Entrepreneurship needs and achievement motivations of descendant Latin-Japanese entrepreneurs in Japan.INTRODUCTION
Despite a vast geographical and economic distance, the second largest migrant population in Japan comes from Latin American counties of Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Columbia, and Paraguay (Kagami, 2002). These countries account for more than 98 per cent of the total migrants from Latin Amercia (National Statistics Centre, 2008). As on 2008, 32.2 per cent of these immigrants hold the status of permanent residents, 19.6 per cent are spouses of Japanese nationals, 44.3 per cent are long-term residents, and 1.1 per cent are short-time visitors (sightseeing, business, cultural and academic activities, and visiting relatives). About 2 per cent of the immigrants hold visa status as specialists in humanities and international services, entertainers, skilled laborers, college students, trainees, and dependents (National Statistics Centre, 2008). An overwhelming big number also comes to visit relatives, and then engage in factory job, entertainment business, and other quick income earning activities (Ministry of Justice/Japan, 1991-2009).
Japan-Latin America immigration relationship has a long history. Since 1899 Japanese nationals started migrating to Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay in search of a better lifestyle and secured fortune (Higuchi, 2005; Ministry of Foreign Affairs/Japan, 2008). Although immigration from Japan was stopped temporarily during the two World Wars, it resumed under intergovernmental arrangements and schemes after the Second World War and continued until the early 1970s, and eventually a large Japanese descent population grew up in this region (Ministry of Foreign Affairs/Japan, 2008). Japan resumed its national reconstruction in 1945, achieved a remarkable economic success since the 1960s, and turned out to be the second biggest economic power after the USA (Minami, 1994). Being lured by its economic success and subsequent affluence, children, grandchildren, and relatives of those Japanese migrants (in other words their descendents) followed a reverse course to Japan, nicknamed dekasegi (wage earner from abroad) to seek wealth and good fortune (Salgado-Mendoza, 2004). In concert with this paradigm shift of immigration, their governments developed and implemented separate and joint programs, polices, and laws to match with respective conditions of receiving and sending immigrants (Komai, 2001; Kashiwazaki, 2002; Masterson, 2003; Ministry of Foreign Affairs/Japan; 2010).
Immigrants of Japanese descent gradually started to establish small-scale business ventures in restaurant, food and drink, entertainment, import and export, language school, and consultancy (National Statistics Centre, 2008). Compared with fellow immigrants from Korea, China, India, and other Asian countries, their engagement in business activities was very slow at first. Prima facie investigation, however, shows that the number in business has increased very rapidly. Japanese immigration laws and regulations are relatively friendly to people wishing to establish business activities (Higuchi, 2005; Ministry of Justice/Japan, 2000; Kashiwazaki & Akaha, 2006), and community-based organizations and local government authorities provided special privileges and services to set-up and manage legitimate business activities.
International migration between Japan and Latin America thus started and flourished with the mundane objectives of employment and wage income in the migration destinations. For Japanese migrants in Latin America, it gradually evolved to marriage, long term residence, and acquisition of fixed assets. At a more advanced stage, the migrants were not satisfied with their resident status, and tried to establish business facilities, own and manage companies and enterprises, and obtain nationality (Khondaker, 2009). With the transition to second generation, the migrant children developed a distance from their native language, lifestyle, and culture, and gradually became merged into the culture and lifestyle of immigrating society. Eventually, they focused their attention on politics, large-scale economic activities, bureaucracy, and philanthropy, and challenged to increase stakes in these and activities. Japanese immigrants were found to hold such high positions as President, Legislator, Minister, Ambassador, political party head, and company executives, and succeeded in conducting many high profile business and philanthropic activities (Khondaker, 2009). Latin descents in Japan lately exhibit immense potentials in business and economic activities. Although they initially came for economic reasons and were forced to do the so-called dirty, dangerous, and difficult jobs (Komai, 2001; Douglas & Roberts, 2000), at a certain stage after accumulating language abilities and investible funds, they started business activities to command more wealth, affluence, and economic influence (Khondaker, 1996, 2009).
In view of the above transformation of migration pattern between Japan and Latin America and of the Latin descents' conditions in Japan, this research aims to examine enthusiasm, motives, and needs of these entrepreneur-turned dekasegi wage earners in running business. The paper draws on the theories of entrepreneurship need/motivation in business management and industrial psychology for a theoretical framework of research. In line with researches of Maslow (1943, 1954), Murray (1938, 1943), McGregor (1960, 1966), and McClelland (1955, 1961, 1965), it examines the five categories of needs, namely need for achievement, need for power, need for affiliation, need for security, and need for status to explore the nature and level of needs and motivations of Latin entrepreneurs in Japan.
Most researchers consider money, wealth, power, name, fame, and achievement, etc. at the locus of entrepreneurial motivation (Drucker, 1964; McGregor, 1960, 1966; McClelland, 1981, 1987). Motivation theories argue that behind all income earning activities, some needs and motives such as safety, zeal, challenge, actualization of ability, power, and influence do play significant role. In other words, people wish to achieve at least one or more objectives through their work (Maslow, 1943, 1954; McGregor, 1960, 1966). Especially, the theory of achievement motivation of entrepreneurs and managers found that active and dormant needs invoke actions in people (McClelland, 1955, 1961, 1965; McClelland & Winter, 1969). Latin-descent entrepreneurs in Japan take up business activities in order to realize their needs of gaining more power in society that remain dormant at the initial stage of immigration. (Durand & Shea, 1974; Khondaker, 2009).
Experiments by researchers in management, behavioral science, industrial psychology, sociology, and economics examined entrepreneurial motives. Knight (192l) examined motives of fighting against uncertainties, Weber (1930) examined religious beliefs; Schumpeter (1934) examined technological innovation; Harbison (1956) studied organization building; Hoselitz (1960) explored skill and leadership; McClelland (1961) experimented on high achievement and success; Hagen (1962) studied on heightening social status and position; and Liebenstein (1968) researched on filling market gap and extracting latent potentials as motives among potential entrepreneurs.
Murray (1938, 1943) and McClelland (1961, 1965) conducted revolutionary research and experiments which received wide admiration from all over the world. Their findings, best known as the need achievement theory of entrepreneurship development and education, have encouraged scholars and professionals to conduct both theoretical and applied research on achievement needs and motivations (Sagie & Elizur, 1999; Ross & Rausch, 2001; Tauer & Harackiewicz, 1999; Wood & Vilkinas, 2005). Murray (1938, 1943) defined achievement need as the need to work at achieving something important with rigorous energy and persistence; the need to strive and accomplish something creditable; the need to get ahead in business and to persuade and lead a group of people to create something new; and the need to undertake ambition manifested action. A number of subsequent studies followed these lead to examine motives and needs in different jobs, industries, and countries and had examined interrelationships between motivation and different aspects and approaches of managing the workforce (Basumallik & Banarjee, 1967; Begley & Boyd, 1987; Cromie & Johns, 1983; Khan, 2000; Kunnanatt, 2008, Ross & Rausch, 2001; Wood & Vilkinas, 2004).
McClelland (1961, 1965) studied achievement motivation more extensively and provided some insight to the entrepreneurship mindset and problems, especially to the motivational disposition of the entrepreneurs. His theory of need for achievement, written symbolically as 'n Ach', has received great attention from social and behavioral scientists, and is conceived as a need that involves competition with a standard of excellence (McClelland, 1955, 1965). He and his associates extensively developed the concept of n Ach and expanded its definition as 'desire to do well and to attain an inner feeling of personal accomplishment' (McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953). N Ach is the need for achievement that motivates people to take risks and not to avoid that in order to achieve something and is necessary when one competes for personal accomplishment. It also refers to drive to excel, to strive for a success, and to achieve success in relation to a given set of standards. Higher achievers were found to show a number of common characteristics as follows (McClelland, 1961, 1965).
* Set goals by themselves and possess needs for the achievement of those goals.
* Anticipate future possibilities and also foresee future goals.
* Most male entrepreneurs follow fathers more than mothers in boyhood, and are more influenced by fathers' lifestyles, advice, and aspirations. Fathers are likely to be less authoritarian, take care of children, and appreciate their good ideas and actions.
* Possess vital power and do energetic and noble activities.
* Possess organizational skills and supports.
* Set moderate achievement goals and undertake calculated and moderate risks.
* Want concrete feedback on performance.
* Do not think profit as the only goal rather view it as the symbol of achievement and the reward for the risks undertaken.
* Prefer situations where they can take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems of difficult conditions. The idea of relying on chance does not appeal much to them.
High achievers acquire these motivations from their boyhood through individual beliefs, values, and ideologies. These are also inculcated into their psychological systems in early childhood through parental guidance and within the family and social set-ups. McClelland (1965) found businessmen, scientists, and professionals generally rate above average on the achievement motivation front. Without personal responsibility, the high achiever gets little personal satisfaction for the successful achievement of goals. By taking moderately difficult tasks, he/she is most likely to maximize an inherent sense of personal achievement. When such an achiever takes on easy problems and succeeds, he/she derives very low level of satisfaction. On the other hand, if he/she takes on extremely difficult tasks and fails, he/she derives almost no satisfaction. Taking moderate risks is most likely to produce a steady record of successes. Furthermore, without feedback, the achiever would not know whether the decision to assume risk was right or wrong. Therefore, he/she prefers working in a situation that gives better feedback. McClelland (1961, 1965, 1981) also found that achievement motivation can be developed and nurtured through appropriate training and under optimal conditions which do not span over a lengthy period.
Observing two different subjects irrespective of their origins, education, and the like, McClelland (1965) deduced a number of their comparative characteristics and dispositions of achievement motivation as preference for tasks involving objective risks; adaptability to secure higher level of performance than others; harder or easier work attitude at tasks requiring mental manipulation; desire to work in a situation where a sense of personal achievement can be achieved; hard work unrelated to monetary reward; better performance under conditions of positive and definite feedback; and tendency to think advance and with long range vision. He further identified characteristics of entrepreneurship as doing things in a new and better way and making decisions under moderate uncertainty, and suggested that achievement motive can be increased significantly by planned training and deliberate efforts (McClelland, 1965).
As McClelland (1965) argued, the feeling of achievement motivation can be raised through inculcating a sense of what the individual thinks or perceives himself/herself to be as successful high achiever; establishing goals and explicit responsibility centers; keeping a constant positive attitude towards accomplishing a task; maintaining optimism constantly in adverse time, condition, and hostile situations; infusing moderate risks in goals for each individuals involved; keeping meaningful association with those who are popularly known for their high n' Ach motivation; assessing various elements of existing business and investment environments accurately; maintaining serious interests in selected problems constantly; and pursuing a realistic self-learning process through solving problems encountered. He further argued that an individual can make a deliberate attempt to create a need in him/her and in others, create a sense and feeling of achievement motivation, and make a favorable physical and mental environment to foster that. For this, perceiving a favorable state of mind is the first need, which the individual can convert in to other required needs and desires (McClelland, 1961, 1965, 1981, 1987, 1990).
McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, and Lowell (1953), McClelland and Burnham (1976), and McClelland and Winter 1969 have extensively researched and organized the diverse aspects and attributes of the n Ach. Deceptively simple, the achievement motivation is expressed as a desire to perform in terms of a standard of excellence to be successful in the competitive situation. Numerous important human motivations meet this definition, among which the three most important were enumerated as power, achievement, and affiliation. These are commonly referred to as need for achievement or n Ach, power or n Pow, and need for affiliation or n Aff, and constitute the core of n Ach thesis. Behavioral scientists and psychologists (Maslow, 1943, 1954; Alderfer, 1969, 1972; McGregor, 1960; Vroom, 1964; Steers, 1981; Miner, 1980; Luthans, 1985; Richards, 1986) have further categorized various needs and articulated characteristics and constituents in those (Smith & Miner, 1983; Stahl, 1983).
People in work and entrepreneurship positions need security (n Sec) of income, health, welfare, and property, and status (n Sta) of position, luxury, degree, corporate identity, community acceptance, and alma mater (Table 1 as adapted from Khan, 2000). These needs are thought to be hierarchical (Maslow, 1943, 1954) and culture bound (Hofstede, 1988, 1989, 1991; Nevis, 1983). Research and experiment on n Ach and other needs had been quite vigorous and vivid in the West in the 1960s and 1970s, and reached a stage of saturation in the 1990s and thereafter (Kunnantt, 2008). Contemporary researchers, however, focus more on national and territorial differences in needs and motives of people of different jobs, groups, and classes (Taromina & Lao, 2007; Lee, 1997; Tang & Tang, 2005; Hui, Csete, & Raftery 2006; Yu, 2000; Kunnantt, 2008; Yamaguchi, 2003).
RESEARCH ORGANIZATION AND METHOD
A number of tools, indices, and survey instruments have been developed and are being applied in management and related disciplines in order to understand and conduct research on entrepreneurs' attitude, desire, and motivation, (McClelland, 1961; Yamauchi & Doi, 1977; Johnson & Johnson 1989; Perry, 1990). Some of these encompass highly sophisticated econometrical and mathematical models and tools. Likert (1961) and Likert and Likert (1964) developed a five-point scale or psychometric scale to understand behavior of working people that are not amenable to quantification, but was(is) used widely in questionnaire survey (Habibullah, 1974, 1980). The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with interviews, induction and deduction logics was the first method applied by industrial psychologists and behavioral scientists to measure motivation (Murray, 1943; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953; Cumin, 1967). Atkinson & McClelland (1948), Pandey & Tewary (1979), and Box, White & Starr (1993) combined both models and TAT and supplemented analyses with derivations from interviews and observations at practical work and related situations. Edwards (1959) developed Personal Preference Schedule of personal inventories and scales, Lynn (1969) Achievement Motivation Questionnaire, Eyesenck & Wilson (1975) Personality Scale, Mancuso (1981) Entrepreneurship Quiz, Johnson (1990) Multidimensional Model of Entrepreneurship, and Ryckman et al. (1996) Competitive Attitude Scale, which are used widely in research and practice (Cromie & Johns, 1983; Ahmed, 1985; Begley & Boyd, 1987; Ross & Rausch, 2001; Ross, Canada, & Rausch, 2002).
In this research, however, we applied a mixed method of questionnaire survey, interviews, and field visits, and combined findings to draw inferences and conclusions on the research questions. The questionnaire was developed after a rigorous examination of the achievement motivation factors at both individual and contextual levels (Table 2).
Our target samples, the descent-Latin Americans are mostly concentrated in the small and medium enterprises enclaves of Aichi, Shizuoka, Mie, Kanazawa, and Fukuoka prefectures (UNCRD, 1996; National Statistics Center, 2008). We selected all entrepreneurs living in the three cities of Komaki, Inuyama, and Toyota (Homi town) in Aichi prefecture in Central Japan. In addition to hosting a large number of Latin migrant workers, these cities are convenient to access from Nagoya to administer questionnaire, interview, hearing, and field surveys. For basic information on number, nationalities, local volunteer associations, and communities of migrants, we contacted the alien registration sections of these cities and visited facilities where migrant workers assemble and visit frequently for different purposes. Through these visits we developed relationship with a good number of Japanese people who possessed close friendships and trusts with those migrants by supporting them to find work, learn language, and rent accommodations. We requested them to become facilitators and help us conduct the questionnaire survey and interviews. When agreed, we requested them not to create any pressure on the samples rather to encourage their voluntary participation.
Through these facilitators, we distributed 60 questionnaires to cover all Latin entrepreneurs in the above locations. Twenty-six (26) completed questionnaires were returned, and 24 were considered usable. Thus the effective response rate was 40 per cent. For extracting and processing data from those, we used SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Frequency analysis was done to establish the statistically viable findings and conclusions. Although the result of field survey and hearing investigation is regarded subjective and prone to biasness (Gupta & Gupta, 2005), the findings of this research is, however, made hazard free and accurate by combining numerical findings from the questionnaires with those from interviews, hearings, and field observations.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
The questionnaire included five questions (Table 2), each with five alternative items/answers. These items were thought to be the factors that generate and induce the need for achievement--n Ach, n Pow, n Aff, n Sec, and n Sta. In aggregate, these help us examine entrepreneurial needs and motives across 25 dimensions. The wording of the questions and factors were formulated keeping in mind the language ability, social circumstances, and practical business condition of the samples so that they can realize their actual, perceived, and dormant needs and motives. They may not have thought those needs and motives before starting their businesses and actual management of those. We received 26 completed questionnaires but only 24 were usable. We calculated scores and ranks (Table 3) of the various factors to deduce characteristic aspects of their entrepreneurial and achievement needs and motives in n Ach, n Pow, n Aff, n Sec, and n Sta.
Need for achievement (n Ach)
In order to fulfill their needs for achievement (n Ach), the Latin-descent entrepreneurs undertake activities in the order of importance as follows: (1) developing better ways to do business; (2) carrying out many challenging jobs successfully; (3) solving many complex problems to do business; (4) taking up many difficult challenges; and (5) doing much better than fellow entrepreneurs from Latin America. Their challenging attributes ranked 4th, which implies that they do not undertake much lofty challenge. Rather, they encounter business situations in Japan with courage; hammer out various options; capture various resources for success; and accept relatively less challenging works.
Need for power (n Pow)
Power needs (n Pow) that drive these Latin entrepreneurs to be more successful in business in the order of priority are: (1) gaining access to information, resources, and Japanese people; (2) influencing Japanese people to change their attitude toward their business; (3) interacting with many Japanese people and offices; (4) having a position of influence over fellow Latin friends; and (5) gaining influence on competitors. All these are in fact minimum/essential requirements to operate any commercial activities, and these reflect their attitude toward accepting mundane realities in Japan.
Need for affiliation (n Aff)
'n Aff' items that these Latin origin entrepreneurs adopt to be more successful in the order of preference are: (1) keeping harmonious relationships and avoid conflict; (2) becoming member of the business community around; (3) making many people to like and understand them as a businessmen; (4) trying to participate in social activities; and (5) liaising with government offices to accept and recognize them. This situation proves that these business entrepreneurs are highly realistic and tend to maintain a harmonious coexistence with their surroundings to achieve success.
Need for security (n Sec)
For a secured business management in Japan, Latin business entrepreneurs needs (n Sec) in the order of priority are: (1) always having a secured business; (2) always avoid business failure; (3) having insurance against illness and accident; (4) being protected against hazardous (fire, earthquake, typhoon, etc.) conditions; and (5) keeping rules and regulations favorable for importing materials from their home countries. These clearly show that Japan provides favorable business environments to the Latin entrepreneurs. The risk of business failure due to inflation is very low. They can procure merchandises from their home countries and select resources from Japanese domestic market also to avoid import-export problems. Also, the insurance systems including health, earthquake, transportations, and natural disasters are well-developed and offer numerous alternative options to business entrepreneurs irrespective of nationality and ethnicity.
Need for status (n Sta)
Latin entrepreneurs' need for status (n Sta) as business entrepreneurs in Japan in the order of importance are: (1) doing business in the right field and in the right location; (2) mastering Japanese language and getting further education at appropriate institutions; (3) having executive privileges from immigration, city, and other offices; (4) having membership in the business community and club; and (5) having luxurious car and residence. These show that as entrepreneurs the respondents seriously consider selection of appropriate business locations and linguistic ability as critical factors to success.
Entrepreneurs in McClelland (1961, 1965, 1966, 1975, 1981) and other researchers (Basumallik & Banarjee, 1967; Begley & Boyd, 1987; Cromie & Johns, 1983; Kunnanatt, 2008, Ross & Rausch, 2001; Sagie & Elizur, 1999; Tauer & Harackiewicz, 1999; Wood & Vilkinas, 2004, 2005) show characteristics of having highly achieved consciousness, pursuing goals with responsibilities, and accomplishing mission actively and affirmatively. Adding to the above, this study shows that the Latin-descent entrepreneurs are no less positive during tough times, and try to see precisely their surrounding circumstances and investment climate with readiness to take risks in order to achieve their own goals. They tend to give serious attention to the problems they face, learn how to treat and resolve the problems encounter, and discipline and develop themselves realistically.
Compared to the achievement needs and motivations of entrepreneurs in the USA half-a-century ago, this research shows that the Latin American businessmen in Japan at present develop good methods to promote their own business; undertake challenging tasks and achieve success; and focus attention to collecting relevant information and business resources. They actively network with Japanese associates; influence Japanese people to change attitude toward their businesses; and keep harmonious relationships with peripheral Japanese neighbors. Moreover, they avoid unwanted conflicts; make continuous efforts to get them accepted in their business communities; and strive hard to have people like and understand them as businessmen not dekasegi (wage-earner abroad). Furthermore, they struggle to promote stable and secured business environment; work to avoid business loss; and try to find appropriate business field and business location. They work hard to gain command on the native language; pursue higher education; and understand the local culture.
This means Japanese-Latin American entrepreneurs always carry considerably high entrepreneurial needs and work strenuously to fulfill those. They have proven foundation of entrepreneurial aptitude, motive, and need in them as found in McClelland (1961, 1965, 1966), his predecessors (Knight, 1921; Maslow, 1943, Murray, 1938, 1943; Schumpeter, 1934; Weber, 1930); his contemporaries (Atkinson & McClelland, 1948; Harbison, 1956; Hoselitz, 1960; Liebenstein, 1968; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953; Zemke, 1979), followers, and recent researchers (Ahmed, 1985; Brockhaus, 1980; Durand & Shea, 1974; Begley & Boyd, 1987; Johnson & Johnson, Kunnanatt, 2008, 1989; Ross & Rausch, 2001; Smith & Miner, 1983: Stahl, 1983; Sagie & Elizur, 1999; Tauer & & Harackiewicz, 1999; Wood & Vilkinas, 2004, Wood & Vilkinas, 2005).
Similar to the findings of McClelland (1961) and Mancuso (1981), the highly successful Latin descent entrepreneurs are the oldest children in their families and are married males in their late 30s to early 40s. They achieved success within 5 to 10 years of starting business in Japan (Khondaker, 2009). They are well-educated and unwilling to work for anyone else. Many of them think they received influence from their fathers, and are hardworking and enthusiastic by themselves for developing business. In managing businesses, they are realistic and moderate risk takers with focus on sound development and selection of business fields and on securing of stable sources of capital. Furthermore, encouragement, advice, and assistance from people around them, especially friends, family members, relatives, Japanese friends, and government administrative offices helped them achieve business success in Japan. These clearly resemble findings of McClelland (1966) on entrepreneurs in small business firms.
Migrant workers in general envision more power, position, and status than mere permanent residence and citizenship (Khondaker, 2009). They undertake many challenges, establish new businesses, manage and run their companies, and eventually become naturalized. Because of the historical friendly relationships between Japan and Latin American countries, the rules and procedures in Japan are more conducive to granting permanent resident status to Latin-American people than migrants from other countries and regions. Consequently, Latin-Americans overwhelmingly outnumber other nationalities as permanent residents. Paradoxically, however, the number of Latin-American entrepreneurs is extremely small, which indicates an absence of challenging attitude and appropriate motivation among a majority of them (Khondaker, 1996, 2009). Working in factories to earn quick visible wages seems to motivate them more than taking challenge as entrepreneurs and managers.
As revealed from interviews, the success of these Latin entrepreneurs largely depends on their customers from Latin-American countries. They develop friendship with other immigrant business and wage earning people more easily and smoothly than their Japanese counterparts and competitors. Places surrounding their business outlets tend to be hangouts for foreigners. An Indian restaurant owner informed during interview that Japanese people carry apprehension toward business facilities of Latin-Americans, and even dislike visiting them. However, on getting along with the Latin-Americans the respondent himself found them friendly and reliable. Thus, it can be inferred that these descent entrepreneurs have problems of belongingness and integration into Japanese society.
It is also revealed that the Latin entrepreneurs are less accustomed to Japanese marketing and distribution system of shitauke (sub-contractor) and keiretsu (inter-locked firm), tonya (wholesaler), and zakkaten (variety store), and have little experience of customer oriented marketing, market-promotion, and consumerism in Japan. Their hygiene standards fall far short of those in Japan and that often causes problems of freshness and expiry date of food stuff and beverage items. The scope and scale of their operations are small, they do not employ Japanese people, nor do they raise business capital from the market.
Therefore, they are not exposed to or experienced in Japanese-style of management and industrial relations. With an increase of the descent entrepreneurs and of competition among them and with other immigrant entrepreneurs and local business firms, many will eventually seek business opportunities and local customers and assume more competition, challenge, and risk. Only then they will reveal their actual abilities, motivations, and needs to realize their latent entrepreneurship skills, talents, and potentials in all the areas of n Ach, n Pow, n Aff, n Sec, and n Sta. The propensity to these and other needs heighten when the business enterprise takes firm roots and goes beyond the primary need of earning money and satisfying basic motives (Ahmed, 1985; Habibullah, 1974, 1980). The current needs of these descendant entrepreneurs are at the formative stage, and as envisaged will further enhance in scope, degree, and density in more advanced stages of their entrepreneurship in this country.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
This research is the first one of its kind on the needs and motivations of foreign entrepreneurs in Japan and, as envisaged, will encourage more studies. Its implications lie in the fact that the findings on different attributes of needs and motives would provide vital hints to the government and local agencies, volunteer organizations and activists, and migrant entrepreneurs to perceive needs and goals, make strategic plans and programs to help achieve them, and make migrant entrepreneurships successful agents in economic and social partnerships in Japan. The research questionnaire can be further improved with scaling of items to pinpoint their significance on the n Ach and other needs of the entrepreneurs and can be used in Japan and other countries to address needs of entrepreneurs from different ethnic, gender, regional, sectoral, and other backgrounds.
At present, the Latin workers and entrepreneurs are mainly concentrated in about fifteen locations (Kagami, 2002; Kashiwazaki, 2002; Khondaker, 1996; Ministry of Justice/Japan, 1991-2009). Although the exact number of entrepreneurs is not known, according to one respondent it might be more than 500. Therefore, an extensive research with large samples from different areas of migrant concentration may be carried out in the future to authenticate these findings. Such a project should combine and apply rigorous quantitative tools and models used in economics, entrepreneurship, management, and more particularly in achievement motivation research. Such a project should also expand its scope to migrants from South Korea, China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and other countries to explore similarities, differences, and influences of cultural background and ethnicity in different needs underlying entrepreneurship in Japan.
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Table 1: Need for Achievement Motivation and Other Needs Need for Achievement [n Ach] * Doing better than competitors * Attaining a difficult goal * Solving a complex problem * Carrying out a challenging assignment successfully * Developing a better way of doing something Need for Power [n Pow] * Influencing other people to change their attitude and behavior * Controlling people and activities * Being in a position of authority over others * Gaining control over information and resources * Defeating opponent or competitor Need for Affiliation [n Aff] * Being liked by many people * Being accepted as part of a group or team * Working with people who are friendly and cooperative * Maintaining harmonious relationship and avoiding conflicts * Participating in pleasant social activities Need for Security [n Sec] * Having a secured job * Having protection against loss of income * Having protection against illness and Disability * Having protection against physically harmful or hazardous conditions * Avoiding tasks with a risk of failure and Blame Need for Status [n Sta] * Having the right car and wearing the right Clothes * Working for the right company in the right Job * Holding a degree from the right university * Living in the right neighborhood and belonging to the community * Having executive prerogative and privilege Source: Adapted after revision from Khan (2000). Table 2: The Questionnaire on Factors of Achievement Needs and Motivations We would like to request you to check and rank the following items to tell us why you took up the challenge of establishing a business in Japan. Please rank all items--1 for very important and 5 for relatively less or unimportant including also the item(s) which you did not think important at the time you decided to start your business. Your information will be used with utmost privacy and will not be given to any third party. We highly appreciate your cooperation. 1. As a businessman (entrepreneur) in Japan, I can explain my position (n Ach) as follows. ( ) Doing much better than my fellow workers from Latin American ( ) Taking up many difficult challenges ( ) Solving many complex problems to do business ( ) Carrying out many challenging jobs successfully ( ) Developing many better ways to do my business 2. As a businessman (entrepreneur) in Japan, I do the following (n Pow) to be more successful. ( ) Influencing Japanese people to change their attitude to my business ( ) Interacting with many Japanese people and offices ( ) Having a position of influence over other Latin friends ( ) Gaining access to information, resources, and Japanese people ( ) Gaining influence on competitors 3. As a businessman (entrepreneur) in Japan, I need the following (n Aff) to be more successful. ( ) Want many people to like and understand me as a businessman ( ) Want government offices to accept and recognize me ( ) Want to become member of business community around me ( ) Want to keep harmonious relationships neighbors and avoid conflict ( ) Want to participate in social activities 4. For security as a businessman (entrepreneur) in Japan, I need the following (n Sec). ( ) Having always a secured business ( ) Being protected against loss of business ( ) Having insurance against illness and accident ( ) Being protected against hazardous (fire, earthquake) conditions ( ) Keeping rules and regulations favorable to import materials from my country 5. For the status of a businessman (entrepreneur) in Japan, I need the following (n Sta). ( ) Having a luxurious car and residence ( ) Doing business in the right field and in the right location ( ) Mastering Japanese language and getting further higher education at appropriate places ( ) Having membership in the business community and club ( ) Having executive privileges from immigration, city, and other offices Table 3: Scores and Ranks of Items in Different Needs and Motives Needs and Motivations Score X Rank Need for Achievement (n Ach) Developing many betters ways to do business 88 3.67 1 Carrying out many challenging jobs successfully 79 3.29 2 Solving many complex problems to do business 77 3.21 3 Taking up many difficult challenges 72 3.00 4 Doing much better than fellow workers from Latin 41 1.71 5 American Need for Power (n Pow) Gaining access to information, resources, and 99 4.13 1 Japanese people Influencing Japanese people to change attitude 84 3.50 2 to my business Interacting with many Japanese people and 82 3.42 3 offices Having a position of influence over other Latin 54 2.25 4 friends Gaining influence on competitors 43 1.79 5 Need for Affiliation (n Aff) Keeping harmonious relationships and avoid 90 3.75 1 conflict Becoming member of business community around 83 3.46 2 Having many people like and understand as a 77 3.21 3 businessman Willing to participate in social activities 59 2.46 4 Desiring government offices to accept and 49 2.04 5 recognize Need for Security (n Sec) Having always a secured business 118 4.92 1 Being protected against loss of business 81 3.28 2 Having insurance against illness and accident 66 2.75 3 Being protected against hazardous 48 2.00 4 (fire/earthquake) conditions Keeping rules and regulations favorable to 47 1.97 5 import materials from my country Need for Status (n Sta) Doing business in the right field and in the 100 4.17 1 right location Mastering Japanese language and obtaining higher 92 3.83 2 education Having executive privileges from immigration, 77 3.21 3 city, and other Offices Having membership in the business community and 63 2.63 4 club Having a luxurious car and residence 35 1.46 5 Note: Calculation of Item Score = Frequency x Ranking Point.