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Excellence in staff training to reduce bullying.

The first two articles in this series about bullying Bullying
Chowne, Parson Stoyle

terrorizes parish; kidnaps children. [Br. Lit.: The Maid of Sker, Walsh Modern, 94–95]

Claypole, Noah

bully; becomes thief in Fagin’s gang. [Br. Lit.
 in summer camp have provided a background for what constitutes bullying, as well as the strategies you need to help reduce this behavior in camp all year long. Staff training is one of the most important pieces of successful bully prevention, and this article provides the key aspects and tools to successful camp staff training.

The increasing challenge to camps and staff comes from the changing society we live in and the growing incivility in·ci·vil·i·ty  
n. pl. in·ci·vil·i·ties
1. The quality or condition of being uncivil.

2. An uncivil or discourteous act.
 we see across the world. We are living during a period when the media portrays and lauds Lauds is one of the two "major hours" in the Roman Catholic Liturgy of the Hours. It is to be recited in the early morning hours, preferably near dawn. Structure of the hour  rudeness RUDENESS, crim. law. An impolite action; contrary to the usual rules observed in society, committed by one person against another.
     2. This is a relative term which it is difficult to define: those acts which one friend might do to another, could not be
, disrespect, and aggressive behavior. When adults we admire role model this behavior--and our "heroes" in politics, on television, and in the movies reflect this inappropriate, negative behavior--what can we expect? These realities force us to look more closely at our bullying issues in camp--looking at ourselves and our staff--to determine if we are modeling appropriate or inappropriate behavior.

A survey I conducted during the 2005 summer season of fourteen hundred staff measured the bullying behaviors they witness in summer camp among their campers, and more importantly, among themselves.

Here's the Data!

The following chart reflects the percentage of staff who responded "yes" to the question: Have you observed any of these types of bullying behavior between campers last summer?

Staff consistently reported experiencing a high degree of bullying behavior among campers. Most male and female staff experienced verbal teasing teasing

the act of parading a male before a female to see if she displays estrus, and is therefore in a state where mating is likely to be fertile.
 and name-calling name-call·ing
Verbal abuse; insulting language: "name-calling, mud-slinging, suits and countersuits" Wall Street Journal. 
 between campers. More male staff saw verbal threatening behavior among their boys. However, almost all female staff observed gossiping, rumors For other uses, see Rumor (disambiguation).

Rumors is a farcical play by Neil Simon.

At its start, several affluent couples gather in the posh suburban residence of a couple for a dinner party celebrating their tenth anniversary.
, exclusion, and clique (mathematics) clique - A maximal totally connected subgraph. Given a graph with nodes N, a clique C is a subset of N where every node in C is directly connected to every other node in C (i.e. C is totally connected), and C contains all such nodes (C is maximal).  behavior in their female campers, as well as a high degree of embarrassment in front of others. Most male staff reported a high degree of embarrassment by their boys in front of other boys, but male staff reported a higher percentage of physical aggression aggression, a form of behavior characterized by physical or verbal attack. It may appear either appropriate and self-protective, even constructive, as in healthy self-assertiveness, or inappropriate and destructive.  among their boy campers as compared to female staff. One obvious conclusion is that both female and male staff observe and acknowledge a high degree of bullying behavior in their campers.

The reality: The majority of staff have to deal with all types of bullying because they experience it and therefore need to know how to handle it and what to do.

Returning staff were surveyed about bullying behaviors among staff. They were questioned about personally observing any of the following types of bullying between counselors last summer:

This data reveals a significant amount of bullying behavior seen in our camp staff. Most female staff experience gossiping, rumors, exclusion, and clique behavior. Two-thirds of male staff experienced the behaviors generally assumed to be female behaviors. Teasing, name-calling, and embarrassment in front of others is experienced by approximately half of all staff surveyed. Physical bullying is limited to one out of six females, and one out of four males. Stealing of personal things was observed by approximately 25 percent of both male and female staff. What conclusion can be reached? The bullying behaviors we witness among our campers are occurring with a high prevalence rate in our own camp staff.

The next table reflects behaviors experienced during orientation. Staff were asked if they had seen or experienced any of the following behaviors:

This data reveals that within a few days of first meeting each other camp staff show a significant amount of bullying behavior among themselves. Staff may accept this behavior as part of interacting with each other to fit in, but behind the scenes, these behaviors may create unhappiness and distress. The prevalence of exclusion and embarrassment in front of others can be quite daunting daunt  
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.

[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin
 to some. The lines of behavior and what is deemed appropriate or inappropriate are difficult to manage when staff experience these behaviors so quickly within the first few days of interaction before campers arrive for the summer. Obviously, these behaviors increase over the summer as seen by Chart 2 among camp staff, but one can observe how quickly these behaviors take root.

In summary, if you compare camper behavior with staff behavior, a high percentage of bullying behavior is occurring among campers and staff in the summer. What conclusions can be drawn from this data? Bullying behavior as perceived by those surveyed is extensive and begins early in the season. We would like to believe our staff can handle and manage these behaviors and the feelings that arise. However, we cannot assume that young staff are aware of this behavior in themselves or the impact it has on others. If our staff members are not aware of their own behavior, how can they change it in their campers? The issues of bullying--among campers and staff--need to be addressed during orientation! Staff should be trained to deal with bullying behavior that may cause distress for other staff and/or and/or  
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.

Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing.
 their campers.

Role Modeling of Bullying Behavior

Bullying behavior is a learned behavior. Role modeling is a method of teaching campers and staff appropriate or inappropriate behavior. To begin successful staff training, we must create awareness that bullying behavior among staff exists. Without awareness of their own behavior, staff cannot change it. Once staff understands that their behavior sets the stage for camper behavior, we can offer more pro-social training so that all staff are clear in their messages to campers. Staff training should also address the acceptable and unacceptable aspects of these behaviors. When staff feel safe discussing their behavior without fear of "being fired" and realize that they need to learn new skills for successful role modeling, change can take place.

Counselors like campers need to have continual reinforcement reinforcement /re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whether positive to desirable events, or  and training about what is acceptable behavior and what isn't is·n't  

Contraction of is not.

isn't is not
isn't be
. In order to reduce bullying among campers, we must reduce bullying among staff--role modeling of appropriate behavior by staff is essential. Role modeling of appropriate behavior starts at the top--from the director down. When staff see how the camp leadership behave to each other and that anything less is unacceptable, they will begin to model the same appropriate behavior. And, as they model the appropriate behavior and refuse to allow anything less, campers will see that bullying is not acceptable behavior.

Begin a conversation with staff about the occurrence and prevalence of bullying behavior and brainstorm and problem solve solutions with them that work best for your camp values and goals. Being successful about reducing bullying behavior can only occur with persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second.  and insistence on discussing this at regular intervals throughout the summer.

What Can Be Done to Improve Your Chances with Staff?

Staff constantly need tools to help them keep bullying behaviors among their campers in check. Although counselors do not have ten sets of eyes to view all kinds of bullying, we can teach them how to be alert and vigilant. First, train them to be aware of kids who are alone and have the least social skills. Watch for campers who walk alone to activities or the dining hall. These children on the lower social rung of the ladder most frequently become victims because they possess fewer social skills. We need to devote a good portion of our staff training resources to give staff the skills needed to encourage these children to connect with other campers--to help them make friends and/or find other activities that raise their self-esteem self-esteem

Sense of personal worth and ability that is fundamental to an individual's identity. Family relationships during childhood are believed to play a crucial role in its development.

Staff training also needs to focus on teaching counselors how to be comfortable spending time "Spending Time" is the first single released by Christian artist Stellar Kart.

The lyrics describe the band members desire to spend "more time with God". "Sometimes it’s a real struggle to spend time with God.
 (ten to fifteen minutes per day) with kids who may be annoying and challenging. Staff may need help developing their own patience and handling their own disappointment when they have children in their bunk bunk, bunker

large storage bin.

bunk forage
forage, usually ensilage stored in a large storage bunk and made available to cattle or other livestock along a face of the storage.
 who may be difficult to manage and who are picked on frequently. Staff can find these interactions incredibly challenging. However, staff can experience their own self-esteem building when they experience success in helping a difficult child.

Set Guidelines guidelines, a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.

Camp needs guidelines for acceptable behavior and what is unacceptable. These guidelines need to be written so staff know the rules, the boundaries for acceptable versus unacceptable behavior, and the consequences if the rules are broken. From the first day of camp, staff should set clear expectations and guidelines with their campers about bunk rules that embody em·bod·y  
tr.v. em·bod·ied, em·bod·y·ing, em·bod·ies
1. To give a bodily form to; incarnate.

2. To represent in bodily or material form:
 the same rules they live by. This involves a discussion of acceptable and unacceptable bunk behavior, which should address bullying behaviors such as teasing, gossiping, embarrassing others, starting rumors, and exclusion. Counselors and campers will benefit from ongoing discussions to enforce the notion that the staff is really committed to this concern. Campers who hear staff say they care about reducing bullying, but don't see them "walk the walk" will not take them seriously. Inconsistency in·con·sis·ten·cy  
n. pl. in·con·sis·ten·cies
1. The state or quality of being inconsistent.

2. Something inconsistent: many inconsistencies in your proposal.
 in rules versus behavior can lead to an increase of bullying behavior.

Setting boundaries with staff and campers around bullying behavior is no different than setting guidelines against other inappropriate behavior. Campers and staff look for the "structure" that determines what behavior your camp allows, and what behavior it does not tolerate tol·er·ate
1. To allow without prohibiting or opposing; permit.

2. To put up with; endure.

3. To have tolerance for a substance or pathogen.
. Ongoing discussions with campers and staff about bullying behavior will reinforce your commitment and show your staff and campers how serious you are about the bullying problem.

Create Clear Boundaries on Discipline and Guidelines for Consequences Staff may have very different perspectives on how to discipline bullying campers. Defining what is acceptable by counselor staff--and what is not--is key.

For example, when staff observe a bullying incident or suspect trouble between campers, they must be trained to use their "instinct instinct, term used generally to indicate an innate tendency to action, or pattern of behavior, elicited by specific stimuli and fulfilling vital needs of an organism. " and walk into the situation. This goes for situations in which verbal bullying or exclusion may be taking place, as well as physical bullying. When staff see distress on a camper's face, it is imperative that they move into the situation to observe. Staff who stay back or do not respond consistently set the tone that the negative behavior will be tolerated. If aggressive behavior is observed, counselors should separate the campers and provide "de- escalation es·ca·late  
v. es·ca·lat·ed, es·ca·lat·ing, es·ca·lates
To increase, enlarge, or intensify: escalated the hostilities in the Persian Gulf.

" time.

During this time-out time-out Forensic psychiatry A strategy for managing violent Pts in psychiatric units, consisting of temporary separation from a rewarding environment, as part of a planned and recorded therapeutic program to modify behavior  or de-escalation, campers may be given some time to reflect on their behavior. You can ask them to reflect upon their behavior using "I" statements and not get into the "blame game." It is not important who started a situation, but to focus on the personal responsibility of the camper who crossed the line either to bully another or even to retaliate. Have campers describe what they did wrong in their own words, and what they can do to make reparations reparations, payments or other compensation offered as an indemnity for loss or damage. Although the term is used to cover payments made to Holocaust survivors and to Japanese Americans interned during World War II in so-called relocation camps (and used as well to . Campers may return to an activity when the emotional reaction has dissipated dis·si·pat·ed  
1. Intemperate in the pursuit of pleasure; dissolute.

2. Wasted or squandered.

3. Irreversibly lost. Used of energy.
 and there is some ownership of what they did to cause their loss of "fun."

When staff are taught to alert camp leadership when issues may be occurring between campers and encourage campers to report these issues to counselors, there is a better chance that the "hidden" bullying will be more public and provide staff opportunities to reduce it. Remember, counselors should never utilize aggressive behavior (with a mean intent) because this models the very behavior that we are trying to prevent.

Discipline that is consistently applied by leadership/administrative staff helps younger staff learn and understand the parameters of the expectations. When leadership staff is inconsistent to staff or the campers, there is a breakdown of clarity. When staff rely on themselves to make choices, discipline can become ineffective. Staff look to camp leadership for consistency in managing difficult situations.

Model Prosocial Behavior

The real "win" is hiring and retaining staff who are passionate about bully prevention. The staff members who practice bully prevention and model positive interactions with campers need to be rewarded publicly as a validation See validate.

validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements.
 for your camp values. If you define the values you want to see in staff from the beginning and express public acknowledgement through verbal praise, time-off, and/or financial reward to those staff who embrace your goals, you provide staff with the opportunity and the incentive to meet your expectations.

Bullying Prevention Is Bigger Than "Orientation Training" Alone

Staff may feel bombarded with orientation information. They take in so much information that they may become overloaded o·ver·load  
tr.v. o·ver·load·ed, o·ver·load·ing, o·ver·loads
To load too heavily.

An excessive load.

Adj. 1.
 with material and expectations. Ideally, bullying prevention begins with leadership training during the year, continues through counselor training during orientation week Orientation week is the first week of the academic year at a university or other tertiary institution, and a variety of events are held to help orient and welcome new students. It goes by a variety of names in different countries. , and is reinforced through a variety of ongoing discussions with staff during the summer. During the summer, leadership need to include questions in their daily meetings with staff about those campers who are teased tease  
v. teased, teas·ing, teas·es
1. To annoy or pester; vex.

2. To make fun of; mock playfully.

, excluded, or have difficulty with friendships. Counselors take bully prevention seriously when leadership staff make it a priority in their meetings with counselors.

Similarly, camp staff have to be observant ob·ser·vant  
1. Quick to perceive or apprehend; alert: an observant traveler. See Synonyms at careful.

 and talk to their campers about these issues. Encourage staff to take a walk with their campers to the next activity and have them ask their campers positive questions to begin a conversation: "What do you like most about your day?" and "What activities do you really enjoy?" Encourage staff to ask the harder questions: "Do you ever notice anyone being teased, picked on, or excluded? Does that ever happen to you?" When staff do this and assure confidentiality with their campers, they build trust, which is at the core of a trusting relationship and successful bully prevention. Campers see these discussions with their counselors as natural and normal when done consistently.

Alert Staff to Bullying Kids

Staff need to understand that campers sometimes bully them. They can deal with this more easily when the leadership team discusses this issue with them during orientation and encourages staff to report problems to them during the summer season. Camp staff are more likely to report incidents to leadership if they don't fear "Don't Fear" is the third single (in a series of four) by the English band Maps. Released on James Chapman's own label Last Space Recordings (on October 30 2006) prior to the release of their first major release We Can Create. Track listing
10" single

A Side.
 humiliation and embarrassment of losing control of their campers. Teach them that they can have a trusting relationship with upper staff without fear of public or private humiliation. Campers will test counselors. They need to feel supported by other counselors who may have experienced the same thing or leadership who can be nonjudgmental non·judg·men·tal  
Refraining from judgment, especially one based on personal ethical standards.

Adj. 1. nonjudgmental
 and help them problem solve when these situations arise.

Teach Conflict Resolution Skills

One skill that is critical to staff training involves managing. Since most bullying behavior ends when an aggressor AGGRESSOR, crim. law. He who begins, a quarrel or dispute, either by threatening or striking another. No man may strike another because he has threatened, or in consequence of the use of any words.  realizes that his or her behavior crossed the line (especially if they have empathy empathy

Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing.
), teaching staff basic conflict resolution skills becomes a necessity. Another reason conflict resolution training is essential has to do with "denial." If staff is uncomfortable dealing with anger or conflict, there is less likelihood they will step into a conflict situation when faced with one. Conflict can occur between campers, between campers and staff, or between staff and other staff. Conflict resolution skills provide the tools to help staff face and work through uncomfortable situations.

Help Staff Enlist en·list  
v. en·list·ed, en·list·ing, en·lists
1. To engage (persons or a person) for service in the armed forces.

2. To engage the support or cooperation of.

 Bystanders Who Can Be Good Reporters

Because staff cannot observe A type of fire control which indicates that the observer or spotter will be unable to adjust fire, but believes a target exists at the given location and is of sufficient importance to justify firing upon it without adjustment or observation.  all the bullying that goes on in camp, they need help from others. Enlisting help from your campers in a confidential way is critical to successful bully prevention. You need to let campers know that their "reporting" of bullying behavior ensures that kids are safe and is valued by you. This is not "tattling tat·tle  
v. tat·tled, tat·tling, tat·tles

1. To reveal the plans or activities of another; gossip. See Synonyms at gossip.

2. To chatter aimlessly; prate.
," which aims at getting kids into trouble. Encourage your counselors to ask routine bullying questions of their campers to show the campers that they value this information not just when a crisis occurs, but regularly and consistently. Train your staff to handle this information from their campers with sensitivity--and to maintain confidentiality.

Encourage your leadership staff to welcome this information from campers independent of counselors. This openness and encouragement allows those campers who might otherwise fear some retaliation RETALIATION. The act by which a nation or individual treats another in the same manner that the latter has treated them. For example, if a nation should lay a very heavy tariff on American goods, the United States would be justified in return in laying heavy duties on the manufactures and  to report any bullying or aggressive behavior by counselors directly to camp leadership. Campers are more likely to report problematic behavior to leadership when they trust that the information will be kept confidential. This information can be gathered informally through camper discussions or through camper evaluation.

Use Role Plays During Staff Training

The most effective strategy for training staff is through role playing role playing,
n in behavioral medicine, learning exercise in which individuals assume characters different from their own. The individual may also be asked to simulate a particularly difficult situation and apply the characteristics that are common to his
. Lecturing to a large group of counselors may decrease your retention rate unless the training is "alive." Role plays should focus on some of what your camp has seen before in the bullying arena. Have counselors or leadership staff do a role play on physical bullying, verbal bullying, and exclusion. Show them first how it was handled incorrectly, and then have them model the "right" way, without judgment. Encourage them to take risks with these role plays because the more practice they have, the more likely they will try out this behavior with their campers.

Encourage your staff to role-play role-play
To assume deliberately the part or role of; act out.

 these scenarios with their bunk--or do a camper set of role plays in a larger group the first few nights of camp to set the guidelines and culture on how your camp identifies and manages bullying behavior. This sends a strong message to both campers and staff and begins the season with a clear definition of what acceptable and unacceptable behavior is.

Consistency Is Key

The salient aspect of excellent staff training for successful bullying prevention is consistency. Think about bullying prevention training with staff as an ongoing program for excellence. Their consistency in role modeling appropriate behavior with each other and their campers is what separates great leaders from others. Reward those staff members who are exemplary in their modeling.

Bullying prevention occurs when we remove ourselves from denial, face it head on, and take steps to ensure that our staff, parents, and campers are all in agreement. You start with a policy; you train your staff to enforce it; you create opportunities for prosocial behavior for staff and campers; and you have a clear structure for discipline and consequences. You reward those who follow your camp values with intention and enthusiasm. You walk the walk and talk the talk. Success comes from steps toward these goals.

Joel D. Haber, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist psy·chol·o·gist
A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy.

 and founder of the Respect U program. He has held positions at University of Alabama The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as 'Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship campus of the University of Alabama System. , Birmingham Medical School, White Plains Hospital Center, and New York Medical College New York Medical College is a center for graduate medical education located in Westchester County, a suburb half an hour north of New York City. This private university comprises the School of Medicine, which grants the M.D.  and has authored numerous articles and led conference sessions on topics including bullying, building resilience resilience (r·zilˑ·yens),
 in children, and positive parenting. For more information about the Respect U program, visit or go to

Originally published in the 2006 May/June issue of Camping Magazine.
Chart 1

Camper Behaviour
(as observed by female and male staff)   Female   Male

Teasing, name-calling                     92%     92%
Verbal threats                             59      75
Gossiping or rumors                        96      88
Exclusion or cliques                       96      85
Embarrasment in front of others            81      87
Kicking, pushing, hitting                  60      79
Stealing of personal things                48      51

Chart 2

Staff Behavior                           Female   Male

Teasing, name-calling                     53%     59%
Verbal threats                             26      40
Gossiping or rumors                        86      74
Exclusion or cliques                       86      66
Embarrasment in front of others            55      46
Kicking, pushing, hitting                  17      24
Stealing of personal things                29      26

Chart 3

Staff Behavior During Orientation        Female   Male

Teasing, name-calling                     30%     35%
Verbal threats                             5       8
Gossiping or rumors                       63      49
Exclusion or cliques                       6      44
Embarrasment in front of others           24      24
Kicking, pushing, hitting                  6       8
Stealing of personal things                2       2
COPYRIGHT 2006 American Camping Association
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2006, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Author:Haber, Joel D.
Publication:Camping Magazine
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:May 1, 2006
Previous Article:Understanding group processes.
Next Article:A letter from Peg.

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