Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,728,043 articles and books

Exposure to nonhuman primates in rural Cameroon.

Exposure to nonhuman primates has led to the emergence of important diseases, including Ebola hemorrhagic fever Noun 1. Ebola hemorrhagic fever - a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to , AIDS, and adult T-cell leukemia Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune system's own T-cells. . To determine the extent of exposure to nonhuman primates, persons were examined in 17 remote villages in Cameroon that represented three habitats (savanna savanna or savannah (both: səvăn`ə), tropical or subtropical grassland lying on the margin of the trade wind belts. , gallery forest, and lowland forest). Questionnaire data were collected to assess whether persons kept wild animal pets; hunted and butchered wild game; had experienced bites, scratches, or injuries from live animals; or had been injured during hunting or butchering. While all villages had substantial exposure to nonhuman primates, higher rates of exposure were seen in lowland forest sites. The study demonstrates that exposure is not limited to small groups of hunters. A high percentage of rural villagers report exposure to nonhuman primate blood and body fluids and risk acquiring infectious diseases infectious diseases: see communicable diseases. .


Closely related species generally share susceptibility to the same groups of microorganisms (1). The anthropoid anthropoid /an·thro·poid/ (an´thro-poid) resembling a human being; the anthropoid apes are tailless apes, including the chimpanzee, gibbon, gorilla, and orangutan.

 primates, which include humans, and to a lesser degree simian primates share broadly similar physiologic and genetic characteristics and thus susceptibility to many viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths helminths (hel´minths), the parasitic worms that cause disease and illness in humans such as tapeworm, pinworm, and trichinosis. They are usually transmitted via contaminated food, water, soil, or other objects.
 and ectoparasites (2,3). Members of the family Homminidae, which includes humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas, share an even greater similarity in susceptibility to microorganisms (3). Our closest relatives, chimpanzees and, most likely, bonobos, share with us the potential for infection with virtually the same set of microorganisms.

A range of activities involves direct contact between humans and nonhuman primates and allow for the transmission of microorganisms. Such behavior can facilitate transmission of microorganisms from nonhuman primates to humans (4), with consequences for human health, as well as from humans to nonhuman primates, with consequences for wildlife conservation (5). Care for captive nonhuman primates has lead to the transmission of a range of infections, including simian foamy virus The simian foamy virus (SFV) is a spumavirus closely related to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Its discovery in primates has led to some speculation that HIV may have been spread to the human species in Africa through contact with blood from apes and monkeys through hunting  (6), herpesvirus herpesvirus, any of the family (Herpesviridae) of common DNA-containing viruses, many of which are associated with human disease. See cytomegalovirus; Epstein-Barr virus; herpes simplex; herpes zoster.  B (HBV HBV hepatitis B virus.

hepatitis B virus
) (7), primate malaria (8), and tuberculosis (9). Nonhuman primate ecotourism e·co·tour·ism  
Tourism involving travel to areas of natural or ecological interest, typically under the guidance of a naturalist, for the purpose of observing wildlife and learning about the environment.
 (e.g., gorilla watching) has been associated with the possible transmission from humans to nonhuman primates of diseases that include scabies scabies (skā`bēz), highly contagious parasitic skin disease caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei). The disease is also known as itch.  (Sarcoptes scabiei Sarcoptes sca·bi·e·i
The itch mite, varieties of which affect humans and various animals and cause scabies and mange.

Sarcoptes scabiei 
) (10), intestinal parasites (11), and measles (12). Laboratory handling of tissues or fluids of nonhuman primates has lead to transmission of a range of infections to humans, including simian immunodeficiency virus Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a retrovirus that is found, in numerous strains, in primates; the specific strains infecting humans are HIV-1 and HIV-2, the viruses that cause AIDS.

The origin of HIV is now generally attributed to SIV from African primates.
 (SIV SIV simian immunodeficiency virus. ) (13) and SV40, which was subsequently distributed through oral polio vaccine Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. The first was developed by Jonas Salk, first tested in 1952, and announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955. It consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus.  to millions of people (14). Additionally, keeping nonhuman primate pets has been linked to transmission of a variety of microorganisms (15). Finally, hunting and butchering nonhuman primates have been linked to the transmission of Ebola (16,17), monkeypox (18), and simian foamy virus (19). Because of the broad range of fluid and tissue types involved with hunting and butchering, this mechanism of transmission may be particularly important in cross-species transmission (1), although other behavior, such as wildlife necropsy necropsy /nec·rop·sy/ (nek´rop-se) examination of a body after death; autopsy.

See autopsy.


examination of a body after death. See also autopsy.
, has similar risks (20).

A number of important human diseases, including AIDS (HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. ), adult T-cell leukemia (HTLV-1) and malaria (Plasmodium plasmodium, name for a stage in the life cycle of a slime mold. Also, Plasmodium is the name given to the genus of the protozoan parasite that causes malaria. , spp.), are believed to have emerged as the results of ancient or contemporary cross-species transmission from nonhuman primates. While the emergence of malaria was presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 the result of vector-borne transmission Noun 1. vector-borne transmission - indirect transmission of an infectious agent that occurs when a vector bites or touches a person
indirect transmission - a transmission mechanism in which the infectious agent is transferred to the person by a fomite of vector
, the mechanisms which led to the emergence of HIV and HTLV HTLV
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus; any of a group of lymphotropic retroviruses that have a selective affinity for certain T cells and are associated with adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma. One type, HTLV-III, causes AIDS.
 remain unknown. One of the current primary hypotheses to explain the origins of HIV is that hunting and butchering nonhuman primates led to cross-species transmission (21,22). This hypothesis is strengthened by recent evidence suggesting that hunted nonhuman primates have a high rate of SIV infection (23) and evidence of hunting-associated cross-species transmission of a nonhuman primate retrovirus retrovirus, type of RNA virus that, unlike other RNA viruses, reproduces by transcribing itself into DNA. An enzyme called reverse transcriptase allows a retrovirus's RNA to act as the template for this RNA-to-DNA transcription. , simian foamy virus, in central African Central African may mean:
  • Related to the region Central Africa
  • Related to the Central African Republic
 hunters (19).

While some groups are at risk for contact with nonhuman primates, the frequency of behavior involving exposure to nonhuman primates remains largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to use behavioral tools to examine the frequency and extent of exposure to nonhuman primates among persons living in rural village sites in a region of high primate biologic diversity.

Materials and Methods


Seventeen village sites in Cameroon were selected for this study (Table 1, Figure 1). Sites were selected in highly rural areas, often at the end of small, unpaved roads. Sites were chosen to obtain different habitats, including 2 savanna sites, 2 gallery forest sites, and 13 lowland forest sites, and based on their proximity to regions supporting wild game populations. The sites selected are all in the southern part of Cameroon, a region that includes extensive lowland rainforest (Figure 1). The 17 sites include 2 in each of the Southwest, Northwest, West, Littoral littoral /lit·to·ral/ (lit´ah-r'l) pertaining to the shore of a large body of water.


pertaining to the shore.
, and Central Provinces, 3 in the South Province, and 4 in the East Province. All 17 sites in the study participated in commercial sales of hunted wild game.

Studies were conducted in the context of a community-based HIV prevention campaign designed to provide information and decrease transmission. Participation in the study was voluntary. Persons who participated in the HIV prevention campaign were asked if they would like to hear more about a research study, and the study was described to those who were interested. Study description, the informed consent procedure, and questionnaire administration were all done orally in English or French, which are widely spoken as second languages in the study villages. Participants were offered compensation approximately equivalent to 1 day of work, since participation often precluded farm work on that day. The study protocol was approved by the Johns Hopkins Noun 1. Johns Hopkins - United States financier and philanthropist who left money to found the university and hospital that bear his name in Baltimore (1795-1873)

 Committee for Human Research, the Cameroon National Ethical Review Board, and the HIV Tri-Services Secondary Review Board. In addition, a single project assurance was obtained from the Cameroonian Ministry of Health and accepted by the National Institutes of Health Office for Protection from Research Risks.

Behavioral Data

After the informed consent process, participants were asked to respond to a behavioral questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered individually by trained interviewers, without regard to the sex of the participant. The questionnaire, which was linked, was designed to provide basic demographic information as well as information on behavior either directly or indirectly associated with exposure to the blood or body fluids of nonhuman primates. The questionnaire was pretested in Cameroon before use. Behaviors considered indirectly associated with exposure to blood or body fluids include butchering, hunting, and keeping pets. Behavior considered to be directly associated with exposure to blood or body fluids includes having been scratched or bitten by a nonhuman primate or having been injured while hunting or butchering. Following pretests, locally appropriate taxonomic categories Taxonomic categories

Any one of a number of formal ranks used for organisms in a traditional Linnaean classification. Biological classifications are orderly arrangements of organisms in which the order specifies some relationship.
 were derived from accepted local terms for animals. For example, "monkey" was identified as an appropriate taxonomic category Noun 1. taxonomic category - animal or plant group having natural relations
taxon, taxonomic group

Adapid, Adapid group - extinct small mostly diurnal lower primates that fed on leaves and fruit; abundant in North America and Europe 30 to 50 million years
, and participants were not asked to distinguish between monkey species. Other taxonomic categories used include chimpanzee chimpanzee, an ape, genus Pan, of the equatorial forests of central and W Africa. The common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, lives N of the Congo River. Full-grown animals of this species are up to 5 ft (1. , gorilla, and rodent. Rodents were included because they are perhaps the most commonly hunted and eaten type of forest animal and serve as a useful comparison with nonhuman primates. Participants were asked to identify which of these four taxa taxa: see taxon.  they had consumed, hunted, butchered, or kept as pets. Participants were asked to estimate their monthly frequency of consumption of each of the wild taxa and of the wild game overall. Participants were also asked to report on direct contact with wild taxa, including the taxa involved, having been scratched or bitten, or having been injured while hunting or butchering.


A total of 3,971 persons were interviewed. Both men and women participated and were represented approximately equally in the sites, with 46.3% female participants and 53.7% male participants. These aggregate results were similar to those found within the sites. Participants' ages ranged from 16 to 97 years. Participants were not equally distributed with regards to age; younger age groups were more represented. Participants were classed into four age groups: 16-30 years, 31-45 years, 46 60 years, and >60 years. Ages 16-30 made up 42% of participants, ages 31-45 made up 27% of participants, ages 46 60 made up 21% of participants, and ages >60 made up 10% of participants.

Participants reported having kept pets in all four taxonomic categories. Monkeys were kept as pets more frequently than other types of wild animals WILD ANIMALS. Animals in a state of nature; animals ferae naturae. Vide Animals; Ferae naturae. . The overall percentage of participants keeping pets from all sites combined was 0.6% keeping gorillas, 1.5% keeping chimpanzees, 9.9% keeping monkeys, and 1.8% keeping rodents. Sites in the study differed in their tendency to keep pets; persons in lowland sites reported keeping pets more frequently than people in gallery and savanna sites did (Figure 2).


In addition to keeping wild animal pets, three additional contact-associated activities were examined in this study, including hunting, butchering, and eating. Participants in all sites reported having hunted, butchered, and eaten animals from the four wild game taxa examined in this study. A higher percentage had eaten wild game than had butchered wild game, and a higher percentage had butchered wild game than hunted wild game (Figure 2). Hunting, butchering, and eating wild game were more common in forest sites than in other sites. For hunting, butchering, and eating, participants in the study had greater contact with rodents and monkeys than chimpanzees and gorillas (Figure 3).


While no significant departure was seen from expected proportions of women and men reporting eating of wild game of all types ([chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies.
] = 0.046, nonsignificant non·sig·nif·i·cant  
1. Not significant.

2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for being of random occurrence.
) or of rodents ([chi square] - 0.001, nonsignificant), fewer women than expected and more men than expected reported eating monkeys ([chi square] = 6.762, p < 0.01), chimpanzees ([chi square] = 102.216, p < 0.001), and gorillas ([chi square] - 0.046, p < 0.001). Of persons reporting hunting nonhuman primates, a higher proportion than expected by chance were men (53.7% expected, 98.7% observed) and lower proportion than expected were women (46.3% expected; 1.3% observed) ([chi square] = 1,119.130, p < 0.001). However, of participants reporting butchering nonhuman primates, a significantly higher proportion than expected were women (46.3% expected, 50.9% observed) and a lower proportion than expected were men (53.7% expected, 49.1% observed) ([chi square] = 61.376, p < 0.001). The average number of nonhuman primate meals differed between the three habitat types (F = 201.273, p < 0.001): it was significantly higher in lowland forest than in gallery forest (Bonferroni posthoc test p < 0.001) and significantly higher in gallery forest than in savanna (Bonferroni posthoc test p < 0.001) (Figure 2).

Data were also examined for evidence of direct contact with nonhuman primate blood and body fluids. Two types of evidence for direct exposure were examined: self-reports of scratches or bites from live nonhuman primates and self-reports of injuries involving body fluids associated with hunting and butchering nonhuman primates (Table 2). Injuries associated with hunting and butchering occurred in 14 of the 17 villages and in all three habitation HABITATION, civil law. It was the right of a person to live in the house of another without prejudice to the property.
     2. It differed from a usufruct in this, that the usufructuary might have applied the house to any purpose, as, a store or manufactory; whereas
 types, with a total of 1.67% of participants reporting such injuries (online Appendix available at Scratches or bites from nonhuman primates occurred in 14 villages in gallery forest and forest but did not occur in savanna sites. A total of 2.64% of participants reported such injuries. Of the participants who reported direct contact with nonhuman primate blood and body fluids through scratches, bites, or injuries, 91.2% reported butchering nonhuman primates, 73.0% reported hunting nonhuman primates, and 43.1% reported keeping a nonhuman primate as a pet. Men made up 82.5% of participants reporting direct contact, and women made up 17.5%. Most reports of direct contact involved monkeys (73.7%), although some direct contact was reported with gorillas (16.7%) and chimpanzees (9.6%).


Hunting nonhuman primates is a biologically ancient behavior that we share with our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees (24). Human hunting techniques and patterns, however, have changed substantially in contemporary times. During the 20th century, firearms increased the efficiency and frequency of hunting. Both subsistence and commercial hunting with wire snares and firearms are widespread activities throughout the forests of central Africa (1,25,26). In addition, road networks and increasing opportunities for transporting hunted game have led to an increase in sales and the rate of hunting (27).

Hunting and butchering nonhuman primates has been linked to the emergence of infectious disease Infectious disease

A pathological condition spread among biological species. Infectious diseases, although varied in their effects, are always associated with viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites and aberrant proteins known as prions.
 (1,4). Hunting a red colobus The red colobus are Old World monkeys of the genus Piliocolobus. They are closely related to the black-and-white colobus monkeys (genus Colobus) and some species are often found in groups with the Blue Monkey.  (Procolobus badius oustaleti) has been implicated im·pli·cate  
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.

 in a localized epidemic of monkeypox that continued for four generations of human-to-human contact (18). In addition, an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Mayibout, Gabon, in January 1996 was linked to butchering and eating a chimpanzee that had been found dead; 29 of 37 identified cases involved exposure to the chimpanzee (16). A number of subsequent epidemics in Gabon and Congo have also been linked to hunting and butchering apes (17).

Not only humans are at risk for diseases transmitted from nonhuman primates through hunting and butchering. Chimpanzees are regular hunters of monkeys and other forest vertebrates, and a study of Ebola hemorrhagic fever among chimpanzees in the Tai forests showed that the primary risk factor for contracting Ebola among wild chimpanzees was hunting behavior, which showed a stronger association with infection than other acknowledged risk factors, such as "touching dead bodies" (28).

More recent research suggests that hunting and butchering nonhuman primates resulted in the emergence of HIV (i.e., after cross-species transmission of SIV and subsequent spread) (21,22). While reconstructing the history of viral emergence is a substantial challenge, one possibility is that transmission of SIV associated with hunting and butchering is an ongoing process and that contemporary hunters may yet be found with SIV infection. This hypothesis has been strengthened by recent evidence suggesting that hunted nonhuman primates have a high rate of SIV infection (23) and evidence of hunting-associated cross-species transmission of another nonhuman primate retrovirus, simian foamy virus (19).

These results show that at least some rural villagers have a high level of exposure to nonhuman primates. While officially hunting of wild animals is forbidden, it is nonetheless widely accepted and permitted for personal use, so while the data may contain some bias, we do not feel that it is substantial. Our results show butchering to be the most common activity associated with contact with nonhuman primate blood and body fluids. More than 60% of the participants in the study reported having butchered a nonhuman primate, compared with [approximately equal to] 30% of participants who had hunted nonhuman primates. The higher frequency of persons reporting butchering as compared to hunting is expected, since those who hunt will often participate in some sort of butchering, generally including some preparation of wild game (e.g., disembowehnent). Approximately 11% of the persons in the study reported keeping nonhuman primate pets. Because pets are usually young, the prevalence of chronic diseases in this population may be less than that among adult prey to which hunters and butchers are exposed. Nevertheless, because of the potential for regular contact with pet animals, even a low frequency of infections among pets may be important.

Villages from different habitats differed with regards to their reported exposure activities (Figure 2). Reported monthly consumption was significantly higher in the lowland forest sites. This finding may be due to the higher density and diversity of wildlife located close to these regions. Men and women both had high levels of contact with primate body fluids (Figure 3). While men were more likely than women to hunt wild animals, women were more likely than men to butcher. Because of differential participation in risk activities by men and women, these data suggest that gender-based interventions may be appropriate to decrease potential exposures to nonhuman primate blood and body fluids in central Africa.

The number of persons who reported direct contact with nonhuman primate blood or body fluids through scratches and bites from live primates or injuries during hunting and butchering was low. A total of 66 participants reported being in contact with nonhuman primate blood and body fluids through an injury associated with hunting or butchering wild game (online Appendix). These persons often had multiple risk factors associated with nonhuman primate contact. Most of these persons reported a history of hunting nonhuman primates; eight persons reported only butchering. Results suggest that injuries associated with butchering may be less frequent than those associated with hunting, although injuries associated with butchering may be less severe and therefore less memorable than injuries associated with hunting and therefore underreported.

The results of this study show that contact with nonhuman primates, through both keeping wild animal pets and hunting and butchering nonhuman primates, is not confined to a small segment of the rural population. Rural central Africans are more highly exposed to microorganisms present in nonhuman primates than was previously considered. Persons in industrialized in·dus·tri·al·ize  
v. in·dus·tri·al·ized, in·dus·tri·al·iz·ing, in·dus·tri·al·iz·es
1. To develop industry in (a country or society, for example).

 countries who have regular contact with nonhuman primates, such as laboratory workers, are known to risk contracting infectious diseases from nonhuman primates, such as herpesvirus B, SIV, and simian loamy loam  
1. Soil composed of a mixture of sand, clay, silt, and organic matter.

2. A mixture of moist clay and sand, and often straw, used especially in making bricks and foundry molds.

 virus. These occupationally exposed persons are the subject of extensive public health interventions, aimed at controlling zoonotic Zoonotic
A disease which can be spread from animals to humans.

Mentioned in: Zoonosis
 transmission (29,30). While poor rural villages depend on wild game for animal protein, education on the risks associated with contact with nonhuman primate blood is an essential step for these communities, as is work to develop economic alternatives to hunting. Studies in such villages can provide further insights into behavioral links with disease emergence. Behavioral interventions aimed at decreasing exposure to nonhuman primates in villages with high exposure rates may provide an opportunity to prevent both zoonosis Zoonosis Definition

Zoonosis, also called zoonotic disease refers to diseases that can be passed from animals, whether wild or domesticated, to humans.
 on an individual level, as well as emergence events that have the potential for global effects.
Table 1. Characteristics of the 17 rural Cameroonnian villages

Site no.     Latitude       Longitude        (m)       Habitat type

I          5.8[degrees]   10.7[degrees]     1,180        Savanna
II         5.3[degrees]   11.0[degrees]      730      Gallery forest
III        4.8[degrees]   10.8[degrees]      800      Lowland forest
IV         4.2[degrees]   12.7[degrees]      680      Lowland forest
V          3.4[degrees]   10.6[degrees]      120      Lowland forest
VI         2.3[degrees]   10.4[degrees]      400      Lowland forest
VII        2.4[degrees]   11.8[degrees]      560      Lowland forest
VIII       2.2[degrees]   14.1[degrees]      630      Lowland forest
IX         2.4[degrees]   15.0[degrees]      330      Lowland forest
X          6.1[degrees]    9.8[degrees]     1,500     Gallery forest
XI         6.3[degrees]   10.8[degrees]     1,700        Savanna
XII        5.2[degrees]    9.4[degrees]      350      Lowland forest
XIII       4.9[degrees]    8.9[degrees]      100      Lowland forest
XIV        4.5[degrees]   10.3[degrees]      200      Lowland forest
XV         3.7[degrees]    9.7[degrees]       0       Lowland forest
XVI        3.4[degrees]   12.7[degrees]      650      Lowland forest
XVII       5.2[degrees]   13.6[degrees]      640      Gallery forest

                                     Language    Located at
Site no.   River basin (tributary)     group     end of road

I               Sanaga (Noun)        Shu-pamen       Yes
II              Sanaga (Mbam)        Shu-pamen       No
III             Wouri/Sanaga           Tunen         Yes
IV                  Nyong            Beti-fang       Yes
V              Nyong/Lokoundje        Kwasio         No
VI                  Ntem             Beti-fang       Yes
VII                 Ntem             Beti-fang       No
VIII             Congo (Dja)          Kawzime        No
IX               Congo (Dja)            Mpo          Yes
X           Calabar/Niger (Cross)     Esirnbi        Yes
XI                  Niger             Limbum         Yes
XII            Calabar (Cross)        Kenyang        No
XIII                Ndian              Oroko         No
XIV            Wouri (Dibamba)         Bassa         No
XV                 Sanaga              Duala         Yes
XVI              Congo (Dja)         Beti-fang       Yes
XVII               Sanaga              Gbete         Yes

Table 2. Frequency of persons in 17 Cameroonian villages reporting
direct contact with nonhuman primate body fluids

Persons reporting direct nonhuman primate body fluid contact

                                                        Injury during
                                                          hunting or
Village location             Scratch or bite, n (%)   butchering, n (%)

Savanna (N = 364)                    0 (0)                2 (0.55)
Gallery forest (N = 564)            8 (1.42)              7 (1.24)
Lowland forest (N = 3,043)         97 (3.19)              57 (1.87)
Overall (N = 3,971)                105 (2.64)             66 (1.67)


We thank the government of Cameroon for permission to undertake this work: A. Boupda, K Long, the EICAM Project Staff, and the U.S. Embassy in Yaounde for assistance in carrying out the work: and W. Sateren and T. Folks for valuable comments.

This work was supported by an award from the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (to D.B.); an International Research Scientist Development Award from the National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center (K01 TW00003-01 to N.W.); and an award from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was the first institution of its kind in the world.

Founded in 1916 by William H. Welch and John D.
, Center for a Livable Future (to A.P. and N.W.).

The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Army or the Department of Defense.

Dr. Wolfe is an assistant professor in the Departments of Epidemiology and Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He studies the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases in Africa and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. , with a particular locus on the interface between humans and nonhuman primates.


(1.) Wolfe NW, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Gockowski J, Muchaal PK, Nolte C, Prosser AT, et al. Deforestation deforestation

Process of clearing forests. Rates of deforestation are particularly high in the tropics, where the poor quality of the soil has led to the practice of routine clear-cutting to make new soil available for agricultural use.
, hunting and the ecology of microbial microbial

pertaining to or emanating from a microbe.

microbial digestion
the breakdown of organic material, especially feedstuffs, by microbial organisms.
 emergence. Global Change & Human Health [serial on the Internet]. 2000:1:10 25. Available from IPS content/ext/x/J/4731/I/1/A/4/abstract.htm#

(2.) Ruch TC. Diseases of laboratory primates. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1959.

(3.) Brack n. 1. An opening caused by the parting of any solid body; a crack or breach; a flaw.
Stain or brack in her sweet reputation.
- J. Fletcher.

1. Salt or brackish water.
 M. Agents transmissible transmissible /trans·mis·si·ble/ (trans-mis´i-b'l) capable of being transmitted.

Capable of being conveyed from one person to another.
 from simians to man. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1987.

(4.) Wolfe ND, Escalate AA, Karesh WB, Kilbourne AM, Spielman A, Lal AA. Wild primate populations in emerging infectious disease An emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease whose incidence has increased in the past 20 years and threatens to increase in the near future. EIDs include diseases caused by a newly identified microorganism or newly identified strain of a known microorganism (e.g. : the missing link? Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Interact]. 1998 Apr Jun [cited 1998 May 28]. Available from eid/vol4no2/wolfe.htm

(5.) Wallis J, Lee DR. Primate conservation: the prevention of disease transmission. Int J Primatol. 1999;20:803-26.

(6.) Heneine W, Switzer WM, Sandstrom P, Brown J, Vedapuri S, Schable CA, et al Identification of a human population infected with simian foamy viruses. Nat Mud. 1998;4:403-7.

(7.) Huff JL, Barry PA. B-virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus I) infection in humans and macaques: potential for zoonotic disease Noun 1. zoonotic disease - an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans

animal disease - a disease that typically does not affect human beings
. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2003 Feb [cited 2003 Jan 13]. Available from

(8.) Coatney GR, Collins WE, Warren M, Contacos PG. The primate malarias. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

(9.) Kalter SS, Millstein CH, Boncyk LH, Cummins LB. Tuberculosis in nonhuman primates as a threat to humans. Dev Biol Stand. 1978;41:85-91.

(10.) Graczyk TK, Mudakikwa AB, Cranfield MR, Eilenberger U. Hyperkeratotic mange mange (mānj), contagious skin disease of domestic and wild animals. The several types of mange, including follicular and sarcoptic mange, are caused by various minute parasitic mites that burrow into skin, hair follicles, or sweat glands.  caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae) in juvenile human-habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Parasitol Res. 2001;87:1024 8.

(11.) Sleeman JM, Meader LL, Mudakikwa AB, Foster JW, Patton S. Gastrointestinal parasites of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2000;31:322-8.

(12.) Butynski TM, Kalina J. Gorilla tourism: a critical look. In: Milner-Gulland EJ, Mace R. editors. Conservation of biological resources. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998. p. 294-366.

(13.) Khabbaz RF, Heneine W, George JR, Parekh B, Rowe T. Woods T, et al. Brief report: infection of a laboratory worker with simian immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:172-7.

(14.) Shah KV. A review of the circumstances and consequences of simian virus sim·i·an virus
Any of a number of viruses of variable taxonomic classification isolated from monkeys and from cultures of monkey cells.
 SV40 contamination of human vaccines. Symposium on Continuous Cell Lines as Substrates for Biologicals. Developments in biological standardization, Vol. 70; Arlington (VA): International Association of Biological Standardization 1989.

(15.) Renquist DM, Whitney RA. Zoonoses Zoonoses

Infections of humans caused by the transmission of disease agents that naturally live in animals. People become infected when they unwittingly intrude into the life cycle of the disease agent and become unnatural hosts.
 acquired from pet primates. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1987;17:219-40.

(16.) World Health Organization. Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever Noun 1. haemorrhagic fever - a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage  in Gabon officially declared over. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1996:71:125-6.

(17.) World Health Organization. Outbreak(s) of Ebola haemorrhagic fever, October 2001-July 2002. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2003;78:223-8.

(18.) Jezek Z, Arita I, Mutombo M, Dunn C, Nakano JH, Szczeniowski M. Four generations of probable person-to-person transmission of human monkeypox. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;123:1004-12.

(19.) Wolfe ND, Switzer WM, Carr JK, Bhullar VB, Shanmugam V, Tamoufe U, et al. Naturally acquired simian retrovirus infections among central African hunters. Lancet. 2004;363:932-7.

(20.) Le Guenno B, Formentry P, Wyers M, Gounon P, Walker F, Boesch C. Isolation and partial characterization of a new strain of Ebola virus Ebola virus (ēbō`lə), a member of a family (Filovirus) of viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The virus, named for the region in Congo (Kinshasa) where it was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain forest, where it survives in . Lancet. 1995;345:1271-444.

(21.) Wrangham R, Wilson M, Hare B, Wolfe ND. Chimpanzee predation predation

Form of food getting in which one animal, the predator, eats an animal of another species, the prey, immediately after killing it or, in some cases, while it is still alive. Most predators are generalists; they eat a variety of prey species.
 and the ecology of microbial exchange. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2000;12:186-8.

(22.) Hahn BH, Shaw GM, DeCock KM, Sharp PM. AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications. Science. 2000;287:607-14.

(23.) Peeters M, Courgnaud V, Abela B, Auzel P, Pourrut X, Bibollet-Ruche F, et al. Risk to human health from a plethora of simian immunodeficiency viruses in primate bushmeat Bushmeat (calque from the French viande de brousse) is the term commonly used for meat of terrestrial wild animals, killed for subsistence or commercial purposes throughout the humid tropics of the Americas, Asia and Africa. . Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2002 May [cited 2002 March 1]. Available from

(24.) Boesch C. Cooperative hunting in wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav. 1994;48:653-87.

(25.) Noss AJ. The impacts of cable snare cable snare

see hog, holder.
 hunting on wildlife populations in the forests of the Central African Republic Central African Republic, republic (2005 est. pop. 3,800,000), 240,534 sq mi (622,983 sq km), central Africa. The landlocked nation is bordered by Chad (N), Sudan (E), Congo (Kinshasa) and Congo (Brazzaville) (S), and Cameroon (W). . Conserv Biol. 1998;12:390-98.

(26.) Fa JE, Garcia-Yuste JE. Commercial bushmeat hunting in the Monte Mitra forests, Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea (gĭn`ē), officially Republic of Equatorial Guinea, republic (2005 est. pop. 536,000), 10,830 sq mi (28,051 sq km), W central Africa. : extent and impact. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation. 2001;24:31-52.

(27.) Wilkie DS, JG Sidle si·dle  
v. si·dled, si·dling, si·dles

1. To move sideways: sidled through the narrow doorway.

, Boundzanga GC. Mechanized mech·a·nize  
tr.v. mech·a·nized, mech·a·niz·ing, mech·a·niz·es
1. To equip with machinery: mechanize a factory.

 logging, market hunting and a bank loan in Congo. Conserv Biol. 1992;6:570-80.

(28.) Formenty P, Boesch C, Wyers M, Steiner C, Donati F, Dind F, et al. Ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of Cote d'Ivoire. J Infect Dis. 1999;179(Suppl 1):S120-6.

(29.) Richardson JH. Basic considerations in assessing and preventing occupational infectious in personnel working with nonhuman primates. J Meal Primatol. 1987; 16:83-9.

(30.) Weber DJ, Rutala WA. Zoonotic infections. Occup Med. 1999;14:247-84.

Nathan D. Wolfe, * A. Tassy Prosser, * Jean K. Carr, ([dagger]) Ubald Tamoute, ([double dagger]) Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole, ([double dagger] [section]) J. Ndongo Torimiro, ([double dagger]) Matthew LeBreton, ([double dagger]) Francine E. McCutchan, ([dagger]) Deborah L. Birx, ([paragraph]) and Donald S. Burke *

* Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ([dagger]) Henry M. Jackson “Scoop Jackson” redirects here. For the basketball writer, see Scoop Jackson (writer).
Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator for Washington State from 1941 until his death.
 Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, USA; ([double dagger]) Johns Hopkins Cameroon Program, Yaounde, Cameroon; ([section]) Army Health Research Center (CRESAR), Yaounde, Cameroon; and ([paragraph]) Walter Reed Army Institute of Research This article is about the U.S. Army medical research institute (not the hospital). Otherwise, see Walter Reed (disambiguation).

The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is the largest biomedical research facility administered by the U.S.
, Rockville, Maryland, USA

Address for correspondence: Nathan D. Wolfe, Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University, mainly at Baltimore, Md. Johns Hopkins in 1867 had a group of his associates incorporated as the trustees of a university and a hospital, endowing each with $3.5 million. Daniel C. , Bloomberg School of Public Health, Central Africa Program, 624 N. Broadway #217, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; fax: 410-502-0530; email:
COPYRIGHT 2004 U.S. National Center for Infectious Diseases
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2004, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Research
Author:Burke, Donald S.
Publication:Emerging Infectious Diseases
Geographic Code:6CAME
Date:Dec 1, 2004
Previous Article:Risk factors for alveolar echinococcosis in humans.
Next Article:Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus.

Related Articles
Funding for humans' closest relatives.
Probing primate thoughts: questions arise about the mental lives of apes and monkeys.
Brazilian cave yields skeletons.
Death in the family tree.
The global decline of primates.
Behavioral and physiological effects of environmental enrichment for Garnett's bushbaby (Otolemur garnettii). (Health Sciences).
Risk to human health from a plethora of Simian immunodeficiency viruses in primate bushmeat. (Research).
West Nile virus infection in nonhuman primate breeding colony, concurrent with human epidemic, Southern Louisiana.
Primate virus found in zoo workers.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters