Environmental tobacco smoke linked to behavior problems.A study conducted by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center is a hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. In June of 1883, a meeting of women from parish communities around Cincinnati established a mission to create a Diocesan Hospital for Children. shows that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke environmental tobacco smoke (ETS/passive smoke),
n the gaseous by-product of burning tobacco products, including but not limited to commercially manufactured cigarettes and cigars; contains toxic elements harmful to the health of adults and children , even at extremely low levels, is associated with behavior problems in children and preteens.
Dr. Kimberly Yolton, a researcher at the Cincinnati Children's Environmental Health Center and the study's main author, examined 225 children and preteens who were exposed to at least five cigarettes a day. On average, the children were exposed to approximately 14 cigarettes a day. The study considered only children who had asthma; the children were enrolled in an asthma intervention study, and Yolton included additional measures to assess their behaviors. But she thinks the findings most likely could be extrapolated to include children without asthma who "act out" or experience depression and anxiety.
To measure exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, Yolton measured levels of cotinine cotinine (kō´tinēn),
n a substance that remains in body fluids after nicotine has been used. Presence of this chemical in body fluids is considered proof of recent nicotine use. in the blood. Cotinine is a substance produced when nicotine nicotine, C10H14N2, poisonous, pale yellow, oily liquid alkaloid with a pungent odor and an acrid taste. It turns brown on exposure to air. is broken down by the body, and it can be measured in blood, urine, saliva saliva
Thick, colourless fluid constantly present in the mouth, composed of water, mucus, proteins, mineral salts, and amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starches. One to two litres are produced daily by the salivary glands. , and hair. It is considered the best available marker of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
Yolton found a relationship between cotinine levels and the following patterns: increases in acting out; increases in holding things in, often manifested by anxiety and depression; increases in behavior problems as rated by parents and behavior and school problems as rated by teachers; and decreases in the ability to adapt to behavior problems.
"The greater the exposure to tobacco smoke, the greater the problems these children had," says Yolton. "Behavior problems in children have increased from 7 to 18 percent over the last 20 years for reasons that are poorly understood. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for child behavior problems."
In the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , about 25 percent of children are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes; more than 50 percent of children have detectable levels of cotinine in their blood, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
Previous studies have found links between tobacco smoke and birth weight, number of infections, and other health problems, including asthma exacerbations. In a groundbreaking study in 2002, Yolton found that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, even at extremely low levels, is associated in children and adolescents with decreases in certain cognitive skills cognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component , including reading, math, logic, and reasoning.