FM 2-0, intelligence: changes to expand our capstone doctrine.On 27 January of this year, Lieutenant General William S. Wallace William Scott Wallace is a 4-star General of the United States Army. He commands the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Biography
Wallace was born on December 31, 1946, in Chicago, Illinois. , Commander, Combined Arms Center, approved the Revised DRAG Draft of FM 2-0. FM 2-0 supersedes FM 34-1, Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations, 27 September 1994. The U.S. Army Intelligence Center (USAIC USAIC United States Army Infantry Center
USAIC United States Army Intelligence Center ) is currently producing FM 2-0 as a camera-ready copy (CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Checking) An error checking technique used to ensure the accuracy of transmitting digital data. The transmitted messages are divided into predetermined lengths which, used as dividends, are divided by a fixed divisor. ), which will be forwarded to the Army Publishing Directorate (APD APD atrial premature depolarization (see atrial premature complex, under complex ); pamidronate. ) for publication. FM 2-0 should be published within the next few months. In the interim, USAIC will place the CRC as a final approved draft on our Army Knowledge Online (AKO Ako (äkō`), city (1990 pop. 51,131), Hyogo prefecture, W Honshu, Japan, on the Harima Sea. Relying on its steel and chemical industries, Ako has become one of Japan's most polluted industrial cities. ) collaboration website for units to download and use until APD prints and distributes FM 2-0. USAIC will also disseminate FM 2-0 via CD to those units for which we have mailing addresses to facilitate their receiving our keystone manual. If you are unsure if the USAIC Doctrine Division has your current unit mailing address, please E-mail your unit's mailing address to ATZS-FDC-D @hua.army.mil.
FM 2-0 was developed to describe Intelligence operations within the context of the new Army keystone doctrine contained in FM 3-0, Operations. FM 2-0 also was developed based on the changes and new doctrine contained in:
* FM 6-0, Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces (staff portion of the old FM 101-5).
* FM 7-15, Army Universal Task List (AUTL AUTL Army Universal Task List
AUTL Authorization List ).
* The final draft of FM 5-0, Army Planning and Orders Production (planning and orders portion of the old FM 101-5).
* FM 3-90, Tactics.
* FM 3-07, Stability Operations and Support Operations.
FM 2-0 describes intelligence support to the commander within the new contemporary operational environment (COE See common operating environment. ). The major doctrinal changes within the manual include the new intelligence tasks, a discussion of the COE, the new intelligence process (previously the intelligence cycle), and our updated intelligence disciplines. Figure 1 lists the eleven critical variables of the COE in context with the operational environment.
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In the new FM 2-0, our intelligence tasks were written in accordance with the AUTL as follows:
* Support to situational understanding.
* Support to strategic responsiveness.
* Conduct intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance An activity that synchronizes and integrates the planning and operation of sensors, assets, and processing, exploitation, and dissemination systems in direct support of current and future operations. This is an integrated intelligence and operations function. Also called ISR. (ISR).
* Provide intelligence support to effects.
Intelligence personnel and organizations within the Intelligence battlefield operating system (BOS) conduct these four primary intelligence tasks to facilitate the commander's visualization and understanding of the threat and the battlespace. These tasks are interactive and often take place simultaneously. Figure 2 illustrates how these tasks support the commander's requirements.
FM 2-0 also outlines the COE. The COE is the operational environment that exists in the world today and in which our forces are currently conducting operations. The manual outlines the eleven critical variables of the COE that facilitate understanding of the threat and which define the operational environment. Only by studying and understanding these variables--and incorporating them into training--will the Army be able to both keep adversaries from gaining an operational advantage against the United States and to find ways to use these variables to our own advantage.
The manual also includes the new Intelligence Process. FM 34-1 discussed the intelligence cycle depicting how intelligence supported operations. FM 2-0 discusses intelligence personnel and units using the intelligence process to support the operations process. Figure 3 illustrates how the intelligence process works within the operations process. Intelligence operations generally include the five functions that constitute the intelligence process: plan, prepare, collect, process, and produce. Additionally, three common tasks occur across the five functions of the intelligence process: analyze, disseminate, and assess. The intelligence process functions are not necessarily sequential, which separates it from the Joint intelligence cycle. The intelligence process provides a common model that guides one's thinking, discussing, planning, defining the area of interest (AOI), and assessing the threat.
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FM 2-0 also updates our intelligence disciplines. HUMINT HUMINT Human Intelligence , IMINT IMINT Imagery Intelligence
IMINT Image Intelligence
iMINT Darpa Center on Nanoscale science and Technology for Integrated Micro/Nano-Electromechanical Transducers , SIGINT Noun 1. SIGINT - intelligence information gathered from communications intelligence or electronics intelligence or telemetry intelligence
signals intelligence , MASINT MASINT Measurement and Signatures Intelligence
MASINT Measurement and Signal Intelligence , and TECHINT TECHINT Technical Intelligence remain as disciplines. The change is that All-Source Intelligence is now a discipline. This change is because all-source intelligence is more than simply a task used to produce intelligence from multiple disciplines or information sources. All-source intelligence involves units, organizations, and activities all focused on conducting the task of producing all-source intelligence and then disseminating the product to users at various echelons. This change now provides our 35Ds, 350Bs, and 96Bs with a discipline like the rest of their intelligence counterparts. Although joint doctrine includes open-source intelligence (OSINT OSINT Open-Source Intelligence ) as an intelligence discipline, Army intelligence doctrine continues to view open source as a category of information used by each of the disciplines to perform their mission and conduct their analysis. This view does not diminish the importance of open-source information.
Additionally, because of all of these changes, FM 2-0 more closely ties to the Army operational doctrine and operational process. The intent of the new intelligence manual is to better "operationalize" intelligence and truly show how intelligence will support commanders in today's operational environment. FM 2-0 discusses a combined BOS and staff approach to the preparation and conduct of all operations. It discusses how ISR involves both the G3/S3 and G2/S2 to answer the commander's critical information requirements (CCIRs) and to facilitate his situational understanding and visualization of the battlespace. This joint effort between G3/S3 and G2/S2 requires extensive and close cooperation and integration; this also requires an integrated staff approach to planning, executing, and redirecting ISR. USAIC has worked hard in the production of FM 2-0 to clearly show intelligence's continued relevance and place as an element of combat power.
Figure 2. Intelligence Tailored to the Commander's Needs. INTELLIGENCE COMMANDER'S COMMANDER'S TASKS FOCUS DECISIONS Support to Situational Plan a mission. Which COA will I Understanding Execute the implement? - Perform IPB operation. - Perform Situation Secure Which enemy actions Development the force. are expected? - Provide Intelligence Support to Force Protection - Conduct Police Intelligence Operations Support to Strategic Orient on Should I increase the Responsiveness contingencies. unit's level - Perform I&W of readiness? - Ensure Intelligence Readiness - Conduct Area Should I implement the Studies of Foreign OPLAN? Countries - Support Sensitive Site Exploitation Conduct Intelligence, Plan the mission. Which DPs, HPTs, etc., Surveillance, and Prepare. are linked to the Reconnaissance Execute. enemy actions? - Perform Assess. Intelligence Are the assets Synchronization available and in - Perform ISR position to collect Integration on the DPs, HPTs, - Conduct Tactical etc.? Reconnaissance - Conduct Surveillance Have the assets been repositioned for contingency mission? Provide Intelligence Destroy/suppress/ Is my fire (lethal Support to Effects neutralize or non-lethal) and - Provide targets. maneuver effective? Intelligence Support Reposition to Targeting intelligence or Should I refire on the - Provide Intelligence attack assets. same targets? Support to 10 - Provide Intelligence Support to Combat Assessment Key: COA - Course of action DPs - Decision points HPTs - High-payoff targets I&W - Indications and warnings IPB - Intelligence preparation of the battlefield OPLAN - Operations plan
Lee Goodman is currently the Writing Branch Chief of the USAIC Doctrine Division. Readers may contact him via E-mail at email@example.com and telephonically at (520) 538-0971 or DSN 879-0971.