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Everyone can: enhancing quality of instruction in general physical education for ALL students.


Given rising health risks associated with obesity in children, and a growing need for ALL children to be more physically active, the need for high quality physical education programs that can document effectiveness and achieve stated goals has never been greater. Everyone CAN (Kelly Kel·ly   , Ellsworth Born 1923.

American abstract painter and sculptor whose works are characterized by flat color areas with sharply defined edges.

Kelly, Emmett 1898-1979.
, Wessel, Dummer
For the town in New Hampshire, see Dummer, New Hampshire; for the Governor of Massachusetts see William Dummer; for the private school see Governor Dummer Academy.

, & Sampson Samp·son   , Deborah 1760-1827.

American Revolutionary soldier who fought disguised as a man (1782-1783) and was wounded twice before her secret was discovered. In 1818 she was granted a full veteran's pension.
, 2010) has been designed to assist general and adapted physical education Adapted physical education is a sub-discipline of physical education. It is an individualized program created for students who require a specially designed program for more than 30 days.  teachers address these needs in their schools. Everyone CAN is the integration of the Achievement-Based Curriculum (ABC) model (Kelly, 2011; Kelly and Melograno, 2004; Kelly & Wessel, 1991; Wessel & Kelly, 1986), and over 40 years of research and development in designing physical education resource materials designed to help teachers address physical and motor needs of their students (Kelly, 1988; 1991; 1993).

Everyone CAN's roots can be traced back to Project I CAN, developed by Janet Janet: see Clouet, Jean.

JANET - Joint Academic NETwork
 Wessel, and staff of the Field Service Unit at Michigan State University Michigan State University, at East Lansing; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855. It opened in 1857 as Michigan Agricultural College, the first state agricultural college. . I CAN (Wessel, 1976; 1979) was initially designed to assist special school faculty and staff at state residential institutions, and special schools address physical education needs of their students with intellectual disabilities. Development and field testing of I CAN was supported by grants (Wessel, 1975; 1980) funded by U.S. Department of Education--Special Education and Rehabilitative re·ha·bil·i·tate  
tr.v. re·ha·bil·i·tat·ed, re·ha·bil·i·tat·ing, re·ha·bil·i·tates
1. To restore to good health or useful life, as through therapy and education.

 Service, formally called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare--Bureau of Education for the Handicapped.

With passage of PL 94-142, I CAN was adapted and modified to address physical education needs of students with disabilities in least restrictive environment As part of the U.S. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the least restrictive environment is identified as one of the six principles that govern the education of students with disabilities.  in public schools. Over the years, until they went out-of-print in the mid 1990's, I CAN materials were adapted and modified by teachers, and used as foundations for many school physical education programs (e.g., Smart start; Wessel & Zittel, 1995), state physical education standards (e. g., Michigan's Education and Assessment Program for Physical Education), and for standardized assessment instruments (e.g., Test of Gross Motor Development--2, Ulrich, 2000).

Everyone CAN Overview

Everyone CAN is the application of the ABC model to address demands for accountable standards-based physical education programs, and provide assessment based-instructional resource materials addressing needs of today's inclusive elementary school elementary school: see school.  physical education classes. Everyone CAN provides step-by-step procedures to guide schools and teachers through processes of designing curricula, assessing, implementation planning Operational planning associated with the conduct of a continuing operation, campaign, or war to attain defined objectives. At the national level, it includes the development of strategy and the assignment of strategic tasks to the combatant commanders. , teaching, and evaluation. In addition, Everyone CAN provides extensive field tested instructional materials to assist teachers in addressing unique needs of the full range of students in their classes. A strength of Everyone CAN is that while it provides concrete examples to illustrate each step in the ABC model, it does not dictate TO DICTATE. To pronounce word for word what is destined to be at the same time written by another. Merlin Rep. mot Suggestion, p. 5 00; Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 2, c. 5, n. 410.  what content should be taught or how it should be taught. Instead, it guides teachers through a series of decisions allowing them to decide what content should be addressed in their program, and how it could be best taught. It then provides a wealth of resources to assist them in implementing what they have designed.

There are two components to Everyone CAN: an eight chapter book, and a web-based database of over 2,000 teaching resources. Figure 1 shows interrelationships between the book content and resource materials. The book is used to explain the ABC model, illustrating how it is implemented in elementary school physical education. The book is also used to describe the design and purpose of the Everyone CAN resource materials, and how they complement implementation of the ABC model. Type and quantity of resource materials provided in Everyone CAN are shown in Figure 2. Resources are designed to provide teachers with all necessary materials needed to begin designing, assessing, implementing, and evaluating their instruction.


Web Access

An innovative feature of Everyone CAN is that resource materials are provided through the internet. This format keeps costs down while at the same time providing materials in a format that can be easily searched and copied. Let's say you examine your curriculum, and identify the next objective you are scheduled to teach is the overhand o·ver·hand   also o·ver·hand·ed
1. Executed with the hand brought forward and down from above the level of the shoulder: an overhand pitch; an overhand stroke.

 throw. You would go to the Everyone CAN home page, and next to the Objective prompt on the screen, you would begin typing overhand throw. As you type the program would automatically show you in the box below a list of objectives. As soon as you see overhand throw on the list, click on it, thus revealing a list of all of the resource materials available for this objective (Figure 3).

Assessment Items

The first resource provided for each objective is a criterion-referenced assessment item, which can be viewed by clicking on it (Figure 4). Each objective assessment item is divided into three skill levels. The first skill level defines key components of the skill, called focal points, which must be demonstrated to perform the mature pattern of the skill. The second and third skill levels focus on distance and accuracy. In the ABC model, assessing is an essential component in the instructional process. Before you can plan your lesson, or begin teaching, you must first know what focal points your students can already perform, and which ones still require instruction. To assist you in collecting this assessment information, you are also provided with an assessing activity (Figure 5), and a score sheet (Figure 6). These resources would be selected by simply clicking on the appropriate label in the list of resources on the screen.

Instructional Activities

Once you have assessed your students, and reviewed their needs on the score sheet, you are ready to access the instructional materials. Everyone CAN provides two categories of instructional materials: large group, and small group. The large group materials, designed to involve the entire class, are organized under Teaching Instructional Activities; small group activities are organized under Station Task Cards.

Let's say you determine a number of your students need to work on focal point focal point
See focus.
 b "T position with almost complete extension of the throwing arm, with trunk A communications channel between two points. It generally refers to a high-bandwidth, fiber-optic line between telephone switching centers (central offices). Telephone "trunks" handle thousands of simultaneous voice and data signals, whereas telephone "lines" are the wires from the  rotation back." You would now go to the resource list, and click on Overhand Throw Teaching Instructional Activities. This would reveal a document containing instructional ideas for all focal points, and skill levels. Since you are interested in focal point b, you would scroll To continuously move forward, backward or sideways through the text and images on screen or within a window. Scrolling implies continuous and smooth movement, a line, character or pixel at a time, as if the data were on a paper scroll being rolled behind the screen. See auto scroll.  down until finding the page shown in Figure 7.

For each focal point you are provided two large group instructional activities, including information on how to organize the class, how to set-up and conduct the activities, as well as, recommendations for what to say, and how to provide feedback. If you were interested in small group instructional activities, you would select Overhand Throw Station Task Cards' instead of Teaching Instructional Activities and would receive instructional materials for two small group activities that could also be used to organize instructional stations. To enhance these instructional activities, Everyone CAN also provides posters of key focal points of each objective (Figure 8). These figures can be copied and used to make individual instructional prompts for students, or enlarged to make posters to hang in the gymnasium gymnasium

In Germany, a state-maintained secondary school that prepares pupils for higher academic education. This type of nine-year school originated in Strasbourg in 1537.


At the bottom of both large and small group instructional activities provided for each focal point, you are provided a list of both large and small group games (Figure 7) that can be used to reinforce work on each focal point. For example, let's say you wanted to use the game Cleaning out the Backyard (a large group game listed under Teaching Instructional Activities for focal point b of the overhand throw), you would go back to the list of resources (Figure 3) and then click on that game under the list of large group games. Figure 10 shows information provided on a typical game card.

Other Ways to Use Everyone CAN

One of the unique features of Everyone CAN is that all text, diagrams, and pictures can be copied. So let's say you wanted to use Throwing Relays activity in your lesson plan, all you would need to do is drag your cursor (1) The symbol used to point to some element on screen. On Windows, Mac and other graphics-based screens, it is also called a "pointer," and it changes shape as it is moved with the mouse into different areas of the application.  over that paragraph to highlight it, and then select copy from the edit menu The Edit menu is a menu found in most computer programs that handle files, text or images. It is often the second menu in the menu bar, next to the file menu.

It most commonly contains commands relating to the handling of information, i.e.
. You could now open your lesson plan document, place your cursor where you wanted to describe the instructional activity, and then select paste from the edit menu. This feature is designed to allow teachers to develop high quality lesson plans by spending more time on reviewing, and selecting instructional activities to match assessed needs of their students, and less time on typing.




Assessment Activity: OVERHAND THROW


* Review the Assessment Item for the overhand throw and the Assessment Activity directions that follow.

* Stand about 10-15 feet away from the student in a position that allows you to see all of the focal points. Change position if you cannot observe A type of fire control which indicates that the observer or spotter will be unable to adjust fire, but believes a target exists at the given location and is of sufficient importance to justify firing upon it without adjustment or observation.  a focal point.

* Observe each student for three consecutive trials of the overhand throw, and observe the students' attention, comprehension comprehension

Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined.
, and effort (ACE) behavior during the assessment.

* Record the students' overhand throw performances and ACE behaviors on the Overhand Throw Score Sheet.

* If there is any doubt whether a student is consistently performing a focal point of the overhand throw for 2 of 3 trials, do not give credit.


Experienced adapted and general physical educators might be looking at these materials and thinking, I already know all the content presented in these materials. That is probably true, but these materials can still be very useful. How often have you been asked by a classroom teacher for a game or other instructional materials to help a student or group of students to learn a given skill? Have you ever been frustrated frus·trate  
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart:
 because you do not have time to explain to the paraprofessional paraprofessional

1. a person who is specially trained in a particular field or occupation to assist a veterinarian.

2. allied animal health professional.

3. pertaining to a paraprofessional.
 who comes to physical education with a student with special needs how to work on the objective you will be teaching that day? Have you had parents of students with disabilities ask what they can do to help their children learn specific skills? While you may know what information they need, it may not be easy for you to find this information, organize it in a meaningful way, and then provide it? With Everyone CAN it can be quickly searched for by name of the objective, and then with a few clicks in the program you can copy the appropriate materials, paste them into a document, and then either print it or e-mail to them.

Modifying Everyone CAN to Meet Your Needs

Everyone CAN materials are designed to be a starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo

commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the
 to assist teachers in providing assessment-based instruction. Materials presented represent only a few of the many ways to teach any given objective. To this end, Everyone CAN is designed to be dynamic, and easily adapted and modified. For example, Everyone CAN purposefully pur·pose·ful  
1. Having a purpose; intentional: a purposeful musician.

2. Having or manifesting purpose; determined: entered the room with a purposeful look.
 task analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

 each skill down into a detailed list of focal points. The advantage of doing this was that instructional materials were then provided on how to teach each of these focal points. The large number of focal points also allows teachers to show more progress over time. That said, some teachers with large classes might desire to have assessment items with fewer focal points. Using templates provided with Everyone CAN, teachers can quickly develop their own versions of assessment items by combining and/or modifying focal points, and then saving them as a new item. Teachers can use other templates provided to develop their own instructional activities, games, and posters. Another unique feature of Everyone CAN is teachers can submit materials they develop for consideration to be included in the next edition of Everyone CAN. If materials are selected, teachers are credited as the source of the content they provided.


Guidelines guidelines, a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 for Individuals with Disabilities

The last resource provided for each of the 70 objectives included in Everyone CAN is a card providing guidelines on making accommodations for individuals with disabilities. These accommodations include suggested instructional modifications for students with developmental, sensory sensory /sen·so·ry/ (sen´sor-e) pertaining to sensation.

1. Of or relating to the senses or sensation.

, and physical disabilities (Figure 10). In addition to these general modification guidelines, adapted physical educators can use the electronic resources to make modifications to assist general physical educators. For example, let's say the general physical education teacher is planning to assess the class on the overhand throw, and requests assistance on how focal points of this skill should be adjusted to accommodate needs of a student with spina bifida who uses a wheelchair wheel·chair or wheel chair
A chair mounted on large wheels for the use of a sick or disabled person.

 in physical education. The adapted physical education teacher could open the assessment item for the overhand throw in the word processor, modify the appropriate focal points to accommodate limitations imposed by this student's disability on this skill, and then send the revised item to the general physical education teacher.


You are encouraged to take the first step and review the ABC process, and Everyone CAN resources. Share and discuss these materials with colleagues, and then work collaboratively to develop an action plan to address your school's physical education needs, so All students leave the program demonstrating mastery of established local, state, and national standards.



Object of the Game: To throw an assortment assortment /as·sort·ment/ (ah-sort´ment) the random distribution of nonhomologous chromosomes to daughter cells in metaphase of the first meiotic division.

 of balls over a net, and to return balls as they are thrown over.

Assessment Items: Overhand throw Underhand throw Underhand roll

Play Groupings and Grades: Group Size: large Grade Levels: K-5

Physical Activity Rating:

[x] Easy (can sing)

[x] Moderate (can talk)

[] Vigorous (cannot talk)

Orqanization: Play this game in a space the size of a basketball court or smaller, either indoors or outdoors. Bisect bi·sect  
v. bi·sect·ed, bi·sect·ing, bi·sects
To cut or divide into two parts, especially two equal parts.

To split; fork.
 the playing area with a volleyball volleyball, outdoor or indoor ball and net game played on a level court. An upright net, 3 ft (or 1 m) high, the top of which stands 8 ft (2.43 m) from the ground for men, 7 ft 4 1/8 in (2.  net. Use existing lines, cones Cones
Receptor cells that allow the perception of colors.

Mentioned in: Color Blindness
, or other markers as boundaries. Students are scattered on each side of the net.

Directions: Divide the class into two teams of equal numbers, with one team on each side of the net. Scatter scat·ter
1. To cause to separate and go in different directions.

2. To separate and go in different directions; disperse.

3. To deflect radiation or particles.

 an assortment of small balls and objects (nerf balls, yarn yarn, fibers or filaments formed into a continuous strand for use in weaving textiles or for the manufacture of thread. A staple fiber, such as cotton, linen, or wool, is made into yarn by carding, combing (for fine, long staples only), drawing out into roving, then  balls, tennis balls, bean bean, name applied to the seeds of leguminous trees and shrubs and to various leguminous plants of the family Leguminosae (pulse family) with edible seeds or seed pods (legumes). The genera and species encompassed by the term bean are many and variable.  bags, etc.) on the floor on each side of the net. When the teacher gives a starting signal Noun 1. starting signal - a signal to begin (as in a race); "the starting signal was a green light"; "the runners awaited the start"

signal, signaling, sign - any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message; "signals from the boat suddenly stopped"
, every student picks up a ball and throws it to the other side of the net, then continues to pick-up and throw additional balls. The object of the game is for one team to have a clean back yard (no balls on their side of the net). The teacher should specify overhand or underhand throw (balls thrown over the net) or underhand roll (balls rolled under the net). Emphasize throwing or rolling fast and hard.

Teaching Alternatives:

* Continue play for a set duration of time.

* Periodically stop the game and give directions to emphasize a different focal point for the overhand throw, underhand throw, or underhand roll.

* Change the height of the net to accommodate students' skill levels and heights.

* Add a restraining line A restraining line for women's lacrosse is placed at both 25 yard lines. There are eleven players on the field, not including a goal keeper. Only seven offensive players and seven defensive players are allowed inside the restraining line. International rules however allow an 8v8.  and ask that students throw from behind the line so that they must throw harder and farther.

Select References

Kelly, L. E. (1988). I Can--Achievement Based Curriculum (ABC): Purpose, Development and Teacher Training. (ED309600).

Kelly, L. E. (1991). Final Report: Project I CAN-ABC: Improving teaching and the quality of instruction, Grant # CFDA CFDA Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
CFDA Council of Fashion Designers of America (New York, New York, USA)
CFDA California Funeral Directors Association
CFDA Community Futures Development Association
 84.073A/R073180042, submitted to United States Department of Education The United States Department of Education (also referred to as ED, for Education Department) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. Created by the Department of Education Organization Act (Public Law 96-88), it began operating in 1980. , National Diffusion diffusion, in chemistry, the spontaneous migration of substances from regions where their concentration is high to regions where their concentration is low. Diffusion is important in many life processes.  Network.

Kelly, L. E. (1993). Final Report: Institutionalization Institutionalization

The gradual domination of financial markets by institutional investors, as opposed to individual investors. This process has occurred throughout the industrialized world.
 of the Achievement-Based Curriculum Project, Grant # CFDA 84.073A/R073A00008-(12, submitted to United States Department of Education, National Diffusion Network.

Kelly, L.E. (2011). Designing and implementing effective adapted physical education programs. Urbana, IL: Sagamore sag·a·more  
A subordinate chief among the Algonquians of North America.

[Eastern Abenaki s
 Publishing, LLC (Logical Link Control) See "LANs" under data link protocol.

LLC - Logical Link Control

Kelly, L. E. & Melgrano, V. J. (2004). Developing the physical education curriculum: An achievement based approach. Champaign Champaign (shămpān`), city (1990 pop. 63,502), Champaign co., E central Ill.; inc. 1860. It adjoins the city of Urbana and is a commercial and industrial center in a fertile farm area. The Univ. , IL: Human Kinetics kinetics: see dynamics.
Kinetics (classical mechanics)

That part of classical mechanics which deals with the relation between the motions of material bodies and the forces acting upon them.

Kelly, L. E. & Wessel, J. A. (1991). I CAN implementation guide: Teaching the ABC model. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.

Kelly, L. E., Wessel, J. A., Dummer, G., & Sampson, T. (2010). Everyone CAN: Skill development and assessment in elementary physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ulrich, D. A. (2000). The Test of Gross Motor Development--2. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Wessel, J. A. (1975). Programmatic pro·gram·mat·ic  
1. Of, relating to, or having a program.

2. Following an overall plan or schedule: a step-by-step, programmatic approach to problem solving.

 Research Project in Physical Education for the Mentally Retarded Noun 1. mentally retarded - people collectively who are mentally retarded; "he started a school for the retarded"
developmentally challenged, retarded
 Child in the Elementary School. Final Report. (ED121039)

Wessel, J. A. (1976). 1 CAN primary skills materials. TX: Pro-ed.

Wessel, J. A. (1979). 1 CAN sport-leisure recreational skills. Austin, TX: Proed.

Wessel, J. A. (1980). Programmatic Research and Demonstration Project in Physical Education for the Severely Mentally Retarded. Year II Investigation. Final Report, August 1, 1977 through July 31, 1978. (ED201164)

Wessel, J. A. & Kelly, L. E. (1986). Achievement-based curriculum development in physical education. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.

Wessel, J. A. & Zittel, L. L. (1995). Smart start: Preschool movement curriculum for children of all abilities. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Luke E. Kelly, Ph.D., CAPE, is the Virgil S. Ward Professor of Education at the University of Virginia Virginia, state, United States
Virginia, state of the south-central United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), North Carolina and Tennessee (S), Kentucky and West Virginia (W), and Maryland and the District of Columbia (N and NE).
 where he is the Director of Kinesiology kinesiology

Study of the mechanics and anatomy of human movement and their roles in promoting health and reducing disease. Kinesiology has direct applications to fitness and health, including developing exercise programs for people with and without disabilities, preserving
 and Adapted Physical Education. He has 36 years of experience teaching adapted physical education, training teachers, and working with public schools on evaluating and revising their curricula to accommodate the needs" of ALL students in physical education.
Figure 2. Range and Quantity of Everyone CAN Resources

Overview of Evervone CAN Web Resources

Resource             #       Resource Description ,

Materials               70   Task analysis of objectives
Objective                    into skill levels and focal
Assessment Items             points to form criterion-
                             referenced assessment items
                             for the 70 most commonly
                             taught objectives in K-5
                             physical education.

Assessing               70   Suggested games and activities
Activities                   a class of students can be
                             engaged in so the teacher can
                             observe and assess students on
                             each objective.

Accommodations          70   Guidelines on how teachers can
                             modify each performance
                             objective and instruction to
                             address unique needs of
                             students with disabilities.

Score sheets           140   Forms allowing teachers to
                             record students' performances
                             of skill levels, and focal
                             points of each objective.

Posters                 70   Pictures of the key focal
                             points of each objective.

Teaching             1,026   Detailed instructional
Instructional                recommendations on how to
Activities                   teach each skill level, and
                             focal point of each objective.

Station Task Cards   1,026   These cards are instructional
                             aids to be used by teachers to
                             define instructional stations
                             in their classes, designed to
                             focus on focal points of each
                             performance objective.

Games                  313   Large and small group games
                             provided for each performance
                             objective, and keyed to each
                             focal point of each
                             performance objective.

ABC Worksheets          45   Blank worksheets corresponding
                             to examples and enrichment
                             activities in the ABC chapters
                             of the book

Resource                 9   Predefined templates for each
Templates                    Everyone CAN resource
                             material, so teachers can
                             create their own materials

Figure 4. Overhand Throw Assessment Item

Assessment Item: OVERHAND THROW

Equipment and Space Requirements:
* Use a tennis ball (2.5-inch diameter) for Skill Level 1. Use a
softball (12-inch circumference, official weight) with a no-sting
surface for Skill Level 2 and Skill Level 3.

* Use a 4-foot square vertical target placed 2 feet off the ground
(target markings may be taped to a wall).

* Throw i n an outdoor field or large gymnasium at least 70 feet in
length (10-foot staging area plus 60-foot throwi ng distance).

Skill Levels          Focal Points

1. Demonstrate the    The student demonstrates the following
mature overhand       focal points for the mature overhand
throw.                throw whi I e throwi ng atennis ball
                      toward a target with the dominant hand
                      (right or left) on 2 of 3 trials:

                      a. Side orientation, standing with non-
                      dominant side toward target, weight
                      evenly distributed on both feet, feet
                      shoulder width apart, eyes on target,
                      ball held i n domi nant hand at waist
                      level in front of body.

                      b. T position with almost complete
                      extension of the throwing arm, with
                      trunk rotation back.

                      c. Throwing hand passes above shoulder,
                      with body rotation forward.

                      d. Weight shift to throwing arm side
                      foot during extension of throwing arm,
                      and weight shift to foot on the opposite
                      side of the body as throwing arm passes
                      above shoulder.

                      e. Ball release toward target, palm
                      facing downward, knees and hips slightly
                      flexed, trunk near vertical.

                      f. Arm follows through well beyond ball
                      release toward target.

                      g. Smooth integration (not mechanical or
                      jerky) of the previous focal points.

2. Demonstrate the    The student with a mature overhand throw
mature overhand       (Skill Level 1) will
throw for distance.   throw a softball for distance
                      on 2 of 3 trials.

                      Throwing distances:

                      * Grades K-1 40 feet
                      * Grades 2-3 50 feet
                      * Grades 4-5 60 feet

3. Demonstrate the    The student with a mature overhand
mature overhand       throw (Skill Level 1) and
throw for accuracy.   overhand throw for distance
                      (Skill Level 2) will throw
                      a softball for
                      accuracy on 2 of 3

                      Accuracy criterion: Hit a 4-foot
                      square vertical target
                      placed 2 feet off
                      the ground.

                      Throwing distances:

                      * Grades K-1 40 feet
                      * Grades 2-3 50 feet
                      * Grades 4-5 60 feet

Reference Data: A baseline distance of 60 feet is
used in fast pitch softball.

Figure 6. Sample Assessing Activity


Skill Level 1. Organize the
students into stations with 4-
6 students at each station.
One station should focus on
the overhand throw. The other
stations should focus on
practice of the overhand throw
or review of other objectives
that already have been

The teacher should do the

* Introduce the
overhand throw

* Model the mature overhand

a. Side orientation, standing
with non-dominant side toward
target, weight evenly
distributed on both feet, feet
shoulder width apart, eyes on
target, ball held in dominant
hand at waist level in front
of body.

b. T position with almost
complete extension of the
throwing arm, with trunk
rotation back.

c. Throwing hand passes above
shoulder, with body rotation

d. Weight shift to throwing
arm side foot during extension
of throwing arm, and weight
shift to foot on the opposite
side of the body as throwing
arm passes above shoulder.

e. Ball release toward target,
palm facing downward, knees
and hips slightly flexed,
trunk near vertical.

f. Arm follows through well
beyond ball release toward

g. Smooth integration (not
mechanical or jerky) of the
previous focal points.

* Tell the students: "Do this.
Throw hard and far."

* Have the student do three
trials and record the results.

Skill Level 2. For Skill Level
2, tell students to throw
toward a 4-foot square target
at the appropriate throwing
distance for grade level.
Emphasize the goal of throwing
for distance. Have the student
do three trials and record the

Skill Level 3. For Skill Level
3, tell students to throw
toward a 4-foot square target
at the appropriate throwing
distance for grade level.
Emphasize the goal of throwing
for accuracy. Have the student
do three trials and record the

Organization and Materials
Students   Net   Targets

XX         *     []

XX         *     []

XX         *     []

Use one target for each row of
students, 4 feet square,
placed 2 feet off the ground.

Use tape to mark throwing lines.

Use a volley ball net or other
obstacle for students to
throw over, to encourage
throwing hard and far.

Use a container with 10-15
balls for each group of two
students, using tennis balls
for Skill Level 1 and
softballs for Skill Level 2
and Skill Level 3.

Throwing distances for Skill
Levels 2 and 3:

Grades K-1   40 feet
Grades 2-3   50 feet
Grades 4-5   60 feet

Figure 7. Sample Teaching Instructional Activity

Skill Level 1          Organization/Materials
Focal Points           Organization:

b. T position with     Throwing stations:
almost complete
extension of the       Materials:
throwing arm, with     * Motivating targets.
trunk rotation back.   * Tape to mark throwing
                       * Footprints to mark
                       side orientation.
                       * Several tennis balls
                       for each student.

Skill Level 1          Activities/Games          Cues
Focal Points           Activities:               Say:

                       Demonstrate the T         Make a T with
b. T position with     position and then         your body.
almost complete        have the class
extension of the       perform the               Reach back
throwing arm, with     following                 with the ball.
trunk rotation back.   activities. Throwing      Rock back.
                       stations: Create
                       several stations
                       with one or more
                       students at a
Place balls
                       behind the student
                       at waist level and
                       have them reach back
                       to grab a ball as
                       they prepare to
                       throw. Students
                       throw toward targets
                       on/near the gym
                       walls. When all
                       students finish
                       throwing, students
                       shag the balls and
                       repeat the task.

                       Throwing relays:
                       Create several
                       stations with 3-4
                       students at a
                       station. When the
                       student at the front
                       of the line throws
                       the ball, they must
                       reach back and get
                       the ball from the
                       person in line
                       behind them who holds
                       the ball at waist level
                       and arms length from
                       the thrower. Other
                       students provide
                       feedback. Repeat the

                       Small group games:
                       Ball Wall Bounce,
                       Balloon Blast, the
                       Boundary Ball, ball
                       Circle Ball, Get to
                       5, Go and Grab, Hot
                       Potato, Name Ball,
                       Net Fielding, Pin-
                       Point Accuracy, from
                       Sponge Ball Fight,
                       Target Practice, the
                       Throw and Block, X

                       Large group games:
                       Boundary Ball, Clean
                       Out The Backyard,
                       Leader Class, Sponge
                       Ball Fight.

Skill Level 1          Feedback
Focal Points           Teacher:

                       Physically assist
b. T position with     students having
almost complete        trouble so that they
extension of the       know what the
throwing arm, with     correct position
trunk rotation back.   feels like.

                       Give positive
                       when students
                       demonstrate the
                       correct T position.


                       Partners should
                       give each other
                       feedback on the T

                       Give positive
                       feedback when
                       other students
                       demonstrate the
                       correct T position.

Figure 10. Disability Accommodations for Overhand Throw


Disability Accommodations: OVERHAND THROW

Instructional Guidelines:
The overhand throw can be performed by most students with few or no
modifications. However, the following guidelines might help students
with and without disabilities to learn the task more efficientIv.

Disability      Instructional Guidelines

Developmental   * Short, succinct instructions
                with emphasis on key words
                (e.g., throw -like this -hard

Disabilities    * Additional demonstration if needed.
                * Physical cues and physical
                manipulation when
                demonstrations are not

                * Frequent feedback that is
                contingent upon student
                performance to facilitate
                correct performance.

                * Frequent success during
                instruction to increase
                motivation and to facilitate
                staying on-task.

Sensory         Hearinq:
Disabilities    * Supplementary methods of
                communication (e.g., signing,
                white board, handouts, task
                cards, demonstrations) to
                ensure that students
                understand the instructions.

                * Students should stand where
                they can best read your speech
                and view demonstrations.

                * Auditory target or device
                (e.g., beeper, radio) placed
                near targets.

                * Supplementary methods of
                communication (e.g., physical
                manipulation, allow student to
                braille your movements) to
                ensure that instructions are

                * Students should stand where
                they can best view

                * Frequent verbal, tactile,
                and kinesthetic feedback
                during instruction.

Physical        * Modify or delete focal
Disabilities    points when appropriate.

                ** Students who use
                wheelchairs can substitute
                wheelchair action for the
                weight transfer and rotation
                elements of the throw. Start
                with the wheelchair at a 45[degrees]
                angle to the target and then
                use the non/dominant hand to
                spin the wheelchair toward the
                target while the dominant
                hand/arm executes the throw.

                ** Students with severe
                cerebral palsy can look away
                from the target until it is
                time to release the ball, then
                use the stimulus of head
                rotation to help straighten
                the arm (asymmetric tonic neck

                * Focus on the function of
                instruction (e.g., propelling
                the ball toward the target in
                whatever means possible) using
                the I CAN overhand throw focal
                points as a model -what is the
                starting position?, how is
                force generated?, what does
                the action look like?, and
                what is the follow through?
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Date:Jan 1, 2012
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