Entrepreneurship and Religion.
Entrepreneurship and Religion
Leo-Paul Dana (Editor)
Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. Several of his first major orchestral works, including the Enigma Variations and the Pomp and Circumstance Marches, were greeted with acclaim. , 2010 (442 pages)
Entrepreneurship and Religion is a volume of articles edited by Leo-Paul Dana. He dominates the work; aside from the editing, he had a hand in writing nine of its twenty-two papers. (No other author appears more than once--except for two articles he co-authored with Teresa Dana.) Nine of the articles had already appeared in seven academic journals, signaling their quality, and thus this volume provides a single source for both the previously published pieces and related work.
Some of the articles are historical; others are contemporary. They have an international range, including research about minority peoples within a dominant society. Some of the work is empirical; most of it is descriptive. The result is a fascinating set of articles that, nonetheless, has limited impact as an academic approach. The projects are so context-specific that it is difficult to confidently extend their applicability.
Then again, that is the nature of this field. It reminds me of "industrial organization" in economics, where one studies various market structures such as competition and oligopoly oligopoly: see monopoly.
Market situation in which producers are so few that the actions of each of them have an impact on price and on competitors. Each producer must consider the effect of a price change on the others. . One of my friends in graduate school jokingly described the field as a "compendium of special cases." Much of this work has the same features.
One deficiency in the editing is that many of the essays cover similar ground in their introductions, as they provide background literature and an overview of entrepreneurship. This is good if one reads the essays separately but creates much redundancy if one reads the book as a whole. (Along these lines, Dana's introductory essay is most effective and allows one to skim the other chapters more quickly.)
One of the book's strengths is in modeling and describing entrepreneurs as more than mere individuals who are to some extent constrained or encouraged by a legal framework. Entrepreneurial efforts are also a product of cultural, social, and religious contexts.
As Dana notes in his introduction, culture, religion, and society are intertwined with ethnicity. As it turns out, this hinders the goal of the volume. Often, inferences in the essays about the impact of religion are spurious or stretched. Beyond that, some of the essays do not address religion at all. By the book's title, one would think it should have included a reference to ethnicity and culture. For example, in Anne White's study of Methodism (chapter 7), the reader is left wondering whether the entrepreneurs are driven by being Methodist, Christian, or Canadian. In Dimitri Tassiopoulos's study of Greeks (chapter 4), one cannot tell whether the relevant cause is Greek ethnicity or adherence to Greek Orthodox Adj. 1. Greek Orthodox - of or relating to or characteristic of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Orthodox
faith, religion, religious belief - a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny; "he religion.
When such distinctions can be made, the authors effectively detail how religious beliefs and doctrine can be catalysts or deterrents for entrepreneurship; observe that religions are generally effective at promoting and propagating values; and note that religious communities often provide low-cost "networks" for labor, product, and information. Some religious contexts create religion-centered, demand-side opportunities. (See, for example, specially prepared foods for Jews and Muslims--and Welch's grape juice for Methodists.) Some religious entrepreneurship is indirect, as a supply-side response to religious and ethnic discrimination.
The volume features a number of strong essays on religion and entrepreneurship: the influence of the "Protestant work ethic The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a person's calling as a sign of personal salvation. " (Ivan Light in chapter 6), the impact of Islam in general (Wafica Ali Ghoul in chapter 12), categories of entrepreneurs within Islam (Nekka and Fayolle in chapter 14), Jewish middlemen in Alsace before World War II (Dana in chapter 17), Jewish entrepreneurs in Montreal (Morton Weinfeld in chapter 18), and a comparative analysis of the French and Dutch portions of the island of St. Martin St. Martin
in midwinter, gave his cloak to a freezing beggar. [Christian Hagiog.: Brewer Dictionary]
See : Kindness (Baldacchino and Dana in chapter 20).
Three other essays are solid and warrant attention from those interested in the title of the book: Edwina Pio on Hinduism and caste (chapter 1), Dana on Jews in a variety of countries (chapter 3), and Heilbrunn and Asbeh on the Druze living in Israel (chapter 15).
I found three points especially interesting. First, Light notes that as markets become more competitive, discriminatory behavior becomes more costly. Beyond that, he focuses on the impact of Protestantism's "universalism Universalism
Belief in the salvation of all souls. Arising as early as the time of Origen and at various points in Christian history, the concept became an organized movement in North America in the mid-18th century. " as opposed to the insularity of Catholic and Jewish communities. He argues that our contemporary distaste for discrimination and favoritism should be credited to Protestantism.
Second, how much discrimination and favoritism is "personal" (based on bias) as opposed to "statistical" (where discrimination in the face of highly imperfect information is the "best" decision)? For example, Light (177) notes that Puritans faced a dilemma in "doing business with dynamic but unknown Quakers, who might be dishonest, versus the security of doing business with mediocres of known probity PROBITY. Justice, honesty. A man of probity is one who loves justice and honesty, and who dislikes the contrary. Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. Sec. 772. ."
Third, Dana notes that entrepreneurship is typically attached to risk, but in his study of Jewish middlemen in Alsace, they perceive it as less risky than other alternatives, given their familial and cultural experience with being entrepreneurial.
This last observation leads to one of two suggestions in closing. How should we define entrepreneur? The literature seems to conflate con·flate
tr.v. con·flat·ed, con·flat·ing, con·flates
1. To bring together; meld or fuse: "The problems [with the biopic] include . . under entrepreneurship the two distinct traits of a penchant for innovation and a willingness to work hard. At one extreme, entrepreneurship simply becomes a synonym for any business venture, particularly if one is self-employed. To weigh one implication: The Amish avoid technology and thus, to be successful, must work harder. Does this make them more or less entrepreneurial?
Finally, returning to the title of the book, more work should be done to distinguish religion as religious belief, rather than merely a blanket reference to a culture influenced indeterminately by religion. Maybe this point is difficult for researchers to recognize and embrace because people routinely conflate these categories in everyday life. In fact, they are quite different. As such, developing measures of religiosity re·li·gi·os·i·ty
1. The quality of being religious.
2. Excessive or affected piety.
Noun 1. religiosity - exaggerated or affected piety and religious zeal
religiousism, pietism, religionism would be a step forward in analyzing the impact of religion on behavior in general and entrepreneurship in particular.
--D. Eric Schansberg
Indiana University Southeast History
The Indiana University Falls City Area Center was established by Floyd McMurray in 1941 as an extension center of Indiana University in New Albany, Indiana and Jeffersonville, Indiana. , New Albany