Ethnicity or race, area characteristics, and sexual partner choice among American adolescents.
A number of recent studies have documented the similarities and dissimilarities of the demographic and social characteristics of sexual partners among American adolescents and adults. (Ford, Sohn, & Lepkowsi, 2001; Harris & Ono, 2000; Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994). The structure of sexual partnering is of importance because it is related to the likelihood of marriage and parenthood as well as the rate at which sexually transmitted infections including HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. can spread through a population (Koopman et al., 1988; Kretzchmeyer, Jager, Van Zessen, & Brouwers, 1995).
One of the most persistent empirical findings about social relationships is that people tend to initiate and maintain relationships with people of similar characteristics (Laumann et al., 1994). Several explanations have been proposed for this behavior, including geographic and social segregation segregation: see apartheid; integration. , the reinforcement reinforcement /re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whether positive to desirable events, or of a person's own identity and values, and the preference of social groups for persons of similar characteristics.
Studies of marital Pertaining to the relationship of Husband and Wife; having to do with marriage.
Marital agreements are contracts that are entered into by individuals who are about to be married, are already married, or are in the process of ending a marriage. and cohabiting partners have generally confirmed this hypothesis (Schoen & Weinick, 1993). However, more recent studies of marriage and cohabitation A living arrangement in which an unmarried couple lives together in a long-term relationship that resembles a marriage.
Couples cohabit, rather than marry, for a variety of reasons. They may want to test their compatibility before they commit to a legal union. among American adults have shown an increasing trend toward greater racial and ethnic intermarriage in·ter·mar·ry
intr.v. in·ter·mar·ried, in·ter·mar·ry·ing, in·ter·mar·ries
1. To marry a member of another group.
2. To be bound together by the marriages of members.
3. (Bersharov & Sullivan, 1996; Suro, 1999). The percent of marriages that include interracial in·ter·ra·cial
Relating to, involving, or representing different races: interracial fellowship; an interracial neighborhood. couples had reached about 10% in the late 1990s (Bersharov & Sullivan, 1996; Suro, 1999). An analysis of 1990 U.S. census data showed that cohabitation among interracial couples ages 18 to 30 was more common than marriages among interracial couples (Harris &Ono, 2000). Black, White, Asian, and Latino men and women in this age group cohabited with people of different races more often than they married them.
Laumann et al. (1994) studied the characteristics of sexual partners of American adults in a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults conducted in 1992. This study found that while 93% of married sexual partners were of the same race, 88% of cohabiting partners and 89% of noncohabiting sexual partners were of the same race. For short-term Short-term
Any investments with a maturity of one year or less.
1. Of or relating to a gain or loss on the value of an asset that has been held less than a specified period of time. partnerships, 91% were between persons of the same race. These data indicate that at the time of the study, longer term relationships were more likely to occur with partners of the same race.
Results from a national survey of adolescents conducted from 1994 to 1996 showed that while most partners were of the same race or ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic (78% overall), there was variation among adolescents according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. ethnicity (Ford et al., 2001). While 87% of White adolescents and 85% of Black adolescents reported partners of the same ethnicity, 57% of Latino adolescents reported partners of different ethnicities. Differences of more than 2 years between partner ages were common in all groups. As adolescents became older, the characteristics of their partners became more heterogeneous Not the same. Contrast with homogeneous.
heterogeneous - Composed of unrelated parts, different in kind.
Often used in the context of distributed systems that may be running different operating systems or network protocols (a heterogeneous network). in terms of age, school, and neighborhood. Furthermore, the less similar adolescents and their partners were, the less likely they were to use condoms or other contraceptives.
Community characteristics, including ethnic composition and region of the country, may affect people's choice of sexual partners. Recent studies of residential segregation have shown that although segregation has decreased in many metropolitan areas, many areas remain heavily segregated, especially in the East and Midwest (Glaeser & Vigdor, 2001). Harris and Ono (2000) have shown that local partner markets play a role in the selection of marriage and cohabitation partners. Propinquity PROPINQUITY. Kindred; parentage. Vide. Affinity; Consanguinity; Next of kin. should also be important for adolescents. Because adolescents may have less mobility than adults, the influence of local markets may also affect their choice of partners more strongly.
Apart from the supply of partners, communities may differ in their acceptance of interethnic or interracial dating. Research has shown evidence for community-level variation in racial climate as indicated by neighborhood preferences (Farley, Steeh, Krysan, Jackson, & Reeves, 1994; Massey & Denton, 1993) and racial attitudes (Schuman, Steeh, Bobo, & Krysan, 1997).
The aim of this research project was to examine the effects of school, neighborhood, and regional characteristics on sexual partner choice in a national sample of adolescents. First, we developed models of the effects of individual characteristics on partner choice. Following this, we examined the influence of community characteristics such as racial and ethnic composition and region of the country.
Sample Design and Participants
Data for the study was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (also called Add Health) is the first and only nationally-representative study of adolescent sexuality, which has spawned over one thousand peer-reviewed publications on many issues related to adolescent health and (Add Health). The Add Health data was designed to assess the health status of adolescents and explore the causes of their health-related behaviors, focusing on the effects of the multiple contexts or environments (both social and physical) in which they live (Bearman, Jones, & Udry, 1997). The investigators selected a sample of secondary schools from a frame assembled as·sem·ble
v. as·sem·bled, as·sem·bling, as·sem·bles
1. To bring or call together into a group or whole: assembled the jury.
2. by Quality Education Data, Inc. (QED QED
Latin quod erat demonstrandum (which was to be demonstrated)
QED which was to be shown or proved [Latin quod erat demonstrandum]
Noun 1. ). The population was stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. by region, urbanicity (urban, suburban, or rural), school type (public, private, or parochial pa·ro·chi·al
1. Of, relating to, supported by, or located in a parish.
2. Of or relating to parochial schools.
3. ), ethnic mix, and size. The investigators selected schools with probabilities proportional proportional
values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts. to size. More than 70% of the originally sampled high schools participated in this study. If a school refused to participate, they selected a replacement school within the same stratum stratum /stra·tum/ (strat´um) (stra´tum) pl. stra´ta [L.] a layer or lamina.
stratum basa´le . Once a high school was selected, the investigators recruited a feeder school Feeder school is a name applied to schools, colleges, universities, or other educational institutions that provide a significant number of graduates who intend to continue their studies at specific schools, or even in specific fields. (a school that includes 7th-grade students and sends its graduates to that high school). They selected a pair of schools in nearly all of the 80 communities where sampling occurred. Participating schools provided a roster of their students. In most cases, schools also agreed to administer an in-school questionnaire to each student during a class period. The in-school survey was completed by 90,118 students in 1994 to 1995. The investigators then selected a sample of students from school rosters to participate in inhome interviews. In 16 small schools, all students were selected for in-home interviews. In the other schools, the investigators grouped students into 12 grade and gender strata and randomly selected an average of 17 students from each within-school strata, yielding about 200 students for in-home interviews from each of 132 schools. Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. selected through this two-stage sampling procedure constitute a nationally representative sample of adolescents. The investigators chose additional students to increase the number of students in several ethnic groups and the number of disabled students, and to create genetic samples of related individuals. Only students who were selected from the nationally representative sample were included in this study. This nationally representative sample provides data on 18,924 respondents interviewed in their homes in Wave 1. In a second wave conducted 2 years later, 13,570 Wave 1 respondents were interviewed in their homes. We included data from both the Wave 1 and the Wave 2 interviews in this study.
This study focused on the sexually active portion of the sample. During the in-home interview, information on sexual activity was obtained through two different sequences of questions. In Wave 1, 7,508 of the 18,924 respondents reported ever having sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
or coitus or copulation
Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system). . In Wave II, 5,989 respondents reported sexual intercourse. Merging the two waves of data, 9,303 distinct respondents reported ever having sexual intercourse.
The unit of analysis in this paper is sexual relationships rather than individuals. We had to convert the respondent-level data file from one with a record for each individual to one with a record for each sexual partner. The 9,303 individuals who reported sexual activity in the direct question reported having 26,657 total partners.
In each wave, respondents were asked to report on relationships the last 18 months. Noting that telescoping telescoping The 'compression' or overlapping of clinical or pathologic features of a disease or lesion that is normally subdivided into chronologic stages of progression might have occurred such that respondents may have reported in Wave 2 on relationships that began more than 18 months ago, we developed a procedure for comparing relationships reported by the same respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. in Waves 1 and 2 that examined agreement on five variables. This procedure identified 724 relationships (2.7% of sample relationships) that were likely duplicates; these relationship records were deleted Deleted
A security that is no longer included on a specified market. Sometimes referred to as "delisted".
Reasons for delisting include violating regulations, failing to meet financial specifications set out by the stock exchange and going bankrupt. from the relationship data set. Finally, we selected for analysis relationships in which the respondents reported having sexual intercourse.
Examination of the data on partnerships also revealed that although some individuals had reported never having sexual intercourse in the direct question, they later reported intercourse INTERCOURSE. Communication; commerce; connexion by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, as by interchange of commodities, treaties, contracts, or letters. when asked about specific partners. From these cases, 363 additional relationships were added to the sexual relationship file. Only 20 of the reported relationships were homosexual homosexual /ho·mo·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the same sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the same sex. ; these were deleted from the file. In total, we analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. 17,266 heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. relationships. These relationships were reported by 8,024 individuals. For operational reasons, the investigators limited reports to a maximum of three romantic and three nonromantic partners. Only a small percentage of students reported the maximum number of romantic or nonromantic partners, indicating that not many relationships were unreported.
The probability of selection of a relationship was determined by the probability of selection of the reporting student. Thus, we assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. each sexual relationship the weight of its reporting student. Relationships had the potential to be reported to be spoken of; to be mentioned, whether favorably or unfavorably.
See also: Report by either partner; however, both partners could report not all relationships. A relationship involving an individual in school and another not currently enrolled in school could only have been reported by the individual in school. That is, relationships with both partners in school had a higher probability of selection than those involving one partner in school and the other not in school. In the 16 schools where all students were interviewed, relationships reported with partners in the same school cannot be linked in the data released for use outside of the University of North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. .
A standard method for handling varying probabilities of selection is to weight sample reports to decrease the contribution of those who have higher probabilities of selection (Cochran, 1976; Kish, 1965). In the present investigation, the weight of the reporting student was assigned to each of his or her reported relationships. The proportion of relationships that were with partners currently in school (and thus relationships that could have been reported twice) was 0.82. Thus, 82% of relationships could have been reported more than once. We therefore adjusted the relationship weight by a factor of 1/(2 x 0.82) = 0.7098 to reduce the weight for all relationships involving two partners in school.
Respondents were interviewed in their homes by an interviewer using a personal computer. Respondents used the computer to self-administer sensitive parts of the questionnaire, including questions on sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. .
Type of partner. During the interview, respondents were asked about (a) romantic and (b) nonromantic partners. In Wave 1, these partners were designated as being from relationships that began after January 1994; in Wave 2, they were designated as being from relationships that began in the last 18 months. Romantic partners were identified by the question "Have you had a romantic relationship with anyone?" Respondents could also identify a romantic partner by reporting that they had held hands, kissed on the mouth, and/or told the partner that they loved him or her. Initially, each respondent identified up to three romantic partners and answered detailed questions about the characteristics of each partner, the timing of each relationship, and activities within each relationship. Respondents were then asked about persons with whom they had had sexual intercourse but whom they did not consider romantic partners. They were asked to identify up to three such partners. If they had held hands, kissed on the mouth, and/or told any of these partners that they loved them, they were considered romantic partners. Otherwise, partners were considered nonromantic. Respondents identified up to three nonromantic partners and answered detailed questions about the characteristics of each partner, the timing of each relationship, and activities within each relationship.
Age. We coded data on age in single years for both respondent and sexual partner. Differences between ages of the partners were coded as (a) more than two years older, (b) within 2 years, and (c) more than 2 years younger.
Race or ethnicity. We used the data on self-report of the respondent and partner race or ethnicity and coded the data as White, Black, Latino, or other. Data on multiple ethnicities or races were not included because only 2.7% of respondents reported more than one ethnicity or race in the home interview.
Grade. We coded the grade in school according to the respondent's or the partner's current grade. Differences in grade were coded as (a) in a lower grade, (b) in the same grade, (c) in a higher grade, or (d) respondent or partner not in school.
School. We coded school as the partner attending the same school as the respondent attended or not.
Neighborhood. Respondents were asked if their partners lived in the same neighborhood as they did. The word neighborhood was not defined more specifically for respondents.
We also used contextual factors.
Region. The U.S. Census Bureau's region of the country was coded as West, Midwest, South, and Northeast.
Proportion Black. This variable measured the proportion of persons living in the same census tract A census tract, census area, or census district is a particular community defined for the purpose of taking a census. Usually these coincide with the limits of cities, towns or other administrative areas and several tracts commonly exist within a county. as the respondent who reported their race as Black in the 1990 census.
Proportion Hispanic. This variable measured the proportion of persons living in the same census tract as the respondent who reported their ethnicity as Hispanic in the 1990 census.
The relationships or dyads in this study may be viewed as equal-sized but overlapping clusters of individuals. Given the weighting employed to compensate for duplicate DUPLICATE. The double of anything.
2. It is usually applied to agreements, letters, receipts, and the like, when two originals are made of either of them. Each copy has the same effect. reports, the relationships could be treated as sample elements within a stratified multistage mul·ti·stage
1. Functioning in more than one stage: a multistage design project.
2. Relating to or composed of two or more propulsion units. sample design. We conducted appropriate variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality estimation estimation
In mathematics, use of a function or formula to derive a solution or make a prediction. Unlike approximation, it has precise connotations. In statistics, for example, it connotes the careful selection and testing of a function called an estimator. through SUDAAN (a computer program developed for studies with clustered samples; Shah Shah is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. This term is a Post Islamic Revolution term for monarchs in Iran which is replaced by valie faghih or Supreme Leader. , Bamwell, & Bieler, 1997) for means, proportions, regression coefficients Regression coefficient
Term yielded by regression analysis that indicates the sensitivity of the dependent variable to a particular independent variable. See: Parameter.
regression coefficient , and test statistics.
The variance estimation methods assume that the samples of relationships are independent between schools. This is, strictly speaking Adv. 1. strictly speaking - in actual fact; "properly speaking, they are not husband and wife"
properly speaking, to be precise , not correct in the Add Health sample design. A relationship could have been selected from two different schools when the partners were enrolled in different schools. The survey estimation literature and available variance estimation software do not provide methods for variance estimation in such a sample of networks drawn from a cluster sample. Employing existing variance estimation methods such as in SUDAAN to the present problem results in biased variance estimates. The lack of independence among sample clusters (in this case, schools) can be expected to increase the variability of sample estimates over the case in which clusters are selected independently. Thus, the variance estimates presented in this paper understate un·der·state
v. un·der·stat·ed, un·der·stat·ing, un·der·states
1. To state with less completeness or truth than seems warranted by the facts.
2. the true sampling variance. While 58% of the relationships reported in the Add Health survey involved individuals who were both in the same school or an individual in school and another not in school, the variance estimates and test statistics based on them in the present paper are not expected to severely understate true values.
In examining the associations between partner characteristics and demographic variables, we used Generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
3. Estimating Equation (GEE gee 1
The letter g.
Used to command a horse or ox to turn to the right.
intr.v. ) models to account for the correlation among relationships reported by the same person. The GEE model (Diggle, Liang, & Zeger, 1994; Liang & Zeger, 1996) is a repeated-measures analysis of correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. outcomes and predictors. It can be applied to multiple logistic lo·gis·tic also lo·gis·ti·cal
1. Of or relating to symbolic logic.
2. Of or relating to logistics.
[Medieval Latin logisticus, of calculation types of analyses in which the dichotomous di·chot·o·mous
1. Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
2. Characterized by dichotomy.
di·chot or polytomous outcomes are predicted. This procedure is appropriate here because respondents reported on experiences with several partners. Each respondent could appear in the analysis more than once. We used the SUDAAN statistical package to generate GEE models using sampling clusters to group observations (Shah et al., 1997). Results are reported as important if the p values of test statistics were smaller than 0.05.
In addition, we calculated predicted proportions of respondents choosing a partner with the same characteristic by gender and ethnicity or race. We computed these probabilities by summing the coefficients for the relevant gender and ethnic groups. Coefficients for age groups and type of partner were weighted by the sample distribution of these variables. In the models including contextual variables, we also added coefficients for the appropriate region. Proportions were estimated for the variables Black ethnicity greater than 10% and Latino ethnicity greater than 20%. We then converted the sum of the coefficients from a logit to a proportion (Hosmer & Lameshow, 2000).
Table 1 shows the demographic characteristics of respondents in the study who reported sexual relationships. The approximately 8,000 persons consisted of 11% age 14 or younger, 36% age 15 to 16, and 54% age 17 or older. Over half of the sample were White (62%), 19.2% were Black, 11.7% were Latino, and 7% were of other ethnicity.
Table 2 shows the distribution of partner characteristics. About 78% of partners were of the same ethnicity. While just over half of all partners were within 2 years of age of each other, 12.6% were 2 or more years younger and 32.1% were 2 or more years older. Only about half of all partners (52.6%) were in the same grade, and 18.3% were not attending school. More respondents reported partners in higher grades (18.3%) than in lower grades (7.1%). The majority of partners were from different neighborhoods (70%) and different schools (60%). Most partners were categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat as romantic (80.6%).
The relationships between respondent characteristics and five measures of similarity Similarity is some degree of symmetry in either analogy and resemblance between two or more concepts or objects. The notion of similarity rests either on exact or approximate repetitions of patterns in the compared items. in partner characteristics (ethnicity or race, age, grade level, neighborhood, and school) were examined through a sequence of linear logistic models logistic models,
n.pl statistical models that describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one that can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. estimated under a GEE approach. We used respondent demographic variables as predictors, and after testing various two-way interactions, we included an interaction between gender and ethnicity or race in the models. Results are presented in Tables 3 and 4. Table 3 shows the logistic regression In statistics, logistic regression is a regression model for binomially distributed response/dependent variables. It is useful for modeling the probability of an event occurring as a function of other factors. coefficients, their standard errors, and the significance level of a two-tailed t test. Table 4 shows the estimated proportion selecting a partner with the same characteristics.
For the model predicting ethnicity or race of partner (Table 3, Model 1), age, gender, ethnicity or race, and type of partner were significantly related to ethnicity or race of partner. The proportion selecting a partner of the same ethnicity or race was fairly close for males and females (.88 and .85, respectively); the proportion with a partner of the same ethnicity or race was .80 for Black males but .90 for Black females (see Table 4, Model 1). The proportions for Latino respondents were lower (.55 for Latino males and .58 for Latino females).
For the model predicting whether or not the partner's age was within 2 years of the respondent's age (Table 3, Model 2), gender and type of relationship were significant. Adolescents in romantic relationships were more likely to choose partners in the same age group (p < .01) and female respondents were more likely to choose partners outside of their age group (p < .01). Ethnicity was not significantly related to the age of the partner. For White respondents the proportions choosing a partner within the same age group were .65 for males and .44 for females (see Table 4, Model 2). For Black respondents, the proportions were .65 for males and .43 for females. For Latinos, the proportions were .62 for males and .40 for females.
Due to questionnaire design, the analysis for the grade variable included only romantic partners (see Table 3, Model 3). Compared to the youngest adolescents, the older adolescents were less likely to choose partners in the same grade (p < .01). In addition, males were more likely to choose partners in the same grade than were females (p < .01).
In the analysis of partner neighborhood (see Table 3, Model 4), only age had a significant effect. The older adolescents were less likely than the younger adolescents to choose partners in the same neighborhood (p = 0.02). The predicted proportions for race or ethnic and gender groups ranged from .29 to .34 (see Table 4, Model 4).
Gender, race or ethnicity, and type of relationship were significantly related to choosing partners from the same school (see Table 3, Model 5). Female respondents were less likely to have partners in the same school (p < .01) than were males, and romantic partners were more likely than nonromantic partners to be from the same school (p < .01). The proportions choosing a partner from the same school were .33 for White males, .26 for White females, .31 for Black males, .24 for Black females, .30 for Latino males, and .23 for Latino females (see Table 4, Model 5).
Because partner choice may be affected by the characteristics of the community, we ran a series of models that included indicators of the proportion of the population that was Black or Hispanic, the region, the poverty level of the community, and the school size (number of students) and type (public or private). In general, these variables did not have significant relationships with the dependent variables. The one exception was the model for race or ethnicity of partner, in which there were significant effects of community ethnic composition and region (see Table 5). The chi-square statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.
a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them. for the difference in -2 log likelihood between the model with and the model without the contextual variables was 689.94 (p < .001). Tests of two-way interactions indicated significant interaction effects between gender and ethnicity and between region and ethnicity in this model. Differences between models with and without contextual variables were not significant for the dependent variables related to age, grade, neighborhood, and school.
Table 6 shows the estimated proportion of respondents choosing a partner of the same race or ethnicity by gender and race or ethnicity. The proportions varied by ethnicity or race, gender, and region. For White males, the estimated proportion of respondents choosing a White partner was .97 in all regions except the West, where it was .92. A slightly lower proportion of White females chose a White partner: .95 in the Northeast and West and .96 in the Midwest and South. Black males had a lower probability of choosing a Black female partner in the Northeast (0.83) than in the Midwest and South (.97 for each) and the West (.90). Latino males were least likely to choose a Latino female in the Midwest (.66) compared to the Northeast (.70), the South (.83), or the West (.90). Latino females also had the lowest probability of choosing a Latino partner in the Midwest (.69), compared to the Northeast (.73), the West (.82), and the South (.85).
This project used a national sample of adolescents to examine the association of individual and community characteristics with the demographic characteristics of sexual partners of American youth. The data indicate that the community characteristics of ethnic composition of the population and region were most strongly related to the ethnicity or race of the partner. Differences in partner's age, grade, neighborhood, and school or residence were not related to school and community characteristics. In addition, the individual characteristics of age, gender, and race or ethnicity were also related to ethnicity or race of partner.
This study has several limitations. The study relies on self-report of data on a sensitive topic. Some adolescents may be unwilling to report sexual activity in an interview and may not fully report their experience with multiple sexual partners. Additionally, reports of partner characteristics rely on the report of the respondent. In short-term relationships, individuals may not be fully aware of their partner's exact age or other characteristics.
In addition, due to concerns about confidentiality, more specific information on geographic information beyond region of the country was not available. Within each of these regions there is considerable heterogeneity het·er·o·ge·ne·i·ty
The quality or state of being heterogeneous.
the state of being heterogeneous. in racial and ethnic composition and residential segregation.
Findings from the 1990 census data of Harris and Ono (2000) showed that among White and Black married women ages 18 to 30, 96% were married to partners of the same race, while among White and Black cohabiting couples, 93% of women were living with a partner of the same race. Among married Asian women, 68% were married to partners of the same race or ethnicity, while among cohabiting Asian women, only 42% were living with Asian men. Finally, among married Latino women, 80% were married to Hispanic men, while among cohabiting Latino women, 73% were living with Latino men (Harris &Ono, 2000). The findings from our study echo these results to some extent. The more committed relationships A committed relationship is an interpersonal relationship based upon a mutually agreed upon commitment to one another involving exclusivity, honesty, or some other agreed upon behavior. (the romantic ones) were more likely to be with partners of the same ethnicity or race. These data reflect the time periods of data collection and may not capture more recent trends.
Regional differences in the ethnicity or race of partners were significant even after we controlled for the ethnic composition of the community. This may reflect regional differences in the acceptability of friendships between adolescents of differing ethnic and racial groups. While the Midwest and the Northeast are the most residentially segregated areas, these were not uniformly the two areas where adolescents were least likely to choose partners of different ethnicity or race. These differences may reflect variations in interactions between ethnic and racial groups that extend beyond residential segregation.
In summary, while most adolescents choose partners with similar characteristics, this choice is related to the adolescent's age, gender, and ethnicity or race, and to the type of relationship as well as the ethnic or racial composition of the community and the geographic region. Further research should examine possible reasons for differences by region, including school and neighborhood segregation and migration and commuting patterns.
Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of Respondents (N = 8,024) N % se (%) Age 14 years or less 683 10.84 1.64 15-16 years 2761 35.68 0.88 17 years or more 4579 54.47 2.05 Ethnicity or race White 3895 61.96 3.29 Black 1921 19.25 2.76 Latino 1421 11.67 1.78 Other 782 7.12 0.74 Gender Male 3973 50.46 0.8 Female 4051 49.54 0.8 Note. Table includes unweighted N, weighted percent, and standard error adjusted for clustering. Table 2. Percent of Partners With Specific Demographic Charateristics (N = 17,266) Characteristics % Race or ethnicity Same 78.3 Different 21.7 Age 2+ years younger 12.6 Within 2 years 55.3 2+ years older 32.1 Grade 2+ years lower 7.1 Within 2 years 52.6 2+ years highter 22.1 Not in school 18.3 Neighborhood Same 30.0 Different 70.0 School Same 39.9 Different 60.1 Relationship Romantic 80.6 Nonromantic 19.4 Table 3. Logistic Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) Model for Predictors of Partner Characteristics Model 1 Model 2 Partner has same Partner age Respondent ethnicity or race within 2 years of characteristics as respondent respondent b se(p) b se(p) Intercept 1.75 0.16(.00) 0.36 0.11(.00) Age [less than or equal to] 14 years 0.00 0.00 15-16 years 0.11 0.14(.42) -0.04 0.10(.71) 17+ years 0.29 0.14(.04) -0.08 0.10(.39) Ethnicity or race White 0.00 0.00 Black -0.67 0.19(.00) -0.04 0.10(.67) Latino -1.85 0.20(.00) -0.22 0.14(.11) Other -3.27 0.28(.00) -0.29 0.14(.04) Gender Male 0.00 0.00 Female 0.21 0.07(.00) -0.78 0.07(0.00) Relationship Romantic 0.21 0.07(.00) 0.43 0.05(.00) Nonromantic 0.00 0.00 Ethnicity or race X Gender (0.00) (0.08) White male 0.00 0.00 White female 0.00 0.00 Black male 0.00 0.00 Black female 1.21 0.23(.00) -0.01 0.15(.96) Latino male 0.00 0.00 Latino female 0.54 0.21(0.01) 0.20 0.16(.23) Other male 0.00 0.00 Other female 0.36 0.29(0.23) 0.50 0.02(.02) Chi-square 2887.06 580.06 df 10 10 p 0.00 0.00 [R.sup.2] 0.154 0.036 N 17240 15839 Model 3 Model 4 Partner in same Partner lives in same Respondent grade as neighborhood as characteristics respondent respondent b se(p) b se(p) Intercept 0.88 01(.00) -0.82 0.13(.00) Age [less than or equal to] 14 years 0.00 0.00 15-16 years -0.23 0.09(.01) -0.10 0.10(.34) 17+ years -0.44 0.10(.01) -0.27 0.11(.02) Ethnicity or race White 0.00 0.00 Black 0.00 0.12(.99) 0.08 0.11(.47) Latino -0.13 0.14(.35) 0.25 0.14(.08) Other 0.16 0.19(.40) 0.30 0.17(.08) Gender Male 0.00 0.00 Female -0.84 0.10(.00) 0.10 0.08(.21) Relationship Romantic -- -- 0.07 0.06(.20) Nonromantic -- -- 0.00 Ethnicity or race X Gender (0.87) (0.51) White male 0.00 0.00 White female 0.00 0.00 Black male 0.00 0.00 Black female -0.05 0.17(.78) -0.04 0.12(.73) Latino male 0.00 0.00 Latino female -0.05 0.20(.82) -0.12 0.15(.44) Other male 0.00 0.00 Other female 0.10 0.23(.66) -0.31 -0.31(.13) Chi-square 641.60 67.27 df 9 10 p 0.00 0.00 [R.sup.2] 0.048 0.004 N 13180 17238 Model 5 Partner goes to Respondent same school as characteristics respondent b se(p) Intercept -0.40 0.13(.00) Age [less than or equal to] 14 years 0.00 15-16 years -0.06 0.10(.55) 17+ years -0.17 0.11(.13) Ethnicity or race White 0.00 Black -0.04 0.12(.74) Latino -0.24 0.11(.04) Other -0.28 0.13(.03) Gender Male 0.00 Female -0.35 0.08(.00) Relationship Romantic 0.43 0.06(.00) Nonromantic 00 Ethnicity or race X Gender (.07) White male 0.00 White female 0.00 Black male 0.00 Black female -0.22 .13(.10) Latino male 0.00 Latino female -0.19 .17(.25) Other male 0.00 Other female 0.31 .21(.14) Chi-square 302.113 df 10 p 0.00 [R.sup.2] 0.017 N 17197 Table 4. Estimated Proportion of Adolescents Choosing a Partner of the Same Race or Ethnicity, Age Group, Grade, Neighborhood, and School Gender and Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 race or Same Same Same Same Model 5 ethnicity of race or age grade neigh- Same respondent ethnicity group borhood school White male 0.88 0.65 0.65 0.29 0.33 White female 0.85 0.47 0.44 0.31 0.26 Black male 0.80 0.65 0.65 0.30 0.31 Black female 0.90 0.46 0.43 0.32 0.24 Latino male 0.55 0.61 0.62 0.34 0.30 Table 5. Logistic Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) Model for Individual and Contextual Predictors of Partner Ethnicity b se(p) Intercept 3.24 0.42(.00) Individual factors Age [less than equal to 14 years 0.00 15-16 years 0.07 0.14(.58) 17+ years 0.23 0.13(.08) Ethnicity or race White 0.00 Black -1.79 0.31(.00) Latino -2.57 0.42(.00) Other -3.97 0.54(.00) Gender Male 0.00 Female -0.46 0.10(.00) Relationship Romantic 0.21 0.07(.00) Nonromantic 0.00 Ethnicity or race X Gender White male 0.00 White female 0.00 Black male 0.00 Black female 1.29 0.23(.00) Latino male 0.00 Latino female 0.60 0.19(.00) Other male 0.00 Other female 0.34 0.28(.22) Contextual factors Region West -0.90 0.30(.00) Midwest 0.23 0.22(.31) South 0.25 0.24(.29) Northeast 0.00 Proportion Black < 0.1 -0.68 0.25(.01) 0.1+ 0.00 Proportion Hispanic < 0.2 -0.87 0.18(.00) 0.2+ 0.00 Ethnicity or race X Region White-West 0.00 White-Midwest 0.00 White-South 0.00 White-Northeast 0.00 Black-West 0.68 0.53(.20) Black-Midwest 0.77 .38(.05) Black-South 0.87 0.39(.03) Black-Northeast 0.00 Latino-West 1.45 0.48(.03) Latino-Midwest -0.42 0.47(.38) Latino-South 0.53 0.47(.27) Latino-Northeast 0.00 Other-West 2.43 0.65(.01) Other-Midwest -0.08 0.63(.89) Other-South -0.67 0.58(.25) Other-Northeast 0.00 Intercept 3.24 0.42(.00) Chi-square 3576.0 df 24 p 0.00 [R.sup.2] 0.189 N 17082 Table 6. Estimated Proportion of Adolescents Choosing a Partner of the Same Race or Ethnicity Gender or ethnicity of respondent Northeast Midwest South West White male 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.92 White female 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.95 Black male 0.83 0.93 0.94 0.90 Black female 0.92 0.97 0.97 0.95 Latino male 0.70 0.66 0.83 0.90 Latino female 0.73 0.69 0.85 0.82
Bearman, J., Jones, J., & Udry, R. (1997). The national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center.
Bersharov, D. J., & Sullivan, T. S. (1996, July/August). One flesh. The New Democrat, pp. 19-21.
Cochran, C. (1976). Sampling techniques (3rd ed.). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Wiley.
Diggle, P., Liang, K.-Y., & Zeger, S. L. (1994). Analysis of longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. data. Oxford, OH: Clarendon Press.
Farley, R., Steeh, C., Krysan, M., Jackson, J., & Reeves, K. (1994). Stereotypes and segregation: Neighborhoods in the Detroit area. American Journal of Sociology Established in 1895, the American Journal of Sociology (AJS) is the oldest scholarly journal of sociology in the United States. It is published bimonthly by The University of Chicago Press.
AJS is edited by Andrew Abbott of the University of Chicago. , 100, 750-780.
Ford, K., Sohn, W., & Lepkowski, J. (2001). Characteristics of adolescents' sexual partners and their association with use of condoms and other contraceptive methods Noun 1. contraceptive method - birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery
birth control, birth prevention, family planning - limiting the number of children born . Family Planning family planning
Use of measures designed to regulate the number and spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and ensure each family’s access to limited resources. Perspectives, 33, 100-105, 132.
Glaeser, E. L., & Vigdor, J. L. (2001, April). Racial segregation Noun 1. racial segregation - segregation by race
petty apartheid - racial segregation enforced primarily in public transportation and hotels and restaurants and other public places in the 2000 census: Promising news. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Brookings Institution, at Washington, D.C.; chartered 1927 as a consolidation of the Institute for Government Research (est. 1916), the Institute of Economics (est. 1922), and the Robert S. Brookings Graduate School of Economics and Government (est. 1924). , Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy.
Harris, D. R., & Ono, H. (2000, April). Estimating the extent of intimate contact between the races: The role of metropolitan area factors and union type in mate selection. Paper presented at the meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. , CA.
Hosmer, D. W., & Lameshow, S. (2000). Applied logistic regression (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Kish, L. (1965). Survey sampling. New York: Wiley.
Koopman, J., Simon, C., Jacquez, J. A., Joseph, J., Sattenspiel, L., & Park, T. (1988). Sex partner selectiveness rates on homosexual HIV transmission rates. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
A viral disease of humans caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks and compromises the body's immune system. , 1, 486-504.
Kretzschmer, M., Jager, J. C., Van Zessen, G., & Brouwers, H. (1995). A network modeling approach for assessing the efficiency of prevention strategies. Journal of Mathemetical Sociology, 20, 351-374.
Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals, including .
Liang, K.-Y., & Zeger, S. (1986). Longitudinal analysis using general linear models. Biometrika, 73, 13-22.
Massey, D., & Denton, N. (1993). American apartheid apartheid (əpärt`hīt) [Afrik.,=apartness], system of racial segregation peculiar to the Republic of South Africa, the legal basis of which was largely repealed in 1991–92. : Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. It was established on January 13, 1913. In 2005, it published 220 new titles. .
Schoen, R., & Weinick, R. M. (1993). Partner choices in marriages and cohabitations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 408-414.
Schuman, H., Steeh, C., Bobo, L., & Krysan, M. (1997). Racial attitudes in America: Trends and interpretations (Rev. ed rev.
2. .). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Shah, B. V., Bamwell, B. G., & Bider, G. S. (1997). SUDAAN user's manual, release 7.5. Research Triangle Park Research Triangle Park, research, business, medical, and educational complex situated in central North Carolina. It has an area of 6,900 acres (2,795 hectares) and is 8 × 2 mi (13 × 3 km) in size. Named for the triangle formed by Duke Univ. , NC: Research Triangle Institute The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is a non-profit research organization based in the Research Triangle Park (RTP) of North Carolina. RTI is the oldest tenant of this major research park, and the sister organization to the Research Triangle Foundation. .
Suro, R. (1999). Mixed doubles mixed doubles
pl.n. (used with a sing. verb)
A game of doubles, as in tennis, that is played with each team composed of one man and one woman. . American Demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. , 21 (11), 56-62.
Manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. accepted January 20, 2003
The analysis of the data in this manuscript was funded by grant #HD36971 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The data was taken from the Add Health project, a program project designed by J. Richard Udry (PI) and Peter Bearman Peter Shawn Bearman, an American Sociologist, is Jonathan Cole Professor of the Social Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Columbia University and Director of the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy (ISERP). He received his Ph. , and funded by grant #P01-HD31921 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to the Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. Also known as The University of North Carolina, Carolina, North Carolina, or simply UNC , with cooperative funding participation by the National Cancer Institute; the National Institute of Alcohol Use and Alcoholism alcoholism, disease characterized by impaired control over the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholism is a serious problem worldwide; in the United States the wide availability of alcoholic beverages makes alcohol the most accessible drug, and alcoholism is ; the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), a member of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, is mandated to conduct and support biomedical and behavioral research and research training in the normal and disordered processes of hearing, balance, ; the National Institute on Drug Abuse The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction. ; the National Institute of General Medical Sciences The U.S. National Institute of General Medical Sciences is one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the principal biomedical research agency of the Federal Government. ; the National Institute of Mental Health The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness. ; the National Institute of Nursing Research The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, supports clinical and basic research to establish a scientific basis for the care of individuals across the life span--from management of patients during illness and recovery, to ; the Office of AIDS Research, NIH "Not invented here." See digispeak.
NIH - The United States National Institutes of Health. ; the Office of Behavior and Social Science Research, NIH; the Office of the Director, NIH; the Office of Research on Women's Health Women's Health Definition
Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues. , NIH; the Office of Population Affairs, DHHS DHHS Department of Health & Human Services (US government)
DHHS Dana Hills High School (Dana Point, California)
DHHS Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services
DHHS Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services ; the National Center for Health Statistics National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
NCHS is the United States' principal health statistics agency. , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. , DHHS; the Office of Minority Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DHHS; the Office of Minority Health, Office of Public Health and Science The Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The office is under the direction of the Assistant Secretary for Health, who serves as the Senior Advisor on public health and science issues to the Department , DHHS; the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, DHHS; and the National Science Foundation. Persons interested in obtaining data files from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health should contact the Carolina Population Center, 123 West Franklin Street The following roads are named Franklin Street:
Address correspondence to Kathleen Ford, Department of Epidemiology epidemiology, field of medicine concerned with the study of epidemics, outbreaks of disease that affect large numbers of people. Epidemiologists, using sophisticated statistical analyses, field investigations, and complex laboratory techniques, investigate the cause , School of Public Health, University of Michigan (body, education) University of Michigan - A large cosmopolitan university in the Midwest USA. Over 50000 students are enrolled at the University of Michigan's three campuses. The students come from 50 states and over 100 foreign countries. , Ann Arbor Ann Arbor, city (1990 pop. 109,592), seat of Washtenaw co., S Mich., on the Huron River; inc. 1851. It is a research and educational center, with a large number of government and industrial research and development firms, many in high-technology fields such as , MI 48109-2029; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kathleen Ford, Woosung Sohn, and James M. Lepkowski
University of Michigan