Endangered species in Midwestern parks.
Along with such celebrated species as the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and the gray wolf (Canis lupus), a variety of important but lesser known endangered and threatened animals and plants occur within the Midwest Region of the National Park Service. They can be found in a rich assemblage of habitats from rivers to caves, savannas, wetlands, prairies, lakeshores, and forests.
The Midwest Region, for example, contains several riverine riv·er·ine
1. Relating to or resembling a river.
2. Located on or inhabiting the banks of a river; riparian: "Members of a riverine tribe ... parks that support rare mussels. Sensitive to turbidity turbidity /tur·bid·i·ty/ (ter-bid´i-te) cloudiness; disturbance of solids (sediment) in a solution, so that it is not clear.tur´bid
The cloudiness or lack of transparency of a solution. and toxic chemicals, these mollusks act as barometers for the health of the ecosystems upon which our society and economy depend. Freshwater mussels are the most rapidly declining animal group in the United States. St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, which traverses western Wisconsin and the Wisconsin/Minnesota border, alone is home to 40 mussel species. It is one of the most diverse assemblages in the world and includes one of the few remaining populations of the endangered Higgins' eye pearlymussel (Lampsilis higginsi) and the world's only reproducing population of the endangered winged-mapleleaf mussel (Quadrula fragosa). Threats to these species are numerous, including the potential invasion of their habitat by the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). To respond to this threat, park staff work in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to protect these native "pearls."
Another lesser known aquatic organism is the endangered Topeka shiner shiner: see minnow.
Any of several small freshwater fishes (genera Notemigonus and Notropis, family Cyprinidae). The common shiner (Notropis cornutus) is a blue and silver minnow up to 8 in. (20 cm) long. (Notropis topeka), a small fish historically found in streams in the central and eastern Great Plains. Decades of harmful land use practices have degraded water quality in much of the shiner's historic habitat, leaving only a few remnant populations. The shiner is found at the recently established Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve: see National Parks and Monuments (table). in eastern Kansas. The Preserve will improve habitat for the Topeka shiner through management programs that reduce or eliminate sedimentation, pesticides, and harmful fish species not native to the site.
The Buffalo National River Buffalo National River, Ark.: see National Parks and Monuments (table). in the Arkansas Ozarks has already taken action to protect caves for the benefit of summer and winter colonies of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis Myotis
genus of bats. Includes M. thysanodes (fringed myotis bat), M. myotis (European common mouse-eared bat), M. lucifugus (little brown bat). sodalis), gray bat (Myotis grisescens), and Ozark big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii ingens). One cave supported an estimated 172,500 gray bats in early 2001, making it the largest bat hibernation cave in Arkansas. Bat conservation at the park also includes the restoration and protection of abandoned mines.
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore: see National Parks and Monuments (table). is actively restoring habitat for the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis). The primary food of Karner blue larvae is wild lupine lupine or lupin (l`pĭn), any species of the genus Lupinus, annual or perennial herbs or shrubs of the family Leguminosae (pulse family). (Lupinus perennis), which requires open to partially shaded areas such as oak savanna to survive. Decades of fire suppression in the heavily populated area of southern Lake Michigan have resulted in succession from oak savanna habitat to closed-canopy forest. This has caused the decline of the lupine and, ultimately, the Karner blue butterfly. The park staff has used mechanical controls, herbicides, and burning to restore natural savanna conditions. Because the degradation had been severe over a long period, park personnel planted locally collected lupine seeds to expedite restoration.
The threatened western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara) was documented at Pipestone National Monument Pipestone National Monument: see National Parks and Monuments (table).
Pipestone National Monument
National monument, southwestern Minnesota, U.S. , Minnesota, in 1985. Intensive long-term monitoring is a critical component of orchid management, since the plant exists in fire-evolved prairie habitats that require regular burns. Nonnative plants threaten the existence of the orchid by degrading the native prairies at Pipestone pipestone, hard, dull red or mottled pink-and-white clay stone, carved by Native Americans into pipes. Called calumets (see calumet) the pipes were used extensively in ceremonials. . The park is using well-timed prescribed burns to promote orchid populations and reduce the spread of nonnative plants. Following these burns, over 125 orchids were counted flowering during 2000, which was well above the previous counts that never exceeded 55 in other recent years.
Like the orchid, invasive nonnative plants also threaten the Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). However, instead of occurring in lush tallgrass prairie vegetation, this species' habitat is the sandy beaches and dunes of Lake Michigan. Sleeping Bear National Lakeshore in Michigan protects one of the largest remaining populations. The park has initiated a study to determine whether nonnative plants affect the germination and seedling establishment of the thistle.
Sleeping Bear National Lakeshore also is home to the endangered population of the piping plover (Charadrius melodus), a small shorebird that nests on Lake Michigan's sandy beaches. The park provides habitat for 8 of the 30 pairs recorded in the Great Lakes region The Great Lakes region can refer to:
Conservation education takes place at visitor centers, through the media, and in the field. Under the watchful eye of park staff and their assistants, the park allows visitors to view the birds through spotting scopes from a distance that does not disturb the birds or affect their survival and behavior. Being able to view the plovers gives visitors a greater appreciation for this rare species.
Although generally small in size, the Midwest Region's national parks provide important habitat for a large number of endangered and threatened species. These parks also foster public awareness and support for the conservation ot regional biodiversity.
Dan Licht Licht (Light), subtitled "The Seven Days of the Week," is a cycle of seven operas composed by Karlheinz Stockhausen which, in total, lasts over 29 hours. Origin
The project, originally titled Hikari is a Regional Wildlife Biologist and T&E Coordinator--Animals for the NPS NPS National Park Service
NPS Naval Postgraduate School
NPS Net Promoter Score (customer management)
NPS Non-Point Source pollution
NPS Native Plant Society
NPS Norfolk Public Schools (Virginia) Midwest Region and is currently stationed at Badlands National Park Badlands National Park: see under badlands. , South Dakota.