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Essays on Renaissance Music in Honour of David Fallows: Bon jour, bon mois et bonne estrenne.

Essays on Renaissance Music in Honour of David Follows: Bon jour, bon mois et bonne estrenne. Edited by Fabrice Fitch and Jacobijn Kiel. (Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music, 11.) Woodbridge, U.K.: Boydell Press, 2011. [xx, 424 p. ISBN ISBN
abbr.
International Standard Book Number


ISBN International Standard Book Number

ISBN n abbr (= International Standard Book Number) → ISBN m 
 9781843836193. $95.] Music examples, scores, facsimiles, illustrations, inventories, tables, bibliography, indexes.

To celebrate the prodigious, indispensable achievements of consummate British scholar, musicologist mu·si·col·o·gy  
n.
The historical and scientific study of music.



musi·co·log
, and teacher David Follows on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday in 2010, three generations of colleagues, friends, mentees, and former students have assembled a sterling offering of thirty-eight significant essays on music of the fifteenth through early seventeenth centuries (and a tad beyond). Lauded by Bonnie J. Blackburn, Jane Alden, and Christopher Page as "the doyen of fifteenth-century English secular music" (p. 44), "a continuing source of inspiration and guidance" (p. 33), and one for whom "music has always been about the life of others, as well as his own" (p. 8), Follows can bask in the well-deserved admiration, gratitude, and affection radiating throughout this Festschrift. Good cheer (mixed with the occasional mild spice of disputes between friends) resonates throughout this volume as well, from the subtitle paraphrasing Guillaume Du Fay's rondeau rondeau

One of several formes fixes (fixed forms) in French lyric poetry and song of the 14th–15th century, later popular with many English poets. The rondeau has only two rhymes (allowing no repetition of rhyme words) and consists of 13 or 15 lines of 8 or 10
 for New Year's, Bon jour, bon mois, bon an et bonne estrine, evoking holiday best wishes (conveniently close to the honoree's December 20 birthday) that include "good gift" (although why this special festive present hearkening back to medieval times has the later French spelling estrenne, the modern etrenne, goes unexplained) to subtle allusions in article titles and elsewhere (e.g., Alden's Ung Petit cadeau, Dagmar Hoffrnann-Axthelm's David musicus, and the fortuitous number of sixty-five titles in Warwick Edwards's hand-list, pp. 202-6), direct addresses to Follows, and photographs ranging from boyhood to seasoned professional still happily reveling in his pursuits.

The volume's list of Fallows's principle publications dating from 1973 to 2010 presents a formidable array of stellar monographs, critical and facsimile editions, catalogs, articles, and reviews, attesting to the magnitude, scope, and lasting importance of his work, much of it stemming from his long career since 1976 on the faculty of the University of Manchester The University of Manchester is a university located in Manchester, England. With over 40,000 students studying 500 academic programmes, more than 10,000 staff and an annual income of nearly £600 million it is the largest single-site University in the United Kingdom and receives  (now as emeritus). Absent are his 1978 dissertation under Philip Brett from the University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university located in Berkeley, California, United States. Commonly referred to as UC Berkeley, Berkeley and Cal  ("Robert Morton's Songs: A Study of Styles in the Mid-Fifteenth Century") and projects yet to come. Among these is an edition in Musica Britannica. Secular Polyphony, 1380-1480, cited by Blackburn (p. 47) as appearing in 2011: although "pretty much ready, ... definitely forthcoming and the labour of many years," it will not actually be in press, according to series editor Julian Rushton, until "probably ... 2014 or even 2015" (e-mail to the author dated 11 May 2012; see also http://www.musicabritannica.org.uk/volumes.html [accessed 2 June 20121). Experts and tyros alike can readily grasp Fallows.'s core scholarship issued in thirty-five journal and book articles between 1976 and 2009 by consulting Ashgate's two retrospective compilations issued in its Variorum Collected Studies series: Songs and Musicians in the Fifteenth Century (Aldershot, U.K., 1996); and Composers and Their Songs, 1400-1521 (Farnham, U.K., 2010). Quite fittingly, the magisterial command of the repertory and its sources in Fallows's award-winning A Catalogue of Polyphonic Songs, 1415-1480 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; supplemented by his ongoing list of corrections, adjustments, and additions through 3 March 2010 at http://personalpages.manchester.ac.uk/staff/david.fallows/appendix.pdf [accessed 2 June 2012]) casts its readily acknowledged, pervasive authority over the entire proceedings.

By broadly organizing the volume's contents around sources and archives, the music of Du Fay (1397?-1474) and Josquin Desprez (ca. 1450/55-1521), sacred music. polyphonic song, and cultural and reception history, editors Fabrice Fitch and Jacobijn Kiel have successfully distilled into six chapters the most germane, overarching themes of Fallows's contributions to Renaissance music through an array of articles presenting important new findings, interpretations, and perspectives, the authors of many crediting Fallows for his role in their work at hand. A summary of these essays follows.

The curtain raises auspiciously on the Festschrift with Page's "Preludio," a genial sketch of the early music movement from the early 1970s to 1990s imbedded with a vibrant portrait of Fallows in a lesser-known role as indefatigable champion of informed performance that spans his apprentice years in Berkeley (the groundbreaking 1973 LP Guillaume Way: Fifteen [i.e., Sixteen] Songs (1750 Arch Records 1751 [1974]; reissued as Musical Heritage Society MHS (1) (Message Handling Service) An earlier messaging system from Novell that supported multiple operating systems and other messaging protocols, including SMTP, SNADS and X.400. It used the SMF-71 messaging format.  4757 [1982]); now a collector's item) and later in Europe with the Studio der fruhen Musik under Thomas Binkley and Musica Reservata with Michael Morrow to his influential advocacy for professional early-music performance from his north-England post--producing from the late 1970s on an "almost ideal collaboration between a musicologist, eager to hear his chosen music performed, and performing ensembles keen to get the best possible advice" (p. 5), and some thirty-five years of authoritative recording reviews. for Gramophone magazine.

Rob C. Wegman opens the first chapter with a bravura exposition of new evidence from archival sleuthing in Amiens and Paris outlining item-by-item (with supporting diplomatic transcriptions and English translations) the legal fireworks between schoolmasters and cathedral authorities in 1459-60 that plausibly solves a longstanding conundrum by identifying Firminus Caron (Fremin le Caron), who until now had "virtually no documentary trace" (p. 10), as the composer-cleric flourishing circa flourishing circa 1435/40 to 1475/80 on par with Johannes Ockeghem and his contemporaries, whose musical accomplishment "in those few decades remains a source of wonderment" (p. 19). The intriguing interaction between patronage and verbal-visual play conveyed by the Wolfenbuttel Chansonnier, a deluxe, personalized Loire Valley compilation likely copied in the 1470s. underpins Alden's noteworthy amplification of Fallows's "brilliant observation" (p. 33) that the acrostic acrostic (əkrŏ`stĭk), arrangement of words or lines in which a series of initial, final, or other corresponding letters, when taken together, stand in a set order to form a word, a phrase, the alphabet, or the like.  formed by the initials of the codex's first twelve chansons renders the dedicatee's name ESTIENE PETIT--logically the distinguished, long-serving French royal courtier Etienne Petit II (1449-1523)--and her unveiling of more allusions to Petit in the anonymous, unique, and musically-textually curious song Pour refraindre mon appetit for the letter P. A serendipitous error in shelfmark identification led Blackburn to discover in MS 5 at Oxford's Jesus College a vellum flyleaf fly·leaf  
n.
A blank or specially printed leaf at the beginning or end of a book.


flyleaf
Noun

pl -leaves the inner leaf of the endpaper of a book

Noun 1.
 transmitting an anonymous tenor part that, with the minimal emendation e·men·da·tion  
n.
1. The act of emending.

2. An alteration intended to improve: textual emendations made by the editor.

Noun 1.
 proffered by Fallows, forms a successful duo with the su-perius of the well-known. mid-fifteenth-century English chanson chanson

(French; “song”)

French art song. The unaccompanied chanson for a single voice part, composed by the troubadours and later the trouvères, first appeared in the 12th century.
 So ys emprentid by either John Bedyngham or Walter Frye, now the earliest known instance of a new lower part appended to the top voice of an English song (fully transcribed with the su-perius from the Mellon Chansonnier). In a preliminary report replete with an inventory of both layers of contents, a handy reference list of French and Savoyard music chansonniers from ca. 1460-1500, and the promise of more exacting forensic musicology musicology, systematized study of music and musical style, particularly in the realm of historical research. The scholarly study of music of different historical periods was not practiced until the 18th cent., and few published efforts were rigorously researched. , Honey Meconi sheds valuable new light on the Sibley Music Library's so-called Rochester Fascicle fascicle /fas·ci·cle/ (fas´i-k'l)
1. a small bundle or cluster, especially of nerve, tendon, or muscle fibers.

2. a tract, bundle, or group of nerve fibers that are more or less associated functionally.
, a hitherto largely ignored palimpsest palimpsest (păl`ĭmpsĕst'): see manuscript.  manuscript fragment whose badly scraped original laver reveals the paltry remnants of a lost, elegantly decorated chansonnier dating from the late 1470s, almost completely obliterated by a later "bizarre hodge-podge of pieces in a variety of different hands" (p. 53). Gianluca D'Agostino's brief essay highlights the unexpected musical results gleaned from fifteenth-century letters and diplomatic dispatches, ranging "from references to musicians and settings otherwise unknown to information on musical repertories and musical patronage" (p. 60). with two related 1488 documents from the vast corre-spondence of Giovanni Pontano, royal secretary for Ferrante I of Aragon, king of Naples (r. 1458-94), that further exemplify the prized status held by virtuoso instrumentalists (wind players in this case) for their rule in court ceremonies, feasts, and dance music. Andrew Kirkman Kirk´man

n. 1. A clergyman or officer in a kirk.
2. A member of the Church of Scotland, as distinguished from a member of another communion.
 augments the "disproportionately wide range of archival resources" on the long and distinguished career of Johannes Sohier dit DIT

di-iodotyrosine.
 Fede, who "moved in some of the most notable musical circles of the mid-fifteenth century" but left few extant works, with the "tortured history" (p. 68) of the composer-cleric's ill-fated, four-year battle over the expectative ex·pec·ta·tive  
adj.
Of, relating to, or characterized by expectation.
 canonry can·on·ry  
n. pl. can·on·ries
1. The office or dignity of a canon.

2. Canons considered as a group.
 at the collegiate church of St. Omer in Saint-Omer (with English translations of the Latin documents). fleshing out the rival characters involved in a twisted tale of political skullduggery and ecclesiastical maneuvering that followed Louis XI's 1461 repeal of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

(July 7, 1438) Decree issued by King Charles VII of France after the Council of Basel, confirming the supremacy of a council over the pope.
.

The second and fifth chapters, dedicated to the two iconic composers most prominent in Fallows's output, act as the Festschrift's pillars. Praised as "magisterial" and "pioneering" by Margaret Bent and Alejandro Enrique Planchart (pp. 86, 103), Fallows's monograph Dufay in the Master Musicians Series (London: J. M. Dent, 1982; reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 1988; rev. ed. 1987) looms large over a strong assembly of essays on the composer. Bent leads off with a multifaceted, tightly reasoned, and copiously documented update on Du Fay's famous Vergene bella, exceptional as one of the earliest musical settings of Petrarch (d. 1374) and for its rare choice of a canzone canzone, in literature
canzone (käntsô`nā) or canzona (–nä), in literature, Italian term meaning lyric or song.
 text, masterfully weaving together the complex, interrelated threads of new findings, recent research by colleagues. and her own cautionary proposals suggesting a specific date of 1424 for a "very unusual composition" (p. 91) commissioned by the canons of Padua's cathedral to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Petrarch's death in July, possibly adopting as its text the reading from Petrarch's manuscript of his collected poems given to the dying Pandolfo II Malatesta Pandolfo II Malatesta (1325 - January 1373) was an Italian condottiero.

The son of Malatesta I Malatesta, he fought under Werner von Urslingen and Gil de Albornoz. Later served Galeazzo II Visconti of Milan, but raised the jealousy of Bernabò Visconti and fled to the Marche.
 in January 1373 and in possession of the Pesaro branch of the family for whom Du Fay likely worked in the 1420s. James Haar observes how the indication of fauxbourdon, the new, unfamiliar technique of devising an unnotated contraternor from other voices to re-create the parallel sonorities heard by Continental composers in contemporary English music, confused mid-fifteenth-century scribes from its earliest likely appearance in the Communion of Du Fay's Missa Sancti Jacobi (ca. 1429-30) onward, further pointing out the rubrics for fauxbourdon from Italian sources that describe an alternative mode of deriving the third voice from the tenor (rather than the discantus) in the tradition of improvised two-voice counterpoint, and those Du Fay hymns with alternate verses employing fauxbourdon or a composed contratenor--ultimately inspiring him to suggest "that we need to listen to, and try to sing polyphony of the primo quattrocento in a way unaffected, as lar as possible, by the norms of later polyphony" (p. 102). Plan-chart's essay, dovetailing nicely with Haar's by reiterating. "the enormous efflorescence efflorescence: see hydrate.  of fauxbourdmi in Du Fay's music" (p..105), concentrates on the two crucial decades of the 1430s-1440s when the composer "was connected most of the time ... to establishments where the performance of the liturgy strictly per ye was the central concern" (p. 113) and Du Fay's projects to create long-range, liturgically ordered cycles for the Mass and Office and his "apparently conscious distinctions in the kind of musical rhetoric appropriate to each" (p. 103). confirming the composer's evolving approaches to transforming plainsongs into discantus melodies resembling the top voice of fifteenth-century song (the hymn, and Kyries, "the true laboratory for the new style," p. 105), chant paraphrase and the elaboration of plainchant (settings of the Magnificat), and "the melodic spaciousness" (p. 110) achieved in settings of the longer chants. With elegant at prose and a detailed table of all occurrences, Jesse Rodin enlightens us on the opulent melismatic writing in Du Fay's thirty-nine early chansons from the 1420s through ca. 1435 extant in Bodleian Library manuscript Canon. misc. 213, focusing on the formal and aesthetic functions on the remarkable introductory meslismas in twelve of them, doting on the "radically different stylistic universe [s]" inhabited by Adieu ces bons vins de Lannoy and Ma belle dame souverainne, and ultimately capturing the essence of these passages "as it kind of elaborate ribbon around a precious gift--a lavish decoration that permits the composer to begin with a nourish" (p. 123). Lorenz Welker reviews the facts and hypotheses regarding Portugaler, "one of the most puzzling pieces of music in the fifteenth century." (p. 121, widely popular in various settings and transformations (with contested ascriptions to Du Fay in two independent sources), whose sifting of the evidence scattered throughout Continental and English manuscripts leads to his conclusions that the associated anonymous song Or me veldt in the Mellon Chansonnier is an awkward secondary texting of an originally instrumental piece whose ballade-like form and sectional phrase structure acquired a geographical moniker through connections with dance music and the basse danse tradition--and, more controversially, that "Portugaler is the only extant piece of instrumental music by Guillaume Du Fay" (p. 136).

The fifth chapter confirms the rapid impact that Fallows's recent imposing study Josquin (Turnhout: Brepols. 2009) has already wielded on the lively scholarly discourse concerning the compose! And works attributable to him. In one of the Festschrift's key essays, John Milsom, seeking to "canvass for more precision" (p. 261) on what is meant by polyphonic "style" around 1500, uses the disputed authorship of the motet Absalon fili mi to frame a partial methodology for forensic analysis, "focusing narrowly on the substance of the fuga (imitation) on which the polyphony is founded" (p. 261) to unfold "new and potentially useful lines of enquiry" (p. 262) that exact a distinctively pervasive profile seemingly pointing toward one composer in particular--affirming the need to understand polyphonic "style" in "terms not only of the music's sounding surface, but also of its underlying substance and the compositional craft used to generate it," and to forge ahead "it we are finally to unmask the identity of the elusiveI Absalon Master" (p. 271). Applying criticism and linear analysis in his "essentially agnostic" (p. 272) reassessment of the equivocal evidence surrounding the hotly debated authorship of the four-voice chanson Mille re-gretz, Fitch discerns symmetrical designs, motivic mo·tiv·ic  
adj. Music
Of or relating to a motif: sparse motivic improvisations. 
 correspondences, and a level of sophistication so·phis·ti·cate  
v. so·phis·ti·cat·ed, so·phis·ti·cat·ing, so·phis·ti·cates

v.tr.
1. To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly.

2.
 not entirely outside the parameters of' works securely ascribed to Josquin, leading him to regard Follows's inclusion of the chanson in the New Josquin Edition (vol. 28, Secular Works for Four Voices [Utrecht: Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muzickgeschiedenis, 2005]) "as a matter not of conviction, but of prudence" (p. 278). Eric Jos presents a hitherto "unscrutinized and unedited specimen" (p. 286) of a work attributed to Josquin in MS Magliabechi XIX.I07bis in Florence's Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale can refer to:
  • Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Firenze
  • Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Roma
, the motet In pace ill idipsum (copied 1.7,03-13 without text), which upon thorough review reveals mipolished characteristics "quite unlike anything found in Josquin's authentic im nets in which a chant is paraphrased" (p. 290), and appends a critical edition from which readers can draw their own conclusions about this neglected piece's authenticity. Jeffrey J. Dean untangles interrelationships between three cantos firmus settings of the monophonic (1) Also called "mono" and "monaural," it refers to the reproduction of sound using a single channel. Contrast with stereophonic.

(2) Playing only one note at a time. Contrast with polyphonic.
 chanson Comment peult avoir joye: Josquin's four-voice canonic version (lacking a complete text) and two anonymous contrafacta, the late-1470s motet Huc omnes pariter in Ottaviano Petrucci's Motetti C (Venice, 1504), displaying strong Josquinian associations, and the Hine-voice, ca. 1540 Celorum decus Maria (wrongly ascribed to Josquin in MS 218 of Verona's Societa Accademia Filarmonica and possibly stemming from a textless composition by French-born musicians active in Italy)--with his ensuing argument that the pre-existing tune's recurrent phrases in the earlier motet's lower voices suggest the singing of three lost stanzas of the original poem hindered by an absence of music examples. In a category of its own, Jaap van Benthem's very brief discourse at the start of the chapter reflects tin Josquin's negative moods in the "sometimes haunting texts" of his seven five-voice "sublime short settings" of only live decasyllabic lines, "Specimens of a unique musical perfection" conveying "sublimations of uncontrolled feelings of despair" (pp. 258, 260).

The third chapter's essays consider sacred music from several repertories and time periods. Kinuho) Endo reconsiders the unique composite lass copied ca. 1426-25 at the opening of manuscript Q15 from Bologna's Mussica Internazionale e Biblioteca della Musica with its apparently irrationally paired Gloria and Credo attributed to Johannes Ciconia (d. 1412) and four surrounding movements to Arnold de Lantins Arnold de Lantins (fl. 1420s, d. before July 2, 1432) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Medieval era and early Renaissance. He is one of a few composers who shows aspects of both medieval and Renaissance style, and was a contemporary of Dufay during that composer's sojourn  (d. 1432) as possibly "an unusually intriguing essay in cyclic Mass composition" (p. 145). hypothesizing that the assembler of the cycle, perhaps Lantins himself. deliberately picked this Gloria from several by Ciconia and speculating on an enduring influence of Guillaume de Machaut's Messe de Nostre Dame Messe de Nostre Dame (Mass of Our Lady) is a polyphonic mass composed before 1365 by the French poet, composer and cleric Guillaume de Machaut (circa 1300-1377). One of the great masterpieces of medieval music and of all religious music, it is the earliest complete setting of the  (composed fifty years earlier) on cyclic Masses from the fifteenth century's initial decades. Joshua Rifkin opines (and even ventures into informed fantasy) about possible recurrent interactions and exchanges of "trade secrets'. and "shoptalk shop·talk  
n.
1. Talk or conversation concerning one's work or business.

2. The jargon used in a specific business or field.
 in which all artists habitually indulge" (pp. 146, 152) that likely transpired between Johannes Martini (ca. 1436/10--)7) and Jacob Obrecht (1157/8-1505 ) while the two composers were briefly together at the court of Ferrara in late 1487 and early 1488, methodically probing "tantalizing tan·ta·lize  
tr.v. tan·ta·lized, tan·ta·liz·ing, tan·ta·liz·es
To excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach.
 clues" (p. 146) of potential musical interconnections (with;1, heavy arsenal of (Outflows) between Martini's Missa to ne tengo quanto a te and the anonymous sung Mass in MS K.1.2 Siena's Biblioteca Cumunale degli Intronati (now firmly at attributed to Obrecht), the first appearance of one of Obrecht's -segmentation masses in Ferrara, and the only occurrence of this cantus firmus technique in Martini's Missa La martinella; might. Martini have learned of this practice from the cycle of six anonymous L'homme came Masses owned by the Hungarian queen Beatrice of Aragon while visiting Hungary in the slimmer of 1487, subsequently sharing this discovery with his younger colleague? Thomas Schmidt-Beste enlightens us on the vast numbers of little-known declamatory songs and motets written in conductus conductus: see motet.  or cantio style that flourished in it rid Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries by addressing the broadtly transmitted output of mid-fifteenth-century Polish composer Petrus Wilhelmi of Grudencz, one the few known composers of this mostly anonymous repertory, and the exceptional musical and rhythmic structure of his compositions. specifically how he molded their inherently homophonic hom·o·phon·ic  
adj.
1. Having the same sound.

2. Having or characterized by a single melodic line with accompaniment.



[From Greek homoph
 texture and rigid disyllabic patterns of long-short declamation into building blocks of rhythmic cells in binary-ternary patterns and "enciless kaleidoscopic permutations" of astonishing variety to create a unique. "playful style of cellular counterpoint (p. 162), pin I() spectacular use in his four-voice rotulus (or canon) Praesolem ephebeatum. Richard Sherr challenges the standard anti-papal interpretation of the text for Loyset Comprere's five-voice motet Sola caret monstris, with references to Pope Julius II Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. His reign was marked by an aggressive foreign policy and ambitious building projects. He is commonly known as the "Warrior Pope".  (r. 1503-13), King Louis XII (r. 1198-1515). the fern pessima (evil beast), and the biblical betrayal of Joseph, by reasserting seemingly insurmountable obstacles to this interpretation--the piece's unique presence in correct liturgical sequence (along with two other Compere com·pere   Chiefly British
n.
The master of ceremonies, as of a television entertainment program or a variety show.

v. com·pered, com·per·ing, com·peres

v.tr.
 motets, one. begging God to preserve "our pope Julius") in a choirbook copied by the papal chapel's scribe to provide polyphony for singing the papal Mass during JuliuS's pontificate--offering a compelling counterproposal coun·ter·pro·pos·al  
n.
A proposal offered to nullify or substitute for a previous one.

Noun 1. counterproposal - a proposal offered as an alternative to an earlier proposal
 based on an amended translation that better reflects shifting politics between France and the papacy in 1507-8 and 1510-12. Peter Wright argues persuasively for upping the number of works attributed to the early-fifteenth-century composer Byttering from live (all in the Old Hall Manuscript The Old Hall Manuscript (British Library, Additional MS 57950) is the largest, most complete, and most significant source of English sacred music of the late 14th and early 15th centuries, and as such represents the best source for English music of the late Medieval era. , completed ca. in the Old Hall Manuscript, completed ca. 1415-21) to six by comparing an anonymous concordance for one of the two Glorias (Old Hall no. 17) in the Aosta Codex with another unattributed un·at·trib·ut·ed  
adj.
Not attributed to a source, creator, or possessor: an unattributed opinion. 
, likely English. Gloria also in this source to uncover a number of common compositional features that point to "the kind of stylistic kinship typically found among pieces written the same composer at about the same time" (p. 175). plus codicological evidence confirming that the two Aosta Glorias were originally adjacent in the manuscript and only later separated.

The fourth chapter broadly explores nearly two hundred years of Spanish, French, German, and English polyphonic song. Tess Knighton focuses on several clearly experimental songs not easily adhering to standard categories among the hundreds of pieces in the manuscript 1335 of Madrid's Pallacio Real (the so-called Cancionero Musical de Palacio), specifically montana pasando by the Seville cathedral choirmaster and later canon Garcimunos (fl. 1507-46), a through-composed. sophisticated. and striking musical narrative incorporating two city songs of popular origin and ending with a Latin biblical quotation (a possible model for Mateo Flecha's of the 1530s), evincing a new type nt polyphonic song evolving within court circles after 1500--in this case one linked symbolically to the Catholic monarchs andd possibly written immediately after Queen Isabella's death in 1504. Two significant studies offer complementary albeit oddly nonadjacent) reconsiderations of the oeuvre and shifting styles of the itinerant Flemish composer Heinrich Isaac (ca. 1450-1517) before entering the service of Emperor Maximilian I in 1496. Warwick Edwards reconsiders received notions about the vernacular songs Isaac composed before his arrival in Florence in 1481/5. presenting for consideration what surely will become a springboard for future scholarly comment--a hand-list of sixty-five secular songs and song-related compositions of "putatively pre-Italian origin" (p. 199) grouped into the six categories that may connote a considerably well-stocked pre-Italian portfolio and also divulge some conjectural clues about the composer's unknown early life: formative years spent in a predominantly French-speaking area in the Brabant; the youthful musician influenced by Antoine Busnoys (who joined the Burgundian court in 1466/67); and time spent in German-speaking lands. Although unsynchronized with Edwards's rethinking of the early works, Keith Polk continues with Isaac's critical years just before 1485 and not long after 1490, concentrating on stylistic traits in the four-voice secular music, which reveal a new aesthetic and "revolutionary approach to composition" (p. 251): versatility and adaptability (lssac's genius of putting on "a new hat whenever .demanded," p. 255); conspicuous repetition (learned from others and absorbed into his own vocabulary); structural definition ("extremely profiled motives" within transparent and varied textures, "utterly at odds with the style of the late Burgundian chanson that predominated into the early 1480s," p. 253); and fantasia (motivic reworking to form "one of the most subtle and deeply complex aspects of Isaac's style," p. 254). Applying Fallows's principle that "formal agreement remains the most easily quantifiable relationship between text and music" (13. 208), Adam Knight Gilbert persuasively justifies reuniting the untexted, anonymous chanson Dedos la mer in MS 871 of the Montecasino Abbey Library with the hybrid rondeau ballad ow "Dedans la mer de longue actente" (Wi Ii the Sea of Long Waiting), laden with alle gory referencing Duke Charles d'Orleans's long English captivity (1415-40), to unveil an intimate relationship between text arid music (aided by the appended full transcription. of the restored work) as well as distinctive stylistic traits, which, despite the acknowledged cliff Unities in discerning "whether similarities between two works result from imitation or shared authorship" (p. 212), suggest two possible composers for this "miniature masterpiece" (p. 215): the previously encountered Firminus Caron or the unknown author (Robert Morton?) of the closely related chanson Gardis le trait. Gilles Binchois's cheerful rondeau Margarite mar·ga·rite  
n.
1. A rock formation that resembles beads, found in glassy igneous rocks.

2. Archaic A pearl.



[Ultimately from Greek
, fleur de valeur, whose eight-line text resembles a secularized prayer formation, receives subjective. densely descriptive, and isolated analysis by Markus Jan that considers compositional "soul-mapping" (p. 221). how the discantus serves as the priman means for musically expressing the text (while exploring vexing problems of differing text underlay in the sources), and variants in the tenor and particularly the contratenor--demonstrated in an oddly textless, comparative transcription of piece With the variant tenor readings in m. 31 surely misplaced by an octave. Cast in superb prose that notes Byrd "was not one to compose thoughtlessly," venerable British bibbographer and Byrd scholar Oliver Neighbour proves that the twenty-one -unarming pieces" in three and four parts opening the Songs of Sundrie Natures (London: Thomas East. 1589) are indeed worthy of a -little more attention.' (p. 227) by demonstrating that the need to provide new, quality English part songs for smaller ensembles of voice inspired Byrd's unprecedented, coherently grouped yet varied three-voice settings of metrical versions of the first verses of the seven Penitential Psalms (nos. 1-7) and challenged him to find suitable texts and musical responses for the ensuing two sets of three-and four-part secular songs (nos. 8-1.1 and 15-21), which lack the comprehensive plan of the sacred pieces. Anthony Rooky rook·y  
adj.
Of, characteristic of, or abundant in rooks.
, renowned lutenist lu·te·nist also lu·ta·nist  
n.
A lute player. Also called lutist.



[Medieval Latin lt
 and director of the Consort of Musicke. applies his unique perspective and expertise as a longstanding performer to a thorough and engaging stylistic comparison (richly endowed with facsimile reproductions) of four nearly contemporaneous lute-song settings of Thomas Campion's lyric poem "I Must Complain," a brilliant "English chiaroscuro chiaroscuro (kyärōsk`rō) [Ital.,=light and dark], term once applied to an early method of printing woodcuts from several blocks and also to works in black and white or monotone.  exuding an unresolved (ension" (p. 235), to "get to the kernel of creative inspiration" (p. 233): John Dowland's 1603 setting (from the Third and Last Hooke of Songs or A ire. s [London: P. S[hort] for Thomas Adams], a refined vet complex example of compositional yin ill despite being one of his less-well-known songs; Campion's own setting published ca. 1617 in the Third and Fourth Booke of Ayres (London: Thomas Snodham) in A severely restrained style emphasizing simplicity and song as heightened speech that mirrors Continental efforts "to revive classical attitudes. prosody prosody: see versification.
prosody

Study of the elements of language, especially metre, that contribute to rhythmic and acoustic effects in poetry.
, and performance practice" (p. 237); and two anonymous manuscript versions: an amateur piece roughly From the 1610s showing English song in transition front the lute ayre (British Library NIS Additional 15117): and an early form of English continuo song likely from a singer's album of the 1620s (0xford, Christ Church Library MS Mus. 439), replete with vocal embellishments, additions (including two more stanzas), and amendments.

Addressing diverse aspects of cultural and reception theory in eight essays, the sixth chapter represents the Festschrift's omnium gatherum. Within an overview of the one substantial musical production of composer Homer Herpol (ca. 1520-1573)--the motet collection on Gospel texts Is/ovum et insigne opus mu, IN (Nuremberg: Ulrich Neuber & Johann Berg's Erben, 1565)--Iain Fenlon intertwines vignettes of several Catholic pupils, friends, and associates surrounding Heinricus Glareanus (1488-1563), Herpol's teacher in Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg im Breisgau (frī`brk ĭm brīs`gou), city (1994 pop. 197,380), Baden-Württemberg, SW Germany, near the Rhine River and at the edge of the Black Forest.  between 1555 and 1557, principally the publication's two dedicatees: Otto Truchsess von Waldburg Otto Truchsess von Waldburg (b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 February1514; d. at Rome, 2 April1573) was a German Catholic theologian, who was Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73). , Prince-Bishop of Augsburg (1514-73), who oversaw the Catholic revival in the .city, founded a music chapel at the cathedral and the Jesuit College at nearby Dillingen, commissioned Jacobus de Kerle's Preces specialis (Venice: Antonio Gardano, 1562) for the Council of' Trent, and to whom Glareanus dedicated his Dodekachordon (Basle: Heinrich Petri, 1547); and Swabian noble Johann Egolf von KnOrigen, Glareantts's pupil and Truchsess's successor, whose vast library (via the Jesuit College in Ingoldstacli and then Lancishut) eventually ended up in Munich's Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat; Fenlon also touches on the "centrality of' _josquin's music in Glareanus's own thinking and teaching" (pp. 309-10) and the reciprocal exchange of books between fellow humanists and co-religionists of the Erasmus circle. (Of incidental note, Fenton is off by about 12 miles to the east in locating Brandeis University in. Boston rather than Waltham, MA when citing the cantus
''Cantus redirects here. For other meanings of "cantus", see Cantus (disambiguation)


A cantus (Latin for 'singing', derived from 'canere'), is an activity organised by Belgian and Dutch and Baltic student organisations and fraternities.
 partbook of the Herpol edition now located there; this review's author secured the acquisition of the exquisite collective volume containing it while Creative Arts Librarian there in 1999 (see Notes, vol. 56, no. 4 [June 20001: 926-28). Eugeen Schreurs reports on the complex bureaucracy under which institutions must operate in Flanders, where the efforts to establish a cultural heritage policy for this independent region of Belgium led to the 2003 Topstukkendecreet; Fallows's role in establishing the first list of tangible musical items worthy of receiving this new " exceptionally important" status; and Schreurs's frustration that the astonishing copy in Antwerp's Koninklijk Conservatorium of the Dodekachordon transmitting meticulously notated autograph errata and supplementary notes (here reproduced in three facsimile reproductions and selective transcriptions) remains unrecognized as a Topstuk (i.e., chef d'ceuvre)--calling to our attention the need for "recommendations by foreign experts" (p. 379) and the state of a musical patrimony scattered over many repositories in Flanders, with good inventories often lacking and the possibility of finding fragments and even complete books ever present. By explicating the convoluted, well-established systems of credit (which promised payment to musicians when financial backing was missing) that operated concurrently with "an underlying concept of deferred fulfilment" (1-1 325) in the Low Countries from 1467 to 1500, Barbara Haggh unravels the paradox of how it was possible for "an unprecedented density of new developments in music" (p. 318), evinced by a remarkable proliferation of polyphony and its supporting institutions and foundations, to thrive in an era of political chaos and extreme economic and social misery. In an English revision of her "David und Saul: Uber die trostende Wirkung der Musik (Basler Jahrbuch fur Historische Musikpraxis 20 [1996]: 139-62), Hoffmann-Axthelm summarizes the commonplace or string music's power as "a sonorous sonorous

resonant; sounding.
 antidepressant" to console melancholia MELANCHOLIA, med. jur. A name given by the ancients to a species of partial intellectual mania, now more generally known by the name of monomania. (q.v.) It bore this name because it was supposed to be always attended by dejection of mind and gloomy ideas. Vide Mania., , from its biblical roots in David's temporarily soothing the depressed King Saul by playing his kinnor (cithara cithara: see kithara. ), through layers of applied symbolism by Christian writers, reversals by Renaissance humanists to an conceptions of music's healing qualities, the "Cifras para harpa y organo" with an annotated King David woodcut ending Alsonso Mudarra's Tres libros de musica en cifras para vihuela (Seville: Juan de Leo, 1546), the account of David's curing Saul with his music in Johann. Kuhnau's Musicalische Vorstellung einiger biblischer Historien (Leipzig, Immanuel Tiesen, 1700; wrongly dated 1770 on p. 334), and George Frideric Handel's oratorio Saul (1738). Displaying a dazzling command of sources and reveling in witty prose that renders a potentially deadly topic surprisingly readable, Leofranc Holford-Strevens expounds on the litany of praises for "the merits and utility of music" (p. 338) expressed around quotations from classical authorities, church fathers, and medieval treatises Renaissance theorists and numerous humanistic writers as signs of their culture and erudition. Andrea Lindmayr-Brandl provides a snapshot of music's role in sixteenth-century German civic life with the first critical study on the accuracy, placement, and historical.context of the relevant iconography (including facsimile reproductions of the seven plates depicting musicians) in Frankfurt publisher Sigmund Feyerabend's 1568 Eygentliche Beschreibung alter Stande auff Erden ... a Standehuch cooperatively produced with woodcut artist Jost Amman and poet Hans Sachs to portray within a series of 114 plates and accompanying poems various occupations arranged more by "associative combination" (p. 354) than by social status. How the strong influence of nationalism manifested itself' on the formulation of Spanish historiography at the end of the nineteenth century in Fuses Esperanza Rodriguez-Garcia's telling account of the "bibliographical plot" (p. 367) by. Felipe Pedrell (1841-1922), one of the founders of Spanish musicology, to transform iii the fifth volume of his eight-volume monument Hispaniae schola musica sacra sa·cra  
n.
Plural of sacrum.
 dedicated to major Spanish Renaissance composers (Barcelona: Nol, 1894-98; reprint, New York: Johnson Reprint, 1971) the "skillful ... but not remarkably talented" (p. 366) provincial Aragonese composer Gilles Perez (d. 1600) into a fabricated ideal Spanish chapelmaster devoted to music and his religious career, a precocious genius even greater than Palest dna. The Festschrift ends with a multifaceted, thought-provoking, and potentically controversial tour-de-force wherein Reinhard Strohm questions what Renaissance actually means in music by confronting the "historiographical concept of 'Early European music' " (p. 383) and what makes it different, thus challenging us to reassess a host of received in >dons that may lead to a clef & miliarization of the medieval cultural world as too radically different from our own, the contrasting fallacies of remoteness and proximity, and a "divided retrospection" (p. 383), with cogent reflections on the theoretical recognition of authorial status by the turn of the fifteenth century trim "distinguished the respective functions of composers and performers of musical works" (p. 381); a music history without the medieval wherein "European music knows no an with the so-called Middle Ages representing "the first, not the second phase of our musical tradition" (p. 383); a reckoning "that the listeners of the past heard things more differently from us than their written evaluations may disclose" (p. 385); and an evocation of parallels in the modern age, concluding provocatively with the speculation that "we may be living in the first genuine European Renaissance of music"

This recent volume in the series Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music manifests the high production standards now expected from Boydell and Brewer publications. Attractive fonts clearly offset the texts, tables, transcribed documents, and appendixes, and the generous number of music examples. illustrations, and facsimile reproductions enhance the book's utility and visual appeal as does the fetching image from an uncredited Renaissance music manuscript reproduced on the binding's front hoard and spine. The one glaring miscalculation mis·cal·cu·late  
tr. & intr.v. mis·cal·cu·lat·ed, mis·cal·cu·lat·ing, mis·cal·cu·lates
To count or estimate incorrectly.



mis·cal
 is an inadequately sized text block unable to accommodate many of the music examples properly. Their shoehorning Shoehorning is a ploy alleged by skeptics to be used by psychics as a way to make it sound like their prophecies or those of earlier prophets had come true. The process involves taking an earlier prophecy and attempting to affix a current event to it, with the event apparently  beyond the text margins can spoil the mise-en-page (for example. the unattractive positioning at the end of Rosin's article. pp. 122-23) and sometimes flirts perilously close to disaster the trimming blade came within a millimeter of the review copy's example on page 148, for instance, and close shaves abound throughout the volume--a serious issue if the volume is ever rebound. The uncredited compiler of the exemplary index deserves our highest praise for creating such an efficient tool for discovering the Festschrift's many riches--note that every theorist from the plethora cited by Holford-Strevens, for example, is present. and the comprehensive alphabetical list of all 154 cited manuscripts that perfectly pairs with the more detailed inventory given in the front matter. I do, however, rue the absence of a parallel list (with corresponding RISM RISM Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (International Inventory of Musical Sources)
RISM Reduced Instruction Set Model
RISM Research Institute of Special Machinery
 numbers) of the many important printed sources also mentioned in the essays. Typographical gremlins are inevitable in such a complex production, but I found few, along with only rare slips in house style (roman vs. italic font for fauxbourdon in Haar and Planchart and two possessive forms for Glareanus in the same paragraph. p. 308, for instance). Some tightening up by firmer editorial hands could have enhanced the presentation and argument of the very few weaker articles, and the three well-intentioned intermedii inserted between the odd-and even-numbered chapters strike me as off-kilter miscalculations--time-traveling guests, so to speak, who have shown up at the wrong party. Two are compositions in modern idioms dedicated to Follows: van Benthem's short, polytonal piano piece Yes, We Were Young fin a holograph A will or deed written entirely by the testator or grantor with his or her own hand and not witnessed.

State laws vary widely in regard to the status of a holographic will.
 reproduction dated 1959, years before the two met); and Fitch's "Agricola VIII/Obrecht Canon III: De tons biens plaine" a complex, semi-aleatoric piece For four stringed instruments composed in 2010, for which two pages of painstaking performance directions offer nary a hint on how the many short, arrhythmic ar·rhyth·mic
adj.
Lacking rhythm or regularity of rhythm.
 cells with intervals beyond the wildest Renaissance imagination relate to the composers in the title. We can infer from the booklet accompanying recordings of two earlier such pieces, Agricola I and III, on the 2006 Fretwork compact disc of Agricola's chansons [Har-monia Mundi HMU 907421] that it is the latest installment in Fitch's ongoing multi-movement cycle Agricologies commemorating the quincentenary quin·cen·ten·a·ry  
n. pl. quin·cen·ten·a·ries
A 500th anniversary or celebration.

adj.
Of or relating to a span of 500 years or to a 500th anniversary.
 of the composer Alexander Agricola's death in 1506. Lost to late-nineteenth-century scholars between articles on Josquin and Herpol, the third intennedio features an essay in German by Peter Gfilke on Johannes Brahms's late monologs, the four sets of exquisitely reflective Klavierstikke, opp. 116-19, written in 1891-93 at the sunset of the composer's life. How these relate to Follows or the Renaissance is never made clear.

Very minor criticisms aside, this reasonably priced volume, sponsored by the Royal Northern College of Music The roots of the college begin in the late 19th Century with Sir Charles Hallé's Royal Manchester College of Music. In 1973, the Royal Manchester College of Music and the Northern School of Music merged to create the modern-day RNCM. , Manchester and the Royal Musical Association, is an outstanding and beautifully wrought. tribute to a renowned scholar and educator held in the highest esteem by his peers and all those familiar with his work. The Fallows Festschrift will be long consulted for its many state-of-the art contributions to musicology and for further enlightening our still-evolving knowledge of music in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It is, therefore, an essential purchase for all academic libraries supporting rigorous study of the Renaissance and us music.

DARWIN F. SCOTT

Princeton University
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Author:Scott, Darwin F.
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Date:Dec 1, 2012
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