Everyone can: enhancing quality of instruction in general physical education for ALL students.Introduction
Given rising health risks associated with obesity in children, and a growing need for ALL children to be more physically active, the need for high quality physical education programs that can document effectiveness and achieve stated goals has never been greater. Everyone CAN (Kelly Kel·ly , Ellsworth Born 1923.
American abstract painter and sculptor whose works are characterized by flat color areas with sharply defined edges.
Kelly, Emmett 1898-1979. , Wessel, Dummer
Dummer , & Sampson Samp·son , Deborah 1760-1827.
American Revolutionary soldier who fought disguised as a man (1782-1783) and was wounded twice before her secret was discovered. In 1818 she was granted a full veteran's pension. , 2010) has been designed to assist general and adapted physical education Adapted physical education is a sub-discipline of physical education. It is an individualized program created for students who require a specially designed program for more than 30 days. teachers address these needs in their schools. Everyone CAN is the integration of the Achievement-Based Curriculum (ABC) model (Kelly, 2011; Kelly and Melograno, 2004; Kelly & Wessel, 1991; Wessel & Kelly, 1986), and over 40 years of research and development in designing physical education resource materials designed to help teachers address physical and motor needs of their students (Kelly, 1988; 1991; 1993).
Everyone CAN's roots can be traced back to Project I CAN, developed by Janet Janet: see Clouet, Jean.
JANET - Joint Academic NETwork Wessel, and staff of the Field Service Unit at Michigan State University Michigan State University, at East Lansing; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1855. It opened in 1857 as Michigan Agricultural College, the first state agricultural college. . I CAN (Wessel, 1976; 1979) was initially designed to assist special school faculty and staff at state residential institutions, and special schools address physical education needs of their students with intellectual disabilities. Development and field testing of I CAN was supported by grants (Wessel, 1975; 1980) funded by U.S. Department of Education--Special Education and Rehabilitative re·ha·bil·i·tate
tr.v. re·ha·bil·i·tat·ed, re·ha·bil·i·tat·ing, re·ha·bil·i·tates
1. To restore to good health or useful life, as through therapy and education.
2. Service, formally called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare--Bureau of Education for the Handicapped.
With passage of PL 94-142, I CAN was adapted and modified to address physical education needs of students with disabilities in least restrictive environment As part of the U.S. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the least restrictive environment is identified as one of the six principles that govern the education of students with disabilities. in public schools. Over the years, until they went out-of-print in the mid 1990's, I CAN materials were adapted and modified by teachers, and used as foundations for many school physical education programs (e.g., Smart start; Wessel & Zittel, 1995), state physical education standards (e. g., Michigan's Education and Assessment Program for Physical Education), and for standardized assessment instruments (e.g., Test of Gross Motor Development--2, Ulrich, 2000).
Everyone CAN Overview
Everyone CAN is the application of the ABC model to address demands for accountable standards-based physical education programs, and provide assessment based-instructional resource materials addressing needs of today's inclusive elementary school elementary school: see school. physical education classes. Everyone CAN provides step-by-step procedures to guide schools and teachers through processes of designing curricula, assessing, implementation planning Operational planning associated with the conduct of a continuing operation, campaign, or war to attain defined objectives. At the national level, it includes the development of strategy and the assignment of strategic tasks to the combatant commanders. , teaching, and evaluation. In addition, Everyone CAN provides extensive field tested instructional materials to assist teachers in addressing unique needs of the full range of students in their classes. A strength of Everyone CAN is that while it provides concrete examples to illustrate each step in the ABC model, it does not dictate TO DICTATE. To pronounce word for word what is destined to be at the same time written by another. Merlin Rep. mot Suggestion, p. 5 00; Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 2, c. 5, n. 410. what content should be taught or how it should be taught. Instead, it guides teachers through a series of decisions allowing them to decide what content should be addressed in their program, and how it could be best taught. It then provides a wealth of resources to assist them in implementing what they have designed.
There are two components to Everyone CAN: an eight chapter book, and a web-based database of over 2,000 teaching resources. Figure 1 shows interrelationships between the book content and resource materials. The book is used to explain the ABC model, illustrating how it is implemented in elementary school physical education. The book is also used to describe the design and purpose of the Everyone CAN resource materials, and how they complement implementation of the ABC model. Type and quantity of resource materials provided in Everyone CAN are shown in Figure 2. Resources are designed to provide teachers with all necessary materials needed to begin designing, assessing, implementing, and evaluating their instruction.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
An innovative feature of Everyone CAN is that resource materials are provided through the internet. This format keeps costs down while at the same time providing materials in a format that can be easily searched and copied. Let's say you examine your curriculum, and identify the next objective you are scheduled to teach is the overhand o·ver·hand also o·ver·hand·ed
1. Executed with the hand brought forward and down from above the level of the shoulder: an overhand pitch; an overhand stroke.
2. throw. You would go to the Everyone CAN home page, and next to the Objective prompt on the screen, you would begin typing overhand throw. As you type the program would automatically show you in the box below a list of objectives. As soon as you see overhand throw on the list, click on it, thus revealing a list of all of the resource materials available for this objective (Figure 3).
The first resource provided for each objective is a criterion-referenced assessment item, which can be viewed by clicking on it (Figure 4). Each objective assessment item is divided into three skill levels. The first skill level defines key components of the skill, called focal points, which must be demonstrated to perform the mature pattern of the skill. The second and third skill levels focus on distance and accuracy. In the ABC model, assessing is an essential component in the instructional process. Before you can plan your lesson, or begin teaching, you must first know what focal points your students can already perform, and which ones still require instruction. To assist you in collecting this assessment information, you are also provided with an assessing activity (Figure 5), and a score sheet (Figure 6). These resources would be selected by simply clicking on the appropriate label in the list of resources on the screen.
Once you have assessed your students, and reviewed their needs on the score sheet, you are ready to access the instructional materials. Everyone CAN provides two categories of instructional materials: large group, and small group. The large group materials, designed to involve the entire class, are organized under Teaching Instructional Activities; small group activities are organized under Station Task Cards.
Let's say you determine a number of your students need to work on focal point focal point
See focus. b "T position with almost complete extension of the throwing arm, with trunk A communications channel between two points. It generally refers to a high-bandwidth, fiber-optic line between telephone switching centers (central offices). Telephone "trunks" handle thousands of simultaneous voice and data signals, whereas telephone "lines" are the wires from the rotation back." You would now go to the resource list, and click on Overhand Throw Teaching Instructional Activities. This would reveal a document containing instructional ideas for all focal points, and skill levels. Since you are interested in focal point b, you would scroll To continuously move forward, backward or sideways through the text and images on screen or within a window. Scrolling implies continuous and smooth movement, a line, character or pixel at a time, as if the data were on a paper scroll being rolled behind the screen. See auto scroll. down until finding the page shown in Figure 7.
For each focal point you are provided two large group instructional activities, including information on how to organize the class, how to set-up and conduct the activities, as well as, recommendations for what to say, and how to provide feedback. If you were interested in small group instructional activities, you would select Overhand Throw Station Task Cards' instead of Teaching Instructional Activities and would receive instructional materials for two small group activities that could also be used to organize instructional stations. To enhance these instructional activities, Everyone CAN also provides posters of key focal points of each objective (Figure 8). These figures can be copied and used to make individual instructional prompts for students, or enlarged to make posters to hang in the gymnasium gymnasium
In Germany, a state-maintained secondary school that prepares pupils for higher academic education. This type of nine-year school originated in Strasbourg in 1537. .
At the bottom of both large and small group instructional activities provided for each focal point, you are provided a list of both large and small group games (Figure 7) that can be used to reinforce work on each focal point. For example, let's say you wanted to use the game Cleaning out the Backyard (a large group game listed under Teaching Instructional Activities for focal point b of the overhand throw), you would go back to the list of resources (Figure 3) and then click on that game under the list of large group games. Figure 10 shows information provided on a typical game card.
Other Ways to Use Everyone CAN
One of the unique features of Everyone CAN is that all text, diagrams, and pictures can be copied. So let's say you wanted to use Throwing Relays activity in your lesson plan, all you would need to do is drag your cursor (1) The symbol used to point to some element on screen. On Windows, Mac and other graphics-based screens, it is also called a "pointer," and it changes shape as it is moved with the mouse into different areas of the application. over that paragraph to highlight it, and then select copy from the edit menu The Edit menu is a menu found in most computer programs that handle files, text or images. It is often the second menu in the menu bar, next to the file menu.
It most commonly contains commands relating to the handling of information, i.e. . You could now open your lesson plan document, place your cursor where you wanted to describe the instructional activity, and then select paste from the edit menu. This feature is designed to allow teachers to develop high quality lesson plans by spending more time on reviewing, and selecting instructional activities to match assessed needs of their students, and less time on typing.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Assessment Activity: OVERHAND THROW
* Review the Assessment Item for the overhand throw and the Assessment Activity directions that follow.
* Stand about 10-15 feet away from the student in a position that allows you to see all of the focal points. Change position if you cannot observe A type of fire control which indicates that the observer or spotter will be unable to adjust fire, but believes a target exists at the given location and is of sufficient importance to justify firing upon it without adjustment or observation. a focal point.
* Observe each student for three consecutive trials of the overhand throw, and observe the students' attention, comprehension comprehension
Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined. , and effort (ACE) behavior during the assessment.
* Record the students' overhand throw performances and ACE behaviors on the Overhand Throw Score Sheet.
* If there is any doubt whether a student is consistently performing a focal point of the overhand throw for 2 of 3 trials, do not give credit.
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
Experienced adapted and general physical educators might be looking at these materials and thinking, I already know all the content presented in these materials. That is probably true, but these materials can still be very useful. How often have you been asked by a classroom teacher for a game or other instructional materials to help a student or group of students to learn a given skill? Have you ever been frustrated frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: because you do not have time to explain to the paraprofessional paraprofessional
1. a person who is specially trained in a particular field or occupation to assist a veterinarian.
2. allied animal health professional.
3. pertaining to a paraprofessional. who comes to physical education with a student with special needs how to work on the objective you will be teaching that day? Have you had parents of students with disabilities ask what they can do to help their children learn specific skills? While you may know what information they need, it may not be easy for you to find this information, organize it in a meaningful way, and then provide it? With Everyone CAN it can be quickly searched for by name of the objective, and then with a few clicks in the program you can copy the appropriate materials, paste them into a document, and then either print it or e-mail to them.
Modifying Everyone CAN to Meet Your Needs
Everyone CAN materials are designed to be a starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo
commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the to assist teachers in providing assessment-based instruction. Materials presented represent only a few of the many ways to teach any given objective. To this end, Everyone CAN is designed to be dynamic, and easily adapted and modified. For example, Everyone CAN purposefully pur·pose·ful
1. Having a purpose; intentional: a purposeful musician.
2. Having or manifesting purpose; determined: entered the room with a purposeful look. task analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. each skill down into a detailed list of focal points. The advantage of doing this was that instructional materials were then provided on how to teach each of these focal points. The large number of focal points also allows teachers to show more progress over time. That said, some teachers with large classes might desire to have assessment items with fewer focal points. Using templates provided with Everyone CAN, teachers can quickly develop their own versions of assessment items by combining and/or modifying focal points, and then saving them as a new item. Teachers can use other templates provided to develop their own instructional activities, games, and posters. Another unique feature of Everyone CAN is teachers can submit materials they develop for consideration to be included in the next edition of Everyone CAN. If materials are selected, teachers are credited as the source of the content they provided.
[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for Individuals with Disabilities
The last resource provided for each of the 70 objectives included in Everyone CAN is a card providing guidelines on making accommodations for individuals with disabilities. These accommodations include suggested instructional modifications for students with developmental, sensory sensory /sen·so·ry/ (sen´sor-e) pertaining to sensation.
1. Of or relating to the senses or sensation.
2. , and physical disabilities (Figure 10). In addition to these general modification guidelines, adapted physical educators can use the electronic resources to make modifications to assist general physical educators. For example, let's say the general physical education teacher is planning to assess the class on the overhand throw, and requests assistance on how focal points of this skill should be adjusted to accommodate needs of a student with spina bifida who uses a wheelchair wheel·chair or wheel chair
A chair mounted on large wheels for the use of a sick or disabled person.
n in physical education. The adapted physical education teacher could open the assessment item for the overhand throw in the word processor, modify the appropriate focal points to accommodate limitations imposed by this student's disability on this skill, and then send the revised item to the general physical education teacher.
You are encouraged to take the first step and review the ABC process, and Everyone CAN resources. Share and discuss these materials with colleagues, and then work collaboratively to develop an action plan to address your school's physical education needs, so All students leave the program demonstrating mastery of established local, state, and national standards.
Game: CLEAN OUTTHE BACKYARD
Object of the Game: To throw an assortment assortment /as·sort·ment/ (ah-sort´ment) the random distribution of nonhomologous chromosomes to daughter cells in metaphase of the first meiotic division.
n. of balls over a net, and to return balls as they are thrown over.
Assessment Items: Overhand throw Underhand throw Underhand roll
Play Groupings and Grades: Group Size: large Grade Levels: K-5
Physical Activity Rating:
[x] Easy (can sing)
[x] Moderate (can talk)
 Vigorous (cannot talk)
Orqanization: Play this game in a space the size of a basketball court or smaller, either indoors or outdoors. Bisect bi·sect
v. bi·sect·ed, bi·sect·ing, bi·sects
To cut or divide into two parts, especially two equal parts.
To split; fork. the playing area with a volleyball volleyball, outdoor or indoor ball and net game played on a level court. An upright net, 3 ft (or 1 m) high, the top of which stands 8 ft (2.43 m) from the ground for men, 7 ft 4 1/8 in (2. net. Use existing lines, cones Cones
Receptor cells that allow the perception of colors.
Mentioned in: Color Blindness , or other markers as boundaries. Students are scattered on each side of the net.
Directions: Divide the class into two teams of equal numbers, with one team on each side of the net. Scatter scat·ter
1. To cause to separate and go in different directions.
2. To separate and go in different directions; disperse.
3. To deflect radiation or particles.
n. an assortment of small balls and objects (nerf balls, yarn yarn, fibers or filaments formed into a continuous strand for use in weaving textiles or for the manufacture of thread. A staple fiber, such as cotton, linen, or wool, is made into yarn by carding, combing (for fine, long staples only), drawing out into roving, then balls, tennis balls, bean bean, name applied to the seeds of leguminous trees and shrubs and to various leguminous plants of the family Leguminosae (pulse family) with edible seeds or seed pods (legumes). The genera and species encompassed by the term bean are many and variable. bags, etc.) on the floor on each side of the net. When the teacher gives a starting signal Noun 1. starting signal - a signal to begin (as in a race); "the starting signal was a green light"; "the runners awaited the start"
signal, signaling, sign - any nonverbal action or gesture that encodes a message; "signals from the boat suddenly stopped" , every student picks up a ball and throws it to the other side of the net, then continues to pick-up and throw additional balls. The object of the game is for one team to have a clean back yard (no balls on their side of the net). The teacher should specify overhand or underhand throw (balls thrown over the net) or underhand roll (balls rolled under the net). Emphasize throwing or rolling fast and hard.
* Continue play for a set duration of time.
* Periodically stop the game and give directions to emphasize a different focal point for the overhand throw, underhand throw, or underhand roll.
* Change the height of the net to accommodate students' skill levels and heights.
* Add a restraining line A restraining line for women's lacrosse is placed at both 25 yard lines. There are eleven players on the field, not including a goal keeper. Only seven offensive players and seven defensive players are allowed inside the restraining line. International rules however allow an 8v8. and ask that students throw from behind the line so that they must throw harder and farther.
Kelly, L. E. (1988). I Can--Achievement Based Curriculum (ABC): Purpose, Development and Teacher Training. (ED309600).
Kelly, L. E. (1991). Final Report: Project I CAN-ABC: Improving teaching and the quality of instruction, Grant # CFDA CFDA Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
CFDA Council of Fashion Designers of America (New York, New York, USA)
CFDA California Funeral Directors Association
CFDA Community Futures Development Association 84.073A/R073180042, submitted to United States Department of Education The United States Department of Education (also referred to as ED, for Education Department) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. Created by the Department of Education Organization Act (Public Law 96-88), it began operating in 1980. , National Diffusion diffusion, in chemistry, the spontaneous migration of substances from regions where their concentration is high to regions where their concentration is low. Diffusion is important in many life processes. Network.
Kelly, L. E. (1993). Final Report: Institutionalization Institutionalization
The gradual domination of financial markets by institutional investors, as opposed to individual investors. This process has occurred throughout the industrialized world. of the Achievement-Based Curriculum Project, Grant # CFDA 84.073A/R073A00008-(12, submitted to United States Department of Education, National Diffusion Network.
Kelly, L.E. (2011). Designing and implementing effective adapted physical education programs. Urbana, IL: Sagamore sag·a·more
A subordinate chief among the Algonquians of North America.
[Eastern Abenaki s Publishing, LLC (Logical Link Control) See "LANs" under data link protocol.
LLC - Logical Link Control .
Kelly, L. E. & Melgrano, V. J. (2004). Developing the physical education curriculum: An achievement based approach. Champaign Champaign (shămpān`), city (1990 pop. 63,502), Champaign co., E central Ill.; inc. 1860. It adjoins the city of Urbana and is a commercial and industrial center in a fertile farm area. The Univ. , IL: Human Kinetics kinetics: see dynamics.
Kinetics (classical mechanics)
That part of classical mechanics which deals with the relation between the motions of material bodies and the forces acting upon them. .
Kelly, L. E. & Wessel, J. A. (1991). I CAN implementation guide: Teaching the ABC model. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.
Kelly, L. E., Wessel, J. A., Dummer, G., & Sampson, T. (2010). Everyone CAN: Skill development and assessment in elementary physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Ulrich, D. A. (2000). The Test of Gross Motor Development--2. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Wessel, J. A. (1975). Programmatic pro·gram·mat·ic
1. Of, relating to, or having a program.
2. Following an overall plan or schedule: a step-by-step, programmatic approach to problem solving.
3. Research Project in Physical Education for the Mentally Retarded Noun 1. mentally retarded - people collectively who are mentally retarded; "he started a school for the retarded"
developmentally challenged, retarded Child in the Elementary School. Final Report. (ED121039)
Wessel, J. A. (1976). 1 CAN primary skills materials. TX: Pro-ed.
Wessel, J. A. (1979). 1 CAN sport-leisure recreational skills. Austin, TX: Proed.
Wessel, J. A. (1980). Programmatic Research and Demonstration Project in Physical Education for the Severely Mentally Retarded. Year II Investigation. Final Report, August 1, 1977 through July 31, 1978. (ED201164)
Wessel, J. A. & Kelly, L. E. (1986). Achievement-based curriculum development in physical education. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.
Wessel, J. A. & Zittel, L. L. (1995). Smart start: Preschool movement curriculum for children of all abilities. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Luke E. Kelly, Ph.D., CAPE, is the Virgil S. Ward Professor of Education at the University of Virginia Virginia, state, United States
Virginia, state of the south-central United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), North Carolina and Tennessee (S), Kentucky and West Virginia (W), and Maryland and the District of Columbia (N and NE). where he is the Director of Kinesiology kinesiology
Study of the mechanics and anatomy of human movement and their roles in promoting health and reducing disease. Kinesiology has direct applications to fitness and health, including developing exercise programs for people with and without disabilities, preserving and Adapted Physical Education. He has 36 years of experience teaching adapted physical education, training teachers, and working with public schools on evaluating and revising their curricula to accommodate the needs" of ALL students in physical education.
Figure 2. Range and Quantity of Everyone CAN Resources Overview of Evervone CAN Web Resources Resource # Resource Description , Materials 70 Task analysis of objectives Objective into skill levels and focal Assessment Items points to form criterion- referenced assessment items for the 70 most commonly taught objectives in K-5 physical education. Assessing 70 Suggested games and activities Activities a class of students can be engaged in so the teacher can observe and assess students on each objective. Accommodations 70 Guidelines on how teachers can modify each performance objective and instruction to address unique needs of students with disabilities. Score sheets 140 Forms allowing teachers to record students' performances of skill levels, and focal points of each objective. Posters 70 Pictures of the key focal points of each objective. Teaching 1,026 Detailed instructional Instructional recommendations on how to Activities teach each skill level, and focal point of each objective. Station Task Cards 1,026 These cards are instructional aids to be used by teachers to define instructional stations in their classes, designed to focus on focal points of each performance objective. Games 313 Large and small group games provided for each performance objective, and keyed to each focal point of each performance objective. ABC Worksheets 45 Blank worksheets corresponding to examples and enrichment activities in the ABC chapters of the book Resource 9 Predefined templates for each Templates Everyone CAN resource material, so teachers can create their own materials Figure 4. Overhand Throw Assessment Item EVERYONE CAN Assessment Item: OVERHAND THROW Equipment and Space Requirements: * Use a tennis ball (2.5-inch diameter) for Skill Level 1. Use a softball (12-inch circumference, official weight) with a no-sting surface for Skill Level 2 and Skill Level 3. * Use a 4-foot square vertical target placed 2 feet off the ground (target markings may be taped to a wall). * Throw i n an outdoor field or large gymnasium at least 70 feet in length (10-foot staging area plus 60-foot throwi ng distance). Skill Levels Focal Points 1. Demonstrate the The student demonstrates the following mature overhand focal points for the mature overhand throw. throw whi I e throwi ng atennis ball toward a target with the dominant hand (right or left) on 2 of 3 trials: a. Side orientation, standing with non- dominant side toward target, weight evenly distributed on both feet, feet shoulder width apart, eyes on target, ball held i n domi nant hand at waist level in front of body. b. T position with almost complete extension of the throwing arm, with trunk rotation back. c. Throwing hand passes above shoulder, with body rotation forward. d. Weight shift to throwing arm side foot during extension of throwing arm, and weight shift to foot on the opposite side of the body as throwing arm passes above shoulder. e. Ball release toward target, palm facing downward, knees and hips slightly flexed, trunk near vertical. f. Arm follows through well beyond ball release toward target. g. Smooth integration (not mechanical or jerky) of the previous focal points. 2. Demonstrate the The student with a mature overhand throw mature overhand (Skill Level 1) will throw for distance. throw a softball for distance on 2 of 3 trials. Throwing distances: * Grades K-1 40 feet * Grades 2-3 50 feet * Grades 4-5 60 feet 3. Demonstrate the The student with a mature overhand mature overhand throw (Skill Level 1) and throw for accuracy. overhand throw for distance (Skill Level 2) will throw a softball for accuracy on 2 of 3 trials. Accuracy criterion: Hit a 4-foot square vertical target placed 2 feet off the ground. Throwing distances: * Grades K-1 40 feet * Grades 2-3 50 feet * Grades 4-5 60 feet Reference Data: A baseline distance of 60 feet is used in fast pitch softball. Figure 6. Sample Assessing Activity Directions Skill Level 1. Organize the students into stations with 4- 6 students at each station. One station should focus on the overhand throw. The other stations should focus on practice of the overhand throw or review of other objectives that already have been introduced. The teacher should do the following: * Introduce the overhand throw * Model the mature overhand throw a. Side orientation, standing with non-dominant side toward target, weight evenly distributed on both feet, feet shoulder width apart, eyes on target, ball held in dominant hand at waist level in front of body. b. T position with almost complete extension of the throwing arm, with trunk rotation back. c. Throwing hand passes above shoulder, with body rotation forward. d. Weight shift to throwing arm side foot during extension of throwing arm, and weight shift to foot on the opposite side of the body as throwing arm passes above shoulder. e. Ball release toward target, palm facing downward, knees and hips slightly flexed, trunk near vertical. f. Arm follows through well beyond ball release toward target. g. Smooth integration (not mechanical or jerky) of the previous focal points. * Tell the students: "Do this. Throw hard and far." * Have the student do three trials and record the results. Skill Level 2. For Skill Level 2, tell students to throw toward a 4-foot square target at the appropriate throwing distance for grade level. Emphasize the goal of throwing for distance. Have the student do three trials and record the results. Skill Level 3. For Skill Level 3, tell students to throw toward a 4-foot square target at the appropriate throwing distance for grade level. Emphasize the goal of throwing for accuracy. Have the student do three trials and record the results. Organization and Materials Organization: Students Net Targets XX *  XX *  XX *  Materials: Use one target for each row of students, 4 feet square, placed 2 feet off the ground. Use tape to mark throwing lines. Use a volley ball net or other obstacle for students to throw over, to encourage throwing hard and far. Use a container with 10-15 balls for each group of two students, using tennis balls for Skill Level 1 and softballs for Skill Level 2 and Skill Level 3. Throwing distances for Skill Levels 2 and 3: Grades K-1 40 feet Grades 2-3 50 feet Grades 4-5 60 feet Figure 7. Sample Teaching Instructional Activity Skill Level 1 Organization/Materials Focal Points Organization: Organization: b. T position with Throwing stations: almost complete extension of the Materials: throwing arm, with * Motivating targets. trunk rotation back. * Tape to mark throwing lines. * Footprints to mark side orientation. * Several tennis balls for each student. Skill Level 1 Activities/Games Cues Focal Points Activities: Say: Demonstrate the T Make a T with b. T position with position and then your body. almost complete have the class extension of the perform the Reach back throwing arm, with following with the ball. trunk rotation back. activities. Throwing Rock back. stations: Create several stations with one or more students at a station. Place balls behind the student at waist level and have them reach back to grab a ball as they prepare to throw. Students throw toward targets on/near the gym walls. When all students finish throwing, students shag the balls and repeat the task. Throwing relays: Create several stations with 3-4 students at a station. When the student at the front of the line throws the ball, they must reach back and get the ball from the person in line behind them who holds the ball at waist level and arms length from the thrower. Other students provide feedback. Repeat the relay. Small group games: Ball Wall Bounce, Balloon Blast, the Boundary Ball, ball Circle Ball, Get to 5, Go and Grab, Hot Potato, Name Ball, Net Fielding, Pin- Point Accuracy, from Sponge Ball Fight, Target Practice, the Throw and Block, X Ball. Large group games: Boundary Ball, Clean Out The Backyard, Leader Class, Sponge Ball Fight. Skill Level 1 Feedback Focal Points Teacher: Physically assist b. T position with students having almost complete trouble so that they extension of the know what the throwing arm, with correct position trunk rotation back. feels like. Give positive feedback when students demonstrate the correct T position. Students: Partners should give each other feedback on the T position. Give positive feedback when other students demonstrate the correct T position. Figure 10. Disability Accommodations for Overhand Throw EVERYONE CAN Disability Accommodations: OVERHAND THROW Instructional Guidelines: The overhand throw can be performed by most students with few or no modifications. However, the following guidelines might help students with and without disabilities to learn the task more efficientIv. Disability Instructional Guidelines Developmental * Short, succinct instructions with emphasis on key words (e.g., throw -like this -hard -far). Disabilities * Additional demonstration if needed. * Physical cues and physical manipulation when demonstrations are not effective. * Frequent feedback that is contingent upon student performance to facilitate correct performance. * Frequent success during instruction to increase motivation and to facilitate staying on-task. Sensory Hearinq: Disabilities * Supplementary methods of communication (e.g., signing, white board, handouts, task cards, demonstrations) to ensure that students understand the instructions. * Students should stand where they can best read your speech and view demonstrations. Vision: * Auditory target or device (e.g., beeper, radio) placed near targets. * Supplementary methods of communication (e.g., physical manipulation, allow student to braille your movements) to ensure that instructions are understood. * Students should stand where they can best view demonstrations. * Frequent verbal, tactile, and kinesthetic feedback during instruction. Physical * Modify or delete focal Disabilities points when appropriate. ** Students who use wheelchairs can substitute wheelchair action for the weight transfer and rotation elements of the throw. Start with the wheelchair at a 45[degrees] angle to the target and then use the non/dominant hand to spin the wheelchair toward the target while the dominant hand/arm executes the throw. ** Students with severe cerebral palsy can look away from the target until it is time to release the ball, then use the stimulus of head rotation to help straighten the arm (asymmetric tonic neck reflex). * Focus on the function of instruction (e.g., propelling the ball toward the target in whatever means possible) using the I CAN overhand throw focal points as a model -what is the starting position?, how is force generated?, what does the action look like?, and what is the follow through?