Even in the oceans, living things need their vitamins.
Your mother was right: You need your vitamins. And that turns out to be true for life in the oceans, too.
[B.sub.12]--an essential vitamin for land-dwelling animals, including humans--also plays a vital and previously overlooked role in determining how microscopic plants will bloom in the sea, according to a new study led by biogeochemists at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, at Woods Hole, Mass.; est. 1930. In addition to oceanographic research, it conducts important work in meteorology, biology, geology, and geophysics. .
These plants (called phytoplankton phytoplankton
Flora of freely floating, often minute organisms that drift with water currents. Like land vegetation, phytoplankton uses carbon dioxide, releases oxygen, and converts minerals to a form animals can use. ) have critical impacts on the marine food web and on Earth's climate. Via photosynthesis, they draw huge amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, from the air, incorporating carbon into their bodies. When they die or are eaten, much of the carbon is transferred to the ocean depths, where it cannot re-enter the atmosphere.
[B.sub.12] contains the metal cobalt and can be synthesized only by certain singled-celled bacteria and archaea archaea: see Archaebacteria.
A group of prokaryotes whose members differ from bacteria, the most prominent prokaryotes, in certain physical, physiological, and genetic features. The archaea may be aquatic or terrestrial microorganisms. . Humans, animals, and many algae algae (ăl`jē) [plural of Lat. alga=seaweed], a large and diverse group of primarily aquatic plantlike organisms. These organisms were previously classified as a primitive subkingdom of the plant kingdom, the thallophytes (plants that require [B.sub.12] to manufacture essential proteins, but they cannot make it and must either acquire it from the environment or eat food that contains [B.sub.12], said the study's lead authors, Erin Bertrand and Mak Saito.
The scientists wondered whether the vitamin was also important in the ocean, where [B.sub.12] and cobalt are both found in exceedingly low concentrations--especially around Antarctica, where the only nearby continent (a common source of metal particles blown into the sea) is largely ice-covered. Nevertheless, polar regions harbor some of the most extensive phytoplankton blooms in the world and are believed to play a significant role in exporting carbon to the deep ocean.
Bertrand, Saito, and colleagues collected water samples from three locales in the highly fertile Ross Sea off Antarctica during a 2005 expedition aboard the icebreaker icebreaker, ship of special hull design and wide beam, with relatively flat bottom, designed to force its way through ice. When the icebreaker charges into the ice at full speed, its sharply inclined bow, meeting the edge of the ice, rises upon it, and the weight of Nathaniel B. Palmer. To one set of samples, they added [B.sub.12] and iron (another essential nutrient for plant growth); to a second set, they added just iron; and to a third, they added neither. Samples stimulated with both iron and [B.sub.12] showed significantly higher concentrations of plant life in general and greater concentrations of a particular type of marine algae called diatoms.
"The possibility that a vitamin could substantially influence phytoplankton growth and community composition in the marine environment is a novel and exciting finding," wrote Bertrand and Saito in the May 2007 issue of the journal Limnology limnology
Subdiscipline of hydrology that concerns the study of fresh waters, specifically lakes and ponds (both natural and manmade), including their biological, physical, and chemical aspects. and Oceanography.
In the Ross Sea, spectacular spring blooms of marine algae called Phaeocystis antarctica dissipate by summer and are followed by blooms of diatoms. The scientists' experiments--showing that adding more [B.sub.12] benefits diatoms--indicate that Phaeocystis may have a competitive advantage over diatoms in the Ross Sea in spring, when populations of [B.sub.12]-manufacturing bacteria and archaea (and therefore [B.sub.12] supplies) are low.
Phaeocystis effectively monopolize the [B.sub.12] supply by forming colonies cemented by sticky mucous that attracts [B.sub.12]-making bacteria, the scientists theorize. In a symbiotic relationship, the algae get their required vitamin, and the bacteria get a steady supply of carbon made by the plants. When Phaeocystis die off, the bacteria are eaten or decomposed, and [B.sub.12] is released back to the ocean, becoming available to be used by diatoms.
The finding underscores the complexities of the marine food web and raises questions about how climate change could affect the delicately balanced ecosystem--and vice versa.
The National Science Foundation funded the 2005 Controls on Ross Sea Algal algal
pertaining to or caused by algae.
is very rare but systemic and udder infections are recorded. See protothecosis.
the algae Prototheca trispora and P. Community Structure expedition. Erin Bertrand eras a Carl and Pancha Peterson Summer Research Fellow at WHOI and is now a graduate student in the MIT/WHOI Joint Program.