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Ethnopteridology of the Guaranis of Misiones Province, Argentina.

ABSTRACT.--An ethnobotanical study was performed of the ferns and lycophytes used by the Guarani of Misiones Province, Argentina. It was determined that fifty species are used, and details of the uses and the Guarani names and nomenclature are given and discussed. Fern and lycophytes are used for medicines, crafts, in magic rituals, and marketing of the plants. The most important traditional use of ferns is for medicine and the most important modern use is commercialization for use in horticulture.

KEY WORDS.--Guarani communities, ethnobotany, ferns and lycophytes, Parana forest


Economic botanists have frequently concentrated on ferns as the focus of their studies, especially their medicinal properties and to a lesser extent their use as foods (Copeland, 1942; Looser and Rodriguez, 2004; Molina et al., 2009, Ortega and Diaz, 1993; Ruiz Lopez, 1805; Turner et al., 1992). Ethnobotanical studies of ferns and lycophytes have been carried out in various part of the world, for example in Bolivia with the ethnopteridological study of the Chacobo (Boom, 1985), the comparative study of ferns and lycophytes used by the Huaorani in Ecuador and the Tacana of Bolivia (Macia, 2004), and in Nigeria in a study of various ethnic groups by Nwosu (2002). Precusors of this type of study in Argentina are limited to the work of Hurrel and de la Sota (1996) who studied the ethnobotany of ferns in a high altitude pasture in the Province of Salta.

The Province of Misiones is the center of diversity of ferns and lycophytes of Argentina (Ponce et al., 2002) where there are 1,123,000 hectares of subtropical, semideciduous Paranfi forest and Alto Parana Atlantic rainforest (Placci and Di Bitteti, 2005). The catalogue of vascular plants of Argentina cited 158 species of monilophytes and lycophytes for the Province of Misiones (Ponce, 1996), but there have been many recent additions (Marquez et al., 2006; Martinez, and de la Sota, 2005; Meza Torres et al., 2006, 2008, 2010, Ponce, 2001; Tressens et al., 2008) bringing the total up to 180 species. This shows the increasing knowledge about the botanical richness of the extreme northeast of the country. The diversity of ferns and lycophytes is also high at the local level. In a reserve of 5340 hectares (about 0.18% of the area of the Province) 80 taxa of these groups were found which represents 43.23% of the total fern flora of the Province (Tressens et al., 2008). This diversity of species in an area that can be studied in a few days means that they are readily available for use by local peoples who depend on the resources of the flora for their livelihood, especially the indigenous communities that have lived in the area for thousands of years.

Misiones has about one hundred Guarani communities of the Mbya and Ava Chiripa. Up to present day these groups have maintained much of their traditional life including aspects of cosmology, religion, methods of subsistence, swidden agriculture, ways of hunting and fishing and the gathering of natural products from the forest. However, the fragmentation of their original habitat has obliged them to adopt various new strategies for survival as well as adapting customs of the surrounding global society, such as engaging in temporary employment and the commercialization of various natural products such as ornamental plants and crafts, especially baskets. For the Guarani, the native vegetation is one of the most important sources of materials for their traditional way of life and also of prime materials for selling to a wider audience. In this paper we analyze the importance of ferns and lycophytes to the indigenous population of Misiones, identifying the species, the Guarani names, their uses and significance.


The fieldwork was carried out during an ethnobotanical program that took place between 2000 and 2008 in eleven Guarani villages in the Departments of Concepcion (1), Eldorado (1), Guarani (4), Lib. Gral. San Martin (1), Montecarlo (1), San Ignacio (1) and San Pedro (2). Eighty four members of the Mbya clan and five members of the Ava Chiripa were interviewed (informants). We interviewed persons of both sexes and of different ages including both old people (more than sixty years of age) and children (less than twelve years of age). During this time we used various ethnographic methods such as participant observations and structured and semi-structured interviews. In some cases herbarium vouchers were collected during walks with informants and in other cases the herbarium material was shown to community members to ask them about names and uses of the plants. This material is deposited in the Institute Botanica del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina (CTES) with duplicates distributed to various other herbaria in Argentina and other countries (ASU, B, BA, CANB, CESJ, ESA, GH, LIL, LP, MEXU, MO, NY, PC, SI). Part of the ethnobotanical work was carried out in a village that is in the Guarani Multiple-use Reserve and is where Tressens et al. (2008) carried out an exhaustive floristic inventory and so some of the herbarium vouchers are from that study. The literature studied delimits the ferns and lycophytes families in various ways and here we have followed the nomenclature of de la Sota et al. (1998) and Mickel and Smith (2004) both of whom presented their results at the generic and species level without assignment to family.


A total of 50 species were indicated as useful by the communities studied (Table 1). These belong to 32 genera and represent 28% of the fern flora of the Province. Regarding the categories of use (Fig. 1), 38 species (76%) were indicated as medicinal, 19 species (38%) are sold commercially as ornamentals or as physical supports for growing ferns and orchids, 15 species (30%) are used in magic, mainly as talismans, 4 species (8%) are ecological indicators, 3 species (6%) are used in crafts (necklaces), and a single species (2%) is used as food. The use of tree ferns to make arrow points is mentioned in the literature but was not found to be in use today.

Folk nomenclature.--The general term for ferns in Guarani is amambdi and this includes those species in the class Polypodiopsida. They do not consider tree ferns or those generically known as chachi (various ferns with entire fronds) as amambai. The Guarani plant names usually describe a morphological or organoleptic character of the plant. For example, amambai taka (bifurcate or branched fern) refers to the fertile fronds that are several times divided of Doryopteris nobilis. Because of its sturdy structure Pteridium arachnoideum is called amambai rata (= hard fern). Pecluma pectinatiformis is named amambai e'e (= sweet fern) because of the sweet taste of its fronds. Other species of this genus such as P. sicca are called amambai piru (= dry fern) because their leaves shrivel up in dry periods and then return to normal once humid conditions return. It is interesting to note that the specific epithet of this species "siccum' (= dry) also refers to this same quality. Other names are associated with animals because of some morphological similarity. For example, mborevi po (tapir paw) is the name of Doryolateris nobilis whose sterile fronds look like the footprint of a tapir (Fig. 2A). Names can sometimes be associated with the habitat of animals, as in jakare ka'a (= caiman herb) for Thelypteris riograndensis, which, like caimans, lives beside water sources. This name is similarly applied to various ferns by the Tupi-guarani of Amazonia (Balee, 1994).

Some names refer to other plants, for example species of Selaginella are called koto jaryi (= false moss) and Adiatopsis chlorophylla is called kurunjy u miri (small specimen of the tree kurunjy u). Some species have bilingual names, as for Huperzia mandiocana which is called laino tyre'i (epiphytic pine). Other names are derived from the Spanish as is the case for Adiantum called kurantrijo (derived from culantrillo: Adiantum capillus-veneris L., widely distributed in Europe) or from the Quichua language as in karaguara (calaguala) that refers to the genera Asplenium L. (A. balansae and A. brasiliense), Campyloneuron and Niphidium. Finally, various names refer to their use, such as Pleopeltis pleopeltifolia being called memby ja (giver of children) which is taken by women to increase their fertility.

Medicines.--Medicinal plants are generally used by the Guarani in the fresh state preferably on the day they are collected. The storing of medicines is confined to plants located far from the village or of short duration. The most frequent method of use is in decoctions of macerated plant material in water at room temperature. It is also common to mix the medicinal material in mate water (the infusion of leaves of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. in the Aquifoliaceae) taken on a daily basis. Many species are used to treat infections of the reproductive system and this use accounts of the most uses reported here (46%). This agrees with the findings of an ethnobotanical study of the Guarani communities of Pai'i tavytera in Amambay Department of Paraguay (Basualdo and Soria, 2002) where of the three species cited two were used to treat female fertility. Other medicinal use categories that stand out are: treatment of infections of the respiratory (18%), digestive (16%), circulatory (12%) and nervous systems (12%).

Many plants used by the Guaranf of Misiones have their origins from the doctrine of signatures (Keller, 2007). Women who want to have a large family eat ferns of the genera Pleopeltis and Pecluma that are characterized by their prolific production of small fronds. Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) sleep on their backs with their hooves pressed against their chests and the Guaranf maintain that in this way they cure heart problems. For this reason they attribute heart-healing properties to Doryopteris nobilis (mborevi po or tapir hooves) whose sterile fronds resemble the tracks of this animal.

Commercialization.--The sale of ornamental plants is the second most important use of ferns and their allies in the communities studied. Ornamental species are sold as single plants or on frames or wooden supports, and others are used to add to groups of epiphytic orchids, which they sell in stands beside the highways (Fig. 2B). One of the most sought after species from the roadside stands is Huperzia mandioccana, which is not a common plant. The commercial use of this species could threaten the future of its natural populations. The stems of the tree fern Dicksonia sellowiana, a rare species in the region, are cut and sectioned for sale (Fig. 2C). This is a substrate widely used by nurseries as a support for orchids and other epiphytes. The bases of other ferns with a robust stem such as Alsophylla setosa are also sometimes used in the same way.

Magic.--Most of the plants used for magic by the Guarani have names associated with animals and they are usually aromatic plants. They term them vy'aja (givers of happiness) or iru pora (good friends) to their personal charms. They frequently carry fragments of leaves and other plant materials in pouches in order to have good results form various events especially in their declarations of love. The most used ferns in this category are species of the genus Anemia Sw. whose fronds are aromatic and are used in various procedures to attract members of the opposite sex. Sometimes they use these plants as a perfume, rubbing the fragrant material on their cheeks. At other times they place fragments of the fern in the bowl of their pipes and blow the smoke in the direction of the person they hope to conquer. The propagules of fern fronds with gemmae are also frequently used as charms (Fig. 2D).


Ecological indicator plants.--Various small ferns grow on tree trunks and often, together with mosses and lichens, form a living carpet along the branches. The Guarani have noted that some of these small plants are more abundant on the north-facing side of the host tree (Fig. 2E) because this side does not receive as much direct sunlight, and this is particularly so on trees of large diameter. During their long treks through the forest at night or on cloudy days it is possible to estimate the probable compass points from the location of the carpets of epiphytes on a tree. This is especially true on large, straight-trunked trees.

There are various edaphic characteristics of the deep red soils of Misiones that make them hard to cultivate, such as low fertility, high acidity, high aluminum content, and susceptibility to erosion (Ligier et al., 1990). The Guarani identify, where this type of soil occurs in the forest by the presence of tree ferns (Fig. 2F), specifically Alsophylla setosa, and so they avoid establishing their slash and burn agriculture on these sites.

Some large ferns, such as Pteris deflexa, form dense clumps on the edge of or in the forest. The Guarani say that it wise to avoid these areas because of the large number of ticks that occur there. In addition they say that the small deer Mazama nana (Cervidae) has the habit of hiding under the fronds of this fern and so they call the deer "amambai guy'i", which translated means "he who is under the fern."

Crafts.--The Guarani make many crafts from nature such as baskets and carvings either for their own personal use or to sell. They often make bead necklaces to sell to tourists or for themselves for use by either men or women. Amongst the materials used to make beads we have observed the use of the shiny black petioles of Adiantopsis chlorophylla, Adiantum pseudotinctum and Doryopteris nobilis.

Arrow points.--The construction of arrow points involving the use of the cord-like sclerenchimatous tissue of tree fern petioles by the indigenous people of Misiones was mentioned by Queirel (1897). The mythology of the guayakies of Paraguay refers to "arrows of ferns" (Fernandez, 1992). We have not been able to verify this use from contemporary Guaranis.

Conclusions.--The Guarani of Misiones use a considerable part of the fern flora of the Province. Ferns and lycophytes provide a variety of resources to maintain their traditional methods of subsistence and their more modern commercial life. The conservation of the biological diversity of Misiones Province undoubtedly has helped to avoid erosion of the cultural diversity of the region as well.


Firstly we thank the members of the communities studied for the time and information given. We are grateful to CONICET (Argentina) and the Darwin Initiative (U. K.) for financing our ethnobotanical studies and to M. Dematteis, Ph.D., for a critical reading of the manuscript.


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Instituto de Botanica del Nordeste, UNNE-CONICET, C.C.: 209, 3400 Corrientes, Argentina, e-mail:


School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AS, UK, e-mail:
TABLE 1. List of the ferns and fern allies used by the Guarani of
Misiones, Argentina.


Adiantopsis kurunjy u miri --Necklace beads
chlorophylla (small tree of
(Sw.) Fee Trema micrantha) --Expectorant,
 treatment of heart
 problems, stomach

Adiantopsis amambdi u --Febrifuge, treatment
radiata (L.) Fee (black fern) of nosebleed
Adiantum kurantrijo (from
pseudotinctum the Spanish --Treatment of
Hieron. "culantrillo", = headaches and
 small cilantro") nausea, post
 partum washing,

 --Necklace beads

Adiantum kurantrijo (from --Treatment of
raddianum the Spanish headache and
C. Presl. "culantrillo", = nausea, febrifuge,
 "small cilantro" nosebleed, diarrhea

Alsophila chachi rakua (tree --Stands for
setosa Kaulf. fern with spines) ornamental plants

 --Formerly used for
 arrow points

 --Indicator that soil
 not suitable for

 --Treatment of Herpes

Anemia nachi'u ra (similar --Male charm to
phyllitidis (L.) to a mosquito), attract opposite sex
Sw. typycha ovy
 (blue brush) --Treatment of
 stomach refresher,
 treatment of heart

Anemia jakare ka'a --Male charm to
simplicior (caiman plant) attract opposite sex
(Christ) Mickel

Anemia jakare ka'a --Male charm to
tomentosa (caiman plant) attract opposite sex
(Sav.) Sw.
 --Muscular tonic,
 prevention of illness

Asplenium karaguara yvy --Sold as an
bolansae reegua (calaguala ornamental
(Baker) of the earth)
Sylvestre --Contraceptive,
 menstrual analgesic

Asplenium karaguara yvv --Sold as an
brosiliense Sw reegua (calaguala ornamental
 of the earth)
 menstrual analgesic

Asplenium kuna manje'a --Sold as an
scandicinum (for women) ornamental

Kaulf. --Male charm to
 attract the opposite

Blechnum amambdi (fern) --Female
australe L. contraceptive,
subsp. treatment of
auriculatum headache
(Cav.) de la

Blechnum amambdi (fern) --Sold as an
oustrobrasilianum ornamental
de la Sota

Blechnum amambdi (fern) --Sold as an
brasiliense Desv. ornamental

Campyloneurum karaguara ita --Sold as an
lapathifolium reegua (growing ornamental
(Poir.) Ching on rocks)
 --Menstrual analgesic,
 treatment of gastritis

Campyloneurum karaguara ita --Sold as an
nitidum (Kaulf.) reegua (growing ornamental
C.Presl on rocks), mburika
 ka'a (donkey herb), --Treatment of nausea,
 jagua ka'a (dog epilepsy, muscular
 herb) tonic, blood purifier,
 female contraceptive,
 abortive, menstrual
 analgesic, to
 facilitate child birth,
 washing, treatment
 of gastritis, asthma,
 lumbago and
 kidney infections.

Dicksonia chachi raviju --Stands for
sellowiana Hook. (woody tree fern), ornamental plants
 --Formerly used for
 arrow points

 --Treatment of burns
 and measles

Didymochlaena amambdi (fern) --Stands for
truncatula (Sw.) ornamental plants
J. Sm.
 --Sold as an

Doryopteris mborevi po (tapir --Sold as an
nobilis (Moore) pawr); amambdi ornamental
C.Chr. take (fern with
 bifurcate fronds) --Necklace beads

 --Male charm to
 attract opposite sex

 --Treatment of colds,
 headaches, cardiac
 infections, diarrhea,
 menstrual analgesic.

Elophoglossum karaguara ita --Female
pachydermum reegua (growing contraceptive,
(Fee) T. Moore on racks) abortive, menstrual

Equisetum kavaju rugudi --Treatment of
giganteum L. (horse tail) headaches, epilepsy and
 kidney infections

Hemionitis rorarija (from --Sold as an
tomentosa spanish ornamental
(Lam.) Raddi "doradilla",
 because the --Used in a procedure
 ferruginous to gain power,
 --Treatment of heart
 and kidney
 menstrual analgesic,
 treatment of female
 sterility, for
 healing childs
 navel, blodd

Huperzia pino tyre'i --Sold as an
mandiocana (epiphytic pine) ornamental
(Raddi) Trevis.

Lastreopsis amambdi tyre'i --Male charm to
effusa (Sw.) (orphan fern) attract opposite sex

Lycopodiella urukure'a ka'a --Male charm to
cernua (L.) Pic. (owl herb) attract opposite sex

Lycopodium urukure'a ka'a --Male charm to
clavatum L. (owl herb) attract opposite sex

Lygodium jakare ka'a --Male charm to
volubile Sw (caiman plant) attract opposite sex

Microgramma ambere ka'a --Treatment of kidney
lindbergii (Kuhn) (small lizard plant) infections and
de la Sota deafness, menstrual

Microgramma ambere mboi (small --Slimming, menstrual
squamulosa lizard-snake), analgesic, female
(Kaulf.) de la anguja ruguai contraceptive, post
Sota (rat tail) partum washing,
 treatment of

Microgramma ambere ka'a, --Treatment of kidney
vacciniifolia ambere mby (small infections and
(Langsd. & lizard plant) deafness, menstrual
Fisch.) Copel. analgesic

Niphidium karaguara yvyra --Sold as an
crassifolium reegua (that which ornamental
(L.) Lellinger grows on trees)
 --Indicator of cardinal

 --Muscular toner,
 menstrual analgesic,
 treatment to ease
 child birth, post
 partum washing

Ophioglossum kochi apia'i --For colds
reticulatum L. (peccary penis)

Osmunda nachi'u rd guachu --Treatment of sore
regalis L. (large Anemia throats
 --Male charm to
 attract opposite sex

Pecluma filicula amambdi piru --Sold as an
(Kaulf.) M. G. (dry fern) ornamental

Price --Treatment of female

Pecluma amambdi re'e --Chewed as a sweet
pectinatiformis (sweet fern)
(Lindm.) M. G. --Sold as an
Price ornamental

 --Treatment of
 epilepsy, blood

Pecluma sicca amambai piru --Sold as an
(Lindm.) M.G. (dry fern) ornamental

Price --Treatment of female

Pecluma amambai piru --Sold as an
singeri (de la (dry fern) ornamental

Sota) M.G. Price --Treatment of female

Phlebodium karoguara (from --Menstrual analgesic
areolatum quichua
(Willd.) J. Sm. "Calaguala")

Pleopeltis memby ja (giver of --Menstrual analgesic,
pleopeltifolia children) treatment of
(Raddi) Alston excessive
 menstruation and
 female sterility

Pleopeltis teko'a pord ja --Indicator of cardinal
squalida (Vell.) (owner of good points

de la Sota customs) --Menstrual analgesic,
 treatment of
 menstruation and
 female sterility

Pteridium amambai rata --Menstrual analgesic
arachnoideum (hard fern)
(Kaulf.) Maxon. --Indicator of places
Pteris deflexa amambai (fern) with an abundance
Link of ticks

 --Used in a magic
 process to forget an
 ex wife

Pteris nachi'u ra ra --Treatment of sore
denticulata Sw. (similar to Anemia throat,
 phyllitidis) antidepressant

Selaginella guaimi rogue --Female
muscosa Spring (old lady's hair), contraceptive,
 ygau jaryi (false washing wounds

Selaginella koto jaryi (false --Female
sulcata (Pair.) moss) contraceptive

Serpocaulon karaguora --Menstrual analgesic
latipes (Langsd. (calaguala)
& Fisch.) A. R.

Thelypteris amambai tyre'i --Male charm to
recumbens (orphan fern) attract opposite sex
(Resent.) C. F.
Reed --Tranquilizer for

Thelypteris jakore ka'a --Male charm to
riograndensis (caiman herb) attract opposite sex
(Lindm.) C. F.
Reed --Antidepressant

Thelypteris amambai tyre'i --Male charm to
scabra (C. (orphan fern) attract opposite sex

Vittaria lineata avukujo guachu --Sold as an
(L.) Sm. (great owner of ornamental

 long hair) --Treatment to make
 hair grow


Adiantopsis --Fronds Keller 2787
(Sw.) Fee

Adiantopsis --Fronds Keller 1057
radiata (L.) Fee
pseudotinctum --Petioles Tressens et
Hieron. al. 6469

Adiantum --Fronds Keller 1371
C. Presl.

Alsophila --Stems Tressens et
setosa Kaulf. al. 4719

 --Exudate from

Anemia --Fertile fronds Keller 2979
phyllitidis (L.)
Sw. --Fronds

Anemia --Fronds Keller 829
(Christ) Mickel

Anemia --Fronds Keller &
tomentosa Gatti
(Sav.) Sw. 1693

Asplenium --Whole plant Keller 5629

Asplenium --Whole plant Keller 5628
brosiliense Sw

Asplenium --Whole plant Keller et al.
scandicinum 1939

Blechnum --Whole plant, Keller 3599
australe L. fronds
(Cav.) de la

Blechnum --Whole plant Keller 773
de la Sota

Blechnum --Whole plant Keller 1072
brasiliense Desv.

Campyloneurum --Whole plant Fernandez
lapathifolium et al. 98
(Poir.) Ching --Rhizomes

Campyloneurum --Whole plant Keller 1081
nitidum (Kaulf.)
C.Presl --Rhizomes

Dicksonia --Stems Tressens
sellowiana Hook. et al. 4631

 --Exudate of

Didymochlaena --Stems Keller 1106.
truncatula (Sw.)
J. Sm. --Whole plant

Doryopteris --Whole plant Keller 1368
nobilis (Moore)
C.Chr. --Petioles



Elophoglossum Whole plant Keller 7462
(Fee) T. Moore

Equisetum --Shoots Keller 3282
giganteum L.

Hemionitis --Whole plant Keller &
tomentosa Gatti 1858
(Lam.) Raddi --Whole plant


Huperzia --Whole plant Keller et al.
mandiocana 1941
(Raddi) Trevis.

Lastreopsis --Propagules Keller 5624
effusa (Sw.)

Lycopodiella --Whole plant Keller 1994
cernua (L.) Pic.

Lycopodium --Whole plant Keller 49
clavatum L.

Lygodium --Fronds Keller &
volubile Sw Franco 5814

Microgramma --Whole plant Keller 5678
lindbergii (Kuhn)
de la Sota

Microgramma --Whole plant Keller 1080
(Kaulf.) de la

Microgramma --Whole plant, Keller 7541
vacciniifolia fronds
(Langsd. &
Fisch.) Copel.

Niphidium --Whole plant Keller 1889
(L.) Lellinger --Rhizomes

Ophioglossum --Whole plant Keller 3065
reticulatum L.

Osmunda --Whole plant Keller 1058
regalis L. fronds


Pecluma filicula --Whole plant Keller 797
(Kaulf.) M. G.

Price --Fronds

Pecluma --Fronds Keller et al.
pectinatiformis 3096
(Lindm.) M. G. --Whole plant

Pecluma sicca --Whole plant Tressens
(Lindm.) M.G. 4942

Pecluma --Whole plant Keller 5594
singeri (de la
Sota) M.G. Price

Phlebodium --Rhizomes Keller &
areolatum Paredes
(Willd.) J. Sm. 7465

Pleopeltis --Whole plant, Keller 776
pleopeltifolia fronds
(Raddi) Alston

Pleopeltis --Whole plant, Keller 1891
squalida (Vell.) fronds

de la Sota

Pteridium --Tender fronds Keller &
arachnoideum Benitez 2727
(Kaulf.) Maxon. --Fronds
Pteris deflexa Tressens et
Link al. 6750

Pteris --Fronds Keller 1892
denticulata Sw.

Selaginella --Whole plant Tressens et
muscosa Spring al. 4635

Selaginella --Whole plant Keller 1163
sulcata (Pair.)

Serpocaulon --Rhizomes Keller &
latipes (Langsd. Franca 5827
& Fisch.) A. R.

Thelypteris --Propagules Tressens et
recumbens al. 6845
(Resent.) C. F.

Thelypteris --Fronds Keller 2975
(Lindm.) C. F. --Whole plant

Thelypteris --Propagules Keller &
scabra (C. Gatti 1861

Vittaria lineata --Whole plant Keller 2409
(L.) Sm.

FIG. 1. Species in each category of use

Medicinal: 38(76%)
Commercialization: 19(38%)
Food: 1(2%)
Crafts; 3(6%)
Indicators plants; 4(8%)
Magic: 15(30%)

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Keller, Hector A.; Torres, Esteban I. Meza; Prance, Ghillean T.
Publication:American Fern Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3ARGE
Date:Jul 1, 2011
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