Printer Friendly
The Free Library
23,375,127 articles and books


European birth cohorts for environmental health research.

BACKGROUND: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data.

METHODS: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother-child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net.

RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother-child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (w = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27)> and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12--19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment.

CONCLUSION: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health.

Key WORDS: birth cohorts, child health, environmental exposures, Europe, review. Environ Health Perspect 120:29-37 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103823 [Online 29 August 2011]

It is well recognized that the fetus and infant are especially vulnerable to the effects of environmental risk factors that disrupt developmental processes, due to a) critical windows of vulnerability that occur during the rapid growth and development of organs and systems, b) immaturities in metabolism, and c) greater intake and absorption of noxious agents in children relative to their body weight (Grandjean et al. 2008). Chemical, physical, and biological hazards in the environment may lead to serious health problems at birth and during childhood, ranging from premature birth, low birth weight, and congenital anomalies to respiratory diseases, childhood cancer, learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and possibly even obesity (Trasande et al, 2009; Wigle et al. 2007). The economic and societal costs associated with nonoptimal child health and development are substantial. Furthermore, the effects of exposure to environmental risk factors may manifest themselves throughout a lifetime and even over generations. Common physical and mental diseases in adult life appear to have part of their origin in early life (Gillman et al. 2007; Kuh et al. 2003).

Epidemiological studies worldwide have investigated the role of early environmental contaminant exposures on pregnancy outcomes and child health (Wigle et al. 2007). Many have suffered from biases due to retrospective study designs, surrogate exposure and outcome measures, and incomplete confounder data. Pregnancy and birth cohort studies are ideally suited to improve causal inference in this field, because they are designed to study the impacts of ( early exposures prospectively and at multiple time points during development of the child. Furthermore, birth cohort studies usually collect biological material from mothers and children, enabling the measurement of biomarkers of exposure, early effect, or susceptibility. In the last two decades, new pregnancy and birch cohorts have been set up across Europe (e.g., Golding et al. 2001; Hofman et al. 2004; Magnus et al. 2006; Olsen et al. 2001; Raynor 2008; Richiardi et al. 2007), in North America, and elsewhere (Brown et al. 2007; Herbstman et al. 2010; Marks et al. 2010; Richter et al. 2011), and more are being planned (Hirschfeld et al. 2011). Many cohort studies include assessments of environmental pollutant exposure, but not all have large expertise in this area. Although it is clear that individual cohorts are able to make, and have made, important contributions to understanding environmental causes of childhood disease and ill health, it is becoming increasingly clear that their full potential can be realized only with collaboration across large regions (Kogevinas et al. 2004).

The European Union (EU) has funded the Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts (ENRIECO) project to coordinate birth cohort research in Europe in the area of environmental contaminant exposures (ENRIECO 2009). ENRIECO recognized that a comprehensive overview of birth cohorts and their data was needed as a first step toward improved collaboration, future project planning, and effective use of existing data. Currently, no inventory of environmental exposure data exists. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of European birth cohorts with data on environmental contaminant exposures and health outcomes.

Methods

Definition and identification of cohorts. Birth cohort studies were included in the project if they a) collected data on at least one environmental contaminant exposure topic (air pollution, water contamination, pesticides, metals, persistent organic pollutants, other chemical pollutants, noise, radiations, and allergens and biological organisms); b) started enrollment of mothers into the cohort during pregnancy or at birth; c) included in their protocol at least one follow-up point after birth with direct contact with mothers and children; d) included at least 200 mother-child pairs (a low sample size limit was chosen so small studies with relevant exposure data or based in less well-covered regions were not excluded); and e) were based in a European country. Collection of data on an environmental exposure topic included data collected through questionnaires, environmental sampling, spatial maps and models, personal monitoring, biomarker measurements, or a combination of these methods. The mere availability of residential location (addresses and geocodes) was not sufficient for inclusion. All cohorts fitting the criteria were considered regardless of when they started, when they conducted their most recent follow-up, whether data had been published, or whether recruitment of subjects was ongoing.

Cohorts were identified through a variety of sources: www.birthcohorts.net (Birthcohorts.net 2010), a searchable Web site that contains basic protocol information for a number of birth cohorts; European projects using birth cohort data; and personal contacts. Publications and Web sites of identified cohorts were checked to see whether the cohort appeared to match the criteria of the inventory. All cohorts identified as potentially eligible between 1 March 2009 (start of the project) and 31 December 20 JO were approached.

Inventory questionnaire. An inventory questionnaire was designed to collect detailed information from the cohorts on biological sample collection, assessment of environmental exposures, assessment of child health outcomes of interest, and basic information on collection of other variables. the full questionnaire can be found in Supplemental Material, Annex 1 (http://dx.doi.Org/10.1289/ehp.l 103823). The questionnaire was divided into four sections:

* Basic protocol description: protocol description, basic data, and biological sample col lection scheme.

* Exposure assessment; air pollution (outdoor and indoor), water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, radiations (ionizing, ultraviolet, and nonionizing), tobacco smoke (active and passive), noise, persistent organic pollutants, occupation (maternal and paternal), and other chemical compounds. Each section asked for the exposure assessment methods used, numbers of subjects assessed, and time point of assessment.

* Health outcome assessment: reproduction and birth outcomes, neurodevelopment, allergies and asthma, cancer, child growth, and metabolic syndrome indicators such as blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, or glucose. Each section asked which outcomes were assessed, by which methods (if relevant), how many subjects were assessed, and the time point or assessment.

* Other information: mainly yes/no questions on collection of genotype data, residential history, time -- activity patterns, sociodemo-graphic variables, breast-feeding, diet, physical exercise, medical history, and anthropometry.

The questionnaire was sent to principal investigators of each identified cohort, who were asked to distribute specific sections to the appropriate researchers and data managers within their cohort. The completed questionnaire was checked and, if necessary, the cohort study teams were contacted again to correct errors and complete information. Cohorts that did not reply to the first e-mail were reminded repeatedly by e-mail or phone. Cohorts were invited to two workshops during the project, in which the aims and objectives were presented.

A Microsoft Access database was constructed to contain the responses from the cohorts. All cohorts were asked to check this database for errors before making it public. The last corrections and updates were made in February 2011. A Web-based searchable inventory is now publicly available on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net (ENRIECO 2011) and also accessible through www.birthcohorts.net (Birthcohorts.net 2010).

Results

A total of 46 birth cohort studies were identifined as potentially eligible based on publications, Web sires, and word of mouth. Six of these were excluded after completion of questionnaires, because they did not match the eligibility criteria: Three did not assess environmental exposures, and three did not have a follow-up point after birth. Another three birth cohorts did not return the questionnaires (Table I). Tile 37 included cohorts, totaling > 350,000 study subjects, are situated in 19 European countries, principally in Northern and Western Europe (Figure 1). Five of the cohorts are in Eastern Europe and seven in Southern Europe (based on the European regions classified in the United Nations geoscheme). Twenty-five of the 37 cohorts defined themselves as regionally based studies, six as nationally based, four as hospital based, and two as studying selected populations [farmers in the LUKAS cohort and high-risk allergic children in the Multicentre Allergy Study (MAS)]. Two studies, the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Study (MoBa) have recruited around 100,000 mother-child pairs each (Table 1), Ten cohorts have recruited between 5,000 and 20,000 pairs, 18 between 1,000 and 5,000 pairs, and seven cohorts concern < 1,000 pairs.
Table 1. General description of European birth cohorts
with environmental contaminant data.

Birth cohort      Full name and key           Country
                  reference

Eligible cohorts that completed the ENRIECO inventory
questionnaires:

ABCD              Amsterdam Born Children     Netherlands
                  and their Development
                  study (van Eijsden
                  et al. 2010)
ALSPAC            The Avon Longitudinal       United
                  Study of Parents and        Kingdom
                  Children (Golding et al.
                  2001)
ArcRisk-Norway    Impacts on health in the    Norway
                  Arctic and Europe owing to
                  climate-induced
                  changes in contaminant
                  cycling
BAMSE             The Stockholm Children      Sweden
                  Allergy and Environmental
                  Prospective Birth
                  Cohort Study (Wickman et
                  al. 2002)
BiB               Born in Bradford (Raynor    United
                  2008)                       Kingdom
Co.N.ER           Cohort of newborns in       Italy
                  Emilia Romagna (Porta et
                  al. 2006)
Czech             Czech Republic Early        Czech
                  Childhood Health (Dejmek    Republic
                  et al. 2000)
DARC              The Danish Allergy          Denmark
                  Research Centre cohort
                  (Johnke et al. 2005)
DNBC              Danish National Birth       Denmark
                  Cohort (Olsen et al.
                  2001)
Duisburg          Duisburg cohort (Wilhelm    Germany
                  et al. 2008)
EDEN              Study of determinants of    France
                  pre and postnatal
                  developmental,
                  psychomotor
                  development and child
                  health (Drouiliet et al.
                  2009)
ELFE              French longitudinal study   France
                  of children (Vandentorren
                  et al. 2009)
Faroes            Children's Health and the   Faroe
([alpha])         Environment in the Faroes   Islands
                  (Grandjean et al.
                  1992,1997)
FLEHS1            Flemish Environment and     Belgium
                  Health Survey (Koppen et
                  al. 2009)
GASPII            Gene and Environment:       Italy
                  Prospective Study on
                  Infancy in Italy (Porta et
                  al.
                  2007)
Generation R      Generation R (Jaddoe et     Netherlands
                  al. 2008)
Generation XXI    Generation XXI (Pinto       Portugal
                  et al. 2009)
GINIplus          German Infant Nutritional   Germany
                  Intervention Study - plus
                  influence of pollution
                  and genetics on allergy
                  development (Zirngibl et
                  al. 20D2)
HUMIS             Norwegian Human Milk Study  Norway
                  (Eggesbo et al. 2009)
INMA old (b)      Environment and Childhood   Spain
                  (Guxens et al. 2011)
INMAnew (c)       Environment and Childhood   Spain
                  (Guxens et al. 2011)
INUENDO (d)       Biopersistenl               Greenland,
                  organochlorines in diet     Sweden
                  and human fertility (Toft
                  et al. 2005)
                                              Poland.
                                              Ukraine
KANC              Kaunas cohort               Lithuania
                  (Grazuleviciene et al.
                  2009)
KOALA             Child, parents and health:  Netherlands
                  lifestyle and genetic
                  constitution (Kummeling
                  et al. 2005)
Krakfjw           Krakow cohort               Poland
                  (Jedrychowski et al.
                  2003)
Leicester (e)     The Leicester Respiratory   United
                  Cohorts (Kuehni et al.      Kingdom
                  2007)
LISAplus          Influences of life-style    Germany
                  related factors on the
                  immune system and the
                  development of allergies
                  in childhood - plus the
                  influence of traffic
                  emissions and genetic
                  (Heinrich et al. 2002)
LUKAS             LUKAS (Karvonen et al.       Finland
                  2009)
MAS               Multicentre Allergy Study   Germany
                  (Bergmann et al. 1994)
MoBa              The Norwegian Mother and    Norway
                  Child Cohort Study (Magnus
                  et al. 2006)
NINFEA            Birth and Infancy: Effects  Italy
                  of the Environment
                  (Richiardi et al. 2007)
PARIS             Pollution and Asthma Risk:  France
                  An Infant Study (Clarisse
                  et al. 2007)
PCB cohort        Early Childhood             Slovakia
                  Development and PCB
                  exposures in Slovakia
                  (Sonneborn et al.2008
PELAGIE           Endocrine disrupters:       France
                  longitudinal study on
                  pregnancy
                  abnormalities,
infertility
                  and childhood (chevrier et
                  al. 2 11)
PIAMA             Prevention and Incidence    Netherlands
                  of Asthma and Mite Allergy
                  (Brunekreef et al.
                  2002)
REPR0_PL          Polish Mother and Child     Poland
                  Cohort (Polanska et al.
                  2009)
RHEA              Mother Child Cohort in      Greece
                  Crete (Vardavas et al.
                  2010)

Potentially eligible cohorts that did not complete the ENRIECO
inventory questionnaire:

Ukraine           Children of Ukraine         Ukraine
                  (Hryhorczuk et al. 2009)
MAAS              The National Asthma         United
                  Campaign Manchester Asthma  Kingdom
                  and Allergy Study
                  (Custovic et al. 2002)
Northern          Northern Adriatic Cohort    Italy

Adriatic Cohort   (Barbone et al. 2004)
                                                       No.
                                      Enrollment        of
                                                  children
Birth cohort      Regions covered         period  at birth
Eligible cohorts
that completed
the ENRIECO
inventory
questionnaires:
ABCD              Amsterdam            2003-2004     7,863
ALSPAC            Bristol              1991-1992    14,062
ArcRisk-Norway    Troms, Finnmark,     2007-2009       430
                  and Nordland
BAMSE             Stockholm            1994-1996     4,089
BiB               Bradford             2007-2010    13,000
Co.N.ER           Bologna              2004-2005       654
Czech             Teplice and          1994 1999     7,577
                  Prachatice
DARC              0dense               1998-1999       562
DNBC              Denmark              1996-2002    96.986
Duisburg          Duisburg             2000-2003       234
EDEN              Nancy, Poitiers      2003-2006     1,899
ELFE              France               2011-2012    20,000
Faroes            Faroe Islands        1986-2009     2,351
([alpha])
FLEHS1            Flanders             2002-2004     1,196
GASPII            Rome                 2003-2004       708
Generation R      Rotterdam            2001-2006     9.778
Generation XXI    Porto                2005-2006     8,647
GINIplus          Munich, Wesel        1995-1998     5,991
HUMIS             Norway               2002-2011     2,500
INMA old (b)      Granada, Menorca,    1997-2002     1,252
                  Ribera d'Ebre
INMAnew (c)       Asturias,            2003-2008     2,505
                  Gipuzkoa,
                  Sabadell,
                  Valencia
INUENDO (d)       Greenland, Sweden    2002 2004     1,322
                  (east and west
                  coast).
                  Warsaw (Poland),
                  Kharkiv (Ukraine)
KANC              Kaunas               2007-2009     4,000
KOALA             Southern             2000-2003     2,834
                  Netherlands
Krakfjw           Krakow               2000-2003       505
Leicester (e)     Leicestershire and   1985-1997    10,350
                  Rutland
LISAplus          Munich, Wesel,       1997-1998     3,097
                  Leipzig, Bad
                  Honneff
LUKAS             Kuopio, Jyvaskyla,   2002-2005       442
                  Joensuu, and
                  lisalmi
MAS               Berlin,                   1990     1,314
                  Duesseldorf,
                  Freiburg, Mainz,
                  Munich
MoBa              Norway               1999-2008   107,000
NINFEA            Italy                    2005-     7,500
PARIS             Paris                2003-2006     3,840
PCB cohort        Michalovce,          2001-2003     1,134
                  Stropkov, Svidnik
PELAGIE           Brittany             2002-2006     3.421
infertility
PIAMA             Northern, western    1996-1997     3,963
                  and central parts
REPR0_PL          Lodz, Wroclaw,       2007-2011     1,800
                  Lask, Kielce,
                  Katowice,
                  Legnica, Lublin,
                  Szczecin, Piekary
                  Slaskie
RHEA              Heraklion, Crete     2007-2008     1.500

Potentially eligible cohorts that did not complete the
ENRIECO inventory questionnaire:

Ukraine           Kyiv,                1992-1996     4,510
                  Dniprodzerzhynsk,
                  Mariupol
MAAS              Manchester           1995-1997     1,211
Northern          Northeastern         1999-2001       243
Adriatic Cohort   Italy
                                                       No.

The Faroes cohorts consist of four subcohorts: cohort 1
(enrollment: 1986-1987; n= 1022), cohort 2 (enrollment;
1994-1995; n= 182), cohort 3 (enrollment: 1997-2000, n =
656), cohort 5 (enrollment: 2007 2009; n = 491); *INMA old
consists of three subcohorts: Granada (enrollment: 2000-2002;
n = 668), Menorca (enrollment: 1997-1998; n = 482), Ribera Ebre
(enrollment: 1997-1999; n= 102); CINMA new consists of four
subcohorts: Asturias (enrollment: 2004-2007; n = 485), Gipuzkoa
(enrollment: 2006-2008; n = 611), Sabadell (enrollment: 2004
2007; n-622), Valencia (enrollment: 2003-2005; n = 787);
rfINUEND0 consists of four subcohorts: Greenland, Sweden
(east and west coast), Warsaw (Poland), Kharkiv (Ukraine);
The Leicester Respiratory Cohorts consist of two subcohorts:
the Leicester I cohort (enrollment: 1985-1989; n = 1,650) and
the Leicester II cohorts (enrollment: 1993-1997; n = 8,700).


At our reference date (February 2011), children in 19 cohorts were between 5 and 10 years of age, children in 12 cohorts were > 10 years of age, and in five cohorts they were < 5 years of age. One cohort in France, Etude Longitudinale Franchise depuis I'Enfance (ELFE), started data collection in April 201 1. Most of the cohorts started recruitment of mothers during pregnancy (n = 25); the remaining started at birth. Most cohorts have multiple follow-up points after birth, and the majority have follow-up points in each of the child age periods specified in the questionnaire (1-6 months, 6-18 months, 18 months-5 years, 5-10 years, > 10 years) (Figure 2).

Biological samples were collected in all cohorts from the mother and/or the child and, more rarely, from the father (Table 2). Sampling covered prenatal and postnatal periods and many types of tissue, including blood, urine, hair, nails, breast milk, placentas, and saliva. All but six cohorts the Stockholm Children Allergy and Environmental Prospective Birth Cohort Study (BAMSE); German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study -- plus influence of pollution and genetics on allergy development (GINIplus); The Leicester Respiratory Cohorts (Leicester); Birth and Infancy: Effects of the Environment (NINFEA); Pollution and Asthma Risk: An Infant Study (PARIS); Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA)] collected, or plan to collect, blood samples from the mother during pregnancy or cord blood at birth.

Many cohort studies collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27) (Table 3). Fewer cohorts have collected information on water contamination (n = 13), ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures (n = 12), noise (n = 14), or emerging chemical exposures such as phthalates and bisphenol A (n = 17). Details of each assessment (methods, numbers of subjects, and time period of assessment) can be found in the Web inventory (ENR1ECO 2011). Twenty-seven cohorts have measured or are measuring contaminants or their metabolites as markers of internal dose, mostly in the cat-egories of metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tobacco smoke (Table 4).
Table 2. Biological samples collected in the European birth
cohorts collaborating in ENR1EC0. (a)

                     Mother                            Child

Cohort          T1   T2      T3     Birth   PoStnatal  Birth

ABCD            B
ALSPAC          B,U  B,U     B,U    P       H.N        CB
ArcRiSk-Norway       B,U            B, U,   B, U, BM   CB.B.M
                                    H
BAMSE
BiB                          B,U                       CB
Co.N.ER                             B                  CB
Czech                               B,P                CB
DARC                                                   CB
DNBC            B    B                                 CB
DuiSburg                     B              B, U, BM   CB
EDEN                 B,U,S          H, BM,             CB, H,
                                    P                  M
ELFE                                B, U,              CB, CT,
                                    BM.                M
                                    hi
FaroeS                       B      H.BM    B, U, H,   CB
                                            BM
FLEHS 1                                     S          CB
GASPII                              B                  CB
Generation R    B,U  B.U     B.U                       CB
Generation XXI  B    B       B,AT           B          CB
GINIpluS
HUMIS                B,U            B       BM         CB
INMAold         B    B       B      B, BM,  B,BM       CB.U
                                    P
INMA new        B,           U, N   BM.P    U,S        CB,
                U                                      H
INUENDO         B    B       B
KANC                         B                         B
KOALA                        B              BM,S
Krakow                              B.P     U          CB,M
LeiceSter
LISApluS                                               CB. B
LUKAS                               B.P     BM         CB
MAS                                 B                  CB, B
MoBa                 B,U            B                  CB
NINFEA                                      S
PARIS
PCB cohort                          B.BM               CB
PELAGIE         U                   H.P                CB
PIAMA                                       B, BM, S
REPRO_PL        B.S  B.U      B.    B       BM
                     .S       U.
                              H.
                              S.
RHEA            B,U  U              B                  CB

Cohort          1-6     7-18    19        5-10     >10.
                monthS  monthS  monthS-5  yearS    yearS
                                yearS

ABCD                                      B
ALSPAC                  H.N     B.H.N     B.U.T    B.U.S
ArcRiSk-Norway          i
BAMSE                           B.U       B
BiB                     B       B
Co.N.ER
Czech                           u         u
DARC            B       B       B         B
DNBC            B
DuiSburg                        B.U       B.U
EDEN                    H       H         B.U.H
ELFE                            U.H.S     u
FaroeS          B       B.H     B.H       B.H      B.H
FLEHS           F       F       U         U
GASPII
Generation R                    S         B.U.S
Generation XXI                  B
GINIpluS                        B         B        B
HUMIS                                     S
INMAold         B       B       B, U, H,  B,U
                                S
INMA new                U.N.S   H,S       B.U.H.S
INUENDO                                   S
KANC
KOALA           F       S       B         B.F
Krakow                          U         B.U
LeiceSter                                          S
LISApluS                        B         B        B
LUKAS           F       B.F     B         B,U
MAS                     i B.U   B.U;      B.U      S
MoBa
NINFEA          S
PARIS                           B         B,U
PCB cohort      B       B       B         B.U
PELAGIE                                   S.U
PIAMA           B       B       B,S       B        B,S
REPRO_PL                B.U     B.U
RHEA                    U, H    B

Cohort          Prenatal  PoStnatal

ABCD
ALSPAC                    H,N
ArcRiSk-Norway
BAMSE
BiB             S
Co.N.ER
Czech
DARC
DNBC
DuiSburg
EDEN            B
ELFE
FaroeS                    U, H, Se
FLEHS
GASPII
Generation R    B
Generation XXI            B
GINIpluS
HUMIS           B         S
INMAold         B
INMA new                  B,S
INUENDO         B.Se
KANC
KOALA                     S
Krakow                    U
LeiceSter
LISApluS
LUKAS                     B
MAS                       B
MoBa            B
NINFEA
PARIS
PCB cohort
PELAGIE
PIAMA                     B.S
REPRO_PL
RHEA                      B.Se

Abbreviations: AT, adipose tissue; B, blood; BM, breast milk;
CB, cord blood; CT, cord tissue; F, feces; H, hair; M,
meconium; N, naiis; P, placenta; S, saliva or buccal swabs;
Se, semen; T, teeth; U, urine. T1, T2, and T3 are first, second,
and third trimesters. See Table 1 for full names and locations
of cohorts. (a) Many but not all ENRIECO birth cohorts are
also included in the BBMRI Catalogue of European Biobanks
(BBMRI 2011), which can be queried by specimen type. "Blood,
urine, and cord blood are available through overlap with MoBa
in approximately 800 participants.

Table 3. Assessment of environmental exposures (prenatal or
postnatal) in European birth cohorts participating in ENRIECO.

                Air        Air                       Allergens
                                                     and
                pollution  pollution  Water          biological
Cohort          outdoor    indoor     contamination  organisms

ABCD            X
ALSPAC                     X                         X
ArcRisk-Norway
BAMSE           X          X                         X
BiB             X                     X
Co.N.ER         X (g)      X                         X
Czech           X
DARC            X          X                         X
DNBC            X (g)      X                         X
Duisburg        X          X          X (g)          X
EDEN            X          X          X (g)
ELFE            X (g)      X (g)      X (g)          X (g)
Faroes
FLEHS 1         X          X                         X
GASPII          X          X                         X
Generation R    X                                    X
Generation XXI                                       X
GINIplus        X          X                         X
HUMIS (f)       X          X          X              X
IN MA old       X                     X              X
INMAnew         X          X          X              X
INUENDO
KANC            x                     X
KOALA                      X          X              X
Krakow          X          X                         X
Leicester       X          X                         X
USAplus         x          X                         X
LUKAS                      X                         X
MAS                        X                         X
MoBa            X (g)      X          X              X
NINFEA          X (g)      X (g)                     X (g)
PARIS           X          X          X              X
PCB cohort                 X
PELAGIE                    X          X
PIAMA           X          X                         X
REPR0_PL        X (g)                                X
RHEA            X          X          X              X

                                    Persistent  Other
                                    organic     chemical
Cohort          Metals  Pesticides  pollutants  exposures6'
                (b)     (c)

ABCD                    X
ALSPAC          X       X           X (g)
ArcRisk-Norway  X                   X           X (g)
BAMSE
BiB
Co.N.ER
Czech
DARC
DNBC                    X           X
Duisburg        X                   X           X
EDEN            X                               X
ELFE            X (g)   X (g)       X (g)       X (g)
Faroes          X       X (g)       X           X (g)
FLEHS 1         X       X           X
GASPII
Generation R            X           X (g)       X
Generation XXI
GINIplus
HUMIS (f)       X (g)   X           X           X
IN MA old       X (g)   X           X           X
INMAnew         X       X           X           X
INUENDO         X (g)   X (g)       X (g)       X (g)
KANC
KOALA
Krakow          X       X           X           X
Leicester
USAplus
LUKAS           X       X           X           X (g)
MAS
MoBa            X (g)   X           X (g)       X
NINFEA                  X (g)                   X (g)
PARIS
PCB cohort      X       X           X           X (g)
PELAGIE         X       X           X           X
PIAMA
REPR0_PL        X                   X
RHEA            X       X           X (g)       X (g)

                            Passive
Cohort          Radiations  Smoking  Noise  Occupation
                            (e)

ABCD            X (g)       X               X
ALSPAC          X           X        X      X
ArcRisk-Norway              X               X
BAMSE                       X               X
BiB                                         X
Co.N.ER                     X        X      X
Czech                       X               X
DARC                        X               X
DNBC            X           X               X
Duisburg                    X               X
EDEN            X           X               X
ELFE            X (g)       X (g)           X (g)
Faroes                      X               X
FLEHS 1                     X               X
GASPII                      X        X
Generation R                X        X      X
Generation XXI              X               X
GINIplus                    X
HUMIS (f)       X           X               X
IN MA old       X           X        X      X
INMAnew         X           X        X      X
INUENDO                     X               X
KANC                        X        X (b)  X
KOALA           X (g)       x        X      X
Krakow                      x               X
Leicester                   X               X
USAplus                     X        X (b)
LUKAS                       X               X
MAS                         X        X      X
MoBa            X           X        X      X
NINFEA          X (g)       X (g)    X (g)  X (g)
PARIS                       X               X
PCB cohort                  X               X
PELAGIE                     X               X
PIAMA                       X
REPR0_PL                    X        X      X
RHEA            X           X        X      X

See Table 1 for full names and locations of cohorts.

(a) Details of each assessment (method, time period,
number of subjects) are available at www.birthcohortsenrieco.net
(ENRIECO 2011). (b) Biomonitoring data only, not questionnaires.
(c) Organochlorine pesticides are included under persistent organic
pollutants. (d) Phthalates and phenols (including bisphenol A). (e)
Passive smoking exposure of the mother during pregnancy or of the
child postnatally. (f) Data on occupation and passive smoking are
available through overlap with MoBa in approximately 800
participants. (g) Measurements are planned or ongoing but not completed.

Table 4. Biomarkers of selected environmental exposures
measured by European birth cohorts collaborating in ENRIECO. (a)

Cohort          Metals

ALSPAC          As, Cd, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se, (b)
TMS
ArcRisk-Norway  As, Cd, Co, Hg, Mb, Mn
, Pb
BAMSE           --
Czech           --
DNBC            --
Duisburg        Cd, Hg, Pb, Se
EDEN            B, Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb
ELFE            Al, (b) As, (b) Cd, (b) Hg, (b) Pb (b)
Faroes          Hg, Pb, Se
FLEHS |         Cd, Pb
Generation R    --
GINIplus        --
HUMIS           Hg, (b) Pb, (b)
INMA old        Hg. Pb, (b) TMS (b)
INMA new        Hg, Pb, TMS (b)
INUENDO         Cd, (b) Hg, (b) Pb, (b)
Krakow          Cd, Hg, Pb
LISAplus        --
LUKAS           As, Cd, Hg, Pb. Se
MAS             --
MoBa            Planned
NINFEA          --
PCB cohort      Hg, Pb
PELAGIE         Hg
REPR0_PL        Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu
RHEA            As, Cd, Hg, Mn, Pb

Cohort          Persistent organic pollutants

ALSPAC          PFCs (b)
ArcRisk-Norway  Chlordane, DDT/DDE, HCB, PCBs
BAMSE           --
Czech           --
DNBC            PFCs
Duisburg        DDT/DDE. HCB, (b) HCH, PCBs, PCDDs,
                PCDFs, PFCs
EDEN            --
ELFE            BFRs, (b) organochlorines, (b) PFCs, (b) PCBs, (b)
                PCDDs, (b) PCDFs (b)
Faroes          BFRs, (b) chlordane, DDT/DDE, dieldrin/
                endrin, heptachlor, HCB, p-HCH, mirex.
                organometallic compounds, PCBs,
                PFCs, (b) toxaphene
FLEHS |         DDT/DDE, dioxin-like compounds, HCB,
                PCBs
Generation R    Organochlorines (b)
GINIplus        --
HUMIS           BFRs, DDT/DDE, HCB, HCH, mirex,
                PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PFCs, toxaphene
INMA old        Aldrin/dieldrin/endrin, BFRs, DDT/DDE,
                endosulfan, lindane, methoxychlor,
                mirex, HCB, HCH, PCBs
INMA new        BFRs, DDT/DDE, HCB, HCH, PCBs
INUENDO         BFRs, (b) DDT/DDE, HCB, (b) PCBs, PFCs (b)
Krakow          --
LISAplus        --
LUKAS           BFRs, DDT/DDE, organometallic
                compounds, PCBs, PCDDs. PCDFs,
                polychlorinated naphthalene
MAS             --
MoBa            BFRs, (b) DDT/DDE, (b) PCBs (b)
NINFEA          --
PCB cohort      DDT/DDE, HCB, HCH, PCBs, PFCs (b)
PELAGIE         Aldr/n, BFRs, DDT/DOE, d/eldrin/endrin.
                heptachlor, HCB, PCBs
REPR0_PL        PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFS
RHEA            DDT/DDE, (b) HCB, (b) PCBs, (b) PCDDs, (b) PFCs (b)

                                       Tobacco
Cohort          Other pesticides       smoking

ALSPAC          --                     Cotinine
ArcRisk-Norway  --                     --
BAMSE           --                     Cotinine
Czech           --                     Cotinine
DNBC            --                     --
Duisburg        --                     Cotinine (b)
EDEN            --                     Cotinine
ELFE            Organophosphates, (b)  Cotinine (b)
                Pyrethroids (b)
Faroes          --                     --
FLEHS |         --                     --
Generation R    Organophosphates       --
GINIplus        --                     Cotinine
HUMIS           --                     --
INMA old        --                     Cotinine
INMA new        --                     Cotinine
INUENDO         --                     --
Krakow          --                     Cotinine
LISAplus        --                     Cotinine
LUKAS           --                     --
MAS             --                     Cotinine
MoBa            Organophosphates       --
NINFEA          --                     --
PCB cohort      --                     --
PELAGIE         Acetocblor, alachlor.  --
                metolachlor,
                organophosphorus,
                propoxur, triazines
REPR0_PL        --                     Cotinine
RHEA            --                     NNAL,
                                       Cotinine

Cohort          Other chemicals

ALSPAC          --
ArcRisk-Norway  Planned
BAMSE           --
Czech           PAHs
DNBC            --
Duisburg        BPA, phthalates
EDEN            Phthalates, phenols (including BPA)
ELFE            BPA, (b) phthalates (b)
Faroes          BPA, (b) phthalates (b)
FLEHS |         --
Generation R    BPA, phthalates
GINIplus        --
HUMIS           Phthalates
INMA old        Phthalates, phenols (including BPA)
INMA new        Phthalates, phenols (including BPA)
INUENDO         BPA (b) phthalates (b)
Krakow          Phthalates, PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene-adducts
LISAplus        --
LUKAS           Phthalates (b)
MAS             --
MoBa            BPA, phthalates
NINFEA          --
PCB cohort      Phthalates (b)
PELAGIE         Phthalates
REPR0_PL        PAHs(l-hydroxypyrene)
RHEA            Phthalates (b)

Abbreviations: As, arsenic; B, boron; BFRs, brominated flame
retardants; BPA, bisphenol A; Cd, cadmium; Co, cobalt; Cu, copper;
DDE, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; DDT,
dichlo-rodiphenyltrichloroethane; HCB, hexachlorobenzene;
HCH, hexachlorocyclohexane; Hg, mercury; Mb, molybdenum; Mn,
manganese; Ni, nickel; NNAL, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyf)
-1-butanol; PAHs, po/ycye/ic aromatic hydrocarbons; Pb, lead;
PCBs, polychlorinated biphenyls; PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzo
-p-dioxins; PCDFs, polychlorinated dibenzo furans; PFCs,
perfluorinated compounds; Se, selenium; Tl, thallium; TMS,
total metals spectrum; Zn, zinc. See Table 1 for full names
and locations of cohorts. includes all exposures biomarkers
measured as part of the exposure topics included the inventory
questionnaire [see Supplemental Material, Annex 1
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103823)]. Details of each
assessment (method, time period, number of subjects) are
available at www.birthcohortsenrieco.net (ENRIECO 2011).
Measurements are planned or ongoing but not completed.


All cohorts have information on birth outcomes, mostly birth weight, gestational age, and mode of delivery [see Supplemental Material, Annex 2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.l 103823)]. Fewer asked questions about time to pregnancy or collected data on congenital anomalies. Fifteen cohorts collected information on ultrasound measurements. Neurodevelopment and behavioral development of the children was assessed in 26 cohorts, using a large variety of methods including questionnaires, neuropsychological tests, and school results. Nineteen cohorts assessed cognitive function of the children (e.g., global IQ, executive function, memory, etc.), 18 cohorts assessed behavior or ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) symptoms, and few have data on the clinical diagnosis of autism (n = 13) or mental health problems (n = 3). Names of the questionnaires and tests used to assess neurodevelopment, as well as the developmental periods at which they were used are available in the Web inventory. Growth and obesity and allergies (n = 34), and asthma and respiratory infections (n = 33) were assessed in nearly all cohorts. Metabolic syndrome indicators, such as blood pressure or cholesterol levels, were collected in around half of the cohorts. Childhood cancer (n = 12) and sexual maturation (n = 14) have been assessed in few cohorts to date [see Supplemental Material, Annex 2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103823)].

Discussion

More than 35 birth cohorts in Europe, studying more than 350,000 mother-child pairs, have data that can be used to examine associations between chemical, physical, and biological environmental exposures and child health. Ihe searchable Web-based inventory is the first place where this information is made publicly available. The inventory intends to facilitate collaborations between birth cohort researchers in this field and can be searched to identify cohorts relevant for comparison, replication, and combined studies. Moreover, it may be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to identify birth cohorts that can provide specific information on environmental exposures or related outcomes. this initiative may quite easily be expanded beyond Europe to stimulate collaboration between cohorts worldwide.

The cohorts we evaluated include a few very large general cohorts with multiple aims as well as many smaller cohorts, which are generally more focused on specific environmental risk factors or specific health outcomes. The distribution of the identified birth cohorts is not homogeneous across Europe, with more and larger cohorts mostly located in the north and west of Europe and fewer and smaller cohorts in the south and east. Indeed, more than half of all mother-child pairs come from two very large cohorts in Norway and Denmark. However, studies of environmental contaminant exposures, especially those measuring exposure biomarkers, usually cannot cover large numbers of subjects. Smaller, specialized cohorts, often located in high-exposure areas, have made very important contributions in this regard.

Passive smoking, maternal (and paternal, less often) occupation, air pollution, and allergen exposures have been assessed by many birth cohorts. Efforts to combine data analyses on these copies are already ongoing within international projects such as European Study of Cohorts lor Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) (2009), Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) (2009), and International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) (Woodruff et al. 2010). Biomarker data on some metals (lead and mercury) and some persistent organic pollutants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)] are also available in a relatively large number of cohorts, but usually for a small number of subjects in each cohort and with considerable variation in the type and timing of the biological samples. Studies combining data from different cohorts have been conducted for few such pollutants so far; examples are the 7-cohort lead meta-analysis (Lanphear et al. 2005) and a recent meta-analysis of 12 European cohorts evaluating PCB and DDE exposure and fetal growth (Govarts et al. 2011). Exposure areas that are less well covered in the cohorts include noise, ionizing and nonionizing radiations, and chemical exposures such as brominated and Huorinated compounds, phthalates, and phenols (including bisphenol A). These are areas of emerging concern lor child health and high on international research agendas [e.g., the World Health Organization (WHO) Research Agenda for Radiofrequency Fields] (WHO 2010). Although actual measurements are scarce, future assessments of these exposures are planned in many cohorts, making this an optimal time to work toward a high level of data comparability.

Birth cohorts are most suitable to examine child health outcomes that are common or can be measured on a continuous scale. Rare outcomes and pathologies such as extremely preterm birth, childhood cancers, congenital anomalies, and autism can be studied only in the very large cohorts or by combining cohorts, as is being done, for example, in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (Brown et al. 2007). All cohorts collected information on fetal growth and gestational length and on childhood anthropometric measures; combined studies of these outcomes appear feasible. A number of cohorts specialize in the early causes of asthma and allergies, and combined studies ol these outcomes are underway (Keil et al. 2006a, 2006b). Neurodevelopment is a wide area that encompasses many cognitive and behavioral outcomes and includes even more assessment instruments, ranging from parental questionnaires on developmental milestones to detailed neuropsychological assessments. Combined analyses may therefore prove difficult and may need to be restricted to cohorts that use similar tests in similar age groups.

This inventory inevitably simplifies the data available in the cohorts. For example, we summarized time periods over which data were collected, meaning that not each follow-up point in each cohort is represented. Furthermore, we restricted information about exposure and health outcome assessment methods to relatively basic questions [see Supplemental Material, Annex 1 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103823)]. It is also inevitable that the inventory information will become out of date quickly. The Web-based database will be maintained by sending requests for updates to the included and newly identified cohorts at approximately yearly intervals for as long as resources allow. The inventory is meant to give researchers and other professionals looking for specific data the first overview of relevant cohorts; only direct contact with the cohorts can then establish the suitability of data for a specific purpose. Beyond our overview here, the ENRIECO project has made an extensive effort to compare available data and methods across cohorts and to develop recommendations for the use of existing data and for the collection of data in the future. These reports are available on request (ENRIECO 2009).

The 37 European birth cohorts described in this review fulfilled all our inclusion criteria. We also identified other studies that did not strictly match our criteria of a birth cohort study or did not collect data on the environmental exposures. We may have missed other birth cohorts that have not yet been published or are still in planning stages. In addition, many important birth cohorts outside Europe were not included. The Web-based inventory will be open for the inclusion of additional birth cohorts for the foreseeable future. Overall, we have achieved an excellent response from the European cohorts; only three potentially eligible cohorts did not return questionnaires. Involvement of the cohorts in workshops, working groups, and case studies was instrumental in these results.

Future collaboration. The 350,000 mother--child pairs covered by European birth cohorts form an impressive number, but of course this is only a small percentage of all births in Europe [(> 5 million births annually in 25 EU countries (Eurostat 2011)]. For the investigation of any specific exposure-outcome relationship, the number of available subjects will be much smaller than the total number of children followed by the cohorts. The cohorts are in very different stages of follow-up and thus have not all reached the ages at which some outcomes, for example, asthma or puberty onset, can be assessed. Moreover, not all exposure and outcome topics included in ENRIECO are immediately suitable for combilled analyses of individual data. However, there are many reasons why continued and tightly coordinated collaboration between existing cohorts is desirable (Kogevinas et al. 2004; Willett et al. 2007): a) combined analyses of cohort data to improve statistical power and reduce publication bias; b) improved contrast and diversity in exposure and outcome; c) faster response to concerns about new environmental exposures; d) facilitation of replication and comparison studies in different settings; e) facilitation ol linkage to large-scale, routinely collected environmental and health data; and) widening expertise to improve methodological approaches, including protocols of biological and environmental sample collection and analysis.

In conclusion, the impressive resource of existing data in birth cohorts should form the basis for a long-term infrastructure that brings together birth cohort research on early-life environmental contaminant exposure and child health, with the ultimate aim to improve causal inference in this Held. Further expansion to countries outside Europe should be one important aim for the future. This will be possible only with continued support for coordination.

References

Barbone F, Valent F, Pisa F, Daris F, Fajon V, Gibicar D, et al. 2004. Prenatal low-level methyl mercury exposure and child development in an Italian coastal area. Seychelles Med Dent J, Special Issue 7.

BBMRI (Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure). 2011. Homepage. Available: http://www.bbmri.eu/ [accessed 6 July 2011].

Bergmann RL, Bergmann KE, Lau-Schadensdorf S, Luck W, Dannemann A, Bauer CP, et al. 1994. Atopic diseases in infancy. The German multicenter atopy study (MAS-90L Pediatr Allergy Immunol 5:19-25.

Birthcohorts.net. 2010. Homepage. Available: http://www.birthcoharts.net/ [accessed 6 July 20111].

Brown RC, Dwyer T. Kasten C, Krotoski D, Li 2, Linet MS, et al. 2007. Cohort profile: the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C). Int J Epidemiol 36:724 730.

Bmnekreef B, Smit J, de Jongste J, Neijens H, Gerritsen J. Postma D, et al. 2002. The prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy (PIAMAI birth cohort study: design and first results. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13(suppl 15):55-60.

Chevrier C, Limon G, Monfort C, Rouget F, Garlantezec R, Petit C, et al. 2011. Urinary biomarkers of prenatal atrazine exposure and adverse birth outcomes in the PELAGIE birth cohort. Environ Health Perspect 119:1034 1041.

Clarisse B, Nikasinovic L, Poinsard R, Just J, Momas I. 2007. The Paris prospective birth cohort study: which design and who participates? Eur J Epidemiol 22:203-210.

Custovic A, Simpson BM, Murray CS, Lowe L, Woodcock A. 2002. The National Asthma Campaign Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13(suppl 15):32-37.

Dejmek J, Solansky I, Benes I, Lenicek J, Sram RJ. 2000. The impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fine particles on pregnancy outcome. Environ Health Perspect 108:1159-1164.

Drouillet P, Kaminski M, Lauzon-Guillain B, Forhan A, Ducimetiere P, Schweitzer M, et al. 2009. Association between maternal seafood consumption before pregnancy and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The EDEN mother-child cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 23:76-86.

Eggesbo M, Stigum H, Longnecker MP, Polder A. Aldrin M, Basso 0, et al. 2009. Levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in breast milk in relation to birth weight in a Norwegian cohort. Environ Res 109:559-566.

ENRIEC0 (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts!. 2009. Enrieco Project*. Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts. Available: http://www.enrieco.org/ [accessed 6 July 2011].

ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts). 2011. Inventory of ENRIECO Cohorts. 2011. Available: http://www.birthcohortsenrieco.net/ [accessed 6 July 2011].

ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects). 2009. Homepage. Available: http://www.escapeproject.eu/ [accessed6July2011]

Eurostat 2011. Homepage. Available: http://epp.eurostat. ec.europa.eu/ [accessed 3 March 2011]

GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network). 2009. Homepage. Available: http.//www.ga2len.net/ [accessed 6 July 2011].

Gillman MW, Barker D, Bier D, Gagampang F, Challis J, Fall C, et al. 2007. Meeting report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins ol Health and Disease (DOHaD). Pediatr Res 61:625-629.

Golding J, Pembrey M, Jones R. 2001. ALSPAC -- the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 15:74-87.

Govarts E, Nieuwenhuijse M, Schoeters G, Ballester F, Bloemen K, Weihe P, et al. 2011. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and fetal growth: a meta-analysis within M European birth cohorts. Environ Health Perspect; doi: 10.1289/ehp.l 103823 [Online 13 October 2011].

Grandjean P, Bellinger D, Bergman A, Cordier S, Davey-Smith G, Eskenazi B, et al. 2008. The Faroes statement: human health effects of developmental exposure to chemicals in our environment. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102:73-75.

Grandjean P, Weihe P, Jorgensen PJ, Clarkson T, Cernichiari E, Videro T. 1992. Impact of maternal seafood diet on fetal exposure to mercury, selenium, and lead. Arch Environ Health 47:185-195.

Grandjean P, Weihe P, White RF, Debes F, Araki S, Yokoyama K, et al. 1997. Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol

Grazuleviciene R, Danileviciute A, Nadisauskiene R, Vencloviene J. 2009. Maternal smoking, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism and susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:1282-1297.

Guxens M, Ballester F, Espada M, Fernandez MF, Grimalt JO, Ibarluzea J, et al. 2011. Cohort Profile: The INMA INfancia y Medio Ambiente--(Environment and Childhood) Project. Int J Epidemiol; doi: 10.1093/ije/dyr054 [Online 5 April 2011].

Heinrich J, Bolte G, Holscher B, Douwes J, Lehmann I, Fahlbusch B, et al. 2002. Allergens and endotoxin on mothers' mattresses and total immunoglobulin E in cord blood of neonates. Eur Respir J 20:617 623.

Horbstman JB, Sjodin A, Kurzon M, Lederman SA, Jones RS, Rauh V, et al. 2010. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect 118:712-719.

Hirschfeld S, Songco D, Kramer BS, Guttmacher AE. 2011. National Children's Study: update in 2010. Mt Sinai J Med 78:119-125.

Hofman A, Jaddoe VW, Mackenbach JP, Moll HA, Snijders RF, Steegers EA, et al. 2004. Growth, development and health from early fetal life until young adulthood; the Generation R Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 18:61-72.

Hryhorczuk D, Dardynskaia I, Lukyanova E, Matwyshyn-Fuoco M, Friedman L, Shkiryak-Nizhnyk Z, et al. 2009. Risk factors for wheezing in Ukrainian children: Ukraine European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood Group. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 23:346-351.

Jaddoe VW, van Duijn CM, van der Heijden AJ, Mackenbach JP, Moll HA, Steegers EA, et al. 2008. The Generation R Study: design and cohort update until the age of 4 years. Eur J Epidemiol 23:801-811.

Jedrychowski W, Whyatt RM, Camann DE, Bawle UV, Peki K, Spengler JD, et al. 2003. Effect of prenatal PAH exposure on birth outcomes and neurocognitive development in a cohort of newborns in Poland. Study design and preliminary ambient data. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 16:21-29.

Johnke H, Vach W, Norberg LA, Bindslev-Jensen C, Host A, Andersen KE. 2005. A comparison between criteria for diagnosing atopic eczema in infants. Br J Dermatol 153:352-358.

Karvonen AM, Hyvarinen A, Roponen M, Hoffmann M, Korppi M, Remes S, et al. 2009. Confirmed moisture damage at home, respiratory symptoms and atopy in early life: a birth-cohort study. Pediatrics 124:e329-e338.

Keil T, Kulig M, Simpson A, Custovic A, Wickman M, Kull I, et al. 2006a. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases: I. Comparison of study designs -- a GALEN initiative. Allergy 61:221-228.

Keil Tr Kulig M, Simpson A, Custovic A, Wickman M, Kull I, el al. 2006b. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases: II. Comparison of outcomes and exposures -- a GA2LEN initiative. Allergy 61:1104-1111.

Kogevinas M, Andersen AM, Olsen J. 2004. Collaboration is needed to co-ordinate European birth cohort studies. Int J Epidemiol 33:1172-1173.

Koppen G, Den Hond E, Nelen V, Van De ME, Bruckers L, Bilau M, et al. 2009. Organochlorine and heavy metals in newborns: results from the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS 2002-2006). Environ Int 35:1015-1022.

Kuehni CE, Brooke AM, Strtppoli MP, Spycher BD, Davis A, Silverman M. 2007. Cohort profile: the Leicester respiratory cohorts. Int J Epidemiol 36:977-985.

Kuh D, Ben Shlomo Y, Lynch J, Hallqvist J, Power C. 2003. Life course epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health 57:778-783.

Kummeling I, Thijs C, Penders J, Snijders BE, Stelma F, Reimerink J, et al. 2005. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 16:679-684.

Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P. Bellinger DC, et al. 2005. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 113:894-899.

Magnus P, Irgens LM, Haug K, Nystad W, Skjaerven R, Stoltenberg C. 2006. Cohort profile: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Int J Epidemiol 35:1146-1150.

Marks AR, Harley K, Bradman A, Kogut K, Barr DB, Johnson C, et al. 2010. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and attention in young Mexican-American children; the CHAMACOS study. Environ Health Perspect 118:1768-1774.

Olsen J, Melbye M, Olsen SF, Sorensen II; Aaby P, Andersen AM, et al. 2001. The Danish National Birth Cohort its background, structure and aim. Scand J Public Health 29:300-307.

Pinto E, Barros H, dos Santos Silva I. 2009. Dietary intake and nutritional adequacy prior to conception and during pregnancy: a follow-up study in the north of Portugal. Public Health Nutr 12:922 931.

Polanska K, Hanke W, Gromadzinska J, Ligocka D, Gulczynska E, Sobala W, et al. 2009. Polish mother and child cohort study - defining the problem, the aim of the study and methodological assumption. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 22:383-391.

Porta D, Fantini MP, on behalf of the GASPII and Co.N.ER Study Groups. 2006. Prospective cohort studies of newborns in Italy to evaluate the role of environmental and genetic characteristics on common childhood disorders. Ital J Pediatr 32:350-357.

Porta D, Forastiere F, Di Lallo D. Perucci CA. 2007. Enrolment and follow-up of a birth cohort in Rome [in Italian]. Epidemiol Prev 31:303-308.

Raynor P. 2008. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents; protocol for the recruitment phase. BMC Public Health 8:327; doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-327 Sept 21 2008 [Online 23 September 2008].

Richiardi L, Baussano I, Vizzini L, Douwes J, Pearce N, Merletti F. 2007. Feasibility of recruiting a birth cohort through the Internet: the experience of the NINFEA cohort. Eur J Epidemiol 22:831-837.

Richter LM, Victors CG, Hallal PC, Adair LS, Bhargava SK, Fall CH, et al. 2011. Cohort profile; the Consortium of Health-Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies. Int J Epidemiol; doi:10.1093/ije/dyq251 [Online 21 April 2011].

Sonneborn D, Park HY, Petrik J, Kocan A, Palkovicova L, Trnovec T, et al. 2008. Prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in eastern Slovakia modify effects of social factors on birthweight. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 22:202-213.

Toft G, Axmon A, Giwercman A, Thulstrup AM, Rignell-Hydbom A, Pedersen HS, et al. 2005. Fertility in four regions spanning large contrasts in serum levels of widespread persistent organochlorines: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health 4:26; doi; 10.1186/Ml'8-Q69X-4-26 [Online 9 November 2005].

Trasande L, Cronk C, Durkin M, Weiss M, Schoeller DA, Gall EA, at al. 2009. Environment and obesity in the National Children's Study. Environ Health Perspect 117:159-166.

Vandentorren S, Bois C, Pirus C, Sarter H, Salines G, Leridon H. 2009. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study. BMC Pediatr 9:58; doi:10.1l86/147l-2431-9-58 [Online 21 September 2009].

van Eijsden Mr Vrijkotte TG, Gemke RJ, van der Wal MF. 2010. Cohort profile: the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) Study. Int J Epidemiol 40(5): 1176-1186.

Vardavas CI, Patelarou E, Chatzi L, Roumeliotaki T, Sarri K, Murphy S, et al. 2010. Factors associated with active smoking, quitting, and secondhand smoke exposure among pregnant women in Greece. J Epidemiol 20:355^362.

WHO (World Health Organization). 2010. WHO Research Agenda for Radiofrequency Fields. Available: http://www.who.int/peh-emf/research/agenda/en/index.html/ [accessed 6 Jijjy20J1],

Wickman M, Kull I, Pershagen Gf Nordvall SL 2002. The BAMSE project: presentation of a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13(suppl 15):11--13.

Wigle DT, Arbuckle TE, Walker M, Wade MG, Liu S, Krewski D. 2007. Environmental hazards: evidence for effects on child health. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 10:3-39.

Wilhelm M, Wittsiepe J, Lemm F, Ranft U, Kramer U, Furst P, et al. 2008. The Duisburg birth cohort study: influence of the prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs on thyroid hormone status in newborns and neurodevelopment of infants until the age of 24 months. Mutat Res 659:83-92.

Willett WC, Blot WJ, Colditz GA, Folsom AR, Henderson BE, Stampfer MJ. 2007. Merging and emerging cohorts: not worth the wait Nature 445:257-258.

Woodruff TJ, Parker JD, Adams K, Bell ML, Gehring U, Glinianaia S, et al. 2010. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO). Int J Environ Res Public Health 7:2638-2652.

Zirngibl A, Franke K, Gehring U, von Berg A, Berdel D, Bauer CP, et al. 2002. Exposure to pets and atopic dermatitis during the first two years of life. A cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13:394-401.

Martine Vrijheid, (1), (2), (3) Maribel Casas, (1), (2), (3) Anna Bergstrom, (4) Amanda Carmichael, (5) Sylvaine Cordier, (6) Merete Eggesbo, (7) Esben Eller, (8) Maria P. Fantini, (9) Mariana F. Fernandez, (3), (10) Ana Fernandez-Somoano, (3), (7) Ulrike Gehring, (12) Regina Grazuleviciene, (13) Cynthia Hohmann, (14) Anne M. Karvonen, (15) Thomas Keil, (16) Manolis Kogevinas, (1), (2), (3), (16) Gudrun Koppen, (17) Ursula Kramer, (18) Claudia E. Kuehni, (19), (20) Per Magnus, (7) Renata Majewska, (21) Anne-MarieNybo Andersen, (22) Evridiki Patelarou, (23) Maria Skaalum Petersen, (24) Frank H. Pierik, (25), (26) Kinga Potanska, (27) Daniela Porta, (28) Lorenzo Richiardi, (29) Ana Cristina Santos, (30) Remy Slama, (31) Radim J. Sram, (32) Carel Thijs, (33) Christina Tischer, (34) Gunnar Toft, (35) Tomas Trnovec, (36) Stephanie Vandentorren, (37) Tanja G.M. Vrijkotte, (38) Michael Wilhelm, (39) John Wright, (40) and Mark Nieuwenhuijsen (1), (2), (3)

(1.) Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spam; (2.) Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain; (3.) Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; (4.) Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Stockholm, Sweden; (5.) School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, United Kingdom; (6.) French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), U625; University of Rennes I; IFR140; Rennes, France; (7.) Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; (8.) Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, Denmark; (9.) Department of Public Health, University of Bologna; Bologna, Italy; (10.) Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; (11.) University of Oviedo, Asturias, Spain; (12.) Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; (13.) Department of Environmental Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania; (14.) Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charite University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany; (15.) Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland; (16.) National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece; (17.) Environmental Risk and Health Unit Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Mol, Belgium; (18.) IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (IUF), Dusseldorf, Germany; (19.) Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; (20.) Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; (21.) Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; (22.) Section for Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; (23.) Department of Social Medicine, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece; (24.) Department of Occupational Medicine and Public Health, The Faroese Hospital System, Torshavn, Faroe Islands; (25.) Department of Urban Environment, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Utrecht, the Netherlands; (26.) The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; (27.) Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Lodz, Poland; (28.) Department of Epidemiology Regional Health Service, Lazio, Rome, Italy; (29.) Cancer Epidemiology Unit, CPO-Piemonte and University of Turin, Turin, Italy; (30.) Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School and Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; (31.) INSERM and Grenoble University, Team of Environmental Epidemiology Applied to Reproduction and Respiratory Health, Institut Albert Bonniot (U823), Grenoble, France; (32.) Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic; (33.) Department of Epidemiology, School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; (34.) Helmholtz Zentrum, Munchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Neuherberg, Germany; (35.) Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; (36.) Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovak/a; (37.) National Institute of Public Health Surveillance (inVS), Saint Maurice, France; (38.) Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; (39.) Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany; (40.) Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford, United Kingdom

Address correspondence to M. Vrijheid, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology* Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Telephone: 34 932 147 346. Fax: 34 932 147 301. E-mail: mvrijheid@creal.cat

Supplemental Material is available online (http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103823).

We thank all other cohort researchers and technical staff who have helped with the completion of the questionnaires.

This work was supported by Environmental Health Risks in European Birch Cohorts (ENRIECO), a project conducted within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (Theme 6, Environment, including climate change), grant agreement 226285.

The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.

Received 14 April 202 2; accepted 29 August 2011.
COPYRIGHT 2012 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergstrom, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbo,
Publication:Environmental Health Perspectives
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUSP
Date:Jan 1, 2012
Words:8943
Previous Article:Ambient temperature and morbidity: a review of epidemiological evidence.
Next Article:Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly.
Topics:

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters