* Definitions from Building Career Ladders for Low-Wage Workers: A "How-to" Manual for Workforce Development Practitioners and Partners, Claudia Green, Sarah Griffen, Laurie Sheridan Boston Workforce Development Coalition
(1) Waldron, T., B. Roberts, and A. Reamer. Working Hard, Falling Short: America's Working Families and the Pursuit of Economic Security. Working Poor Families Project, October 2004.
(2) U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Adult Literacy Survey. Adult Literacy in America, 1992, prepared by Educational Testing Service The Educational Testing Service (or ETS) is the world's largest private educational testing and measurement organization, operating on an annual budget of approximately $1.1 billion on a proforma basis in 2007. (Table 391, prepared February 1994) (Latest data available.) Adults are age 16 and older.
(3) U.S. Department of Education. Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000. NCES NCES National Center for Education Statistics
NCES Net-Centric Enterprise Services (US DoD)
NCES Network Centric Enterprise Services
NCES Net Condition Event Systems 2004-010. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. November 2003.
(4) Working Hard, page 14.
(5) Carnevale, A.P., and D. M. Desrochers. Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K-16 Reform. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 2003.
(6) U.S. Bureau of Census Bureau of Census
A division of the federal government of the United States Bureau of Commerce that is responsible for conducting the national census at least once every 10 years, in which the population of the United States is counted. . The Big Payoff: Educational Attainment and Synthetic Estimates of Work-Life Earnings. Current Population Reports P23-210. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration The Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that produces, analyzes and disseminates national economic and demographic data. , July 2002.
(7) Sticht, T., and W. Armstrong. Adult Literacy in the United States: A Compendium of Quantitative Data and Interpretive Comments. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy, 1994.
(8) Grubb, W. N., Learning to Work: The Case for Reintegrating Job Training and Education. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , NY: Russell Sage, 1996; Sticht, T.G., The Military Experience and Workplace Literacy: A Review and Synthesis for Policy and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: National Center on Adult Literacy, 1995.
(9) Strawn, J. Beyond Job Search or Basic Education: Rethinking the Role of Skills in Welfare Reform. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy, 1998; Strawn, J. and K. Martinson, Steady Work and Better Jobs: How to Help Low-Income Parents Sustain Employment and Advance in the Workforce. New York: MDRC MDRC Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation
MDRC Michigan Disability Rights Coalition
MDRC Mobile Disaster Recovery Center (US FEMA)
MDRC Mongolian Development Research Center
MDRC Manufacturing Design Rule Checker , 2000.
(10) For more information on the Employability Skills for Adults curriculum, contact the Adult Learning Resource Center, Des Plaines, IL (847-803-3535 or www.thecenterweb.org).
(11) For information on DACUM, see http://www.dacum.org/index.asp. For information on WorkKeys, see http://www.act.org/workkeys/.
(12) MDRC, "Support Success: Services that May Help Low-Income Students Succeed in Community College," 2004.
(13) Gruber, D. Using Resources Effectively: An Overview of Funding Resources for Workforce Development Initiatives. Workforce Strategy Center, November 2004. http://www.workforcestrategy.org/publications/WSC_UsingResources.pdf.
(15) Hollenbeck, K.M., and W.J. Huang. Net Impact and Benefit-Cost Estimates of the Workforce Development System in Washington State (Technical Report No. TR03-018). Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, July 2003; Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board. Workforce Training Results 2002: An Evaluation of Washington State's Workforce Training System. Olympia, WA: Author, March 2003.
(16) Prince, D., and D. Jenkins. Building Pathways to Success for Low-Skill Adult Students: Lessons for Community College Policy and Practice from a Statewide Longitudinal Tracking Study. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University, April 2005.