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Factors associated with contraceptive choice and inconsistent method use, United States, 2004.



The overwhelming majority of fertile fer·tile
adj.
1. Capable of conceiving and bearing young.

2. Fertilized. Used of an ovum.
, sexually active women of reproductive re·pro·duc·tive
adj.
1. Of or relating to reproduction.

2. Tending to reproduce.



reproductive

subserving or pertaining to reproduction.
 age in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  who do not want to become pregnant practice contraception contraception: see birth control.
contraception

Birth control by prevention of conception or impregnation. The most common method is sterilization. The most effective temporary methods are nearly 99% effective if used consistently and correctly.
 (89% in 2002). (1) Half of all unintended pregnancies--some 1.5 million annually-occur among contraceptive contraceptive /con·tra·cep·tive/ (-sep´tiv)
1. diminishing the likelihood of or preventing conception.

2. an agent that so acts.
 users; (2) of these, nine in 10 result from inconsistent Reciprocally contradictory or repugnant.

Things are said to be inconsistent when they are contrary to each other to the extent that one implies the negation of the other.
 or incorrect method use, and only one in 10 from method failure. *

Because contraceptive methods Noun 1. contraceptive method - birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery
contraception

birth control, birth prevention, family planning - limiting the number of children born
 differ in effectiveness and because consistent and correct use is often difficult, estimated perfect-use failure rates and typicabuse failure rates differ widely. For example, oral contraceptives Oral Contraceptives Definition

Oral contraceptives are medicines taken by mouth to help prevent pregnancy. They are also known as the Pill, OCs, or birth control pills.
 have a perfect-use failure rate of 0.3% and a typical-use failure rate of 8%; for condoms, rates are 2% and 15%. (3) Although failing to adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful

2.
 a medication's requirements can reduce its effectiveness, roughly half of people taking medication medication /med·i·ca·tion/ (med?i-ka´shun)
1. medicine (1).

2. impregnation with a medicine.

3. administration of a medicine or other remedy.
 do not take it as prescribed pre·scribe  
v. pre·scribed, pre·scrib·ing, pre·scribes

v.tr.
1. To set down as a rule or guide; enjoin. See Synonyms at dictate.

2. To order the use of (a medicine or other treatment).
. (4-6) It is therefore not surprising that many women and men have difficulty using contraceptives according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 methods' particular requirements. (7-10)

Which method a woman uses has important implications for how successful she will be in preventing pregnancy. Users should select methods that optimize optimize - optimisation  effectiveness and ease of use. Much of the early research on contraceptive choice focused on method acceptability, comparing what women said they value in a method (e.g., effectiveness, ease of use, and mild or no side effects Side effects

Effects of a proposed project on other parts of the firm.
) with the attributes of different methods. (11) Other research has evaluated method choice using decision-making decision-making,
n the process of coming to a conclusion or making a judgment.

decision-making, evidence-based,
n a type of informal decision-making that combines clinical expertise, patient concerns, and evidence gathered from
 theory and behavioral science behavioral science
n.
A scientific discipline, such as sociology, anthropology, or psychology, in which the actions and reactions of humans and animals are studied through observational and experimental methods.
, (12-14) or from a user perspective that includes multiple aspects of the context of women's lives. (15,16) Factors associated with contraceptive choice or effectiveness of use include women's personal characteristics and childbearing child·bear·ing
n.
Pregnancy and parturition.



childbearing adj.
 goals; (17-28) sexual relationship characteristics and partner influences; (23,26,28-37) social and economic characteristics; (30,35,36,38-41) community, family and peer relationships; (19,23,24,28,35,36) service access and provision; (28,35) and method-specific experiences and attitudes. (23,24,27,37,42) For example, women who are ambivalent am·biv·a·lent  
adj.
Exhibiting or feeling ambivalence.



am·biva·lent·ly adv.

Adj. 1.
 toward pregnancy or contraceptive use exhibit practices that increase their risk of unintended pregnancy. (17,43-46)

To date, however, most empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received"
 on method choice and efficacy has focused narrowly on young people, (18-20,29-33) low-income low-in·come
adj.
Of or relating to individuals or households supported by an income that is below average.
 individuals, (21,22,24,35) people from particular racial and ethnic groups, (23,24,36) and clinic-based samples, (25-28,42,47) and has investigated specific types of method use problems or specific methods. (21,23,24-27,38) The few nationally representative studies available have focused mainly on examining how contraceptive choice and efficacy are associated with basic demographic, socioeconomic so·ci·o·ec·o·nom·ic  
adj.
Of or involving both social and economic factors.


socioeconomic
Adjective

of or involving economic and social factors

Adj. 1.
 and relationship characteristics. (37,39-41,48)

In this article, we build upon prior research, presenting findings from the first nationally representative survey of U.S. women to include detailed data on contraceptive behavior and a broad range of explanatory ex·plan·a·to·ry  
adj.
Serving or intended to explain: an explanatory paragraph.



ex·plan
 factors. Analyses using these data have shown important associations between women's attitudes and experiences and their likelihood of experiencing periods of contraceptive nonuse while at risk for unintended pregnancy. (49,50) Here, we investigate factors associated with women's method choice and consistency of use among those using the most popular reversible reversible,
adj capable of going through a series of changes in either direction, forward or backward (e.g., reversible chemical reaction).

reversible hydrocolloid,
n See hydrocolloid, reversible.
 methods--the pill and the male condom 1. condom - The protective plastic bag that accompanies 3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the write protect tab, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of SEX but has also been shown to have a high failure . This information is critical for assessing how to improve contraceptive service provision and better support effective contraceptive use.

METHODS

Survey

In early 2004, trained female interviewers conducted telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,978 women who were aged 18-44 and at risk of unintended pregnancy. * Eligible women were identified through fist-assisted random digit dialing Random digit dialing (RDD) is a method for selecting people for involvement in telephone statistical surveys by generating telephone numbers at random. Random digit dialing has the advantage that it includes unlisted numbers that would be missed if the numbers were selected from a . Among an initial sample of nearly 95,000 telephone numbers, 51% were identified as likely households. Of these, 60% were screened for the presence of a woman aged 18-44; at the others, the person who answered the phone refused to participate in the screening (15%), failed to begin or complete the screening after multiple callbacks (23%) or could not communicate with the interviewer (2%).

Interviewers screened and interviewed participants in either English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is  or Spanish Spanish, river, c.150 mi (240 km) long, issuing from Spanish Lake, S Ont., Canada, NW of Sudbury, and flowing generally S through Biskotasi and Agnew lakes to Lake Huron opposite Manitoulin island. There are several hydroelectric stations on the river. , using a computer-assisted telephone interview system; on average, interviews lasted 30 minutes. Some 5,593 (20%) of the screened households included a woman aged 18-44, of whom, 95% were fully screened for study eligibility. A total of 2,670 eligible women were identified, and 2,000 completed interviews, for a completion rate of 75%. We excluded 22 surveys from analysis because the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  had had sterilising operations that they had not reported during screening. The net response rate among all women estimated to be eligible from sampled households was 43%. ([dagger])

Measures

* Contraceptive behavior. We defined current contraceptive use as use of a method in the month preceding the interview. Women who reported having used more than one method were classified according to their most effective method; long-acting adj. 1. active over a relatively long period of time.

Adj. 1. long-acting - active over a long period of time
long - primarily temporal sense; being or indicating a relatively great or greater than average duration or passage of time or a
 methods (i.e., the IUD IUD Definition

An IUD is an intrauterine device made of plastic and/or copper that is inserted into the womb (uterus) by way of the vaginal canal. One type releases a hormone (progesterone), and is replaced each year.
, implant implant /im·plant/ (im-plant´) to insert or to graft (tissue, or inert or radioactive material) into intact tissues or a body cavity. , injectable in·ject·a·ble
adj.
Capable of being injected. Used of a drug.

n.
A drug or medicine that can be injected.
 and patch) were considered the most effective, followed by oral contraceptives, male condoms and other methods (i.e., withdrawal, periodic abstinence abstinence: see fasting; temperance movements. , spermicides and other barrier methods). (1)

Current method users answered questions about consistency and correctness of use in the past three months, including frequency of use for coital-related methods (every time they had sex, most of the time, half the time, less than half the time or none of the time); occurrence of condoms' breaking, slipping or being put on late; number of missed pills; and reasons for inconsistent use. We created composite consistency measures for pill and condom users. Women who had not missed a single active pill in the past three months were considered consistent users; (4) variation in the time of day pills were taken was not included, because guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 for correct use focus only on missing pills (51) and mistiming mis·time  
tr.v. mis·timed, mis·tim·ing, mis·times
To time inaccurately or inappropriately; misjudge the timing of: The basketball team mistimed the final play and lost the game.
 of pills alone rarely results in conception. (52) Women whose partners had used a condom every time they had sex and had always put it on before beginning sexual contact were considered consistent users. We included the measure of correctness of use because it is essential to effectiveness and is within users' control. We did not include condom breakage or slippage Slippage

The difference between estimated transaction costs and the amount actually paid.

Notes:
Slippage is usually attributed to a change in the spread.
See also: Spread, Transaction Costs



Slippage
, because these events are not always due to users' actions. We did not collect consistency information for users of long-acting methods or periodic abstinence.

* Explanatory factors. Women answered questions about their socioeconomic and sexual partnership characteristics, and their method- and provider-related experiences and attitudes. Complete details about measurements of some explanatory factors have been published elsewhere (49,50) or are available from the authors.

Socioeconomic characteristics measured in the survey were women's age, race and ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , nativity Nativity
See also Christmas.

Neglectfulness (See CARELESSNESS.)

Nervousness (See INSECURITY.)

Bethlehem

birthplace of Jesus. [N.T.
 status (for Hispanic Hispanic Multiculture A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race Social medicine Any of 17 major Latino subcultures, concentrated in California, Texas, Chicago, Miam, NY, and elsewhere  respondents only, education, and poverty and health insurance status. For poverty status, we used federal eligibility criteria for subsidized sub·si·dize  
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.

2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy.
 family planning family planning

Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources.
 services to group women into two income categories: below 250% of the federal poverty level and at or above 250%; in 2002, 230% of poverty was equivalent to a total annual income of $45,250 for a family of four. For insurance status, those who had had both private insurance and Medicaid Medicaid, national health insurance program in the United States for low-income persons; established in 1965 with passage of the Social Security Amendments and now run by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.  coverage during the last year (3% of women) were combined with women who had had only Medicaid coverage.

Several sexual partnership characteristics were included: current union status, duration of current relationship, number of sexual partnerships in the prior year and frequency of intercourse INTERCOURSE. Communication; commerce; connexion by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, as by interchange of commodities, treaties, contracts, or letters.  in the prior three months. Other variables were investigated, but were not significant in exploratory regressions and were eliminated from the final models: women's assessment of the adequacy of partner communication about contraception, women's level of worry about HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States.  and AIDS, women's and their partners' desire for additional children and whether women's partners had ever insisted on sex in the past three months when they were not interested.

Pregnancy-related experiences and attitudes explored in the survey were parity parity or space parity, in physics, quantity that refers to the relationship between an object or process and the image that it can produce in a mirror. , experience of an unintended pregnancy, how important respondents felt it was to avoid becoming pregnant at the time (measured on a four-point scale ranging from very important to not at all important) and how strongly they agreed or disagreed with the statement "It doesn't does·n't  

Contraction of does not.
 matter whether I use birth control or not; when it is my time to get pregnant, it will happen" (measured on a five-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree).

To assess method-related experiences and attitudes, we asked about duration of use, how satisfied or dissatisfied dis·sat·is·fied  
adj.
Feeling or exhibiting a lack of contentment or satisfaction.



dis·satis·fied
 women were with their current method (measured on a five-point scale ranging from completely satisfied to completely dissatisfied) and what motivated mo·ti·vate  
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.



mo
 women's method choice. Two questions explored motivations underlying method choice: "Would you say that you are using [method] now mostly because you like this method or mostly because you don't don't  

1. Contraction of do not.

2. Nonstandard Contraction of does not.

n.
A statement of what should not be done: a list of the dos and don'ts.
 like the other methods available?" and "If you could use any birth control method available and you did not have to worry about cost, would you like to switch methods?" We combined the responses from two questions about the occurrence and patterns of dual or multiple contraceptive use to construct a measure that distinguishes between alternating or simultaneous use of more than one method in the prior month (no current dual or multiple method use, alternating dual or multiple method use and simultaneous dual or multiple method use).

In addition to asking women what type of provider they relied on for contraceptive or other women's health Women's Health Definition

Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues.
 care services (private doctor, clinic or no visit in the prior two years), we measured attitudes about provider experiences by asking women to rate, using a five-point Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc , how strongly they agreed or disagreed with seven statements about their last visit for such services. * We conducted a factor analysis and found that five items loaded together. These five items were grouped into a summary measure of provider satisfaction. The remaining two items were kept separate, and only one--whether women usually see the same doctor or clinician clinician /cli·ni·cian/ (kli-nish´in) an expert clinical physician and teacher.

cli·ni·cian
n.
 at each visit--was included in this analysis.

Analysis

We compared key demographic characteristics of our survey respondents with those of similar respondents to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (Table 1). Our respondents were slightly older, and greater proportions were married or Hispanic; we constructed sample weights that adjusted for these subgroup sub·group  
n.
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.

2. A subordinate group.

3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.

tr.v.
 differences, while maintaining the same total sample size for both weighted and unweighted data. Weighted data were used in all analyses presented here, which are limited to the 1,640 respondents who were using a reversible contraceptive method during the month in which they were surveyed.

All tabulations were performed using SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. , version 13. Bivariate bi·var·i·ate  
adj.
Mathematics Having two variables: bivariate binomial distribution.

Adj. 1.
 associations were tested using two-tailed Two-tailed may refer to:

In entomology:
  • Two-tailed Pasha, butterfly which can be seen only in the Mediterranean regions in August and September
  • Two-tailed Swallowtail, large North American butterfly
In other fields:
 t tests with significance of p [less than or equal to] .05. Tests were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni correction In statistics, the Bonferroni correction states that if an experimenter is testing n independent hypotheses on a set of data, then the statistical significance level that should be used for each hypothesis separately is 1/n  factor. (53) We performed two sets of multiple logistic regression In statistics, logistic regression is a regression model for binomially distributed response/dependent variables. It is useful for modeling the probability of an event occurring as a function of other factors.  analyses. In the first, we constructed separate models to assess predictors of use of four methods among all method users. In the second, we constructed models assessing predictors of inconsistent use among all women whose most effective method was the pill or condoms. *

RESULTS

Method Choice

In 2004, 38% of all women aged 18-44 using reversible methods were using oral contraceptives (Table 2); 18% were using other hormonal hormonal,
adj/n beneficial component in some essential oils that helps to bring hormone secretions to normal levels.


hormonal

emanating from or pertaining to hormones.
 or long-acting methods (7% injectable, 5% patch and 5% IUD), 32% male condoms and 12% other methods (6% periodic abstinence and 6% withdrawal). Twenty-nine percent of women reported using more than one method, and 41% had been using their method for at least five years (not shown). Thirty-seven percent of reversible method users, however, reported not being completely satisfied with their method; a similar proportion (38%) reported using their current method mostly because they disliked dis·like  
tr.v. dis·liked, dis·lik·ing, dis·likes
To regard with distaste or aversion.

n.
An attitude or a feeling of distaste or aversion.
 other options, and slightly fewer (31%) would change methods if not for the cost. Some 58% of women who were using condoms and 24% of those using the pill reported choosing those methods because they did not like other methods.

* Oral contraceptives. Socioeconomic and sexual partnership characteristics, as well as pregnancy- and method-related experiences and attitudes, were significantly associated with oral contraceptive oral contraceptive
n.
A pill, typically containing estrogen or progesterone, that prevents conception or pregnancy. Also called birth control pill.
 use in bivariate analyses. For example, a greater proportion of white women than of foreign-born for·eign-born
adj.
Foreign by birth; not native to the country in which one resides.

Adj. 1. foreign-born - of persons born in another area or country than that lived in; "our large nonnative population"
nonnative
 Hispanics, blacks, and Asians and other women were using the pill (43% vs. 23-25%; Table 2). Also, pill use was less common among women in relationships of more than four years' duration than among those in shorter relationships or not currently involved (33% vs. 42-45%). In addition, a greater proportion of women who had ever had an unintended pregnancy than of those who had not were using the pill (44% vs. 29%; Table 3). Furthermore, pill use was more common among women who felt that it was very important to avoid pregnancy than among those who felt it was not or only a little important (41% vs. 22%), and among women who disagreed with the statement that it does not matter whether one uses a method than among those who agreed (41% vs. 30%).

In multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model.  analyses, blacks and Asians and other women had half the odds of white women of using oral contraceptives (odds ratios, 0.5; Table 2); women who had no more than a high school education or some college were less likely than college graduates (0.6), and women covered by Medicaid were less likely than those with private insurance (0.5), to use the pill. In addition, pill use was positively associated with not currently being in a relationship of more than four years' duration (1.5-1.9), and negatively associated with having had two or more partners in the last year (0.7) and ever having had an unintended pregnancy (0.7; Table 3). Finally, compared with women who felt that it was very important to avoid pregnancy, women who felt that it was a little or not important had reduced odds of using the pill (0.4); pill use was also negatively associated with choosing a method mostly because of dislike of other options and wanting to change methods if cost were not an issue (0.4 and 0.6, respectively).

* Long-acting methods. All of the included socioeconomic characteristics were significantly associated with use of long-acting methods in bivariate analyses (Table 2). For example, 20% of 18-24-year-olds used long-acting methods, compared with 14% of women aged 35-44; greater proportions of blacks and foreign-born Hispanics than of whites used such methods (26-31% vs. 15%). However, only one sexual partnership characteristic was significant: Long-acting method use was more common among women who had sex two or more times a week than among those who had sex no more than once a month (21% vs. 12%). Greater proportions of women who had ever had an unintended pregnancy or a birth than of those who had not were using long-acting methods (22-26% vs. 11-13%; Table 3). And long-acting method use was less common among women who chose their method mostly because they disliked other options than among those who liked their method (11% vs. 22%) and among those who would change methods if cost were not an issue than among those who would not (14% vs. 20%).

After adjustment for all measured factors, black women and foreign-born Hispanics had higher odds than white women of using long-acting methods (odds ratios, 1.6 and 2.3, respectively; Table 2), and women who had no more than a high school education or some college had higher odds than college graduates of using such methods (1.8-1.9). Women aged 35-44 were less likely than 18-24-year-olds (0.5), women who were unmarried and not cohabiting were less likely than married women (0.6) and women who had sex once or less a month in the last three months were less likely than those who had sex two or more times a week (0.5) to use long-acting methods. In addition, women who had ever given birth or had ever had an unintended pregnancy had elevated odds of using long-acting methods (1.7-2.1; Table 3). Women who reported choosing their method mostly because they disliked other methods and those who would like to change their method if cost were not an issue were less likely than those who did not share these sentiments to be using long-acting methods (0.4-0.5).

* Male condoms. Condom use was more common among black women and Asians and other women than among whites (43-52% vs. 28%; Table 2), and among unmarried and noncohabiting women than among their married counterparts (39% vs. 31%). Also, compared with women who had had sex at least twice a week, greater proportions of women who had sex less frequently were using condoms 35-36% vs. 28%). In addition, condom use was more common among women who chose their method mostly because they disliked other options than among those who liked their method (49% vs. 22%; Table 3) and among those who would change methods if not for the cost than among those who would not (44% vs. 27%).

In multivariate analyses, the odds of using condoms were higher among women aged 35-44, minority groups other than foreign-born Hispanics, women on Medicaid, those who were unmarried and not cohabiting, and those who had had sex 2-4 times a month in the last three months (odds ratios, 1.5-2.8; Table 2). Women not currently in a relationship and those in relationships of less than four years' duration had reduced odds of using condoms (0.5-0.6), as did those who had ever had an unintended pregnancy (0.7; Table 3). Furthermore, condom use was positively associated with choosing the method mostly because of dislike of other methods (4.0) and with wanting to change methods if cost were not an issue (2.2).

* Other methods. Eight percent of 18-24-year-olds reported using other contraceptive methods (mostly periodic abstinence and withdrawal), compared with 13-17% of older women (Table 2); a smaller proportion of black women than of whites used such methods (6% vs. 13%). Other method use was least common among unmarried, noncohabiting women (4%) and those not in a current relationship (1%). In addition, use of other methods was associated with all of the pregnancy- and method-related factors: For example, use of other methods was more common among women who felt that it was not or only a little important to avoid pregnancy than among those who felt it was very important (16-28% vs. 7%; Table 3), and among women who chose their method mostly because they disliked other options than among those who liked their method (16% vs. 10%).

Mirroring the bivariate findings, in multivariate analyses, women's use of other contraceptive methods was positively associated with being aged 35-44, cohabiting and having sex once a month or less during the previous three months (odds ratios, 1.7-2.1; Table 2). Foreign-born Hispanic women and blacks were less likely than whites to use other methods (0.4 each), and women who were not currently in a relationship were less likely than those in a long-term Long-term

Three or more years. In the context of accounting, more than 1 year.


long-term

1. Of or relating to a gain or loss in the value of a security that has been held over a specific length of time. Compare short-term.
 relationship to use such methods (0.2). In addition, use of other methods was positively associated with not believing that it was very important to avoid pregnancy (2.0-4.4; Table 3), having a fatalistic fa·tal·ism  
n.
1. The doctrine that all events are predetermined by fate and are therefore unalterable.

2. Acceptance of the belief that all events are predetermined and inevitable.
 attitude toward pregnancy and birth control (1.9), choosing a method mostly because of dislike of other options (1.4) and wanting to change methods if not for the cost (1.9).

Inconsistent Method Use

* Oral contraceptives. Virtually all pill users (98%) reported having a reminder or routine to help them remember to take their pill every day. Yet, 38% (28-58% across subgroups; Tables 4 and 5) reported having missed at least one active pill in the prior three months: Eight percent had missed one, 11% two and 19% three or more (not shown). Some 71% of those who had missed a pill had simply forgotten to take it; 10% reported access problems (e.g., they did not have their pills with them), and 8% cited variations in their regular schedule.

At the bivariate level, women's socioeconomic characteristics were not associated with inconsistent pill use (Table 4); partnership characteristics and women's experiences and attitudes, however, were more important. For example, a greater proportion of women who had had two or more partners in the past year than of those who had only had one had used the pill inconsistently in·con·sis·tent  
adj.
1. Displaying or marked by a lack of consistency, especially:
a. Not regular or predictable; erratic: inconsistent behavior.

b.
 (58% vs. 35%). In addition, a smaller proportion of women with two or more children than of those who had had no children had used the pill inconsistently (28% vs. 43%; Table 5). Furthermore, inconsistent use of pills was more common among women who were not completely satisfied with their method than among those who were completely satisfied (48% vs. 35%), among women who were not very satisfied with their provider than among those who were (47% vs. 34%) and among women who usually did not see the same clinician at every visit than among those who did (81% vs. 36%).

In multivariate analyses, few background characteristics were significant predictors of inconsistent pill use. Women who had had two or more sexual partners in the past year had twice the odds of others of using the pill inconsistently (odds ratio, 2.1; Table 4); women without health insurance had half the odds of those with private insurance, and women who had had two or more births had half the odds of those who had had none, of inconsistent use. Women's method- and provider-related experiences, however, were more important. Inconsistent pill use was positively associated with having used the method for less than two years (1.8; Table 5), being not completely satisfied with the method or not very satisfied with a provider (1.6 each) and not usually seeing the same clinician (1.7).

* Male condoms. Among women who reported condoms as their primary or most effective method, 81% reported using one at last sex; 51% had used one every time they had sex in the prior three months, 28% had used one most of the time, and 21% had done so no more than half the time. Twenty-eight percent of women relying on condoms reported at least one time in the prior three months when a condom was put on after sex had started. Overall, 61% of users had not used the method every time they had sex or had put it on after beginning sex at least once in the prior three months (Table 4).

The most common reason for not using a condom consistently was not having a condom available or not expecting to have sex (23%; not shown). Some 10-12% of women reported irregular HEIR, IRREGULAR. In Louisiana, irregular heirs are those who are neither testamentary nor legal, and who have been established by law to take the succession. See Civ. Code of Lo. art. 874.  use because they or their partner did not want to use a condom, they got "carried away" or they thought it was the safe time of the month.

In bivariate comparisons, a greater proportion of foreign-born Hispanic women than of whites used condoms inconsistently (81% vs. 59%; Table 4). In addition, inconsistent use of condoms was more common among women who felt that avoiding pregnancy was only a little or not important than among those who thought it was very important (77% vs. 58%; Table 5), among women who were using multiple methods than among those who were using only the condom (82-99% vs. 99%), among women who had been using condoms for less than two years than among those using the method five or more years (69% vs. 56%), and among women who were not completely satisfied with the method than among those who were (66% vs. 55%).

In multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.

multivariate analysis,
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously.
, only one background characteristic--race and ethnicity--was associated with inconsistent condom use: Foreign-born Hispanic women had more than three times the odds of whites of using condoms inconsistently (odds ratio, 3.2; Table 4). And unlike inconsistent pill use, inconsistent condom use was associated with women's experiences with unintended pregnancy and attitudes about pregnancy: Having had an unintended pregnancy was negatively associated with using condoms inconsistently (0.6; Table 5), and believing that avoiding pregnancy was only a little or not important was positively associated with inconsistent use (2.6). But like inconsistent pill use, inconsistent condom use was positively associated with using the method for fewer than two years and with being not completely satisfied with it (1.9 each).

Finally, among the 18% of condom users who reported alternating between condoms and other less effective methods, almost all reported not using condoms all the time-resulting in extremely elevated odds of inconsistent use (odds ratio, 77.8). However, even among the 10% of condom users who reported simultaneously using condoms with another method, the odds of inconsistent use were elevated (6.3). *

Nonsignificant non·sig·nif·i·cant  
adj.
1. Not significant.

2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for being of random occurrence.
 Findings

In preliminary analyses, several additional variables had associations, in the expected directions, with the dependent variables. For example, a greater proportion of women who were worried about their risk of contracting HIV than of those who were not worried were using condoms (37% vs. 30%). In addition, use of long-acting methods was more common among women who felt that communication with their partner about contraception was inadequate or who reported that their partners insisted on sex when they were not interested than among others (29% vs. 17% for both variables); inconsistent pill use also was more common among women reporting unwelcome sex than among others (99% vs. 36%). Typically, these characteristics were also strongly associated with other variables in our model (e.g., race and ethnicity or marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state.
) and therefore had no association with method choice or consistency of use in a multivariate model. Measures of women's and their partners' expectations for additional childbearing, including a category for those who were unsure or who reported disagreement with their partners, were not associated with method choice or consistency of use in either bivariate or multivariate analyses.

DISCUSSION

Success in preventing unintended pregnancies requires long periods of effective contraceptive use; success, however, is also influenced by method type and adherence adherence /ad·her·ence/ (ad-her´ens) the act or condition of sticking to something.

immune adherence
 to the method's requirements for consistent and correct use. Many women of reproductive age and their partners who have had all the children they want choose sterilization sterilization

Any surgical procedure intended to end fertility permanently (see contraception). Such operations remove or interrupt the anatomical pathways through which the cells involved in fertilization travel (see reproductive system).
 (47% of women aged 40-44 rely on this method). (1) Others, including all couples who think they might want to have a child or another child, must choose among reversible contraceptive methods--a choice often driven by women's socioeconomic, demographic and partnership characteristics.

Women who choose long-acting methods have the lowest probability of experiencing method failure. (10,41) Not surprisingly, in this study, reversible method users who were strongly motivated to avoid method failure because they had had an unintended pregnancy or had already had children were more likely than others to choose these methods. The association of long-acting method use with disadvantage In policy debate, a disadvantage (abbreviated as DA, and sometimes referred to as a Disad) is an argument that a team brings up against a policy action that is being considered. Structure
A DA usually has four key elements.
 (low education and minority race or ethnicity) is likely influenced by a number of factors, including familiarity with these methods and their availability from publicly funded clinics. On the other hand, disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.

Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007.
 women were less likely than others to choose oral contraceptives, reflecting the greater likelihood of minority women's using long-acting methods or condoms, as well as the greater likelihood of privately insured women's choosing the pill. Women were more likely to choose condoms if they were unmarried, and were more likely to choose periodic abstinence or withdrawal if they were aged 35 or older or had infrequent in·fre·quent  
adj.
1. Not occurring regularly; occasional or rare: an infrequent guest.

2.
 sex; these findings at least partially reflect differing contraceptive needs during different types or phases of partnerships.

Although variation in method choice may reflect differences in the availability of methods from the providers serving different groups of women, it may also reflect access issues related to differing costs of methods. The likelihood of using condoms or other methods was elevated among women who reported not liking other options and those who would have switched methods if not for the cost. Dislike of and dissatisfaction with methods, as well as lack of access to the full range of methods, may steer steer

castrated male cattle beast over a year of age. See also bullock, buller steer.


steer bulling
see bulling.


steer Medtalk verb
 some women-particularly those who are disadvantaged-toward methods that typically have relatively high use-failure rates. These associations are consistent with prior findings about subgroups of women more likely to have unintended pregnancies. (2)

Clearly, there is a need for continued contraceptive research and development to expand method options. In addition, to ensure that all women are able to choose a method unhindered unhindered
Adjective

not prevented or obstructed: unhindered access

Adverb

without being prevented or obstructed: he was able to go about his work unhindered 
 by cost, continued and increased funding for public-sector family planning programs is needed, as well as coverage of all available methods within private health insurance plans.

In our analyses, few socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were associated with consistency of use; however, attitudes toward and experience with pregnancy were strongly associated with both method choice and consistency of use. Weaker motivation to avoid pregnancy was linked to choosing less effective methods and inconsistent method use, both of which are likely to lead to reduced success in pregnancy prevention. This is consistent with prior results showing a strong association between women's motivation to avoid pregnancy and gaps in contraceptive use. (50) Federal guidelines for improving preconception pre·con·cep·tion  
n.
An opinion or conception formed in advance of adequate knowledge or experience, especially a prejudice or bias.

Noun 1.
 care recommend that primary care visits for all women of reproductive age routinely include risk assessment and counseling about current pregnancy intentions, with a goal of providing contraceptives to women who do not intend to conceive conceive /con·ceive/ (kon-sev´)
1. to become pregnant.

2. take in, grasp, or form in the mind.


con·ceive
v.
1. To become pregnant.

2.
 and of promoting preconception care strategies if and when women want to become pregnant. (54) Information about the association between weak motivation to avoid pregnancy and contraceptive behaviors likely linked with unintended pregnancy should be included in such counseling--as well as in other venues where pregnancy prevention is discussed--to help women with ambivalent attitudes to understand their elevated risk of pregnancy while using contraceptives and to plan appropriately, with either more vigilant contraceptive practice, preconception care or both. Additional research exploring how and why women using contraceptives vary in their attitudes about pregnancy prevention would be useful.

Initiation initiation, the transition and attendant ceremonies, such as ordeals and rites, involved in passing from one state or status to another, often from childhood to adulthood. It was among the most important social institutions of early humans.  of long-acting contraceptives and pills requires contact with a medical provider, and this contact can have long-term implications for successful method use. Women using oral contraceptives were more likely to take their pills consistently if they were very satisfied with their provider and if they usually saw the same clinician than otherwise. Users of coitus-related methods may need both information and education about relative effectiveness of method choices and more support for successful use. Our finding of a higher level of inconsistent use among condom users than among pill users is consistent with higher use-failure rates seen in national data, (39,41) and suggests that perfect use is more difficult with coitus-related methods like the condom. In addition, less consistent method use in the first two years indicates the need tot interventions that help women establish good method-use behaviors in the initial months of use.

Many couples use more than one method. In our study, the fact that women who simultaneously used condoms and another less effective method had elevated odds of inconsistent condom use suggests that it is important for clinicians and others counseling women to discuss strategies for successful dual method use. Counselors need to emphasize the importance of consistent and correct use of all methods, regardless of whether the methods are used tot pregnancy prevention, STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country.  prevention or both.

Study Limitations

Our study had several limitations. Our measures of inconsistent use for women who were using two or more methods--particularly those using condoms--do not necessarily reflect inconsistent contraceptive coverage. We tried to control for this by separating condom users into those who were alternating between using the condom and another method (18%), those using the condom and another method simultaneously (10%) and those using the condom alone (72%). For those who alternated methods, however, we had no information regarding whether they used at least one method every time they had intercourse. This may have resulted in an overstatement o·ver·state  
tr.v. o·ver·stat·ed, o·ver·stat·ing, o·ver·states
To state in exaggerated terms. See Synonyms at exaggerate.



o
 of inconsistent total use among some women, but did not affect our conclusions regarding which factors are associated with inconsistent use (the same predictors were significant in a model that excluded women reporting alternating method use). In addition, for some method combinations (e.g., condoms plus periodic abstinence), the distinction between alternating and simultaneous use may not have been reported consistently by all respondents.

Response error, recall bias and nonresponse bias also may have affected our results; these limitations and our efforts to mitigate mit·i·gate
v.
To moderate in force or intensity.



miti·gation n.
 them have been discussed in detail previously. (49,50) In particular, our analyses may have been affected by reporting bias related to consistency of use. Women typically report fewer episodes of inconsistent method use than electronic monitoring identifies. (6,27) It is not clear whether or how our consistency results might have been affected by underestimation of the dependent variable.

Finally, because we used cross-sectional cross section also cross-sec·tion
n.
1.
a. A section formed by a plane cutting through an object, usually at right angles to an axis.

b. A piece so cut or a graphic representation of such a piece.

2.
, retrospective LAW, RETROSPECTIVE. A retrospective law is one that is to take effect, in point of time, before it was passed.
     2. Whenever a law of this kind impairs the obligation of contracts, it is void. 3 Dall. 391.
 data, we could not determine whether women's attitudes and experiences preceded their method choice or their recent inconsistent use. However, we believe that women's reports of their attitudes and experiences likely reflect (and can be used as a proxy for) attitudes and experiences that were relevant at the time they chose their current method or used it inconsistently.

Conclusion

The high levels of unintended pregnancy seen in national data among contraceptive users (2) and the parallel high levels of inconsistent method use reported by women in this study are troubling, but not surprising. Our findings suggest that certain groups of women--those less motivated to prevent pregnancy or less satisfied with contraceptive choices, for example--may be at high risk of contraceptive failure, because of both their choice of less effective methods and their inconsistent use. Providers may need to pay greater attention to women who use nonprescription non·pre·scrip·tion
adj.
Sold legally without a physician's prescription; over-the-counter.
 methods, offering them instruction and support for consistent use. Given the inherent difficulty of using any method consistently and correctly over one's entire reproductive life, providers should counsel all women on an ongoing basis--not just when they are beginning method use--about using backup methods, including emergency contraception Emergency Contraception Definition

Emergency contraception or emergency birth control uses either emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) or a Copper-T intrauterine device (IUD) to help prevent pregnancy following unprotected vaginal intercourse.
, using dual methods or avoiding sex whenever they have been inconsistent in their use of hormonal methods.

The paths to improvement include helping women and their partners choose methods they like, facilitating contraceptive users' switching between methods and supporting their use of more effective methods. They also include expanding the contraceptive options that are available and accessible to potential users and extending the mandate of contraceptive care beyond method provision to include ongoing support and assessment of contraceptive needs throughout women's reproductive lives. This is a role for contraceptive providers, as well as for others who provide information, education and counseling about sexuality and reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene .

Acknowledgments See About this product.  

The authors thank Susheela Singh For the fictional global crime syndicate, see .
Singh is a Sanskrit word meaning "lion". It is used as a common surname and middle name in North India by many communities, especially by the Sikhs and the Rajputs.
 for helpful comments on drafts of this article; interviewers and programmers This is a list of programmers notable for their contributions to software, either as original author or architect, or for later additions.

See also: Game programmer, List of computer scientists

 at Field Research Corp. for their effort in carrying out the survey fieldwork field·work  
n.
1. A temporary military fortification erected in the field.

2. Work done or firsthand observations made in the field as opposed to that done or observed in a controlled environment.

3.
; the project expert advisory panel; and Theresa Camelo, Alison Alison

betrays old husband amusingly with her lodger, Nicholas. [Br. Lit.: Canterbury Tales, “Miller’s Tale”]

See : Adultery
 Purcell Pur·cell   , Henry 1659?-1695.

English composer and the leading musical figure of the baroque style in England.

Noun 1. Purcell - English organist at Westminster Abbey and composer of many theatrical pieces (1659-1695)
, Junhow Wei Wei, river, China
Wei (wā), river, c.450 mi (720 km) long, rising in SE Gansu prov. and flowing E through Gansu and Shaanxi provs. to the Huang He.
 and Lori Lo´ri

n. 1. (Zool.) Same as Lory.
 Frohwirth for their research assistance. This study was supported by grant HD42426 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. The conclusions expressed here are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the funded:

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(1.) Mosher A mosher is a person who is crossed between goth/punk/skater they have long hair and listen to music like slipknot and metal music. Some people call them headbangers. At certain music shows they have something called a mosh pit, basically its a fight pit with loads of people bashing each other.  Wet al, Use of contraception and use of family planning services in the United States, 1982-2002, Advance Data from Vital Statistics, 2004, No. 350, p. 18, Table 4.

(2.) Finer LB and Henshaw Henshaw may refer to:

People with the surname Henshaw:
  • Alex Henshaw, British test pilot
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  • David Henshaw (1791-1852), 14th United States Secretary of the Navy
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b. The cover for such an opening.

c. A hatchway.

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Having several levels: a multilevel parking garage.

Adj. 1. multilevel - of a building having more than one level
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(7.) Potter A potter is someone who makes pottery.

Potter may also refer to: People
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  • Potter, Beatrix (1866–1943), British children's writer
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Canadian jazz pianist. A prolific recording artist noted for his technical skill, he is best known for work produced with his own trio (1953-1965).
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(9.) Branden PS, Contraceptive choice and patient compliance: the health care provider's challenge, Journal of Nurse Midwifery midwifery (mĭd`wī'fərē), art of assisting at childbirth. The term midwife for centuries referred to a woman who was an overseer during the process of delivery. In ancient Greece and Rome, these women had some formal training. , 1998, 43(6):471-482.

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A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future in more certain terms than a forecast.
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(14.) Severy Sev´er`y

n. 1. (Arch.) A bay or compartment of a vaulted ceiling.
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adj.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior.
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London, city (1991 pop. 303,165), SE Ont., Canada, on the Thames River. The site was chosen in 1792 by Governor Simcoe to be the capital of Upper Canada, but York was made capital instead. London was settled in 1826.
: Jessica JESSICA Java-Enable Single-System-Image Computing Architecture  Kingsley Kings·ley   , Charles 1819-1875.

British cleric and writer whose works include novels of social criticism, notably Alton Locke (1850), historical romances, such as Westward Ho! (1855), and a fairy tale, The Water Babies (1863).
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(15.) Bulatao R, Toward a framework for understanding contraceptive method choice, in: Bulatao R, Palmore J and Ward S, eds., Choosing a Contraceptive: Method Choice in Asia and the United States, Boulder Boulder, city, United States
Boulder, city (1990 pop. 83,312), seat of Boulder co., N central Colo.; inc. 1871. A Rocky Mountain resort and a suburb of Denver, it is the seat of the Univ. of Colorado (1876).
, CO: Westview Westview may refer to: Places
Canada
  • Westview Village (Edmonton), Alberta, a mobile home park
United States
  • Westview, Florida
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(16.) Heise LL, Beyond acceptability: reorienting research on contraceptive choice, in: Ravindan TKS TKS Thanks
TKS Tokushima, Japan - Tokushima (Airport Code)
TKS Time Keeping System (GPS)
TKS Target Kill Simulator
TKS The Knox School (Victoria, Australia) 
, Berer M and Cottingham Cottingham can refer to two villages in England:
  • Cottingham, East Riding of Yorkshire
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PRAMS Passenger Reservation And Manifesting System
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(18.) Bartz D et al., Pregnancy intentions and contraceptive behaviors among adolescent ad·o·les·cent
adj.
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.

n.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager.
 women: a coital co·i·tus  
n.
Sexual union between a male and a female involving insertion of the penis into the vagina.



[Latin, from past participle of co
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(19.) Kowaleski-Jones L and Mott FL, Sex, contraception and childbearing among high-risk high-risk adjective Referring to an ↑ risk of suffering from a particular condition Infectious disease Referring to an ↑ risk for exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which occurs with blood bank technicians, dental professionals, dialysis unit  youth: do different factors influence males and females? Family Planning Perspectives, 1998, 30(4):163-169.

(20.) Speier Speier may refer to:

People

  • Chris Speier (born 1950), former baseball player and former third base coach for the Chicago Cubs
  • Jackie Speier, former Democratic member of the California State Senate
 PL et al., Predicting contraceptive vigilance VIGILANCE. Proper attention in proper time.
     2. The law requires a man who has a claim to enforce it in proper time, while the adverse party has it in his power to defend himself; and if by his neglect to do so, he cannot afterwards establish such claim, the
 in adolescent females: a projective pro·jec·tive  
adj.
1. Extending outward; projecting.

2. Relating to or made by projection.

3. Mathematics Designating a property of a geometric figure that does not vary when the figure undergoes projection.
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(21.) Eldridge El·dridge   , Roy David Known as "Little Jazz." 1911-1989.

American jazz musician who played trumpet with several swing bands in the 1940s and 1950s, including those of Artie Shaw and Benny Goodman.
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(22.) Sable sable, species of marten, Martes zibellina, found in Siberia, N European Russia, and N Finland. This carnivorous mammal is highly valued for its thick, soft fur, which is dark brown or black, sometimes with white underparts and sometimes flecked with silver.  MR and Libbus MK, Beliefs concerning contraceptive acquisition and use among low-income women, Journal of Health Care Joe the Poor and Underserved, 1998, 9(3):262-275

(23.) Harvey Harvey, city (1990 pop. 29,771), Cook co., NE Ill., a suburb S of Chicago; inc. 1895. Its manufactures include steel castings, metal products, chemicals, machinery, and electronic equipment. Harvey has an oil research center. The city was founded by Turlington W.  SM, Beckman Beckman or Beckmann may refer to:
  • Arnold O. Beckman, American chemist
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  • Beckman Coulter, a biomedical laboratory instruments company founded by Arnold O.
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A service mark used for an organization that provides family planning services.
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American sharpshooter. She was the star attraction of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show.

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British writer whose satirical novels, such as Decline and Fall (1928) and Vile Bodies (1930), lampoon high society.
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Missouri (mĭzr`ē, –ə), one of the midwestern states of the United States.
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(29.) Davies Da·vies   , Arthur Bowen 1862-1928.

American painter who was the chief organizer of the revolutionary Armory Show in 1913.
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(30.) Raine
For people named Raine, see Raine (surname)


Raine is an emulator for arcade games, similar to MAME. In its current version, 0.50.5, Raine can emulate over 300 arcade games.
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(33.) Ford K, Sohn SOHN Society of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Nurses
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(36.) Unger Unger may refer to:
  • Unger (bishop of Poland) (died 1012), bishop of Poland, since 1000 bishop of Poznan
  • Unger, West Virginia
  • Unger Island, a small, ice-free island of Antarctica
Unger is a surname of German derivation, and may refer to:
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Mexican-born American chemist who shared a 1995 Nobel Prize for his work on the chemical processes involved in the formation and decomposition of ozone.
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(37.) Grady Grady is the name of more than one place in the United States:
  • Grady, Alabama
  • Grady, Arkansas
  • Grady, New Mexico
  • Grady County, Georgia
  • Grady County, Oklahoma
Grady is also the name of some people of note:
  • Grady Steven Norris - U.S.
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(38.) Jones KR Oral contraception Noun 1. oral contraception - contraception achieved by taking oral contraceptive pills
contraception, contraceptive method - birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery
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(39.) Fu H et al., Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(2):56 63.

(40.) Ranjit N et al., Contraceptive failure in the first two years of use: differences across socioeconomic subgroups, Family Planning Perspectives, 2001, 33(1):19-27.

(41.) Kost
See Kost (disambiguation) for other places with similar names.


KOST (KOST 103.5 FM) is a radio station licensed to Los Angeles, California with a Soft AC musical format. It is owned by Clear Channel Communications.
 K et al., Estimates of contraceptive failure from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, Contraception, 2008, 77(1): 10-21.

(42.) Polaneczky M et al., Early experience with the contraceptive use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate med·rox·y·pro·ges·ter·one acetate
n.
A progestin used to treat menstrual disorders and in hormone replacement therapy, often in combination with estrogen.
 in an inner-city inner city
n.
The usually older, central part of a city, especially when characterized by crowded neighborhoods in which low-income, often minority groups predominate.
 clinic population, Family Planning Perspectives, 1996, 28(4):174-178.

(43.) Sable MR and Libbus MK, Pregnancy intention and pregnancy happiness: are they different? Maternal MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line.  and Child Health Journal, 2000, 4(3):191-196.

(44.) Zabin LS, Ambivalent feelings about parenthood may lead to inconsistent contraceptive use-and pregnancy, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(5):250-251.

(45.) Bruckner Bruck·ner   , Anton 1824-1896.

Austrian organist and composer whose major works include nine symphonies, a requiem (1848-1849), and Te Deum in C (1881).

Noun 1.
 H, Martin A and Bearman Bearman is the surname of:
  • Greg Bearman, Canadian Football League player
  • Peter Bearman, American sociologist
See also
  • Noah Baerman

This page or section lists people with the surname Bearman.
 PS, Ambivalence ambivalence (ămbĭv`ələns), coexistence of two opposing drives, desires, feelings, or emotions toward the same person, object, or goal. The ambivalent person may be unaware of either of the opposing wishes.  and pregnancy: adolescents' attitudes, contraceptive use and pregnancy, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2004, 36(6):248-257.

(46.) Schwarz Schwarz is a common surname, derived from the German schwarz, meaning black. It may refer to: People
  • Alan Schwarz (born 1968), American writer
  • Barbara Schwarz
  • Berthold Schwarz, Franciscan monk
  • Brinsley Schwarz (musician), English guitarist
 EB et al., Prevalence prevalence /prev·a·lence/ (prev´ah-lins) the number of cases of a specific disease present in a given population at a certain time.

prev·a·lence
n.
 and correlates of ambivalence towards pregnancy among nonpregnant adj. 1. not pregnant; as, a drug approved only for use in nonpregnant females s>. Opposite of pregnant nt>.

Adj. 1. nonpregnant - not pregnant
 women, Contraception, 2007. 75(4):305-310.

(47.) Burkman RT, Clinical pearls: factors affecting reported contraceptive efficacy rates in clinical studies, International Journal of Fertility fertility: see infertility.
fertility

Ability of an individual or couple to reproduce through normal sexual activity. About 80% of healthy, fertile women are able to conceive within one year if they have intercourse regularly without contraception.
 and Women's Medicine, 2002, 47(4):153-161.

(48.) Trussell J and Vaughan Vaughan   , Henry Known as "the Silurist." 1622-1695.

Welsh metaphysical poet whose works include Silex Scintillans (1650-1655).

Noun 1.
 B, Contraceptive failure, method-related discontinuation dis·con·tin·u·a·tion  
n.
A cessation; a discontinuance.

Noun 1. discontinuation - the act of discontinuing or breaking off; an interruption (temporary or permanent)
discontinuance
 and resumption RESUMPTION. To reassume; to promise again; as, the resumption of payment of specie by the banks is general. It also signifies to take things back; as the government has resumed the possession of all the lands which have not been paid for according to the requisitions of the law, and the  of use: results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 31(2):64-72 & 93.

(49.) Frost JJ, Singh S and Finer LB, U.S. women's one-year adj. 1. completing its life cycle within a year.

Adj. 1. one-year - completing its life cycle within a year; "a border of annual flowering plants"
annual

phytology, botany - the branch of biology that studies plants
 contraceptive use patterns, 2004, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2007, 39(1):48-55.

(50.) Frost JJ, Singh S and Finer LB, Factors associated with contraceptive use and nonuse, United States, 2004, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2007, 39(2):90-99.

(51.) Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, inc. is a pharmaceutical manufacturer based in Raritan, New Jersey, and a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. The company was formed from the merger of Ortho Pharmaceutical and McNeil Pharmaceutical in 1993. , Brief summary patient package inserts package insert Pharmacology A synopsis of key physicochemical, pharmacologic, clinical efficacy, and clinical safety properties of a prescription drug, bundled therewith, intended to be highly readable and helpful to clinicians looking for specific  for ORTHO Tri-Cyclen tablets and ORTHO-Cyclen tablets, <http://www.ortho mcneilpharmaceutical.com/orthomcneilpharmaceutical/about/product_index.html> accessed Jan. 29, 2007.

(52.) Trussell J, Princeton University Princeton University, at Princeton, N.J.; coeducational; chartered 1746, opened 1747, rechartered 1748, called the College of New Jersey until 1896. Schools and Research Facilities
, Princeton Princeton, borough (1990 pop. 12,016) and surrounding township (1990 pop. 13,198), Mercer co., W central N.J.; settled late 1600s, borough inc. 1813, township est. 1838. A leading education center, it is the seat of Princeton Univ. , NJ, personal communication, Oct. 18, 2005.

(53.) Westfall PH and Wolfinger RD, Multiple tests with discrete A component or device that is separate and distinct and treated as a singular unit.  distributions, American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of  Statistician, 1997, 51(1):3-8.

(54.) Johnson K et al., Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 5 June 1981 issue of the MMWR published the cases of five men in what turned out to be the first report of AIDS. , 2006, Vol. 55, No. RR-6.

Author contact: jfrost@guttmache.org See .org.

(networking) org - The top-level domain for organisations or individuals that don't fit any other top-level domain (national, com, edu, or gov). Though many have .org domains, it was never intended to be limited to non-profit organisations.

RFC 1591.
 

* The proportion of pregnancies among contraceptive users that resulted from method failure was estimated by dividing the weighted average of perfect-use failure rates for all reversible contraceptive users by the weighted typical-use failure rate for all reversible users: 1.4/12.4=11.3% (sources: For perfect-use failure rate--Hatcher RA et al., Contraceptive Technology, 19th ed., New York: Ardent Media, 2007; for typical-use failure rate--Kost K et al, Estimates of contraceptive failure from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, Contraception, 2008, 77(1):10-21).

* Women were considered at risk of unintended pregnancy if, at the time of the survey, they had had heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.

2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex.
 intercourse in the past year; were not pregnant, two months or less postpartum postpartum /post·par·tum/ (post-pahr´tum) occurring after childbirth, with reference to the mother.

post·par·tum
adj.
Of or occurring in the period shortly after childbirth.
, or trying to become pregnant; and were not sterile sterile /ster·ile/ (ster´il)
1. unable to produce offspring.

2. aseptic.


ster·ile
adj.
1. Not producing or incapable of producing offspring.

2.
 for either contraceptive or noncontraceptive reasons.

([dagger]) We calculated the net response rate by multiplying mul·ti·ply 1  
v. mul·ti·plied, mul·ti·ply·ing, mul·ti·plies

v.tr.
1. To increase the amount, number, or degree of.

2. Mathematics To perform multiplication on.
 the completion rate (75%) by the household screening rate (60%), and multiplying the product by the participation rate of age-eligible women (95%). On the basis of households that completed screening, we estimated that 10% of the 48,000 likely households had an eligible woman present.

([double dagger double dagger
n.
A reference mark () used in printing and writing. Also called diesis.

Noun 1.
]) Active pills are those that contain hormones Hormones
Chemicals produced by glands in the body that circulate in the blood and control the actions of cells and organs. Estrogens are hormones that affect breast cancer growth.

Mentioned in: Breast Cancer, Hypoparathyroidism
. Women were asked "How many pills that you were supposed to take did you skip? (That is, how many of the hormone hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.  pills did you skip?)"

* The seven statements were "The people who work there make an effort to find out my needs"; "The health care I receive there is of good quality"; "The rooms and equipment are all clean"; "The staff who work there treat me with respect"; "Getting service there is orderly orderly /or·der·ly/ (or´der-le) an attendant in a hospital who works under the direction of a nurse.

or·der·ly
n.
An attendant in a hospital.
 and pleasant"; "I usually see the same doctor or clinician every time I go there"; and "If I have questions about my contraceptive method, I know I can call the office and talk to someone."

* We also conducted the method choice analyses using multinomial mul·ti·no·mi·al  
n.
See polynomial.



[multi- + (bi)nomial.]


mul
 logistic regression, with the most commonly used method--oral contraceptives--as the reference category. The results closely matched those obtained using separate logistic regressions for each method, but were more cumbersome cum·ber·some  
adj.
1. Difficult to handle because of weight or bulk. See Synonyms at heavy.

2. Troublesome or onerous.



cum
 to report and are not included here.

* We reran re·ran  
v.
Past tense and past participle of rerun.
 the regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
regression

In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set.
 predicting inconsistent condom use after excluding women who reported alternating between methods; the findings for all other predictors in the model remained the same.

Jennifer Jennifer became a common first name for females in English-speaking countries during the 20th century. The name Jennifer is a Cornish variant of Guinevere, deriving ultimately from Proto-Celtic *windo-seibaro- "white ghost", via Brythonic *wino-hibirā (cf.  J. Frost is senior research associate, and Jacqueline Jacqueline, 1401–36, countess of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland (1417–33). The daughter and heiress of William IV, duke of Bavaria and count of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland, and of Margaret of Burgundy, Jacqueline was passed over for the succession to the  E. Darroch is senior fellow, both with the Guttmacher Institute The Guttmacher Institute (formerly The Alan Guttmacher Institute) advances sexual and reproductive health in the United States and globally through an interrelated program of social science research, public education, and policy analysis. , New York.
TABLE 1. Percentage distribution of nonsterilized women 18-44
at risk of unintended pregnancy, by selected characteristics,
Guttmacher Institute 2004 survey of women at risk and 2002
National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)

Characteristic              Survey of women             NSFG
                                                        (N =
                            Unweighted    Weighted      28,255,000)
                            (N=1,978)     ([dagger])
                                          (N=1,978)

Age
18-24                         24.8          31.7          31.7
25-34                         43.0          39.9          39.9
35-44                         32.3          28.4          28.4

Marital status
Married                       61.0          48.0          48.0
Formerly married               8.3          10.1          10.0
Never-married                 30.6          42.1          42.1

Race/ethnicity
White                         64.0          66.5          66.5
Hispanic                      17.6          14.5          14.5
Black                         11.5          12.9          12.9
Asian/other                    7.0           6.1           6.1

% of federal poverty level
<100                          14.8          16.4          17.0
100-249                       29.7          30.2          29.7
[greater than or
  equal to] 250               55.4          53.4          53.4

Parity
0                             33.3          38.8          42.2
1                             24.2          23.5          24.0
2                             26.6          24.1          20.4
3                             15.8          13.6          13.5

Desire to have (more) children
Yes                           49.5          53.5          55.1
No                            41.7          38.1          42.8
Unsure                         8.8           8.4           2.1

Total                        100.0         100.0         100.0

([dagger]) Weighted by age, marital status, and race and ethnicity.

TABLE 2. Percentage distribution of women using reversible
contraceptives, by current method used, according to socioeconomic
and partnership characteristics, and odds ratios from logistics
regression analyses examining associations between characteristics
and use of specific methods

Characteristic                 N                    %

                                                    Pill

ALL                            1,641                37.7

SOCIOECONOMIC

Age
18-24 (ref)                      533                41.1
25-34                            672                38.2
35-44                            436                32.9 ([dagger])

Race/ethnicity/nativity
White (ref)                    1,133                43.2
Hispanic, native-born             88                33.0
Hispanic, foreign-born           131                22.7 ([dagger])
Black                            191                24.7 ([dagger])
Asian/other                       96                23.2 ([dagger])

Education
[greater than or equal to]
  college (ref)                  575                47.8
Some college                     592                35.8 ([dagger])
[less than or equal to]
  high school/GED                471                28.0 ([dagger]),
                                                    ([double dagger])
% of federal poverty level
<250 (ref)                       830                31.9
[greater than or equal
  to] 250                        810                43.7 ([dagger])

Insurance coverage
Private only (ref)             1,129                42.9
Medicaid                         290                22.4 ([dagger])
None                             219                31.2 ([dagger])

PARTNERSHIP

Union status
Married (ref)                    822                34.7
Cohabiting                       333                39.3
Unmarried, not cohabiting        484                41.5 ([dagger])

Duration of relationship (in yrs.)
>4 (ref)                         917                33.0
2-4                              281                44.8 ([dagger])
<2                               288                42.4 ([dagger])
No relationship                  155                44.2 ([dagger])

No. of partners in last year
1 (ref)                        1,389                38.2
[greater than or equal to] 2     249                34.9

Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos.
[greater than or equal to]
  2 times/week (ref)             721                38.7
2-4 times/month                  663                36.5
[greater than or equal to]
  once/month                     235                38.6

Characteristic                 %

                               Long-acting          Condom

ALL                            17.9                 32.3

SOCIOECONOMIC

Age
18-24 (ref)                    20.1                 31.3
25-34                          18.9                 30.4
35-44                          13.6 ([dagger])      36.3

Race/ethnicity/nativity
White (ref)                    15.4                 28.0
Hispanic, native-born          17.0                 37.5
Hispanic, foreign-born         31.1 ([dagger])      36.4
Black                          26.3 ([dagger])      43.2 ([dagger])
Asian/other                    13.7 ([section])     51.6 ([dagger])

Education
[greater than or equal to]
  college (ref)                 9.7                 30.8
Some college                   20.6 ([dagger])      31.9
[less than or equal to]
  high school/GED              24.4 ([dagger])      34.5

% of federal poverty level
<250 (ref)                     22.2                 35.3
[greater than or equal
  to] 250                      13.5 ([dagger])      29.1 ([dagger])

Insurance coverage
Private only (ref)             14.6                 29.9
Medicaid                       29.7 ([dagger])      37.2
None                           19.3 ([dagger])      37.6

PARTNERSHIP

Union status
Married (ref)                  18.0                 31.1
Cohabiting                     21.0                 24.9
Unmarried, not cohabiting      15.5                 39.3 ([dagger]),
                                                    ([double dagger])

Duration of relationship (in yrs.)
>4 (ref)                       17.2                 33.4
2-4                            19.9                 26.7
<2                             17.7                 31.9
No relationship                18.2                 36.4

No. of partners in last year
1 (ref)                        17.9                 30.8
[greater than or equal to] 2   17.7                 41.O ([dagger])

Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos.
[greater than or equal to]
  2 times/week (ref)           20.9                 28.2
2-4 times/month                16.4                 35.1 ([dagger])
[greater than or equal to]
  once/month                   12.3 ([dagger])      36.4 ([dagger])

Characteristic                 %

                               Other                Total

ALL                            12.1                 100.0

SOCIOECONOMIC

Age
18-24 (ref)                     7.5                 100.0
25-34                          12.5 ([dagger])      100.0
35-44                          17.2 ([dagger])      100.0

Race/ethnicity/nativity
White (ref)                    13.4                 100.0
Hispanic, native-born          12.5                 100.0
Hispanic, foreign-born          9.8                 100.0
Black                           5.8 ([dagger])      100.0
Asian/other                    11.6                 100.0

Education
[greater than or equal to]
  college (ref)                11.7                 100.0
Some college                   11.7                 100.0
[less than or equal to]
  high school/GED              13.1                 100.0

% of federal poverty level
<250 (ref)                     10.6                 100.0
[greater than or equal
  to] 250                      13.7                 100.0

Insurance coverage
Private only (ref)             12.6                 100.0
Medicaid                       10.7                 100.0
None                           11.9                 100.0

PARTNERSHIP

Union status
Married (ref)                  16.2                 100.0
Cohabiting                     14.7                 100.0
Unmarried, not cohabiting       3.7 ([dagger]),     100.0
                               ([double dagger])

Duration of relationship (in yrs.)
>4 (ref)                       16.4                 100.0
2-4                             8.5 ([dagger])      100.0
<2                              8.O ([dagger])      100.0
No relationship                 1.3 ([dagger]),     100.0
                               ([double dagger]),
                               ([section])

No. of partners in last year
1 (ref)                        13.2                 100.0
[greater than or equal to] 2    6.4 ([dagger])      100.0

Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos.
[greater than or equal to]
  2 times/week (ref)           12.2                 100.0
2-4 times/month                11.9                 100.0
[greater than or equal to]
  once/month                   12.7                 100.0

Characteristic                 Odds ratio

                               Pill                 Long-acting

ALL                            na                   na

SOCIOECONOMIC

Age
18-24 (ref)                    1.00                 1.00
25-34                          0.94                 0.78
35-44                          0.76                 0.53 **

Race/ethnicity/nativity
White (ref)                    1.00                 1.00
Hispanic, native-born          0.69                 0.82
Hispanic, foreign-born         0.64                 2.26 **
Black                          0.53 **              1.61 *
Asian/other                    0.46 **              1.04

Education
[greater than or equal to]
  college (ref)                1.00                 1.00
Some college                   0.64 **              1.94 ***
[less than or equal to]
  high school/GED              0.62 **              1.79 **

% of federal poverty level
<250 (ref)                     1.00                 1.00
[greater than or equal
  to] 250                      1.13                 1.01

Insurance coverage
Private only (ref)             1.00                 1.00
Medicaid                       0.52 **              1.28
None                           0.89                 1.20

PARTNERSHIP

Union status
Married (ref)                  1.00                 1.00
Cohabiting                     0.90                 0.75
Unmarried, not cohabiting      0.87                 0.57 *

Duration of relationship (in yrs.)
>4 (ref)                       1.00                 1.00
2-4                            1.64 **              1.24
<2                             1.53 *               1.33
No relationship                1.91 *               1.66

No. of partners in last year
1 (ref)                        1.00                 1.00
[greater than or equal to] 2   0.65 *               1.13

Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos.
[greater than or equal to]
  2 times/week (ref)           1.00                 1.00
2-4 times/month                0.85                 0.87
[greater than or equal to]
  once/month                   0.92                 0.49 **

Characteristic                 Odds ratio

                               Condom               Other

ALL                            na                   na

SOCIOECONOMIC

Age
18-24 (ref)                    1.00                 1.00
25-34                          1.17                 1.54
35-44                          1.57 *               2.10 **

Race/ethnicity/nativity
White (ref)                    1.00                 1.00
Hispanic, native-born          1.75 *               0.88
Hispanic, foreign-born         1.32                 0.41 *
Black                          1.98 ***             0.39 **
Asian/other                    2.77 ***             0.59

Education
[greater than or equal to]
  college (ref)                1.00                 1.00
Some college                   1.04                 1.18
[less than or equal to]
  high school/GED              0.99                 1.41

% of federal poverty level
<250 (ref)                     1.00                 1.00
[greater than or equal
  to] 250                      0.78                 1.19

Insurance coverage
Private only (ref)             1.00                 1.00
Medicaid                       1.50 *               1.09
None                           1.11                 1.09

PARTNERSHIP

Union status
Married (ref)                  1.00                 1.00
Cohabiting                     0.99                 1.68 *
Unmarried, not cohabiting      2.04 **              0.48

Duration of relationship (in yrs.)
>4 (ref)                       1.00                 1.00
2-4                            0.62 *               0.63
<2                             0.59 *               0.86
No relationship                0.52 *               0.21 *

No. of partners in last year
1 (ref)                        1.00                 1.00
[greater than or equal to] 2   1.43                 1.16

Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos.
[greater than or equal to]
  2 times/week (ref)           1.00                 1.00
2-4 times/month                1.52 **              0.82
[greater than or equal to]
  once/month                   1.34                 1.98 *

* p<.05. ** p<01. *** p<.001. ([dagger]) Significantly different from
percentage in first row at p<.05. ([double dagger]) Significantly
different from percentage in second row at p<.05. ([section])
Significantly different from percentage in third row at p<.05. Notes:
Ns are weighted. Regressions include all variables listed in Table 3
(page 98). Long-acting methods are the injectable, patch, IUD, ring
and implant. Other methods are withdrawal, periodic abstinence,
spermicides and other barrier methods. Medicaid category includes
women who are covered by both Medicaid and private insurance. na =
not applicable. ref = reference group.

TABLE 3. Percentage distribution of women using reversible
contraceptives, by current method used, according to pregnancy-,
method- and provider-related experiences and attitudes; and odds
ratios from logistic regression analyses examining associations
between experiences and attitudes and use of specific methods

Experience or                  N                    %
attitude
                                                    Pill

ALL                            1,641                37.7

PREGNANCY

Parity
0 (ref)                          637                49.8
1                                377                32.1 ([dagger])
[greater than or equal
  to] 2                          626                28.8 ([dagger])

No. of unintended pregnancies
0 (ref)                          976                43.9
[greater than or equal
  to] 1                          664                28.8 ([dagger])

Importance of avoiding pregnancy
Very (ref)                     1,045                40.5
Somewhat                         335                41.5
A little/not                     261                21.9 ([dagger]),
                                                    ([double dagger])

Fatalistic attitude toward
pregnancy/birth control
Disagree/neutral (ref)         1,168                40.9
Agree                            473                30.O ([dagger])

METHOD AND PROVIDER

Reason for method use
Mostly like method/both
  like and dislike (ref)       1,017                46.1
Mostly don't like other
  methods                        624                24.1 ([dagger])

Would change method if cost
were not an issue
No (ref)                       1,134                42.6
Yes                              506                26.8 ([dagger])

Type of provider
Private doctor (ref)           1,031                41.8
Clinic                           472                38.0
None                             137                 6.6 ([dagger]),
                                                    ([double dagger])

Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke)   na                   na

Characteristic                 %

                               Long-acting          Condom

ALL                            17.9                 32.3

PREGNANCY

Parity
0 (ref)                        11.4                 31.2
1                              21.8 ([dagger])      31.6
[greater than or equal
  to] 2                        21.9 ([dagger])      33.8

No. of unintended pregnancies
0 (ref)                        12.6                 33.2
[greater than or equal
  to] 1                        25.6 ([dagger])      30.9

Importance of avoiding pregnancy
Very (ref)                     18.8                 33.7
Somewhat                       17.3                 25.7 ([dagger])
A little/not                   15.0                 35.0

Fatalistic attitude toward
pregnancy/birth control
Disagree/neutral (ref)         17.7                 31.9
Agree                          18.2                 33.2

METHOD AND PROVIDER

Reason for method use
Mostly like method/both
  like and dislike (ref)       21.9                 21.9
Mostly don't like other
  methods                      11.2 ([dagger])      49.1 ([dagger])

Would change method if cost
were not an issue
No (ref)                       19.6                 27.0
Yes                            13.8 ([dagger])      44.0 ([dagger])

Type of provider
Private doctor (ref)           16.8                 28.8
Clinic                         23.1 ([dagger])      29.3
None                            7.3 ([dagger]),     68.6 ([dagger]),
                               ([double dagger])    ([double dagger])

Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke)   na                   na

Characteristic                 %

                               Other                Total

ALL                            12.1                 100.0

PREGNANCY

Parity
0 (ref)                         7.5                 100.0
1                              14.6 ([dagger])      100.0
[greater than or equal
  to] 2                        15.5 ([dagger])      100.0

No. of unintended pregnancies
0 (ref)                        10.3                 100.0
[greater than or equal
  to] 1                        14.8 ([dagger])      100.0

Importance of avoiding pregnancy
Very (ref)                      7.1                 100.0
Somewhat                       15.5 ([dagger])      100.0
A little/not                   28.1 ([dagger]),     100.0
                               ([double dagger])

Fatalistic attitude toward
pregnancy/birth control
Disagree/neutral (ref)          9.5                 100.0
Agree                          18.6 ([dagger])      100.0

METHOD AND PROVIDER

Reason for method use
Mostly like method/both
  like and dislike (ref)       10.0                 100.0
Mostly don't like other
  methods                      15.6 ([dagger])      100.0

Would change method if cost
were not an issue
No (ref)                       10.7                 100.0
Yes                            15.4 ([dagger])      100.0

Type of provider
Private doctor (ref)           12.6                 100.0
Clinic                          9.6                 100.0
None                           17.5 ([dagger])      100.0

Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke)   na                   na

Characteristic                 Odds ratio

                               Pill                 Long-acting

ALL                            na                   na

PREGNANCY

Parity
0 (ref)                        1.00                 1.00
1                              0.81                 1.67 *
[greater than or equal
  to] 2                        0.70                 1.97 **

No. of unintended pregnancies
0 (ref)                        1.00                 1.00
[greater than or equal
  to] 1                        0.73 *               2.10 ***

Importance of avoiding pregnancy
Very (ref)                     1.00                 1.00
Somewhat                       0.96                 0.91
A little/not                   0.38 ***             0.77

Fatalistic attitude toward
pregnancy/birth control
Disagree/neutral (ref)         1.00                 1.00
Agree                          0.96                 0.82

METHOD AND PROVIDER

Reason for method use
Mostly like method/both
  like and dislike (ref)       1.00                 1.00
Mostly don't like other
  methods                      0.37 ***             0.42 ***

Would change method if cost
were not an issue
No (ref)                       1.00                 1.00
Yes                            0.58 ***             0.46 ***

Type of provider
Private doctor (ref)           1.00                 1.00
Clinic                         1.06                 1.05
None                           0.10 ***             0.33 **

Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke)   0.269                0.194

Characteristic                 Odds ratio

                               Condom               Other

ALL                            na                   na

PREGNANCY

Parity
0 (ref)                        1.00                 1.00
1                              0.87                 1.20
[greater than or equal
  to] 2                        0.87                 1.19

No. of unintended pregnancies
0 (ref)                        1.00                 1.00
[greater than or equal
  to] 1                        0.66 **              1.30

Importance of avoiding pregnancy
Very (ref)                     1.00                 1.00
Somewhat                       0.83                 2.01 ***
A little/not                   1.14                 4.42 ***

Fatalistic attitude toward
pregnancy/birth control
Disagree/neutral (ref)         1.00                 1.00
Agree                          0.82                 1.91 ***

METHOD AND PROVIDER

Reason for method use
Mostly like method/both
  like and dislike (ref)       1.00                 1.00
Mostly don't like other
  methods                      4.04 ***             1.42 *

Would change method if cost
were not an issue
No (ref)                       1.00                 1.00
Yes                            2.18 ***             1.90 ***

Type of provider
Private doctor (ref)           1.00                 1.00
Clinic                         0.90                 0.97
None                           4.71 ***             1.57

Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke)   0.267                0.217

* p<.05. ** p<.01. *** p<.001. ([dagger]) Significantly different
from percentage in first row at p<.05. ([double dagger]) Significantly
different from percentage in second row at p<.05. Notes: Ns are
weighted. Regressions include all variables listed in Table 2.
Long-acting methods are the injectable, patch, IUD, ring and implant.
Other methods are withdrawal, periodic abstinence, spermicides and
other barrier methods. na = not applicable. ref = reference group.

TABLE 4. Percentage of women using oral contraceptives or condoms
who reported inconsistent use, by socioeconomic and partnership
characteristics, and odds ratios from logistic regression analyses
examining associations between characteristics and inconsistent
method use

Characteristic                   Pill

                                 N                 %

ALL                              619               38.2

SOCIOECONOMIC

Age
18-24 (ref)                      219               44.7
25-34                            257               34.5
35-44                            143               35.0

Race/ethnicity/nativity
White (ref)                      490               37.3
Hispanic, native-born             29               43.3
Hispanic, foreign-born            30               36.7
Black                             47               47.9
Asian/other                       22               34.8

Education
[greater than or equal to]
  college (ref)                  275               38.8
Some college                     212               35.8
[less than or equal to]
  high school                    132               40.5

% of federal poverty level
<250 (ref)                       265               37.4
[greater than or equal
  to] 250                        354               39.0

Insurance coverage
Private only (ref)               485               39.2
Medicaid                          65               38.5
None                              68               30.9

PARTNERSHIP

Union status
Married (ref)                    285               34.7
Cohabiting                       131               34.4
Unmarried, not cohabiting        201               45.8 ([dagger])

Duration of relationship (in yrs.)
>4 (ref)                         303               33.4
2-4                              126               38.9
-2                               122               41.5
No relationship                   68               52.2 ([dagger])

No. of partners in last year
1 (ref)                          530               35.1
[greater than or equal to] 2      87               57.5

Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos.
[greater than or equal to]
  2 times/week (ref)             279               37.6
2-4 times/month                  242               37.3
[less than or equal to]
  once/month                      91               41.8

Characteristic                   Condom

                                 N                 %

ALL                              529               61.1

SOCIOECONOMIC

Age
18-24 (ref)                      167               62.0
25-34                            204               63.2
35-44                            158               57.2

Race/ethnicity/nativity
White (ref)                      317               59.0
Hispanic, native-born             33               63.6
Hispanic, foreign-born            48               81.3 ([dagger])
Black                             82               63.4
Asian/other                       49               49.0 ([section])

Education
[greater than or equal to]
  college (ref)                  177               61.9
Some college                     189               57.7
[less than or equal to]
  high school                    163               64.4

% of federal poverty level
<250 (ref)                       293               66.6
[greater than or equal
  to] 250                        236               54.4 ([dagger])

Insurance coverage
Private only (ref)               338               58.0
Medicaid                         108               70.4
None                             82                62.2

PARTNERSHIP

Union status
Married (ref)                    256               63.7
Cohabiting                        83               72.3
Unmarried, not cohabiting        190               53.2 ([double
                                                   dagger])

Duration of relationship (in yrs.)
>4 (ref)                         306               63.6
2-4                               75               50.7
-2                                92               72.5 ([double
                                                   dagger])
No relationship                   56               42.9 ([dagger]),
                                                   ([section])

No. of partners in last year
1 (ref)                          427               60.2
[greater than or equal to] 2     102               64.7

Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos.
[greater than or equal to]
  2 times/week (ref)             203               67.0
2-4 times/month                  233               59.2
[less than or equal to]
  once/month                      86               53.5

Characteristic                   Odds ratio

                                 Pill              Condom

ALL                              na                na

SOCIOECONOMIC

Age
18-24 (ref)                      1.00              1.00
25-34                            0.77              1.21
35-44                            0.92              1.16

Race/ethnicity/nativity
White (ref)                      1.00              1.00
Hispanic, native-born            1.79              1.01
Hispanic, foreign-born           2.22              3.19 *
Black                            1.45              1.04
Asian/other                      0.72              0.47

Education
[greater than or equal to]
  college (ref)                  1.00              1.00
Some college                     0.82              0.78
[less than or equal to]
  high school                    1.12              0.69

% of federal poverty level
<250 (ref)                       1.00              1.00
[greater than or equal
  to] 250                        1.04              0.76

Insurance coverage
Private only (ref)               1.00              1.00
Medicaid                         0.69              1.84
None                             0.49 *            0.86

PARTNERSHIP

Union status
Married (ref)                    1.00              1.00
Cohabiting                       0.63              1.58
Unmarried, not cohabiting        0.84              0.80

Duration of relationship (in yrs.)
>4 (ref)                         1.00              1.00
2-4                              1.15              0.63
-2                               1.09              0.95
No relationship                  1.57              0.62

No. of partners in last year
1 (ref)                          1.00              1.00
[greater than or equal to] 2     2.14 *            1.89

Frequency of intercourse in last 3 mos.
[greater than or equal to]
  2 times/week (ref)             1.00              1.00
2-4 times/month                  1.16              1.05
[less than or equal to]
  once/month                     0.91              0.92

* p<.05. ([dagger]) Significantly different from percentage in
first row at p<.05. ([double dagger]) Significantly different from
percentage in second row at p<.05. ([section]) Significantly different
from percentage in third row at p<.05. Notes: Women who reported
having used more than one method were classified according to their
most effective method. Inconsistent pill use is defined as missing
one or more pills in prior three months; inconsistent condom use is
defined as not using a condom at each sex in prior three months or
putting the condom on late at least once. Ns are weighted.
Regressions include all variables listed in Table 5. Medicaid category
includes women who are covered by both Medicaid and private insurance.
na = not applicable. ref = reference group.

TABLE 5. Percentage of women using oral contraceptives or condoms
who reported inconsistent use, by pregnancy-, method- and provider-
related experiences and attitudes, and odds ratios from logistic
regression analyses examining associations between experiences and
attitudes and inconsistent method use

Experience or attitude           Pill

                                 N                    %

ALL                              619                  38.2

PREGNANCY

Parity
0 (ref)                          318                  42.6
1                                121                  41.3
[greater than or equal to] 2     180                  28.3 ([dagger])

No. of unintended pregnancies
0 (ref)                          429                  38.0
[greater than or equal to] 1     191                  38.4

Importance of avoiding pregnancy
Very (ref)                       423                  39.0
Somewhat                         139                  38.1
A little/not                      57                  32.8

Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control
Disagree/neutral (ref)           477                  40.0
Agree                            142                  32.4

METHOD

Dual method use
No (ref)                         431                  35.7
[greater than or equal to]
  2 methods together             130                  40.5
[greater than or equal to]
  2 methods switching             58                  50.8

Duration of current method use (in yrs.)
<2                               144                  48.6
2-4                              175                  34.9 ([dagger])
[greater than or equal to]
  5 (ref)                        296                  34.8 ([dagger])

Satisfied with method in past year
Completely (ref)                 456                  34.9
Not completely                   161                  48.1 ([dagger])

PROVIDER

Type of provider
Private doctor (ref)             431                  37.4
Clinic                           179                  40.2
None                               9                  44.4

Satisfied with provider
Very (ref)                       403                  33.5
Not very                         216                  46.8 ([dagger])

Usually see same clinician
Yes/ no visit (ref)              514                  35.6
No                               106                  50.9 ([dagger])

Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke)     na                   na

Experience or attitude           Condom

                                 N                    %

ALL                              529                  61.1

PREGNANCY

Parity
0 (ref)                          199                  58.8
1                                119                  65.5
[greater than or equal to] 2     211                  60.7

No. of unintended pregnancies
0 (ref)                          205                  63.4
[greater than or equal to] 1     324                  57.6

Importance of avoiding pregnancy
Very (ref)                       352                  57.7
Somewhat                          86                  58.6
A little/not                      91                  76.7 ([dagger]),
                                                      ([double dagger])

Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control
Disagree/neutral (ref)           372                  57.3
Agree                            157                  70.1 ([dagger])

METHOD

Dual method use
No (ref)                         384                  49.0
[greater than or equal to]
  2 methods together              51                  82.4 ([dagger])
[greater than or equal to]
  2 methods switching             94                  98.91 ([dagger]),
                                                      ([double dagger])

Duration of current method use (in yrs.)
<2                               163                  68.7
2-4                              130                  59.7
[greater than or equal to]
  5 (ref)                        232                  56.0 ([dagger])

Satisfied with method in past year
Completely (ref)                 242                  55.4
Not completely                   286                  66.1 ([dagger])

PROVIDER

Type of provider
Private doctor (ref)             297                  57.7
Clinic                           138                  67.6
None                              94                  61.7

Satisfied with provider
Very (ref)                       326                  61.0
Not very                         203                  61.1

Usually see same clinician
Yes/ no visit (ref)              431                  60.3
No                                98                  64.6

Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke)     na                   na

Experience or attitude           Odds ratio

                                 Pill                 Condom

ALL                              na                   na

PREGNANCY

Parity
0 (ref)                          1.00                  1.00
1                                1.06                  1.04
[greater than or equal to] 2     0.50 *                0.82

No. of unintended pregnancies
0 (ref)                          1.00                  1.00
[greater than or equal to] 1     1.40                  0.57 *

Importance of avoiding pregnancy
Very (ref)                       1.00                  1.00
Somewhat                         1.16                  0.92
A little/not                     0.86                  2.58 **

Fatalistic attitude toward pregnancy/birth control
Disagree/neutral (ref)           1.00                  1.00
Agree                            0.81                  1.48

METHOD

Dual method use
No (ref)                         1.00                  1.00
[greater than or equal to]
  2 methods together             1.26                  6.33 ***
[greater than or equal to]
  2 methods switching            1.45                 77.79 ***

Duration of current method use (in yrs.)
<2                               1.78 *                1.91 *
2-4                              0.89                  1.42
[greater than or equal to]
  5 (ref)                        1.00                  1.00

Satisfied with method in past year
Completely (ref)                 1.00                  1.00
Not completely                   1.56 *                1.91 **

PROVIDER

Type of provider
Private doctor (ref)             1.00                  1.00
Clinic                           1.01                  1.39
None                             0.43                  1.43

Satisfied with provider
Very (ref)                       1.00                  1.00
Not very                         1.59 *                0.94

Usually see same clinician
Yes/ no visit (ref)              1.00                  1.00
No                               1.67 *                0.99

Model [R.sup.2] (Nagelkerke)     0.159                 0.405

* p<.05. ** p<.Ol. *** p<.001. ([dagger]) Significantly different
from percentage in first row at p<.05. ([double dagger]) Significantly
different from percentage in second row at p<.05. Notes: Women who
reported having used more than one method were classified according
to their most effective method. Inconsistent pill use is defined as
missing one or more pills in prior three months; inconsistent condom
use is defined as not using a condom at each sex in prior three months
or putting the condom on late at least once. Ns are weighted.
Regressions include all variables listed in Table 4. na = not
applicable. ref = reference group.
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Author:Frost, Jennifer J.; Darroch, Jacqueline E.
Publication:Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 1, 2008
Words:11589
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