (See INSECURITY.)
birthplace of Jesus. [N.T. status (for Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere respondents only, education, and poverty and health insurance status. For poverty status, we used federal eligibility criteria for subsidized sub·si·dize
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.
2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy. family planning family planning
Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources. services to group women into two income categories: below 250% of the federal poverty level and at or above 250%; in 2002, 230% of poverty was equivalent to a total annual income of $45,250 for a family of four. For insurance status, those who had had both private insurance and Medicaid Medicaid, national health insurance program in the United States for low-income persons; established in 1965 with passage of the Social Security Amendments and now run by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. coverage during the last year (3% of women) were combined with women who had had only Medicaid coverage.
Several sexual partnership characteristics were included: current union status, duration of current relationship, number of sexual partnerships in the prior year and frequency of intercourse INTERCOURSE. Communication; commerce; connexion by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, as by interchange of commodities, treaties, contracts, or letters. in the prior three months. Other variables were investigated, but were not significant in exploratory regressions and were eliminated from the final models: women's assessment of the adequacy of partner communication about contraception, women's level of worry about HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. and AIDS, women's and their partners' desire for additional children and whether women's partners had ever insisted on sex in the past three months when they were not interested.
Pregnancy-related experiences and attitudes explored in the survey were parity parity or space parity, in physics, quantity that refers to the relationship between an object or process and the image that it can produce in a mirror. , experience of an unintended pregnancy, how important respondents felt it was to avoid becoming pregnant at the time (measured on a four-point scale ranging from very important to not at all important) and how strongly they agreed or disagreed with the statement "It doesn't does·n't
Contraction of does not. matter whether I use birth control or not; when it is my time to get pregnant, it will happen" (measured on a five-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree).
To assess method-related experiences and attitudes, we asked about duration of use, how satisfied or dissatisfied dis·sat·is·fied
Feeling or exhibiting a lack of contentment or satisfaction.
dis·satis·fied women were with their current method (measured on a five-point scale ranging from completely satisfied to completely dissatisfied) and what motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo women's method choice. Two questions explored motivations underlying method choice: "Would you say that you are using [method] now mostly because you like this method or mostly because you don't don't
1. Contraction of do not.
2. Nonstandard Contraction of does not.
A statement of what should not be done: a list of the dos and don'ts. like the other methods available?" and "If you could use any birth control method available and you did not have to worry about cost, would you like to switch methods?" We combined the responses from two questions about the occurrence and patterns of dual or multiple contraceptive use to construct a measure that distinguishes between alternating or simultaneous use of more than one method in the prior month (no current dual or multiple method use, alternating dual or multiple method use and simultaneous dual or multiple method use).
In addition to asking women what type of provider they relied on for contraceptive or other women's health Women's Health Definition
Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues. care services (private doctor, clinic or no visit in the prior two years), we measured attitudes about provider experiences by asking women to rate, using a five-point Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc , how strongly they agreed or disagreed with seven statements about their last visit for such services. * We conducted a factor analysis and found that five items loaded together. These five items were grouped into a summary measure of provider satisfaction. The remaining two items were kept separate, and only one--whether women usually see the same doctor or clinician clinician /cli·ni·cian/ (kli-nish´in) an expert clinical physician and teacher.
n. at each visit--was included in this analysis.
We compared key demographic characteristics of our survey respondents with those of similar respondents to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (Table 1). Our respondents were slightly older, and greater proportions were married or Hispanic; we constructed sample weights that adjusted for these subgroup sub·group
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.
2. A subordinate group.
3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.
tr.v. differences, while maintaining the same total sample size for both weighted and unweighted data. Weighted data were used in all analyses presented here, which are limited to the 1,640 respondents who were using a reversible contraceptive method during the month in which they were surveyed.
All tabulations were performed using SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. , version 13. Bivariate bi·var·i·ate
Mathematics Having two variables: bivariate binomial distribution.
Adj. 1. associations were tested using two-tailed Two-tailed may refer to:
In 2004, 38% of all women aged 18-44 using reversible methods were using oral contraceptives (Table 2); 18% were using other hormonal hormonal,
adj/n beneficial component in some essential oils that helps to bring hormone secretions to normal levels.
emanating from or pertaining to hormones. or long-acting methods (7% injectable, 5% patch and 5% IUD), 32% male condoms and 12% other methods (6% periodic abstinence and 6% withdrawal). Twenty-nine percent of women reported using more than one method, and 41% had been using their method for at least five years (not shown). Thirty-seven percent of reversible method users, however, reported not being completely satisfied with their method; a similar proportion (38%) reported using their current method mostly because they disliked dis·like
tr.v. dis·liked, dis·lik·ing, dis·likes
To regard with distaste or aversion.
An attitude or a feeling of distaste or aversion. other options, and slightly fewer (31%) would change methods if not for the cost. Some 58% of women who were using condoms and 24% of those using the pill reported choosing those methods because they did not like other methods.
* Oral contraceptives. Socioeconomic and sexual partnership characteristics, as well as pregnancy- and method-related experiences and attitudes, were significantly associated with oral contraceptive oral contraceptive
A pill, typically containing estrogen or progesterone, that prevents conception or pregnancy. Also called birth control pill. use in bivariate analyses. For example, a greater proportion of white women than of foreign-born for·eign-born
Foreign by birth; not native to the country in which one resides.
Adj. 1. foreign-born - of persons born in another area or country than that lived in; "our large nonnative population"
nonnative Hispanics, blacks, and Asians and other women were using the pill (43% vs. 23-25%; Table 2). Also, pill use was less common among women in relationships of more than four years' duration than among those in shorter relationships or not currently involved (33% vs. 42-45%). In addition, a greater proportion of women who had ever had an unintended pregnancy than of those who had not were using the pill (44% vs. 29%; Table 3). Furthermore, pill use was more common among women who felt that it was very important to avoid pregnancy than among those who felt it was not or only a little important (41% vs. 22%), and among women who disagreed with the statement that it does not matter whether one uses a method than among those who agreed (41% vs. 30%).
In multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. analyses, blacks and Asians and other women had half the odds of white women of using oral contraceptives (odds ratios, 0.5; Table 2); women who had no more than a high school education or some college were less likely than college graduates (0.6), and women covered by Medicaid were less likely than those with private insurance (0.5), to use the pill. In addition, pill use was positively associated with not currently being in a relationship of more than four years' duration (1.5-1.9), and negatively associated with having had two or more partners in the last year (0.7) and ever having had an unintended pregnancy (0.7; Table 3). Finally, compared with women who felt that it was very important to avoid pregnancy, women who felt that it was a little or not important had reduced odds of using the pill (0.4); pill use was also negatively associated with choosing a method mostly because of dislike of other options and wanting to change methods if cost were not an issue (0.4 and 0.6, respectively).
* Long-acting methods. All of the included socioeconomic characteristics were significantly associated with use of long-acting methods in bivariate analyses (Table 2). For example, 20% of 18-24-year-olds used long-acting methods, compared with 14% of women aged 35-44; greater proportions of blacks and foreign-born Hispanics than of whites used such methods (26-31% vs. 15%). However, only one sexual partnership characteristic was significant: Long-acting method use was more common among women who had sex two or more times a week than among those who had sex no more than once a month (21% vs. 12%). Greater proportions of women who had ever had an unintended pregnancy or a birth than of those who had not were using long-acting methods (22-26% vs. 11-13%; Table 3). And long-acting method use was less common among women who chose their method mostly because they disliked other options than among those who liked their method (11% vs. 22%) and among those who would change methods if cost were not an issue than among those who would not (14% vs. 20%).
After adjustment for all measured factors, black women and foreign-born Hispanics had higher odds than white women of using long-acting methods (odds ratios, 1.6 and 2.3, respectively; Table 2), and women who had no more than a high school education or some college had higher odds than college graduates of using such methods (1.8-1.9). Women aged 35-44 were less likely than 18-24-year-olds (0.5), women who were unmarried and not cohabiting were less likely than married women (0.6) and women who had sex once or less a month in the last three months were less likely than those who had sex two or more times a week (0.5) to use long-acting methods. In addition, women who had ever given birth or had ever had an unintended pregnancy had elevated odds of using long-acting methods (1.7-2.1; Table 3). Women who reported choosing their method mostly because they disliked other methods and those who would like to change their method if cost were not an issue were less likely than those who did not share these sentiments to be using long-acting methods (0.4-0.5).
* Male condoms. Condom use was more common among black women and Asians and other women than among whites (43-52% vs. 28%; Table 2), and among unmarried and noncohabiting women than among their married counterparts (39% vs. 31%). Also, compared with women who had had sex at least twice a week, greater proportions of women who had sex less frequently were using condoms 35-36% vs. 28%). In addition, condom use was more common among women who chose their method mostly because they disliked other options than among those who liked their method (49% vs. 22%; Table 3) and among those who would change methods if not for the cost than among those who would not (44% vs. 27%).
In multivariate analyses, the odds of using condoms were higher among women aged 35-44, minority groups other than foreign-born Hispanics, women on Medicaid, those who were unmarried and not cohabiting, and those who had had sex 2-4 times a month in the last three months (odds ratios, 1.5-2.8; Table 2). Women not currently in a relationship and those in relationships of less than four years' duration had reduced odds of using condoms (0.5-0.6), as did those who had ever had an unintended pregnancy (0.7; Table 3). Furthermore, condom use was positively associated with choosing the method mostly because of dislike of other methods (4.0) and with wanting to change methods if cost were not an issue (2.2).
* Other methods. Eight percent of 18-24-year-olds reported using other contraceptive methods (mostly periodic abstinence and withdrawal), compared with 13-17% of older women (Table 2); a smaller proportion of black women than of whites used such methods (6% vs. 13%). Other method use was least common among unmarried, noncohabiting women (4%) and those not in a current relationship (1%). In addition, use of other methods was associated with all of the pregnancy- and method-related factors: For example, use of other methods was more common among women who felt that it was not or only a little important to avoid pregnancy than among those who felt it was very important (16-28% vs. 7%; Table 3), and among women who chose their method mostly because they disliked other options than among those who liked their method (16% vs. 10%).
Mirroring the bivariate findings, in multivariate analyses, women's use of other contraceptive methods was positively associated with being aged 35-44, cohabiting and having sex once a month or less during the previous three months (odds ratios, 1.7-2.1; Table 2). Foreign-born Hispanic women and blacks were less likely than whites to use other methods (0.4 each), and women who were not currently in a relationship were less likely than those in a long-term Long-term
Three or more years. In the context of accounting, more than 1 year.
1. Of or relating to a gain or loss in the value of a security that has been held over a specific length of time. Compare short-term. relationship to use such methods (0.2). In addition, use of other methods was positively associated with not believing that it was very important to avoid pregnancy (2.0-4.4; Table 3), having a fatalistic fa·tal·ism
1. The doctrine that all events are predetermined by fate and are therefore unalterable.
2. Acceptance of the belief that all events are predetermined and inevitable. attitude toward pregnancy and birth control (1.9), choosing a method mostly because of dislike of other options (1.4) and wanting to change methods if not for the cost (1.9).
Inconsistent Method Use
* Oral contraceptives. Virtually all pill users (98%) reported having a reminder or routine to help them remember to take their pill every day. Yet, 38% (28-58% across subgroups; Tables 4 and 5) reported having missed at least one active pill in the prior three months: Eight percent had missed one, 11% two and 19% three or more (not shown). Some 71% of those who had missed a pill had simply forgotten to take it; 10% reported access problems (e.g., they did not have their pills with them), and 8% cited variations in their regular schedule.
At the bivariate level, women's socioeconomic characteristics were not associated with inconsistent pill use (Table 4); partnership characteristics and women's experiences and attitudes, however, were more important. For example, a greater proportion of women who had had two or more partners in the past year than of those who had only had one had used the pill inconsistently in·con·sis·tent
1. Displaying or marked by a lack of consistency, especially:
a. Not regular or predictable; erratic: inconsistent behavior.
b. (58% vs. 35%). In addition, a smaller proportion of women with two or more children than of those who had had no children had used the pill inconsistently (28% vs. 43%; Table 5). Furthermore, inconsistent use of pills was more common among women who were not completely satisfied with their method than among those who were completely satisfied (48% vs. 35%), among women who were not very satisfied with their provider than among those who were (47% vs. 34%) and among women who usually did not see the same clinician at every visit than among those who did (81% vs. 36%).
In multivariate analyses, few background characteristics were significant predictors of inconsistent pill use. Women who had had two or more sexual partners in the past year had twice the odds of others of using the pill inconsistently (odds ratio, 2.1; Table 4); women without health insurance had half the odds of those with private insurance, and women who had had two or more births had half the odds of those who had had none, of inconsistent use. Women's method- and provider-related experiences, however, were more important. Inconsistent pill use was positively associated with having used the method for less than two years (1.8; Table 5), being not completely satisfied with the method or not very satisfied with a provider (1.6 each) and not usually seeing the same clinician (1.7).
* Male condoms. Among women who reported condoms as their primary or most effective method, 81% reported using one at last sex; 51% had used one every time they had sex in the prior three months, 28% had used one most of the time, and 21% had done so no more than half the time. Twenty-eight percent of women relying on condoms reported at least one time in the prior three months when a condom was put on after sex had started. Overall, 61% of users had not used the method every time they had sex or had put it on after beginning sex at least once in the prior three months (Table 4).
The most common reason for not using a condom consistently was not having a condom available or not expecting to have sex (23%; not shown). Some 10-12% of women reported irregular HEIR, IRREGULAR. In Louisiana, irregular heirs are those who are neither testamentary nor legal, and who have been established by law to take the succession. See Civ. Code of Lo. art. 874. use because they or their partner did not want to use a condom, they got "carried away" or they thought it was the safe time of the month.
In bivariate comparisons, a greater proportion of foreign-born Hispanic women than of whites used condoms inconsistently (81% vs. 59%; Table 4). In addition, inconsistent use of condoms was more common among women who felt that avoiding pregnancy was only a little or not important than among those who thought it was very important (77% vs. 58%; Table 5), among women who were using multiple methods than among those who were using only the condom (82-99% vs. 99%), among women who had been using condoms for less than two years than among those using the method five or more years (69% vs. 56%), and among women who were not completely satisfied with the method than among those who were (66% vs. 55%).
In multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. , only one background characteristic--race and ethnicity--was associated with inconsistent condom use: Foreign-born Hispanic women had more than three times the odds of whites of using condoms inconsistently (odds ratio, 3.2; Table 4). And unlike inconsistent pill use, inconsistent condom use was associated with women's experiences with unintended pregnancy and attitudes about pregnancy: Having had an unintended pregnancy was negatively associated with using condoms inconsistently (0.6; Table 5), and believing that avoiding pregnancy was only a little or not important was positively associated with inconsistent use (2.6). But like inconsistent pill use, inconsistent condom use was positively associated with using the method for fewer than two years and with being not completely satisfied with it (1.9 each).
Finally, among the 18% of condom users who reported alternating between condoms and other less effective methods, almost all reported not using condoms all the time-resulting in extremely elevated odds of inconsistent use (odds ratio, 77.8). However, even among the 10% of condom users who reported simultaneously using condoms with another method, the odds of inconsistent use were elevated (6.3). *
1. Not significant.
2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for being of random occurrence. Findings
In preliminary analyses, several additional variables had associations, in the expected directions, with the dependent variables. For example, a greater proportion of women who were worried about their risk of contracting HIV than of those who were not worried were using condoms (37% vs. 30%). In addition, use of long-acting methods was more common among women who felt that communication with their partner about contraception was inadequate or who reported that their partners insisted on sex when they were not interested than among others (29% vs. 17% for both variables); inconsistent pill use also was more common among women reporting unwelcome sex than among others (99% vs. 36%). Typically, these characteristics were also strongly associated with other variables in our model (e.g., race and ethnicity or marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state. ) and therefore had no association with method choice or consistency of use in a multivariate model. Measures of women's and their partners' expectations for additional childbearing, including a category for those who were unsure or who reported disagreement with their partners, were not associated with method choice or consistency of use in either bivariate or multivariate analyses.
Success in preventing unintended pregnancies requires long periods of effective contraceptive use; success, however, is also influenced by method type and adherence adherence /ad·her·ence/ (ad-her´ens) the act or condition of sticking to something.
immune adherence to the method's requirements for consistent and correct use. Many women of reproductive age and their partners who have had all the children they want choose sterilization sterilization
Any surgical procedure intended to end fertility permanently (see contraception). Such operations remove or interrupt the anatomical pathways through which the cells involved in fertilization travel (see reproductive system). (47% of women aged 40-44 rely on this method). (1) Others, including all couples who think they might want to have a child or another child, must choose among reversible contraceptive methods--a choice often driven by women's socioeconomic, demographic and partnership characteristics.
Women who choose long-acting methods have the lowest probability of experiencing method failure. (10,41) Not surprisingly, in this study, reversible method users who were strongly motivated to avoid method failure because they had had an unintended pregnancy or had already had children were more likely than others to choose these methods. The association of long-acting method use with disadvantage In policy debate, a disadvantage (abbreviated as DA, and sometimes referred to as a Disad) is an argument that a team brings up against a policy action that is being considered. Structure
A DA usually has four key elements. (low education and minority race or ethnicity) is likely influenced by a number of factors, including familiarity with these methods and their availability from publicly funded clinics. On the other hand, disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007. women were less likely than others to choose oral contraceptives, reflecting the greater likelihood of minority women's using long-acting methods or condoms, as well as the greater likelihood of privately insured women's choosing the pill. Women were more likely to choose condoms if they were unmarried, and were more likely to choose periodic abstinence or withdrawal if they were aged 35 or older or had infrequent in·fre·quent
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.
2. sex; these findings at least partially reflect differing contraceptive needs during different types or phases of partnerships.
Although variation in method choice may reflect differences in the availability of methods from the providers serving different groups of women, it may also reflect access issues related to differing costs of methods. The likelihood of using condoms or other methods was elevated among women who reported not liking other options and those who would have switched methods if not for the cost. Dislike of and dissatisfaction with methods, as well as lack of access to the full range of methods, may steer steer
castrated male cattle beast over a year of age. See also bullock, buller steer.
steer Medtalk verb some women-particularly those who are disadvantaged-toward methods that typically have relatively high use-failure rates. These associations are consistent with prior findings about subgroups of women more likely to have unintended pregnancies. (2)
Clearly, there is a need for continued contraceptive research and development to expand method options. In addition, to ensure that all women are able to choose a method unhindered unhindered
not prevented or obstructed: unhindered access
without being prevented or obstructed: he was able to go about his work unhindered by cost, continued and increased funding for public-sector family planning programs is needed, as well as coverage of all available methods within private health insurance plans.
In our analyses, few socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were associated with consistency of use; however, attitudes toward and experience with pregnancy were strongly associated with both method choice and consistency of use. Weaker motivation to avoid pregnancy was linked to choosing less effective methods and inconsistent method use, both of which are likely to lead to reduced success in pregnancy prevention. This is consistent with prior results showing a strong association between women's motivation to avoid pregnancy and gaps in contraceptive use. (50) Federal guidelines for improving preconception pre·con·cep·tion
An opinion or conception formed in advance of adequate knowledge or experience, especially a prejudice or bias.
Noun 1. care recommend that primary care visits for all women of reproductive age routinely include risk assessment and counseling about current pregnancy intentions, with a goal of providing contraceptives to women who do not intend to conceive conceive /con·ceive/ (kon-sev´)
1. to become pregnant.
2. take in, grasp, or form in the mind.
1. To become pregnant.
2. and of promoting preconception care strategies if and when women want to become pregnant. (54) Information about the association between weak motivation to avoid pregnancy and contraceptive behaviors likely linked with unintended pregnancy should be included in such counseling--as well as in other venues where pregnancy prevention is discussed--to help women with ambivalent attitudes to understand their elevated risk of pregnancy while using contraceptives and to plan appropriately, with either more vigilant contraceptive practice, preconception care or both. Additional research exploring how and why women using contraceptives vary in their attitudes about pregnancy prevention would be useful.
Initiation initiation, the transition and attendant ceremonies, such as ordeals and rites, involved in passing from one state or status to another, often from childhood to adulthood. It was among the most important social institutions of early humans. of long-acting contraceptives and pills requires contact with a medical provider, and this contact can have long-term implications for successful method use. Women using oral contraceptives were more likely to take their pills consistently if they were very satisfied with their provider and if they usually saw the same clinician than otherwise. Users of coitus-related methods may need both information and education about relative effectiveness of method choices and more support for successful use. Our finding of a higher level of inconsistent use among condom users than among pill users is consistent with higher use-failure rates seen in national data, (39,41) and suggests that perfect use is more difficult with coitus-related methods like the condom. In addition, less consistent method use in the first two years indicates the need tot interventions that help women establish good method-use behaviors in the initial months of use.
Many couples use more than one method. In our study, the fact that women who simultaneously used condoms and another less effective method had elevated odds of inconsistent condom use suggests that it is important for clinicians and others counseling women to discuss strategies for successful dual method use. Counselors need to emphasize the importance of consistent and correct use of all methods, regardless of whether the methods are used tot pregnancy prevention, STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country. prevention or both.
Our study had several limitations. Our measures of inconsistent use for women who were using two or more methods--particularly those using condoms--do not necessarily reflect inconsistent contraceptive coverage. We tried to control for this by separating condom users into those who were alternating between using the condom and another method (18%), those using the condom and another method simultaneously (10%) and those using the condom alone (72%). For those who alternated methods, however, we had no information regarding whether they used at least one method every time they had intercourse. This may have resulted in an overstatement o·ver·state
tr.v. o·ver·stat·ed, o·ver·stat·ing, o·ver·states
To state in exaggerated terms. See Synonyms at exaggerate.
o of inconsistent total use among some women, but did not affect our conclusions regarding which factors are associated with inconsistent use (the same predictors were significant in a model that excluded women reporting alternating method use). In addition, for some method combinations (e.g., condoms plus periodic abstinence), the distinction between alternating and simultaneous use may not have been reported consistently by all respondents.
Response error, recall bias and nonresponse bias also may have affected our results; these limitations and our efforts to mitigate mit·i·gate
To moderate in force or intensity.
miti·gation n. them have been discussed in detail previously. (49,50) In particular, our analyses may have been affected by reporting bias related to consistency of use. Women typically report fewer episodes of inconsistent method use than electronic monitoring identifies. (6,27) It is not clear whether or how our consistency results might have been affected by underestimation of the dependent variable.
Finally, because we used cross-sectional cross section also cross-sec·tion
a. A section formed by a plane cutting through an object, usually at right angles to an axis.
b. A piece so cut or a graphic representation of such a piece.
2. , retrospective LAW, RETROSPECTIVE. A retrospective law is one that is to take effect, in point of time, before it was passed.
2. Whenever a law of this kind impairs the obligation of contracts, it is void. 3 Dall. 391. data, we could not determine whether women's attitudes and experiences preceded their method choice or their recent inconsistent use. However, we believe that women's reports of their attitudes and experiences likely reflect (and can be used as a proxy for) attitudes and experiences that were relevant at the time they chose their current method or used it inconsistently.
The high levels of unintended pregnancy seen in national data among contraceptive users (2) and the parallel high levels of inconsistent method use reported by women in this study are troubling, but not surprising. Our findings suggest that certain groups of women--those less motivated to prevent pregnancy or less satisfied with contraceptive choices, for example--may be at high risk of contraceptive failure, because of both their choice of less effective methods and their inconsistent use. Providers may need to pay greater attention to women who use nonprescription non·pre·scrip·tion
Sold legally without a physician's prescription; over-the-counter. methods, offering them instruction and support for consistent use. Given the inherent difficulty of using any method consistently and correctly over one's entire reproductive life, providers should counsel all women on an ongoing basis--not just when they are beginning method use--about using backup methods, including emergency contraception Emergency Contraception Definition
Emergency contraception or emergency birth control uses either emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) or a Copper-T intrauterine device (IUD) to help prevent pregnancy following unprotected vaginal intercourse. , using dual methods or avoiding sex whenever they have been inconsistent in their use of hormonal methods.
The paths to improvement include helping women and their partners choose methods they like, facilitating contraceptive users' switching between methods and supporting their use of more effective methods. They also include expanding the contraceptive options that are available and accessible to potential users and extending the mandate of contraceptive care beyond method provision to include ongoing support and assessment of contraceptive needs throughout women's reproductive lives. This is a role for contraceptive providers, as well as for others who provide information, education and counseling about sexuality and reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene .
Acknowledgments See About this product.
The authors thank Susheela Singh For the fictional global crime syndicate, see .
Singh is a Sanskrit word meaning "lion". It is used as a common surname and middle name in North India by many communities, especially by the Sikhs and the Rajputs. for helpful comments on drafts of this article; interviewers and programmers This is a list of programmers notable for their contributions to software, either as original author or architect, or for later additions.
See also: Game programmer, List of computer scientists
at Field Research Corp. for their effort in carrying out the survey fieldwork field·work
1. A temporary military fortification erected in the field.
2. Work done or firsthand observations made in the field as opposed to that done or observed in a controlled environment.
3. ; the project expert advisory panel; and Theresa Camelo, Alison Alison
betrays old husband amusingly with her lodger, Nicholas. [Br. Lit.: Canterbury Tales, “Miller’s Tale”]
See : Adultery Purcell Pur·cell , Henry 1659?-1695.
English composer and the leading musical figure of the baroque style in England.
Noun 1. Purcell - English organist at Westminster Abbey and composer of many theatrical pieces (1659-1695) , Junhow Wei Wei, river, China
Wei (wā), river, c.450 mi (720 km) long, rising in SE Gansu prov. and flowing E through Gansu and Shaanxi provs. to the Huang He. and Lori Lo´ri
n. 1. (Zool.) Same as Lory. Frohwirth for their research assistance. This study was supported by grant HD42426 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. The conclusions expressed here are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the funded:
(1.) Mosher A mosher is a person who is crossed between goth/punk/skater they have long hair and listen to music like slipknot and metal music. Some people call them headbangers. At certain music shows they have something called a mosh pit, basically its a fight pit with loads of people bashing each other. Wet al, Use of contraception and use of family planning services in the United States, 1982-2002, Advance Data from Vital Statistics, 2004, No. 350, p. 18, Table 4.
(2.) Finer LB and Henshaw Henshaw may refer to:
People with the surname Henshaw:
(3.) Hatcher hatch 1
a. An opening, as in the deck of a ship, in the roof or floor of a building, or in an aircraft.
b. The cover for such an opening.
c. A hatchway.
d. RA et al., Contraceptive Technology, 19th ed., New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Ardent (Ardent Software, Inc., Westboro, MA) A database vendor formed in 1998 as the merger of VMARK Software, Unidata and O2 Technology. Its products included the UniVerse and UniData databases and DataStage data warehouse utility. Media, 2007.
(4.) Playle JF, Concepts of compliance: understandings and approaches, British Journal of Family Planning, 2000, 26(4):213-219.
(5.) Miller NH et al., The multilevel mul·ti·lev·el
Having several levels: a multilevel parking garage.
Adj. 1. multilevel - of a building having more than one level compliance challenge: recommendations [or a call to action, Circulation, 1997, 95(4):1085-1090.
(6.) World Health Organization (WHO), Adherence to Long-Term Therapies: Evidence for Action, Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva. : WHO, 2003, p. 7.
(7.) Potter A potter is someone who makes pottery.
Potter may also refer to: People
(8.) Peterson Pe·ter·son , Oscar Emmanuel Born 1925.
Canadian jazz pianist. A prolific recording artist noted for his technical skill, he is best known for work produced with his own trio (1953-1965). LS et al., Women's efforts to prevent pregnancy: consistency of oral contraceptive use, Family Planning Perspectives, 1998, 30(1):19-23.
(9.) Branden PS, Contraceptive choice and patient compliance: the health care provider's challenge, Journal of Nurse Midwifery midwifery (mĭd`wī'fərē), art of assisting at childbirth. The term midwife for centuries referred to a woman who was an overseer during the process of delivery. In ancient Greece and Rome, these women had some formal training. , 1998, 43(6):471-482.
(10.) Trussell J, Contraceptive failure in the United States, Contraception, 2004, 70(2):89-96.
(11.) Keller A, Contraceptive acceptability research: utility and limitations, Studies in Family Planning, 1979, 10(8/9):230-237.
(12.) Ajzen l and Fishbein M, Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. , Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980.
(13.) Jaccard J et al., individual differences in attitude-behavior consistency: the prediction "Prediction is very difficult, especially if it's about the future." - Niels Bohr
A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future in more certain terms than a forecast. of contraceptive behavior, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1990, 20(7):575-617.
(14.) Severy Sev´er`y
n. 1. (Arch.) A bay or compartment of a vaulted ceiling. LJ and Silver SE, Two reasonable people: joint decision-making in contraceptive choice and use, in: Severy LJ, ed., Advances in Population Psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. Perspectives, vol. l, London London, city, Canada
London, city (1991 pop. 303,165), SE Ont., Canada, on the Thames River. The site was chosen in 1792 by Governor Simcoe to be the capital of Upper Canada, but York was made capital instead. London was settled in 1826. : Jessica JESSICA Java-Enable Single-System-Image Computing Architecture Kingsley Kings·ley , Charles 1819-1875.
British cleric and writer whose works include novels of social criticism, notably Alton Locke (1850), historical romances, such as Westward Ho! (1855), and a fairy tale, The Water Babies (1863). Publishers, 1994, pp. 207-227.
(15.) Bulatao R, Toward a framework for understanding contraceptive method choice, in: Bulatao R, Palmore J and Ward S, eds., Choosing a Contraceptive: Method Choice in Asia and the United States, Boulder Boulder, city, United States
Boulder, city (1990 pop. 83,312), seat of Boulder co., N central Colo.; inc. 1871. A Rocky Mountain resort and a suburb of Denver, it is the seat of the Univ. of Colorado (1876). , CO: Westview Westview may refer to: Places
(16.) Heise LL, Beyond acceptability: reorienting research on contraceptive choice, in: Ravindan TKS TKS Thanks
TKS Tokushima, Japan - Tokushima (Airport Code)
TKS Time Keeping System (GPS)
TKS Target Kill Simulator
TKS The Knox School (Victoria, Australia) , Berer M and Cottingham Cottingham can refer to two villages in England:
(17.) Nettleman MD et al., Reasons for unprotected intercourse: analysis of the PRAMS PRAMS Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System
PRAMS Passenger Reservation And Manifesting System survey, Contraception, 2007, 75(5):361-366.
(18.) Bartz D et al., Pregnancy intentions and contraceptive behaviors among adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. women: a coital co·i·tus
Sexual union between a male and a female involving insertion of the penis into the vagina.
[Latin, from past participle of co event level analysis, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2007, 41(3):271-276.
(19.) Kowaleski-Jones L and Mott FL, Sex, contraception and childbearing among high-risk high-risk adjective Referring to an ↑ risk of suffering from a particular condition Infectious disease Referring to an ↑ risk for exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which occurs with blood bank technicians, dental professionals, dialysis unit youth: do different factors influence males and females? Family Planning Perspectives, 1998, 30(4):163-169.
(20.) Speier Speier may refer to:
2. The law requires a man who has a claim to enforce it in proper time, while the adverse party has it in his power to defend himself; and if by his neglect to do so, he cannot afterwards establish such claim, the in adolescent females: a projective pro·jec·tive
1. Extending outward; projecting.
2. Relating to or made by projection.
3. Mathematics Designating a property of a geometric figure that does not vary when the figure undergoes projection. method for assessing ego development, Journal of Adolescent Health, 1997, 29(1):14-19.
(21.) Eldridge El·dridge , Roy David Known as "Little Jazz." 1911-1989.
American jazz musician who played trumpet with several swing bands in the 1940s and 1950s, including those of Artie Shaw and Benny Goodman. GD et al., Barriers to condom use and barrier method preferences among low-income African-American women, Women & Health, 1995, 23(1):73-89.
(22.) Sable sable, species of marten, Martes zibellina, found in Siberia, N European Russia, and N Finland. This carnivorous mammal is highly valued for its thick, soft fur, which is dark brown or black, sometimes with white underparts and sometimes flecked with silver. MR and Libbus MK, Beliefs concerning contraceptive acquisition and use among low-income women, Journal of Health Care Joe the Poor and Underserved, 1998, 9(3):262-275
(23.) Harvey Harvey, city (1990 pop. 29,771), Cook co., NE Ill., a suburb S of Chicago; inc. 1895. Its manufactures include steel castings, metal products, chemicals, machinery, and electronic equipment. Harvey has an oil research center. The city was founded by Turlington W. SM, Beckman Beckman or Beckmann may refer to:
(24.) Libbus MK and Arps CA, Beliefs related to the use of oral contraceptives by African American women, aged 18-35, Journal of National Black Nurses Association, 1997, 9(1):29-37.
(25.) Detzer MJ et al., Barriers to condom use among women attending Planned Parenthood Planned Parenthood
A service mark used for an organization that provides family planning services. clinics, Women & Health, 1995, 23(1):91-102.
(26.) Oakley Oak·ley , Annie 1860-1926.
American sharpshooter. She was the star attraction of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show.
Noun 1. Oakley - United States sharpshooter who was featured in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (1860-1926) D et al., Oral contraceptive use and protective behavior after missed pills, Family Planning Perspectives, 1997, 29(6):277 279 & 287.
(27.) Rosenberg Rosenberg (rō`zənbərg), city (1990 pop. 20,183), Fort Bend co., S Tex., on the Brazos River, in an oil and natural gas area; inc. 1902. Rosenberg and its sister city of Richmond are physically one community. MJ, Waugh Waugh , Evelyn (Arthur Saint John) 1903-1966.
British writer whose satirical novels, such as Decline and Fall (1928) and Vile Bodies (1930), lampoon high society. MS and Burnhill MS, Compliance, counseling and satisfaction with oral contraceptives: a prospective evaluation, Family Planning Perspectives, 1998, 30(2):89-92 & 104.
(28.) Sable MR, Libbus MK and Chiu JE, Factors affecting contraceptive use in women seeking pregnancy tests pregnancy test Any test used to detect or confirm pregnancy; in early pregnancy, all PTs measure hCG, the developing placenta's principal hormone, which is detectable as early as 6 days after fertilization; in clinical laboratories, serum levels of hCG are : Missouri Missouri, state, United States
Missouri (mĭzr`ē, –ə), one of the midwestern states of the United States. , 1997, Family Planning Perspectives, 2000, 32(3):124-131
(29.) Davies Da·vies , Arthur Bowen 1862-1928.
American painter who was the chief organizer of the revolutionary Armory Show in 1913. SL et al., Predictors of inconsistent contraceptive use among adolescent girls: findings from a prospective study, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2006, 39(1):43-49.
Raine is an emulator for arcade games, similar to MAME. In its current version, 0.50.5, Raine can emulate over 300 arcade games. T, Minnis AM and Padian NS, Determinants of contraceptive method among young women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, Contraception, 2003, 68(1):19-25.
(31.) Sayegh MA et al., The developmental association of relationship quality, hormonal contraceptive choice and condom non-use among adolescent women, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2006, 39(3):388-395.
(32.) Widman L et al., Sexual communication and contraceptive use in adolescent dating couples, Journal of Adolescent Health, 2006, 39(6):893-899.
(33.) Ford K, Sohn SOHN Society of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Nurses
SOHN Society of Occupational Health Nurses W and Lepkowski J, Characteristics of adolescents' sexual partners and their association with use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, Family Planning Perspectives, 2001, 33(3):100-105 & 132.
(34.) Zabin LS et al., Partner effects on a woman's intention to conceive: 'not with this partner, 'Family Planning Perspectives, 2000, 32(1):39-45.
(35.) Forrest For·rest , Nathan Bedford 1821-1877.
American Confederate general who was active at the battles of Shiloh (1862) and Chickamauga (1863). He was a founder and the first leader (1866-1869) of the Ku Klux Klan. JD and Frost JJ, The family planning attitudes and experiences of low-income women, Family Planning Perspectives, 1996, 28(6):246-255 & 277.
(36.) Unger Unger may refer to:
Mexican-born American chemist who shared a 1995 Nobel Prize for his work on the chemical processes involved in the formation and decomposition of ozone. GB, Contraceptive use among Latina Latina (lätē`nä), city (1991 pop. 106,203), capital of Latina prov., in Latium, central Italy, near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is an industrial, commercial, and agricultural center. Manufactures include tires, chemicals, and processed food. women: social, cultural, and demographic correlates, Women's Health Issues, 1998, 8(6):359-369.
(37.) Grady Grady is the name of more than one place in the United States:
(38.) Jones KR Oral contraception Noun 1. oral contraception - contraception achieved by taking oral contraceptive pills
contraception, contraceptive method - birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery : current use and attitudes, Contraception, 1999, 59(Suppi. 1):17S-20S.
(39.) Fu H et al., Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(2):56 63.
(40.) Ranjit N et al., Contraceptive failure in the first two years of use: differences across socioeconomic subgroups, Family Planning Perspectives, 2001, 33(1):19-27.
KOST (KOST 103.5 FM) is a radio station licensed to Los Angeles, California with a Soft AC musical format. It is owned by Clear Channel Communications. K et al., Estimates of contraceptive failure from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, Contraception, 2008, 77(1): 10-21.
(42.) Polaneczky M et al., Early experience with the contraceptive use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate med·rox·y·pro·ges·ter·one acetate
A progestin used to treat menstrual disorders and in hormone replacement therapy, often in combination with estrogen. in an inner-city inner city
The usually older, central part of a city, especially when characterized by crowded neighborhoods in which low-income, often minority groups predominate. clinic population, Family Planning Perspectives, 1996, 28(4):174-178.
(43.) Sable MR and Libbus MK, Pregnancy intention and pregnancy happiness: are they different? Maternal MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line. and Child Health Journal, 2000, 4(3):191-196.
(44.) Zabin LS, Ambivalent feelings about parenthood may lead to inconsistent contraceptive use-and pregnancy, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(5):250-251.
(45.) Bruckner Bruck·ner , Anton 1824-1896.
Austrian organist and composer whose major works include nine symphonies, a requiem (1848-1849), and Te Deum in C (1881).
Noun 1. H, Martin A and Bearman Bearman is the surname of:
This page or section lists people with the surname Bearman. PS, Ambivalence ambivalence (ămbĭv`ələns), coexistence of two opposing drives, desires, feelings, or emotions toward the same person, object, or goal. The ambivalent person may be unaware of either of the opposing wishes. and pregnancy: adolescents' attitudes, contraceptive use and pregnancy, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2004, 36(6):248-257.
(46.) Schwarz Schwarz is a common surname, derived from the German schwarz, meaning black. It may refer to: People
n. and correlates of ambivalence towards pregnancy among nonpregnant adj. 1. not pregnant; as, a drug approved only for use in nonpregnant females s>. Opposite of pregnant nt>.
Adj. 1. nonpregnant - not pregnant women, Contraception, 2007. 75(4):305-310.
(47.) Burkman RT, Clinical pearls: factors affecting reported contraceptive efficacy rates in clinical studies, International Journal of Fertility fertility: see infertility.
Ability of an individual or couple to reproduce through normal sexual activity. About 80% of healthy, fertile women are able to conceive within one year if they have intercourse regularly without contraception. and Women's Medicine, 2002, 47(4):153-161.
(48.) Trussell J and Vaughan Vaughan , Henry Known as "the Silurist." 1622-1695.
Welsh metaphysical poet whose works include Silex Scintillans (1650-1655).
Noun 1. B, Contraceptive failure, method-related discontinuation dis·con·tin·u·a·tion
A cessation; a discontinuance.
Noun 1. discontinuation - the act of discontinuing or breaking off; an interruption (temporary or permanent)
discontinuance and resumption RESUMPTION. To reassume; to promise again; as, the resumption of payment of specie by the banks is general. It also signifies to take things back; as the government has resumed the possession of all the lands which have not been paid for according to the requisitions of the law, and the of use: results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(2):64-72 & 93.
(49.) Frost JJ, Singh S and Finer LB, U.S. women's one-year adj. 1. completing its life cycle within a year.
Adj. 1. one-year - completing its life cycle within a year; "a border of annual flowering plants"
phytology, botany - the branch of biology that studies plants contraceptive use patterns, 2004, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2007, 39(1):48-55.
(50.) Frost JJ, Singh S and Finer LB, Factors associated with contraceptive use and nonuse, United States, 2004, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2007, 39(2):90-99.
(51.) Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, inc. is a pharmaceutical manufacturer based in Raritan, New Jersey, and a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. The company was formed from the merger of Ortho Pharmaceutical and McNeil Pharmaceutical in 1993. , Brief summary patient package inserts package insert Pharmacology A synopsis of key physicochemical, pharmacologic, clinical efficacy, and clinical safety properties of a prescription drug, bundled therewith, intended to be highly readable and helpful to clinicians looking for specific for ORTHO Tri-Cyclen tablets and ORTHO-Cyclen tablets, <http://www.ortho mcneilpharmaceutical.com/orthomcneilpharmaceutical/about/product_index.html> accessed Jan. 29, 2007.
(52.) Trussell J, Princeton University Princeton University, at Princeton, N.J.; coeducational; chartered 1746, opened 1747, rechartered 1748, called the College of New Jersey until 1896. Schools and Research Facilities
, Princeton Princeton, borough (1990 pop. 12,016) and surrounding township (1990 pop. 13,198), Mercer co., W central N.J.; settled late 1600s, borough inc. 1813, township est. 1838. A leading education center, it is the seat of Princeton Univ. , NJ, personal communication, Oct. 18, 2005.
(53.) Westfall PH and Wolfinger RD, Multiple tests with discrete A component or device that is separate and distinct and treated as a singular unit. distributions, American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of Statistician, 1997, 51(1):3-8.
(54.) Johnson K et al., Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 5 June 1981 issue of the MMWR published the cases of five men in what turned out to be the first report of AIDS. , 2006, Vol. 55, No. RR-6.
Author contact: email@example.com See .org.
(networking) org - The top-level domain for organisations or individuals that don't fit any other top-level domain (national, com, edu, or gov). Though many have .org domains, it was never intended to be limited to non-profit organisations.
* The proportion of pregnancies among contraceptive users that resulted from method failure was estimated by dividing the weighted average of perfect-use failure rates for all reversible contraceptive users by the weighted typical-use failure rate for all reversible users: 1.4/12.4=11.3% (sources: For perfect-use failure rate--Hatcher RA et al., Contraceptive Technology, 19th ed., New York: Ardent Media, 2007; for typical-use failure rate--Kost K et al, Estimates of contraceptive failure from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, Contraception, 2008, 77(1):10-21).
* Women were considered at risk of unintended pregnancy if, at the time of the survey, they had had heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. intercourse in the past year; were not pregnant, two months or less postpartum postpartum /post·par·tum/ (post-pahr´tum) occurring after childbirth, with reference to the mother.
Of or occurring in the period shortly after childbirth. , or trying to become pregnant; and were not sterile sterile /ster·ile/ (ster´il)
1. unable to produce offspring.
1. Not producing or incapable of producing offspring.
2. for either contraceptive or noncontraceptive reasons.
([dagger]) We calculated the net response rate by multiplying mul·ti·ply 1
v. mul·ti·plied, mul·ti·ply·ing, mul·ti·plies
1. To increase the amount, number, or degree of.
2. Mathematics To perform multiplication on. the completion rate (75%) by the household screening rate (60%), and multiplying the product by the participation rate of age-eligible women (95%). On the basis of households that completed screening, we estimated that 10% of the 48,000 likely households had an eligible woman present.
([double dagger double dagger
A reference mark () used in printing and writing. Also called diesis.
Noun 1. ]) Active pills are those that contain hormones Hormones
Chemicals produced by glands in the body that circulate in the blood and control the actions of cells and organs. Estrogens are hormones that affect breast cancer growth.
Mentioned in: Breast Cancer, Hypoparathyroidism . Women were asked "How many pills that you were supposed to take did you skip? (That is, how many of the hormone hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue. pills did you skip?)"
* The seven statements were "The people who work there make an effort to find out my needs"; "The health care I receive there is of good quality"; "The rooms and equipment are all clean"; "The staff who work there treat me with respect"; "Getting service there is orderly orderly /or·der·ly/ (or´der-le) an attendant in a hospital who works under the direction of a nurse.
An attendant in a hospital. and pleasant"; "I usually see the same doctor or clinician every time I go there"; and "If I have questions about my contraceptive method, I know I can call the office and talk to someone."
* We also conducted the method choice analyses using multinomial mul·ti·no·mi·al
[multi- + (bi)nomial.]
mul logistic regression, with the most commonly used method--oral contraceptives--as the reference category. The results closely matched those obtained using separate logistic regressions for each method, but were more cumbersome cum·ber·some
1. Difficult to handle because of weight or bulk. See Synonyms at heavy.
2. Troublesome or onerous.
cum to report and are not included here.
* We reran re·ran
Past tense and past participle of rerun. the regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set. predicting inconsistent condom use after excluding women who reported alternating between methods; the findings for all other predictors in the model remained the same.
Jennifer Jennifer became a common first name for females in English-speaking countries during the 20th century. The name Jennifer is a Cornish variant of Guinevere, deriving ultimately from Proto-Celtic *windo-seibaro- "white ghost", via Brythonic *wino-hibirā (cf. J. Frost is senior research associate, and Jacqueline Jacqueline, 1401–36, countess of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland (1417–33). The daughter and heiress of William IV, duke of Bavaria and count of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland, and of Margaret of Burgundy, Jacqueline was passed over for the succession to the E. Darroch is senior fellow, both with the Guttmacher Institute The Guttmacher Institute (formerly The Alan Guttmacher Institute) advances sexual and reproductive health in the United States and globally through an interrelated program of social science research, public education, and policy analysis. , New York.
TABLE 1. Percentage distribution of nonsterilized women 18-44 at risk of unintended pregnancy, by selected characteristics, Guttmacher Institute 2004 survey of women at risk and 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) Characteristic Survey of women NSFG (N = Unweighted Weighted 28,255,000) (N=1,978) ([dagger]) (N=1,978) Age 18-24 24.8 31.7 31.7 25-34 43.0 39.9 39.9 35-44 32.3 28.4 28.4 Marital status Married 61.0 48.0 48.0 Formerly married 8.3 10.1 10.0 Never-married 30.6 42.1 42.1 Race/ethnicity White 64.0 66.5 66.5 Hispanic 17.6 14.5 14.5 Black 11.5 12.9 12.9 Asian/other 7.0 6.1 6.1 % of federal poverty level <100 14.8 16.4 17.0 100-249 29.7 30.2 29.7 [greater than or equal to] 250 55.4 53.4 53.4 Parity 0 33.3 38.8 42.2 1 24.2 23.5 24.0 2 26.6 24.1 20.4 3 15.8 13.6 13.5 Desire to have (more) children Yes 49.5 53.5 55.1 No 41.7 38.1 42.8 Unsure 8.8 8.4 2.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 ([dagger]) Weighted by age, marital status, and race and ethnicity. TABLE 2. Percentage distribution of women using reversible contraceptives, by current method used, according to socioeconomic and partnership characteristics, and odds ratios from logistics regression analyses examining associations between characteristics and use of specific methods Characteristic N % Pill ALL 1,641 37.7 SOCIOECONOMIC Age 18-24 (ref) 533 41.1 25-34 672 38.2 35-44 436 32.9 ([dagger]) Race/ethnicity/nativity White (ref) 1,133 43.2 Hispanic, native-born 88 33.0 Hispanic, foreign-born 131 22.7 ([dagger]) Black 191 24.7 ([dagger]) Asian/other 96 23.2 ([dagger]) Education [greater than or equal to] college (ref) 575 47.8 Some college 592 35.8 ([dagger]) [less than or equal to] high school/GED 471 28.0 ([dagger]), ([double dagger]) % of federal poverty level <250 (ref) 830 31.9 [greater than or equal to] 250 810 43.7 ([dagger]) Insurance coverage Private only (ref) 1,129 42.9 Medicaid 290 22.4 ([dagger]) None 219 31.2 ([dagger]) PARTNERSHIP Union status Married (ref) 822 34.7 Cohabiting 333 39.3 Unmarried, not cohabiting 484 41.5 ([dagger]) Duration of relationship (in yrs.) >4 (ref) 917 33.0 2-4 281 44.8 ([dagger]) <2 288 42.4 ([dagger]) No relationship 155 44.2 ([dagger]) No. of partners in last year 1 (ref) 1,389 38.2 [greater than or equal to] 2 249 34.9 Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos. [greater than or equal to] 2 times/week (ref) 721 38.7 2-4 times/month 663 36.5 [greater than or equal to] once/month 235 38.6 Characteristic % Long-acting Condom ALL 17.9 32.3 SOCIOECONOMIC Age 18-24 (ref) 20.1 31.3 25-34 18.9 30.4 35-44 13.6 ([dagger]) 36.3 Race/ethnicity/nativity White (ref) 15.4 28.0 Hispanic, native-born 17.0 37.5 Hispanic, foreign-born 31.1 ([dagger]) 36.4 Black 26.3 ([dagger]) 43.2 ([dagger]) Asian/other 13.7 ([section]) 51.6 ([dagger]) Education [greater than or equal to] college (ref) 9.7 30.8 Some college 20.6 ([dagger]) 31.9 [less than or equal to] high school/GED 24.4 ([dagger]) 34.5 % of federal poverty level <250 (ref) 22.2 35.3 [greater than or equal to] 250 13.5 ([dagger]) 29.1 ([dagger]) Insurance coverage Private only (ref) 14.6 29.9 Medicaid 29.7 ([dagger]) 37.2 None 19.3 ([dagger]) 37.6 PARTNERSHIP Union status Married (ref) 18.0 31.1 Cohabiting 21.0 24.9 Unmarried, not cohabiting 15.5 39.3 ([dagger]), ([double dagger]) Duration of relationship (in yrs.) >4 (ref) 17.2 33.4 2-4 19.9 26.7 <2 17.7 31.9 No relationship 18.2 36.4 No. of partners in last year 1 (ref) 17.9 30.8 [greater than or equal to] 2 17.7 41.O ([dagger]) Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos. [greater than or equal to] 2 times/week (ref) 20.9 28.2 2-4 times/month 16.4 35.1 ([dagger]) [greater than or equal to] once/month 12.3 ([dagger]) 36.4 ([dagger]) Characteristic % Other Total ALL 12.1 100.0 SOCIOECONOMIC Age 18-24 (ref) 7.5 100.0 25-34 12.5 ([dagger]) 100.0 35-44 17.2 ([dagger]) 100.0 Race/ethnicity/nativity White (ref) 13.4 100.0 Hispanic, native-born 12.5 100.0 Hispanic, foreign-born 9.8 100.0 Black 5.8 ([dagger]) 100.0 Asian/other 11.6 100.0 Education [greater than or equal to] college (ref) 11.7 100.0 Some college 11.7 100.0 [less than or equal to] high school/GED 13.1 100.0 % of federal poverty level <250 (ref) 10.6 100.0 [greater than or equal to] 250 13.7 100.0 Insurance coverage Private only (ref) 12.6 100.0 Medicaid 10.7 100.0 None 11.9 100.0 PARTNERSHIP Union status Married (ref) 16.2 100.0 Cohabiting 14.7 100.0 Unmarried, not cohabiting 3.7 ([dagger]), 100.0 ([double dagger]) Duration of relationship (in yrs.) >4 (ref) 16.4 100.0 2-4 8.5 ([dagger]) 100.0 <2 8.O ([dagger]) 100.0 No relationship 1.3 ([dagger]), 100.0 ([double dagger]), ([section]) No. of partners in last year 1 (ref) 13.2 100.0 [greater than or equal to] 2 6.4 ([dagger]) 100.0 Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos. [greater than or equal to] 2 times/week (ref) 12.2 100.0 2-4 times/month 11.9 100.0 [greater than or equal to] once/month 12.7 100.0 Characteristic Odds ratio Pill Long-acting ALL na na SOCIOECONOMIC Age 18-24 (ref) 1.00 1.00 25-34 0.94 0.78 35-44 0.76 0.53 ** Race/ethnicity/nativity White (ref) 1.00 1.00 Hispanic, native-born 0.69 0.82 Hispanic, foreign-born 0.64 2.26 ** Black 0.53 ** 1.61 * Asian/other 0.46 ** 1.04 Education [greater than or equal to] college (ref) 1.00 1.00 Some college 0.64 ** 1.94 *** [less than or equal to] high school/GED 0.62 ** 1.79 ** % of federal poverty level <250 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 250 1.13 1.01 Insurance coverage Private only (ref) 1.00 1.00 Medicaid 0.52 ** 1.28 None 0.89 1.20 PARTNERSHIP Union status Married (ref) 1.00 1.00 Cohabiting 0.90 0.75 Unmarried, not cohabiting 0.87 0.57 * Duration of relationship (in yrs.) >4 (ref) 1.00 1.00 2-4 1.64 ** 1.24 <2 1.53 * 1.33 No relationship 1.91 * 1.66 No. of partners in last year 1 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 2 0.65 * 1.13 Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos. [greater than or equal to] 2 times/week (ref) 1.00 1.00 2-4 times/month 0.85 0.87 [greater than or equal to] once/month 0.92 0.49 ** Characteristic Odds ratio Condom Other ALL na na SOCIOECONOMIC Age 18-24 (ref) 1.00 1.00 25-34 1.17 1.54 35-44 1.57 * 2.10 ** Race/ethnicity/nativity White (ref) 1.00 1.00 Hispanic, native-born 1.75 * 0.88 Hispanic, foreign-born 1.32 0.41 * Black 1.98 *** 0.39 ** Asian/other 2.77 *** 0.59 Education [greater than or equal to] college (ref) 1.00 1.00 Some college 1.04 1.18 [less than or equal to] high school/GED 0.99 1.41 % of federal poverty level <250 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 250 0.78 1.19 Insurance coverage Private only (ref) 1.00 1.00 Medicaid 1.50 * 1.09 None 1.11 1.09 PARTNERSHIP Union status Married (ref) 1.00 1.00 Cohabiting 0.99 1.68 * Unmarried, not cohabiting 2.04 ** 0.48 Duration of relationship (in yrs.) >4 (ref) 1.00 1.00 2-4 0.62 * 0.63 <2 0.59 * 0.86 No relationship 0.52 * 0.21 * No. of partners in last year 1 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 2 1.43 1.16 Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos. [greater than or equal to] 2 times/week (ref) 1.00 1.00 2-4 times/month 1.52 ** 0.82 [greater than or equal to] once/month 1.34 1.98 * * p<.05. ** p<01. *** p<.001. ([dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in first row at p<.05. ([double dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in second row at p<.05. ([section]) Significantly different from percentage in third row at p<.05. Notes: Ns are weighted. Regressions include all variables listed in Table 3 (page 98). Long-acting methods are the injectable, patch, IUD, ring and implant. Other methods are withdrawal, periodic abstinence, spermicides and other barrier methods. Medicaid category includes women who are covered by both Medicaid and private insurance. na = not applicable. ref = reference group. TABLE 3. Percentage distribution of women using reversible contraceptives, by current method used, according to pregnancy-, method- and provider-related experiences and attitudes; and odds ratios from logistic regression analyses examining associations between experiences and attitudes and use of specific methods Experience or N % attitude Pill ALL 1,641 37.7 PREGNANCY Parity 0 (ref) 637 49.8 1 377 32.1 ([dagger]) [greater than or equal to] 2 626 28.8 ([dagger]) No. of unintended pregnancies 0 (ref) 976 43.9 [greater than or equal to] 1 664 28.8 ([dagger]) Importance of avoiding pregnancy Very (ref) 1,045 40.5 Somewhat 335 41.5 A little/not 261 21.9 ([dagger]), ([double dagger]) Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control Disagree/neutral (ref) 1,168 40.9 Agree 473 30.O ([dagger]) METHOD AND PROVIDER Reason for method use Mostly like method/both like and dislike (ref) 1,017 46.1 Mostly don't like other methods 624 24.1 ([dagger]) Would change method if cost were not an issue No (ref) 1,134 42.6 Yes 506 26.8 ([dagger]) Type of provider Private doctor (ref) 1,031 41.8 Clinic 472 38.0 None 137 6.6 ([dagger]), ([double dagger]) Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke) na na Characteristic % Long-acting Condom ALL 17.9 32.3 PREGNANCY Parity 0 (ref) 11.4 31.2 1 21.8 ([dagger]) 31.6 [greater than or equal to] 2 21.9 ([dagger]) 33.8 No. of unintended pregnancies 0 (ref) 12.6 33.2 [greater than or equal to] 1 25.6 ([dagger]) 30.9 Importance of avoiding pregnancy Very (ref) 18.8 33.7 Somewhat 17.3 25.7 ([dagger]) A little/not 15.0 35.0 Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control Disagree/neutral (ref) 17.7 31.9 Agree 18.2 33.2 METHOD AND PROVIDER Reason for method use Mostly like method/both like and dislike (ref) 21.9 21.9 Mostly don't like other methods 11.2 ([dagger]) 49.1 ([dagger]) Would change method if cost were not an issue No (ref) 19.6 27.0 Yes 13.8 ([dagger]) 44.0 ([dagger]) Type of provider Private doctor (ref) 16.8 28.8 Clinic 23.1 ([dagger]) 29.3 None 7.3 ([dagger]), 68.6 ([dagger]), ([double dagger]) ([double dagger]) Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke) na na Characteristic % Other Total ALL 12.1 100.0 PREGNANCY Parity 0 (ref) 7.5 100.0 1 14.6 ([dagger]) 100.0 [greater than or equal to] 2 15.5 ([dagger]) 100.0 No. of unintended pregnancies 0 (ref) 10.3 100.0 [greater than or equal to] 1 14.8 ([dagger]) 100.0 Importance of avoiding pregnancy Very (ref) 7.1 100.0 Somewhat 15.5 ([dagger]) 100.0 A little/not 28.1 ([dagger]), 100.0 ([double dagger]) Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control Disagree/neutral (ref) 9.5 100.0 Agree 18.6 ([dagger]) 100.0 METHOD AND PROVIDER Reason for method use Mostly like method/both like and dislike (ref) 10.0 100.0 Mostly don't like other methods 15.6 ([dagger]) 100.0 Would change method if cost were not an issue No (ref) 10.7 100.0 Yes 15.4 ([dagger]) 100.0 Type of provider Private doctor (ref) 12.6 100.0 Clinic 9.6 100.0 None 17.5 ([dagger]) 100.0 Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke) na na Characteristic Odds ratio Pill Long-acting ALL na na PREGNANCY Parity 0 (ref) 1.00 1.00 1 0.81 1.67 * [greater than or equal to] 2 0.70 1.97 ** No. of unintended pregnancies 0 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 1 0.73 * 2.10 *** Importance of avoiding pregnancy Very (ref) 1.00 1.00 Somewhat 0.96 0.91 A little/not 0.38 *** 0.77 Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control Disagree/neutral (ref) 1.00 1.00 Agree 0.96 0.82 METHOD AND PROVIDER Reason for method use Mostly like method/both like and dislike (ref) 1.00 1.00 Mostly don't like other methods 0.37 *** 0.42 *** Would change method if cost were not an issue No (ref) 1.00 1.00 Yes 0.58 *** 0.46 *** Type of provider Private doctor (ref) 1.00 1.00 Clinic 1.06 1.05 None 0.10 *** 0.33 ** Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke) 0.269 0.194 Characteristic Odds ratio Condom Other ALL na na PREGNANCY Parity 0 (ref) 1.00 1.00 1 0.87 1.20 [greater than or equal to] 2 0.87 1.19 No. of unintended pregnancies 0 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 1 0.66 ** 1.30 Importance of avoiding pregnancy Very (ref) 1.00 1.00 Somewhat 0.83 2.01 *** A little/not 1.14 4.42 *** Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control Disagree/neutral (ref) 1.00 1.00 Agree 0.82 1.91 *** METHOD AND PROVIDER Reason for method use Mostly like method/both like and dislike (ref) 1.00 1.00 Mostly don't like other methods 4.04 *** 1.42 * Would change method if cost were not an issue No (ref) 1.00 1.00 Yes 2.18 *** 1.90 *** Type of provider Private doctor (ref) 1.00 1.00 Clinic 0.90 0.97 None 4.71 *** 1.57 Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke) 0.267 0.217 * p<.05. ** p<.01. *** p<.001. ([dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in first row at p<.05. ([double dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in second row at p<.05. Notes: Ns are weighted. Regressions include all variables listed in Table 2. Long-acting methods are the injectable, patch, IUD, ring and implant. Other methods are withdrawal, periodic abstinence, spermicides and other barrier methods. na = not applicable. ref = reference group. TABLE 4. Percentage of women using oral contraceptives or condoms who reported inconsistent use, by socioeconomic and partnership characteristics, and odds ratios from logistic regression analyses examining associations between characteristics and inconsistent method use Characteristic Pill N % ALL 619 38.2 SOCIOECONOMIC Age 18-24 (ref) 219 44.7 25-34 257 34.5 35-44 143 35.0 Race/ethnicity/nativity White (ref) 490 37.3 Hispanic, native-born 29 43.3 Hispanic, foreign-born 30 36.7 Black 47 47.9 Asian/other 22 34.8 Education [greater than or equal to] college (ref) 275 38.8 Some college 212 35.8 [less than or equal to] high school 132 40.5 % of federal poverty level <250 (ref) 265 37.4 [greater than or equal to] 250 354 39.0 Insurance coverage Private only (ref) 485 39.2 Medicaid 65 38.5 None 68 30.9 PARTNERSHIP Union status Married (ref) 285 34.7 Cohabiting 131 34.4 Unmarried, not cohabiting 201 45.8 ([dagger]) Duration of relationship (in yrs.) >4 (ref) 303 33.4 2-4 126 38.9 -2 122 41.5 No relationship 68 52.2 ([dagger]) No. of partners in last year 1 (ref) 530 35.1 [greater than or equal to] 2 87 57.5 Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos. [greater than or equal to] 2 times/week (ref) 279 37.6 2-4 times/month 242 37.3 [less than or equal to] once/month 91 41.8 Characteristic Condom N % ALL 529 61.1 SOCIOECONOMIC Age 18-24 (ref) 167 62.0 25-34 204 63.2 35-44 158 57.2 Race/ethnicity/nativity White (ref) 317 59.0 Hispanic, native-born 33 63.6 Hispanic, foreign-born 48 81.3 ([dagger]) Black 82 63.4 Asian/other 49 49.0 ([section]) Education [greater than or equal to] college (ref) 177 61.9 Some college 189 57.7 [less than or equal to] high school 163 64.4 % of federal poverty level <250 (ref) 293 66.6 [greater than or equal to] 250 236 54.4 ([dagger]) Insurance coverage Private only (ref) 338 58.0 Medicaid 108 70.4 None 82 62.2 PARTNERSHIP Union status Married (ref) 256 63.7 Cohabiting 83 72.3 Unmarried, not cohabiting 190 53.2 ([double dagger]) Duration of relationship (in yrs.) >4 (ref) 306 63.6 2-4 75 50.7 -2 92 72.5 ([double dagger]) No relationship 56 42.9 ([dagger]), ([section]) No. of partners in last year 1 (ref) 427 60.2 [greater than or equal to] 2 102 64.7 Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos. [greater than or equal to] 2 times/week (ref) 203 67.0 2-4 times/month 233 59.2 [less than or equal to] once/month 86 53.5 Characteristic Odds ratio Pill Condom ALL na na SOCIOECONOMIC Age 18-24 (ref) 1.00 1.00 25-34 0.77 1.21 35-44 0.92 1.16 Race/ethnicity/nativity White (ref) 1.00 1.00 Hispanic, native-born 1.79 1.01 Hispanic, foreign-born 2.22 3.19 * Black 1.45 1.04 Asian/other 0.72 0.47 Education [greater than or equal to] college (ref) 1.00 1.00 Some college 0.82 0.78 [less than or equal to] high school 1.12 0.69 % of federal poverty level <250 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 250 1.04 0.76 Insurance coverage Private only (ref) 1.00 1.00 Medicaid 0.69 1.84 None 0.49 * 0.86 PARTNERSHIP Union status Married (ref) 1.00 1.00 Cohabiting 0.63 1.58 Unmarried, not cohabiting 0.84 0.80 Duration of relationship (in yrs.) >4 (ref) 1.00 1.00 2-4 1.15 0.63 -2 1.09 0.95 No relationship 1.57 0.62 No. of partners in last year 1 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 2 2.14 * 1.89 Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos. [greater than or equal to] 2 times/week (ref) 1.00 1.00 2-4 times/month 1.16 1.05 [less than or equal to] once/month 0.91 0.92 * p<.05. ([dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in first row at p<.05. ([double dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in second row at p<.05. ([section]) Significantly different from percentage in third row at p<.05. Notes: Women who reported having used more than one method were classified according to their most effective method. Inconsistent pill use is defined as missing one or more pills in prior three months; inconsistent condom use is defined as not using a condom at each sex in prior three months or putting the condom on late at least once. Ns are weighted. Regressions include all variables listed in Table 5. Medicaid category includes women who are covered by both Medicaid and private insurance. na = not applicable. ref = reference group. TABLE 5. Percentage of women using oral contraceptives or condoms who reported inconsistent use, by pregnancy-, method- and provider- related experiences and attitudes, and odds ratios from logistic regression analyses examining associations between experiences and attitudes and inconsistent method use Experience or attitude Pill N % ALL 619 38.2 PREGNANCY Parity 0 (ref) 318 42.6 1 121 41.3 [greater than or equal to] 2 180 28.3 ([dagger]) No. of unintended pregnancies 0 (ref) 429 38.0 [greater than or equal to] 1 191 38.4 Importance of avoiding pregnancy Very (ref) 423 39.0 Somewhat 139 38.1 A little/not 57 32.8 Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control Disagree/neutral (ref) 477 40.0 Agree 142 32.4 METHOD Dual method use No (ref) 431 35.7 [greater than or equal to] 2 methods together 130 40.5 [greater than or equal to] 2 methods switching 58 50.8 Duration of current method use (in yrs.) <2 144 48.6 2-4 175 34.9 ([dagger]) [greater than or equal to] 5 (ref) 296 34.8 ([dagger]) Satisfied with method in past year Completely (ref) 456 34.9 Not completely 161 48.1 ([dagger]) PROVIDER Type of provider Private doctor (ref) 431 37.4 Clinic 179 40.2 None 9 44.4 Satisfied with provider Very (ref) 403 33.5 Not very 216 46.8 ([dagger]) Usually see same clinician Yes/ no visit (ref) 514 35.6 No 106 50.9 ([dagger]) Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke) na na Experience or attitude Condom N % ALL 529 61.1 PREGNANCY Parity 0 (ref) 199 58.8 1 119 65.5 [greater than or equal to] 2 211 60.7 No. of unintended pregnancies 0 (ref) 205 63.4 [greater than or equal to] 1 324 57.6 Importance of avoiding pregnancy Very (ref) 352 57.7 Somewhat 86 58.6 A little/not 91 76.7 ([dagger]), ([double dagger]) Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control Disagree/neutral (ref) 372 57.3 Agree 157 70.1 ([dagger]) METHOD Dual method use No (ref) 384 49.0 [greater than or equal to] 2 methods together 51 82.4 ([dagger]) [greater than or equal to] 2 methods switching 94 98.91 ([dagger]), ([double dagger]) Duration of current method use (in yrs.) <2 163 68.7 2-4 130 59.7 [greater than or equal to] 5 (ref) 232 56.0 ([dagger]) Satisfied with method in past year Completely (ref) 242 55.4 Not completely 286 66.1 ([dagger]) PROVIDER Type of provider Private doctor (ref) 297 57.7 Clinic 138 67.6 None 94 61.7 Satisfied with provider Very (ref) 326 61.0 Not very 203 61.1 Usually see same clinician Yes/ no visit (ref) 431 60.3 No 98 64.6 Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke) na na Experience or attitude Odds ratio Pill Condom ALL na na PREGNANCY Parity 0 (ref) 1.00 1.00 1 1.06 1.04 [greater than or equal to] 2 0.50 * 0.82 No. of unintended pregnancies 0 (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 1 1.40 0.57 * Importance of avoiding pregnancy Very (ref) 1.00 1.00 Somewhat 1.16 0.92 A little/not 0.86 2.58 ** Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control Disagree/neutral (ref) 1.00 1.00 Agree 0.81 1.48 METHOD Dual method use No (ref) 1.00 1.00 [greater than or equal to] 2 methods together 1.26 6.33 *** [greater than or equal to] 2 methods switching 1.45 77.79 *** Duration of current method use (in yrs.) <2 1.78 * 1.91 * 2-4 0.89 1.42 [greater than or equal to] 5 (ref) 1.00 1.00 Satisfied with method in past year Completely (ref) 1.00 1.00 Not completely 1.56 * 1.91 ** PROVIDER Type of provider Private doctor (ref) 1.00 1.00 Clinic 1.01 1.39 None 0.43 1.43 Satisfied with provider Very (ref) 1.00 1.00 Not very 1.59 * 0.94 Usually see same clinician Yes/ no visit (ref) 1.00 1.00 No 1.67 * 0.99 Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke) 0.159 0.405 * p<.05. ** p<.Ol. *** p<.001. ([dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in first row at p<.05. ([double dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in second row at p<.05. Notes: Women who reported having used more than one method were classified according to their most effective method. Inconsistent pill use is defined as missing one or more pills in prior three months; inconsistent condom use is defined as not using a condom at each sex in prior three months or putting the condom on late at least once. Ns are weighted. Regressions include all variables listed in Table 4. na = not applicable. ref = reference group.