Printer Friendly
The Free Library
22,741,889 articles and books

Explaining entrepreneurial success: a conceptual model.


Explaining entrepreneurial success has long remained a contentious issue. Failures on this front have been attributed to extra emphasis on individual or environment and plethora plethora /pleth·o·ra/ (pleth´ah-rah)
1. an excess of blood.

2. by extension, a red florid complexion.pletho´ric

 of constructs. The paper proposes new constructs that are parsimonious par·si·mo·ni·ous  
Excessively sparing or frugal.

 and holistic in nature. These constructs are cognitive complexity, threat to identity, status inconsistency Status inconsistency is a situation where an individual's social positions have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status. For example, a teacher may have a positive societal image (respect, prestige) which increases his or her status but may earn little . The constructs assume that entrepreneurship is consequence of interaction between individual and environment.


Despite considerable work in the field of entrepreneurship, efforts to arrive at explanation and theory of entrepreneurial success have not produced desired results (Phan, 2004; Wortman, 1987; Shane and Venkataraman, 2000). The Inability of scholars to arrive at distinct theory is attributed to a number of factors that include disagreement on definition of entrepreneurship, (By grave and Hofer, 1991; Brazeal et al, 1999; Gartner,1989), inability to look beyond their disciplines (Hornaday et al, 1987), inability to apply multilevel analysis and new constructs (Phan, 2004), development and measurement of constructs used (Smith et al., 1989; Vanderwerf and Brush, 1989), lack of dynamism in theories (Bygrave and Hofer, 1991) and lack of parsimony par·si·mo·ny  
1. Unusual or excessive frugality; extreme economy or stinginess.

2. Adoption of the simplest assumption in the formulation of a theory or in the interpretation of data, especially in accordance with the rule of
 in model development (Phan, 2004). If a distinct theory of entrepreneurship is to developed, field has to pay attention to interactions among cognition cognition

Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing.
, organization and industry level analysis. Further, analysis at every level should be connected to provide holistic picture. This is obviously a tall order to achieve (Phan 2004).

This paper aims to build a conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .

A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project.
 which explains entrepreneurial process using psycho-social processes. It attempts to answer some of the above mentioned problems, by using new concepts like cognitive complexity, threat to identity and status inconsistency. The framework presented in this paper is based on psychological and sociological theories of information processing information processing: see data processing.
information processing

Acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information. Today the term usually refers to computer-based operations.
 and emotions as basis for describing enterprise creation. It assumes that information creation and management along with emotions are the heart of entrepreneurial decision-making.

The paper first defines entrepreneurship and its implication for explaining the process. It then presents concepts that would be used to build the model. Towards the end, the paper describes the conceptual framework, which explains entrepreneurial process and why model claims acceptability.


A good science has to begin with a good definition (Bygrave and Hofer, 1991). If the field of entrepreneurship is to claim scientific accreditations, there has to be sharp and unanimous definitions. But sadly, there is no consensus on definition of entrepreneurship (Bruyat and Julien, 2001; Lumpkin and Dess, 1996). The number of definitions is almost equal to the number of scholars. Another problem with development of distinct theory of entrepreneurship is lack of reliability and validity of constructs developed to measure a phenomenon (Smith et al, 1998). This makes measurement of different constructs, developed in entrepreneurship, inconsistent. It renders comparison across different works difficult and in some cases even futile, hindering progress of research inquiry (Brazeal, 1999).

Given multiplicity of definitions, the author concurs with Misra and Kumar (2000) that there is no point in proposing another definition. However, without definition, research inquiry becomes difficult. For this very reason, the author adopted a definition from the existing literature. The Definition adopted is: "Entrepreneurship is the process that involves innovative action towards organization creation." The definition has elements of Gartner's (1988) definition which say's that entrepreneurship involves organizational creation and Drucker's (1985) definitions which say's entrepreneurship involves innovation. The definition is close though not same as Shumpeterian (Schumpeter, 2000) notion of "Creative Destruction".

Entrepreneurial Process

Consistent with the definition adopted- innovation and organization creation, the author is of the opinion that the explanation of enterprise creation cannot be separated from volition vo·li·tion
1. The act or an instance of making a conscious choice or decision.

2. A conscious choice or decision.

3. The power or faculty of choosing; the will.
 of entrepreneur. Assumption is that entrepreneur is at the heart of entrepreneurship though not the sole explanatory force. Given these assumptions, paper adopts Baron's (2004) framework for explaining entrepreneurial process. It states that "Willingness to start enterprise', 'Identifying opportunities' and 'Success of the enterprise' "are the three stages of the process.


As already emphasised, entrepreneur is at heart of organization creation. The decision to become an entrepreneur is volitional vo·li·tion  
1. The act or an instance of making a conscious choice or decision.

2. A conscious choice or decision.

3. The power or faculty of choosing; the will.
 (Carland, 1988; Baron, 2000). Entrepreneurship literature abounds with studies probing propensity of an individual towards enterprise creation. This literature could be divided into two categories.

First category of research is on personality traits. Some of scholars, mainly psychologists, working in this field have developed useful insights towards this. Some of important concepts that have been explored by these scholars to explain entrepreneurship are: Need for Achievement (McClelland; 1961), Need for power (McClelland, 1975), Internal locus of control locus of control
A theoretical construct designed to assess a person's perceived control over his or her own behavior. The classification internal locus indicates that the person feels in control of events; external locus
 (Rotter; 1966), Risk taking propensity (Brockhaus, 1982), Tolerance for ambiguity (Begley and Boyd, 1987) etc. However, the research on trait theories has yielded, at best, moderate results (Gartner, 1988, Baron, 2000). The reasons for failure are twofold. Firstly there has been problem in measuring the various concepts (Chell, 1989) and secondly these concepts may not be good indicators of entrepreneurship (Robinson et. al: 1991).

The second line of inquiry is by sociologist, who have analysed background and demographical factors as reasons for successful enterprise creation. This emphasis led to finding out conditions that are responsible for emergence of entrepreneurship (Gnyawali and Fogel, 1994) The result of these findings have highlighted factors such as dissatisfaction with previous job or life experiences (Brockhaus, 1982), immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important.  (Borjas, 1986), ability to form social networks and social capital (Aldrich, 2000; Reynolds, Storey and Westhead, 1994), minority status (Hisrich and Brush, 1986; Turner and Bonacich, 1980) and host of other factors. However, like trait factors, sociological factors have also received lukewarm luke·warm  
1. Mildly warm; tepid.

2. Lacking conviction or enthusiasm; indifferent: gave only lukewarm support to the incumbent candidate.

What are the reasons for failure of these factors? Two kinds of explanations are possible for this question. First, it can be argued that homogenous homogenous - homogeneous  characteristics, like background factors, cannot explain success of entrepreneurs, who are outliers. It is not the conditions (or background factors), per se, that are important but what are the impact on individuals of the conditions. Hence mere demographic variables should be abhorred in favour of consequences of these variables on individuals. This author is of the opinion that some scholars have not been able to focus on effect of demographic conditions on individual. Such analysis could have yielded better insights.

After these failures, research inquiry in entrepreneurship diverted from individual and social variables to development of models, which contained both individual and social factors. This approach was predominant in entrepreneurship literature in early 90's to mid 90's (Learned, 1992; Hornsby et al., 1994). However, these models also failed to account for the success of the process of entrepreneurship. This failure could be attributed to too many variables and hence lack of parsimony. Too many variables, leading to overlap and hence redundancy. For example, there is significant overlap in 'Need for achievement', 'Internal locus of control', 'Risk taking propensity', 'Dissatisfaction', 'and Immigration and Minority status'. An individual who has high need for achievement is likely to be moderate risk taker tak·er  
One that takes or takes up something, such as a wager or purchase: There were no takers on the bets.

. Also, S/he is likely to have internal locus of control (Pandey and Tewary, 1979; Diaz and Rodrigues, 2003 and many others). Similarly, the person who migrates to different land might land up in a situation where S/he is denied upward mobility upward mobility
The state of being upwardly mobile.

upward mobility

movement from a lower to a higher economic and social status
 through normal channels. The individual may end up with dissatisfaction, leading to higher efforts.

Does it mean that research on individual variables, both trait and situational, which has yielded at best mediocre me·di·o·cre  
Moderate to inferior in quality; ordinary. See Synonyms at average.

[French médiocre, from Latin mediocris : medius, middle; see medhyo-
 results (Chell et al, 1989, p44), should be discarded dis·card  
v. dis·card·ed, dis·card·ing, dis·cards
1. To throw away; reject.

a. To throw out (a playing card) from one's hand.

? Gartner (1988) went to the extent that results on individual personality characteristics have not yielded any result and hence question--"Who is a successful Entrepreneur?" should be discarded altogether. However, Carland (1988) and Baron (2004) have argued that entrepreneurship, as an act cannot be separated from entrepreneurs. Hence, it would be foolish to discard this research as there are some very useful insights that could direct the future research in achieving better results.

What are these useful insights and lessons? The first lesson is that these factors are may need to be improved upon. The second lesson that could be learnt from these results is- any explanation for entrepreneurial behaviour should include minimum number of factors. It requires building of minimum and valid constructs. Is this task achievable?

It is achievable if the new concepts can be thought of, which can encompass two or more earlier concepts. It would reduce duplicity DUPLICITY, pleading. Duplicity of pleading consists in multiplicity of distinct matter to one and the same thing, whereunto several answers are required. Duplicity may occur in one and the same pleading.  of same phenomenon being explained through different concepts. This is a huge task. But an effort has been made in this paper, though conceptually. The following section discusses constructs that have been used in this paper to build the conceptual framework.


Consistent with Baron (2004) requirements of explaining entrepreneurial success, the author presents important concepts, which would act as a raw material for framework building, As pointed earlier, conceptual model will try and find answers to the three questions.

Threat to Identity

The Author feels that 'Perception of threat to Identity' could be one of the factors, which can encompass some of the inter-related concepts, if not all. It is a negative emotion negative emotion Any adverse emotion–eg, anger, envy, cynicism, sarcasm, etc. Cf Positive emotion.  which forces an individual to quit and start a fresh action. Individual is gripped by fear. He/she starts to think: "What would happen to me if I'm not able to achieve a particular goal. The fear leads to tension. Perception of threat to identity and hence fear can lead an individual to put extra efforts to search for identity. There are many scholars, who have highlighted importance of fear in enhanced information seeking Information seeking is the process or activity of attempting to obtain information in both human and technological contexts. Information seeking is related to, but yet different from, information retrieval (IR). . Minniti (2004) says that the need to prove leads to enhanced alertness (Gaglio and Katz, 2001). Negative emotions like fear, could lead to enhanced information seeking (Muramatsu and Hanoch, 2005). Information seeking may lead to information asymmetry Information asymmetry

Condition that information is known to some, but not all, participants.
. Hindle (2004) has also highlighted importance of studying fear of failure as a possible cause for decision to start enterprise.

Self Efficacy

Self-efficacy as concept has been found to have an effect on intentions of individuals to start enterprise. Albert Bandura ban`dur´a   

n. 1. A traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument shaped like a lute, having many strings.
 (1986) defined "Self efficacy as a belief in one's capability to organize and execute the resources for actions required--"Manage Prospective Situation". It is related to intensity of efforts an individual would put in a particular task, how long would individual persist with the task and the nature of task an individual would choose. Boyd and Vozikis (1994) co-related entrepreneurship with self efficacy. They cleared the confusion between concepts such as 'self efficacy' and 'locus of control', 'self efficacy' and 'belief that an effort to lead to desired performance' and 'self efficacy' and 'outcome expectations'. They argued that self-efficacy is a broader concept that includes such factors as moods and coping abilities under stress.

Boyd and Vozikis (1994) have argued that a person's self-efficacy can be improved through four methods. These methods in decreasing order of effectiveness are 1. Mastery experiences or Enactive En`act´ive

a. 1. Having power to enact or establish as a law.
 mastery 2. Modelling or Observational learning, 3. Social Persuasion and 4. Judgement of own Physiological states.

Boyd and Vozikis (1994), while further developing Bird's (1988) model of intentions claimed that entrepreneurial intentions are best predictors of entrepreneurial behaviour as compared to other factors like past experience. Similarly, Krueger, Reilly and Carsrud, (2000), while testing models of entrepreneurial intentions, proved that perceived self efficacy of an individual leads to perceived feasibility, which is a better predictor of intention. Noble, Jung and Ehrlich (1999) found that two dimensions of self-efficacy namely, developing new opportunities and meeting unexpected challenges, distinguish students who major in entrepreneurship against students with non-entrepreneurship subjects as majors.

Cognitive Complexity

Bieri (1955) was first to develop the idea of cognitive complexity. However, his concept could not hold ground; subsequently Crockett (1965) modified it. His concept of cognitive complexity is amalgamation amalgamation /amal·ga·ma·tion/ (ah-mal´gah-ma´shun) trituration (3).
amalgamation (
 of two concepts. The first concept is "Personal constructs" from Personal construct theory of George Kelly (1955). The second concept is taken from structural development theory of Heinz Werner (1957). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 Kelly (1955) every individual has his ways of knowing and dealing with the world through 'Constructs'. These constructs are bipolar (1) See bipolar transmission.

(2) One of two major categories of transistor; the other is "field effect transistor" (FET). Although the first transistors and first silicon chips were bipolar, most chips today are field effect transistors wired as CMOS logic, which
 in nature. Kelly said that all individuals are like scientists, who continuously apply their constructs to deal with different situations in day-to-day world. Individuals improve and change these constructs with experience. We interpret world through these constructs as per Kelly. He argued that all constructs that fall within same domain constitute specific subsystem. The constructs are organized in hierarchical fashion, such that some elements in the subsystem subsume sub·sume  
tr.v. sub·sumed, sub·sum·ing, sub·sumes
To classify, include, or incorporate in a more comprehensive category or under a general principle:
 or imply other elements.

Werner's (1957) theory of structural development states that development takes place from the state of little differentiation to high differentiation, low complexity to high complexity, little articulation articulation

In phonetics, the shaping of the vocal tract (larynx, pharynx, and oral and nasal cavities) by positioning mobile organs (such as the tongue) relative to other parts that may be rigid (such as the hard palate) and thus modifying the airstream to produce speech
 to better articulation and hierarchical integration Hierarchical INTegration, or HINT for short, is a computer benchmark that ranks a computer system as a whole (i.e. the entire computer instead of individual components). . Werner referred to this as orthogenetic principle of development.

Crockett (1965) combined the theories of Werner and Kelly to arrive at cognitive complexity. Applied to personal constructs, the orthogenetic principle suggests that more developed systems of constructs will be more differentiated (contain greater numbers of constructs), articulated (consist of more refined elements), abstract and integrated (organized and interconnected). These developed systems of constructs are relatively complex. That is, individuals with more differentiated, abstract, and organized systems of constructs, in a particular domain, are considered to possess higher cognitively complexity in the domain. Thus, someone with a relatively differentiated, abstract, and organized system of interpersonal constructs can be regarded as having a higher level of interpersonal cognitive complexity.

As per concept of cognitive complexity, two kinds of development can occur. First is development in a specific domain. This is similar to Sarasvathy's (2004) concept of Expertise and Intuition. Second is, development in general domain which Mitchell (2000) refers to as 'Arrangement Cognitions'. General development is not likely to be complex and its range would also be limited. Development in specific domain is likely to be highly differentiated and complex. Hence it is possible that an individual will have highly differentiated construct in one field and not in others. (Crockett, 1965).

Crockett (1965) related cognitive complexity to impression formation, which is a potential area that could contribute to the entrepreneurship literature (Downing, 2005). Cognitive complex persons were found to be related to better at judging impression of others when they are exposed to contradictory information (Delia and Crockett, 1973; Press, Crockett and Rosenkrantz, 1969). These people have the quality to differentiate and integrate information better than others. Streufert and Swezey (1986, p 61-90) have shown that more cognitively complex individuals gather and process information better, are flexible in their thinking, They change their attitude very quickly in response to the change in the environment and are better strategic planners.

Cognitive complexity of individual increases with age up to late twenty's and early thirties and then decreases with age. It is related positively to formal education. Cognitive complexity of an individual is also influenced by amount and variety of social interactions. Variety of social interactions and education would result in more constructs, whereas the amount of social interaction and education would result in differentiation of constructs. To put it differently, the breadth and depth of social interaction would influence the cognitive complexity. The experiences that an individual has are converted into cognitive constructs through learning. These constructs are used as data for making decisions.

Cognitive Complexity has been related to social perception skills like; identifying others' states and inferring in their dispositions, impression organization, information integration, social evaluation and reliance on evaluative consistency principles, social perspective-taking ability, production of person-centred messages (Crockett et. al, 1975). It is also related to message production forms, communication effectiveness, individual differences in listening, comprehension and conversational memory, differential responses of low and high complexity judges to person-centred, behaviourally complex messages, representations of conversational interaction, topic management during conversation, planning processes during conversation (Burleson and Caplan, 1998). All these skills are very important for entrepreneurs. Baron and Ward (2004) cite a few researches where more cognitively complex person has been found better at picking taxonomical tax·o·nom·ic   also tax·o·nom·i·cal
Of or relating to taxonomy: a taxonomic designation.


Cultural Aspirations

Every culture can be conceptualised as a complex system of subcultures

Main articles: Subculture and History of subcultures in the 20th century

This is a list of subcultures. A
  • Anarcho-punk
  • B-boy
  • Backpacking (travel)
  • BDSM
  • Beatnik
  • Bills
. These subcultures can, sometimes be in opposition to the dominant culture in a society. Such subcultures are referred to as contra-cultures. Subcultures are like Kelly's constructs which are integrated and differentiated in a hierarchy. Every subculture subculture /sub·cul·ture/ (sub´kul-chur) a culture of bacteria derived from another culture.

 has a prescriptive pre·scrip·tive  
1. Sanctioned or authorized by long-standing custom or usage.

2. Making or giving injunctions, directions, laws, or rules.

3. Law Acquired by or based on uninterrupted possession.
 element in it and is unique to the subculture. Subculture/culture transfers its aspirations to individuals through various modes of socialisation. Hence, every individual wants to live up to these aspirations that have been internalised through socialisation. Prescriptive element of culture have performance requirement from individuals if theses individuals have to live up to cultural aspirations and gain identity. These could be termed as "Construct of Performance Requirement". The requirements become standards against which the performance of an individual is measured. Entrepreneurship aspires to fulfil these requirements which would depend on his capability to gauge them properly.


As already said, the Author accepts Baron's (2004) position that explaining entrepreneurial success would require explaining three phenomena- 'Willingness to start enterprise', 'Identifying opportunities' and 'Success of the enterprise'. In the next section, explanations for these phenomena would be developed with the help of concepts mentioned in the previous section.

Willingness to Start an Enterprise

Why would a person like to start an enterprise, especially when entrepreneurship is not preferred career option? The willingness is determined by the pulls and pushes that an individual faces while starting an enterprise (Clark and Drinkwater, 2001; Olomi et al., 2000). Pushes and pulls arise from positive or negative emotions that a person experiences. Push is negative emotion that forces a person to leave the status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy.  whereas Pull is a positive force that attracts person towards new path, which can be enterprise formation. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently
, a person finds his current status to be unsatisfactory and alternatives like enterprise formation become attractive.

The push factors are: job dissatisfaction, job loss, unemployment, career setbacks, saturation in the existing market, language, immigrant status, deprivation, low family income and lack of flexibility in the previous job. The Author proposes that the perceived threat to identity, mentioned in previous section, can be used to explain as to why individuals are pushed into entrepreneurship. When an individual fears that his identity is threatened he is likely to indulge in actions, which would re-establish his identity or give him a new identity. Entrepreneurship could be a means towards that. However, fear of threat to identity is not enough to make him look for alternatives. Everyone with threatened identity does not start enterprise even if the entrepreneurial career is a preferred choice in the culture/subculture. Some individuals may perceive irreparable ir·rep·a·ra·ble  
Impossible to repair, rectify, or amend: irreparable harm; irreparable damages.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin
 damage to their identity to the extent that they lose initiative for alternative action.

In addition to the push, pull is also required to initiate action to regain identity. Various pull factors described in literature are: Need for achievement, Internal locus of control, Intentionality intentionality

Property of being directed toward an object. Intentionality is exhibited in various mental phenomena. Thus, if a person experiences an emotion toward an object, he has an intentional attitude toward it.
, Practical purpose of individual action, Demand, Common culture, Language, Self sustaining economic environment, Good policy, Infrastructure and Profit. If we have to look for parsimonious model, then it is important that a new concept which encompasses the existing concept should be developed.

The Author proposes perceived self-efficacy as a concept, as described previously, can fulfil the role of providing positive energy to an entrepreneur. Carsrud et al (2000) have shown that self-efficacy is better predictor of entrepreneurial intentions. Chen, Greene, and Crick Crick , Francis Henry Compton 1916-2004.

British biologist who with James D. Watson proposed a spiral model, the double helix, for the molecular structure of DNA. He shared a 1962 Nobel Prize for advances in the study of genetics.
 (1998) reported that self-efficacy is positively related to an individual's starting an enterprise. Self-efficacy provides individuals with the pull and can be a result of both personal and environmental factor, as Boyd and Vozikis (1994) highlighted. It can be used to explain entrepreneurship at culture and structural level of societies. Population in the lower strata in hierarchical societies would have low self efficacy because of high power distance and domination by higher ups. The high power distance leads to "Poor Modelling",' Social Persuasion 'and Mastery skills. On the other hand population in the upper strata would find it relatively easy to hold on to power. This would mean entrepreneurship is likely to remain low in that culture as opportunities for change are non-existent.

Self-Efficacy provides positive emotions and a belief that an individual can make a difference. The difference comes from ability to effectuate ef·fec·tu·ate  
tr.v. ef·fec·tu·at·ed, ef·fec·tu·at·ing, ef·fec·tu·ates
To bring about; effect.

[Medieval Latin effectu
. Mere emotions can only lead to propensity and not action.

The Author proposes that decision towards enterprise creation could be explained by combining concepts of "Self Efficacy and Threat to Identity"


Identification of Opportunity

Author proposes that identification of an opportunity can be explained through cognitive complexity and perceived positive self-efficacy. How is it possible? An individual can have high cognitive complexity in both specific and general domain. Higher cognitive complexity in specific domain leads to differentiated constructs. For example, Bill Gate's would have high cognitive complexity in software. Similarly higher cognitive complexity, in general field, would lead to better connectivity with constructs from other field. Continuing with example of Bill Gates (person) Bill Gates - William Henry Gates III, Chief Executive Officer of Microsoft, which he co-founded in 1975 with Paul Allen. In 1994 Gates is a billionaire, worth $9.35b and Microsoft is worth about $27b. , this would mean that he would be able to connect his constructs in software to that of constructs in market. Cognitive complexity in a particular field makes individual expert and general cognitive complexity connectivity in related fields. Hence, a more cognitive complex individual is likely to generate more ideas through differentiation and integration. Hence an individual with high cognitive complexity is likely to be more creative.

Baron and Ward (2004) argue that creativity is related to opportunity identification. They hint towards the possibility that entrepreneurs use different, integrated knowledge structure. Creativity leads to better identification of opportunities through process of conceptual combination, analogical an·a·log·i·cal  
Of, expressing, composed of, or based on an analogy: the analogical use of a metaphor.

 reasoning and abstraction.

A more cognitively complex person is likely to be more creative than less cognitively complex person (Streufert and Swezey, 1986, 73-74). A cognitive complex individual would have better information creating, handling, managing and manipulability ma·nip·u·la·ble  
Possible to manipulate: a manipulable lever; a manipulable populace.

 capabilities leading to creativity. The more differentiated and integrated constructs an individual has better would be the capability to generate alternatives.

Innovation and creativity are nothing but ability to create new and additional constructs, different from existing constructs. A person with multiple constructs is likely to produce better integration and differentiation of his present constructs to produce newer constructs. To illustrate, we would take an example: Say there are two boys, A and B. Suppose A has vocabulary of 4 words and B has vocabulary of 6 words. If we replace "construct" for "word" then, A has four constructs and B has six constructs. Who has capability to create more number of sentences given this limitation? Obvious answer to this is B. Hence person with higher cognitive complexity would, under normal circumstances, generate more alternatives. After alternatives generation, next task is that of alternatives evaluation to decide upon the most feasible. This requires a good judgement. Cognitively complex makes better individual judgements (Tripodi and Bieri, 1964, 1966) especially when environment is dynamic and complex. The Entrepreneurs operate in a complex and dynamic environment. Hence Cognitive complex entrepreneur would do a better job of evaluation in dynamic environment.

A person with higher cognitive complexity would also be receptive to cultural aspirations. He is more capable at comprehending trends. She/he is likely to be more empathetic em·pa·thet·ic  

empa·theti·cal·ly adv.
 to environment. Empathy level can be defined "As overlap of individual constructs and environmental constructs". Higher cognitive complexity would result in identification of appropriate opportunities, as most of viable ideas come from aspirational culture.

Similarly, a persons need to have positive and affirmative outlook while generating and evaluating ideas. Person with higher self efficacy can do such. Kasouf (1997) showed that self-efficacy helps an individual in opportunity assessment and opportunities recognition. Krueger and Dickson (1993) also related self-efficacy to opportunity recognition. This is because self-efficacy could be the difference between something being termed as "opportunity" or "threat". An individual with higher self-efficacy may view a particular situation as opportunity whereas another individual with lower self-efficacy may end up viewing the same situation as a threat.

Hence, identification of opportunity could be explained by combining cognitive complexity and self efficacy. Some scholars have proved that cognitive complexity decreases with age. These results give support for the findings that people are less likely to form ventures as their age increases (Mayr, Ulrich; Kliegl, Reinhold, 1993).

Developing Opportunities/ Creation of an enterprise

Once an individual decides to start an enterprise after identification of opportunity the next stage is developing the opportunity to create organization. The success of an enterprise creation would depend on the ability of an entrepreneur to generate resources for running the organization. Self efficacy has been related to resource acquisition capacity (Brown and Kirchoff, 1997), though the relation was not strong. Cognitive complexity has been linked to higher level of empathy and understanding towards others, leadership skills, ability to attract people and problem solving problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.
 (Streufert and Swezey, 1986). An entrepreneur is dependent upon all the stakeholders Stakeholders

All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government.
 of an organization for success. The stakeholders have differing expectations from entrepreneur. Sometimes these expectations sometimes can be convergent while most times these are divergent di·ver·gent  
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.

2. Departing from convention.

3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.

. Managing this situation can be rattling to most individuals. For example; the expectations of customers might be different from those of venture capitalists, financiers, employees, shareholders and suppliers. In order to satisfy these divergent expectations, an entrepreneur has to be aware and sensitive to these divergent needs. A cognitively complex person, both in a specific domain and general domain is likely to be aware about the expectations and standards of performance that culture expects if an individual wants to be successful. Baron and Ward (2004) do not deny the possibility that entrepreneurs might possess ability to recognise complex pattern, which other persons do not possess. It helps in better resource acquisition from environment. As per Sternberg (2004) "Entrepreneurs are successful because they have better 'Successful Intelligence' which is different from intelligence measured through different IQ instruments". He says that the successful intelligence is combination of practical, analytical and creative intelligence. This relationship when combined with cognitive complexity can have better relation with successful running of an enterprise. Practical intelligence is combination of effectuation ef·fec·tu·ate  
tr.v. ef·fec·tu·at·ed, ef·fec·tu·at·ing, ef·fec·tu·ates
To bring about; effect.

[Medieval Latin effectu
 and ability to gauge environment.

Contingency in Model

An industry can be thought of as a dynamic environment. Every environment has certain performance requirements from individuals if individuals have to survive and grow in the same. The Environment is dynamic and competitive with many players in a particular field at a point of time. Hence one way of looking at success is synchronization (1) See synchronous and synchronous transmission.

(2) Ensuring that two sets of data are always the same. See data synchronization.

(3) Keeping time-of-day clocks in two devices set to the same time. See NTP.
 between individual environments. Suppose in the earlier hypothetical example of A and B. A and B both study in school and they would be evaluated by school on the basis their ability to create more sentences. Suppose, out of six words that B has, three are slang and cannot be used in examination. Effectively, B has only three words, as other three are defunct DEFUNCT. A term used for one that is deceased or dead. In some acts of assembly in Pennsylvania, such deceased person is called a decedent. (q.v.) . On other hand, all four words of A are valid. Effectively, A has more constructs than B. Hence despite B having more constructs, overall, but less constructs compatible with relevant environment, would be out competed by A. Entrepreneurs are more cognitively complex in a particular domain and out-compete others in the domain.

It is realized that success of an entrepreneur/enterprise will depend on his/its relative position to others with respect to framework established in the model vis-a-vis. other players in and out of industry. The survival and growth of these players would be dependent on the relative strength of cognitive complexity of players in the industry. The more cognitively complex person would be able to drive out the players who are less cognitively complex (industry). The assumption that the author has made is that a person who has higher cognitive complexity, is not only likely to assess the environment better than others but has more capability to generate more information and resources which are crucial for growth and survival of an enterprise.

On the other hand, self efficacy and threat to identity are likely to provide individual with emotional energy that acts as motivator to indulge in action of enterprise creation.

A Contradiction in Model

A first look at the model would suggest a contradiction in form of use of two constructs--"Threat to identity and Self-efficacy". A question can be raised as to how it is possible for a person to have both? This could be explained in terms of status inconsistency (Lenski, 1954, 1956), across time and space. An individual occupy more than one status in day-to-day life. It might so happen that he derives self-efficacy from one status (higher one) and he fears threat to his identity from the other status (lower one). The Fear of loss of identity and confidence of self-efficacy might lead to a balance or what Brockner (2004) called promotional and preventive focus in regulatory focus theory of enterprise opportunity identification and evaluation. The Author believes that in order for a person to be successful entrepreneur, it is important that he should have balance of negative and positive attitudes. This helps to avoid excessive optimism or pessimism pessimism, philosophical opinion or doctrine that evil predominates over good; the opposite of optimism. Systematic forms of pessimism may be found in philosophy and religion.  and leads to better judgement. Brockner says that promotional focus is helpful during idea generation times and prevention focus is helpful during idea evaluation and day-to-day running of the organization. A desirability of both optimistic op·ti·mist  
1. One who usually expects a favorable outcome.

2. A believer in philosophical optimism.

 as well as pessimistic pes·si·mism  
1. A tendency to stress the negative or unfavorable or to take the gloomiest possible view: "We have seen too much defeatism, too much pessimism, too much of a negative approach" 
 outlook explains why successful entrepreneurship is difficult and a rare phenomenon. Gaglio (2004) also refers to finding of Galinsky et al in his paper which states that, individual who indulges in both "Counterfactual Thinking" and "Mental Simulation" is less prone to biases. The two phenomena are almost opposite to each other but can co-exist.


If entrepreneurial process has to be successfully predicted, the field of entrepreneurship needs a comprehensive model (Bygrave and Hofer, 1991). The model should not only take individual level factors into consideration but also changing environmental conditions (Gartner, 1989). The model has to be dynamic in its relation between individual and environmental factors (Phan, 2004). The second property that a model should possess is that it should be parsimonious. It is non-productive to produce a model, which has numerous explanatory factors. Also, different constructs constituting model should also be measurable with fair degree of reliability and validity (Vanderwerf and Brush, 1989). These are some of the standards that have been set for successful development of the model.

There have been several models; some of them are moderately successful, proposed in the past to explain entrepreneurial behaviour (Chandler and Hanks, 2004; Hornsby and Nafziger, 1994; Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Krueger and Brazeal 1994, Gnyawali and Fogel, 1994; Katz, 1994, Covin COVIN, fraud. A secret contrivance between two or more persons to defraud and prejudice another of his rights. Co. Litt 357, b; Com. Dig. Covin, A; 1 Vin. Abr. 473. Vide Collusion; Fraud.  and Slevin, 1991; Misra and Kumar, 2001). Some of the models developed based on the cognitive theory Conitive theory may refer to:
  • Theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget's theory of development and the theories which spawned from it.
  • Two factor theory of emotion, another cognitive theory.
. For example; models proposed by Bird (1988), Ajzen's and Shapero's model (Krueger, Reilly and Carsrud, 2001) have been good predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. However But these models have been at best moderately successful in explaining entrepreneurial behaviour.

Whereas other models, like this model, have been conceptually proposed are yet to be empirically tested. The Author does not claim the superiority of the model over other models that have been proposed in the past because it has not been empirically validated. However, author believes that model provides a fresh perspective. It claims novelty because of following reasons:

1. A number of constructs that are used to build a model is limited. Hence, the model can be called parsimonious.

2. Some fresh concepts like "Threat to identity" (though not entirely new), "Cognitive complexity" and "Status inconsistency" are used to explain the success of enterprise creation. These are scarcely used in the existing literature.

3. The model is built around core concept of cognitive complexity with respect to information creating, handling, managing and manipulating capability for an individual. Phan (2004) says that an ideal theory of entrepreneurship should predict the origin of firm, their density, survival and death. This model can be extended to the level of the firm and industrial level. The analysis of the firm and industry level can be done with the help of similar model, where firm and industry in the model replace individual. The analysis at this level can accomplish the above-mentioned requirements of a good model. For example; Survival, Growth and Death rates of firms can be explained using notion of competition and co-operation for generating information (or knowledge management) among various players in the industry. The efforts in this direction could be seen as theories like complexity theory, which are becoming important tools for organization analysis Streufert and Swezey, 1986). Looking from this perspective, a comprehensive theory, based on the information processing ability of units at various levels from individual to firm to industry level, can be thought off.

4. The model is dynamic as it makes entrepreneurial success as interplay between individual capabilities and environmental requirements. Synchronization between cognitive complexity and environmental requirement can explain as to how an entrepreneur would be successful under some condition while fails under others. As environment changes its requirement from entrepreneurs, also changes, hence creating a mismatch mismatch

1. in blood transfusions and transplantation immunology, an incompatibility between potential donor and recipient.

2. one or more nucleotides in one of the double strands in a nucleic acid molecule without complementary nucleotides in the same position on the other
. Use of self-efficacy, in the model, makes it dynamic. Success under some conditions can lead to excessive level of self-efficacy which can make entrepreneurs blind to new aspirational requirements of stakeholders. For example, a successful entrepreneur can develop habit of applying heuristics heu·ris·tic  
1. Of or relating to a usually speculative formulation serving as a guide in the investigation or solution of a problem:
, which were successful in past. This heuristics might not be ecological rational in new environment. Similarly, if a person fails, his self efficacy might come down to the level where his identity can be affected beyond repair. Similarly, an entrepreneur who is successful in one industry can be a failure in others because there is no synchronicity synchronicity (singˈ·kr  between his cognitive complexity and environment requirements.

5. Though model has been developed from psychological and sociological concepts it also has elements of economic (information asymmetry, Austrian school). Hence, the model has multi-disciplinary approach.

6. Inclusion of the concepts like status inconsistency, cognitive complexity, threat to identity make this model a strong contender to connect mainstream "Entrepreneurship Research" with what Jennings, Perrings and Carter (2005) called "Alternative Perspective" in entrepreneurship.


The first problem with model presented above framework is lack of empirical proof. Unless empirical proof is found out the model cannot claim acceptability. Secondly, the more serious problem can be that the concepts developed in this paper can turn out to be difficult to measure in reliably and validly. In fact, many scholars feel that inability of scholars to develop a distinct theory of entrepreneurship is because of problem in measuring different concepts (Chandler and Lyon, 2001). The concepts in the model like competition and cultural requirements are difficult to measure exactly because of their highly qualitative nature. Even concepts like cognitive complexity are difficult to capture because of specific domains involved.


The paper has been written to explain the process of organization creation right from the beginning to the stage when enterprise reaches self sustaining stage (Hofer et. al, 1998). The paper is an attempt to challenge established thinking in entrepreneurship literature. These are: First, the paper highlights the importance of both negative emotions and positive emotions as reasons why entrepreneurs take decisions to create their organizations. This is contrary to current notion that decision to start an enterprise may be because of only one or sometimes two factors. The search for identity is manifestation of some kind of negative emotion being driver of action towards organization creation. Self efficacy and cognitive complexity provide individual with positive emotions towards action. The paper challenges the accepted belief that some entrepreneurs are driven by "necessity/ push (negative)" whereas others are "opportunity/pull (positive)" force. It proposes that both forces are involved in decision to start enterprise. The support for this argument could be mustered from the fact that many researchers have proved that one's ability to look for opportunity or information alertness (pull) is result of fear of negative outcome (Muramatsu and Hanoch, 2005). Threat to identity and cognitive complexity are new and different constructs proposed in this direction. Cognitive complexity in a particular field is a better way of representing previously used constructs like education, skills, competence, market knowledge etc. The various constructs are the measures of two fundamental requisite for organization creation- Emotions and Information. The framework in the paper has been developed considering the individual in synchronization with environment. It assumes that all the constructs are dynamic in nature. For example, if there is change in technology the cognitive complexity might reduce for an individual in new settings. Similarly, a person's self efficacy and threat to identity would change depending on perception of environment.


The lessons that can be learnt from this model are summarized as follows.

1. The model can be empirically tested in future. The three questions- "Why a person becomes entrepreneur, How opportunity is identified and how is success created- could be taken as three independent stages". The constructs of self efficacy and threat to identity could be measured using instruments that are available. Instruments are also available for measuring cognitive complexity. However, cognitive complexity as construct poses important challenge if it has to be used in explaining entrepreneurial success. The available instruments cannot be used. An important bottleneck is that cognitive complexity is to a large extent is domain specific. It implies that if entrepreneurs have to be compared in a particular domain for cognitive complexity, it would require domain specific instrument for cognitive complexity. A related challenge is--What is going to be the domain? Is it going to be an industry or function(s)--Production, Marketing, Finance, etc.? The Author feels that instruments of cognitive complexity of entrepreneurs could be designed; taking industry to be domain. The weakness of this method is that it would require development of different instruments for measuring cognitive complexity in different industries that would render cross industry comparison redundant. However, work in this direction could give further insights to overcome above weakness.

2. The model can be extended to firm and industry level analysis where entrepreneur can be replaced by firm and industry in existing framework.

3. Alternative perspectives of looking at entrepreneurship could also be developed from the framework.


The Author is grateful to Professor K.S. Mandal (IIM IIM Indian Institute of Management (main Management Institutes of India)
IIM Individual Indian Money (US Department of Interior)
IIM Industrial Information Management
 Calcutta). His guidance and direction was instrumental in shaping the paper.


Aldrich, H. (2000) Learning Together, National Differences in Entrepreneurship Research, in Sexton sex·ton  
An employee or officer of a church who is responsible for the care and upkeep of church property and sometimes for ringing bells and digging graves.
 & Landstrom (Eds.) Handbook of Entrepreneurship, London: Blackwell Publishers, 5-25.

Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr.

Baron, A. R. (2000) Counterfactual thinking and venture formation: The potential effects of thinking about "what might have been". Journal of Business Venturing, 15(1), 79-91.

Baron, A. R. (2004) The Cognitive Perspective: A valuable tool for answering basic entrepreneurship's Why questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 221-239.

Baron, A. R. & Ward. B. T. (2004) Expanding Entrepreneurial cognition's toolbox: Potential contributions from field of cognitive sciences cognitive sciences The areas of medicine that study the nature and processes of mental activity–eg, neurology, psychiatry, psychology . Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 28, 553-573.

Bieri, J. (1955) Cognitive complexity-simplicity and predictive behaviour. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 263-268

Boyd, N. G.& G. S. Vozikis. (1994) The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(4), 63-77.

Begley, T.M. & Boyd, D.P. (1986) Psychological characteristics associated with entrepreneurial performance. in R. Ronstadt (ed.) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, (Wellesley, Mass., 1986) 146-165

Bird, B. J. (1988) Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: The Case for Intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442-453.

Borjas, G. (1986) The Self Employment Experience of Immigrants, Journal of Human Resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees. , 21(4), 485-506.

Brazeal, V. D. & Herbert, T. T. (1999). The genesis of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 23 (3), 29-46.

Brockhaus, R.H. (1982) The psychology of the entrepreneur. In C.A. Kent, D.L. Sexton, & K.H. Vesper (Eds.) Encyclopaedia encyclopaedia

Reference work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or that treats a particular branch of knowledge comprehensively. It is self-contained and explains subjects in greater detail than a dictionary.
 of entrepreneurship. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 39-71.

Brockner, J.., Higgins, T. & Low, M. B. (2004) Regulatory Focus Theory and Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 203-220.

Brown, T. & B. Kirchhoff. (1997) The Effects of Resource Availability and Entrepreneurial Orientation on Firm Growth. In P. Reynolds, W Bygrave & N. Carter (Eds.) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Wellesley, MA: Babson College Babson College, located in Wellesley, Massachusetts (zoned as "Babson Park," ZIP code 02457),[1] is a private business school that grants all undergraduates a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. The F. W. , 32-46.

Bruyat, C. & Julien, P.-J.. (2001) Defining the field of research in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(2), 165-180.

Burleson, B. R & Caplan, S.E. (1998) Cognitive Complexity. In J.C. McCroskey, J.A. Daly, M.M Martin & M.J. Beatty (Eds.) Communication and personality: Trait Perspective (pp 233-286) Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Bygrave, D. W. & Hofer, W. C.. (1991) Theorizing about entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 16, 2, 13-22.

Carland, J. W., F. Hoy Hoy, island, 13 mi (21 km) long and 6 mi (9.7 km) wide, off N Scotland, second largest of the Orkney Islands. It is located at the southwestern side of the Scapa Flow anchorage.  & Carland, J. A. (1988). Who is an Entrepreneur? Is the Question worth asking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 12,(4), 33-39.

Carton, R.B. Hofer, C.W & Meeks, M.D. (1998) The Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship: Operational Definition. Annual International Council for Small Business Conference. Paper presented at Retrieved on 3rd September, 2005 from

Chandler, G.N. & Hanks, S.H. (1994) Founder competence, the environment, and venture performance. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(3), 77-89.

Chandler, N. G. & D. W. Lyon. (2001) Issues of Research Design and Construct Measurement in Entrepreneurship Research: The Past Decade. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 25(4), 101-114.

Chell, E., Haworth, J. & Brearly, S. (1989) The Entrepreneurial Personality: Concepts Cases and Categories. London: Routledge.

Clark, K. & Drinkwater, S. (2001) Pushed Out or Pulled In?: Self-Employment Among Ethnic Minorities in England and Wales England and Wales are both constituent countries of the United Kingdom, that together share a single legal system: English law. Legislatively, England and Wales are treated as a single unit (see State (law)) for the conflict of laws. . Retrieved on June 20, 2003 from

Chen, C.C., P. G. Greene & A Crick. (1998) Does Self Efficacy Distinguish Entrepreneurs from Managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13(40, 295-316.

Covin, J.G. & Slevin, D.P. (1991) A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behaviour. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 16,(1), 7-25.

Crockett, W. H., Mahood, S. M. & Press, A. N. (1975) Impressions of a speaker as a function of set to understand or to evaluate, of cognitive complexity, and of prior attitudes. Journal of Personality, 43, 168-178.

Crockett, W. (1965) Cognitive complexity and impression formation. In B. A. Maher (Ed.) Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 2) New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Academic Press.

Diaz, F. & Rodriguez, A. (2003) Locus of Control, nAch and Values of Community Entrepreneurs. Social Behaviour and Personality: An International Journal, 318, 739-748, 10p.

Delia, G. J. & Crockett, H. W. (1973) Social Schemas, cognitive complexity, and the learning of social structures. Journal of Personality, 41: 413-29.

Downing, S. (2005) Social construction of entrepreneur: Network and dramatic processes in co production of organizations and identities. Entrepreneurship theory and Practice 29: 185-204.

Drucker, P. F. (1985) Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper and Row

Gaglio, C.M. (2004) Role of mental simulation and counterfactual thinking in the opportunity identification process. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 28: 533-552.

Gaglio, C.M. & Katz, J. (2001) The psychological basis of opportunity identification: Entrepreneurial alertness. Small Business Economics, 16, 95-111.

Gartner, W. B. (1988) Who is an Entrepreneur? Is the Wrong Question. American Journal of Small Business, 12, 4, 11-32.

Gartner, W. B. (1989) Some suggestions for research on entrepreneurial traits and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14,1, 27-38.

Gnyawali, D. R. & D. S. Fogel. (1994) Environments for Entrepreneurship Development: Key Dimensions and Research Implications. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice,18 (2), 43-62.

Hindle, Kevin(2004) Choosing qualitative methods for entrepreneurship cognition research: A canonical development approach. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28: 575-607.

Hisrich, R.D. & C.G. Brush. (1987) Women entrepreneurs: a longitudinal study longitudinal study

a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study.
 In N.C. Churchill, J.A. Hornaday, B.A. Kirchhoff, O.J. Krasner & K.H.Vesper (Eds.) Frontiers in Entrepreneurship Research, Babson College, Wellesley, 187-199.

Hornaday, J.A. & Churchill, N.C. (1987) Current trends in entrepreneurial research. in N.C. Churchill, J.A. Hornaday, B.A. Kirchhoff, O.J. Krasner & K.H. Vesper (Eds.) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson College, Wellesley, 1-21.

Hornsby, J. S., Nafziger, D. W., Kuratko, D. F. & Montagno, R. V. (1993) An interactive model of the corporate entrepreneurship process. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 17(2), 29-37.

Jennings L P., Perrings, L. & Carter, S. (2005) Alternative Perspectives in entrepreneurship Research. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29: 145-152.

Kasouf, C. J. (1997) Opportunity assessment: a framework integrating positive psychology and environmental variables. Retrieved on 26th September, 2004 from

Katz, J. (1994) Modelling entrepreneurial career progressions: concepts and considerations, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 19(2), 17-40.

Kelly, G. A. (1955) The psychology of personal constructs (2 vols.) New York: W. W. Norton.

Krueger N.F. Jr. & Dickson P. R. (1993) Perceived self-efficacy and perceptions of opportunity and threat Psychol. Reports. 72(3), 1235-40.

Krueger, N.F., Jr. & Brazeal, D.V. (1994) Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.18 (3), 91-104.

Krueger, N. F., M. D. Reilly & A.L. Carsrud. (2000) Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5), 411-432.

Learned, K. E.(1992) What happened before the organization? A model of organization formation Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 17(1), 39-49.

Lenski, G. E. (1954). Status Crystallization Crystallization

The formation of a solid from a solution, melt, vapor, or a different solid phase. Crystallization from solution is an important industrial operation because of the large number of materials marketed as crystalline particles.
: A Non-Vertical Dimension of Social Status. American Sociological Review 19, 405-13.

Lenski, G.E. (1956). Social Participation and Status Crystallization, American Sociological Review 21, 458-64.

Lumpkin, G.T. & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135-173.

Mayr U. & Kliegl, R. (1993) Learning Memory and Cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 19(6), 1297-1320.

McClelland, D. C. (1961) The Achieving Society, New York. The Free Press.

McClelland, D.C & Burnham D.H. (1975) Need for Power is a great motivator. Harvard Business Review Harvard Business Review is a general management magazine published since 1922 by Harvard Business School Publishing, owned by the Harvard Business School. A monthly research-based magazine written for business practitioners, it claims a high ranking business readership and , Jan, 117-126.

Mitchell, R.K., Smith, B., Seawright, K.W. & Morse, E.A. (2000) Cross-cultural cognitions and venture creation decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 974-993.

Minniti, M. (2004) Entrepreneurial alertness and asymmetric information Asymmetric Information

Information available to some people but not others.

In other words, the asymmetric information is held by only one side, meaning someone is keeping a secret.
 in a spin-glass model. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(5), 638-657.

Misra, S. & Kumar, S. (2000) Resourcefulness Resourcefulness

clever and temerarious dog perseveres in the Klondike. [Am. Lit.: Call of the Wild]

Crichton, Admirable

butler proves to be infinite resource for castaway family on island. [Br. Lit.
: A proximal proximal /prox·i·mal/ (-mil) nearest to a point of reference, as to a center or median line or to the point of attachment or origin.

 conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize  
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way:
 of entrepreneurial behaviour. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 9(2), 135-154.

Muramatsu, R. & Hanoch, Y. (2004) Emotions as a mechanism for bounded rational agents: The fast and frugal fru·gal  
1. Practicing or marked by economy, as in the expenditure of money or the use of material resources. See Synonyms at sparing.

2. Costing little; inexpensive: a frugal lunch.
 way. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26: 201-221.

Noble, A. F., Jung, D. & Ehrlich, S. B. (1999) Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: the development of a measure and its relationship to entrepreneurial action. Babson college conference. Retrieved on 23rd October, 2004 from

Olomi, D., R., Nilsson, P., & Jaesson J.E. (2000) Evolution of entrepreneurial Motivation: Transition from economic necessity to entrepreneurship. Retrieved on June20th, 2003 from babsonpaper%20050401version.pdf.

Pandey, J. & Tewary, N. B. (1979) Locus of control and achievement values of entrepreneurs. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 52(2), 107-111, 5p.

Press, N. A.; Crockett, H. W. & Rosenkrantz, S. P. (1969) Cognitive complexity and the learning of balanced social structures. Journal of Personality, 37: 541-553.

Phan, P. M. (2004). Entrepreneurship Theory: Possibilities and Future Directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19 (5), 617-620.

Reynolds, P., D. J. Storey & P. Westhead. (1994) Cross-National Comparisons of the Variation in New Firm Formation Rates. Regional Studies, 28(4), 443-456.

Robinson, P. B., Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J. C. & Hunt, H. K.. (1991) An Attitude Approach to the Prediction of Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 15(4), 13-31.

Rotter, J. (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied. 80(1), 1-28.

Sarasvathy, D. S. (2004) Making it happen: Beyond theories of firm to theory of firm design. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 28: 519-531.

Shane, S. & Venkataraman, S.(2000) The Promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-227.

Smith, G. K., Gannon, J. M., & Sapienza, J. H. (1989) Selecting methodologies for Entrepreneurial Research: trade-offs and Guidelines. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(1), 39-50.

Schumpeter A. J. (2000) Entrepreneurship as Innovation. in R. Swedberg (Ed.) Entrepreneurship: A social science view. New Delhi New Delhi (dĕl`ē), city (1991 pop. 294,149), capital of India and of Delhi state, N central India, on the right bank of the Yamuna River. : Oxford University.

Sternberg, R. (2004) Successful intelligence as basis for Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing. 19(2), 189-201.

Streufert, S. & Swezey, R. W. (1986) Complexity, managers, and organizations. New York: Academic Press, 91-133.

Tripodi, T. & Bieri, J. (1964) Information transmission in clinical judgements as a function of stimulus Dimensionality and cognitive complexity. Journal of Personality, 32: 119-138.

Tripodi, T. & Bieri, J. (1966) Cognitive complexity perceived conflict and certainty. Journal of Personality, 34: 144-153.

Turner, J.H. & E. Bonacich. (1980) Toward a Composite Theory of Middleman mid·dle·man  
1. A trader who buys from producers and sells to retailers or consumers.

2. An intermediary; a go-between.
 Minorities. Ethnicity. 7(2), 144-158.

Vanderwerf, A. P. & Brush, G. C. (1989) Achieving Empirical Progress in an Undefined Field. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(2), 45-59.

Werner, H. (1957) The concept of development from a comparative and organismic point of view. In D. B. Harris (Ed.) The concept of development Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota. External link
  • University of Minnesota Press
. 125-146.

Wortman, M. S (1987) Entrepreneurship: An Integrating typology typology /ty·pol·o·gy/ (ti-pol´ah-je) the study of types; the science of classifying, as bacteria according to type.


the study of types; the science of classifying, as bacteria according to type.
 and evaluation of empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received"
 in the field. Journal of Management.13, 259-279.

Ward, T. B. (2004) Cognition, creativity, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 19:173-188.

Munish Kumar, Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta
COPYRIGHT 2007 The DreamCatchers Group, LLC
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Kumar, Munish
Publication:Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2007
Previous Article:Business failure rates: a look at sex and location.
Next Article:Triggers of decisions to launch a new venture--is there any difference between pre-business and in-business entrepreneurs?

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters