Empowering African-American adolescent females.In the past two decades, there has been a small but rowing body of literature pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to the issues and counseling needs of African-American adolescent females (e.g., Boyd-Franklin, 1991; Harris, 1992; Muller Mul·ler , Hermann Joseph 1890-1967.
American geneticist. He won a 1946 Nobel Prize for the study of the hereditary effect of x-rays on genes.
Mül·ler , Johannes Peter 1801-1858. , 2000). This increase of literature is due, in part, to the growing numbers of African-American females experiencing depression (White, 1990), eating disorders eating disorders, in psychology, disorders in eating patterns that comprise four categories: anorexia nervosa, bulimia, rumination disorder, and pica. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by self-starvation to avoid obesity. (Lester & Petrie, 1998), and suicide (Gibbs, 1988). Furthermore, African-American adolescent females are contending with typical developmental tasks in the context of a society that has historically devalued de·val·ue also de·val·u·ate
v. de·val·ued also de·valu·at·ed, de·val·u·ing also de·val·u·at·ing, de·val·ues also de·val·u·ates
1. To lessen or cancel the value of. and portrayed African-American women either as poor, welfare-dependent, working-class women, or as mothers of illegitimate ILLEGITIMATE. That which is contrary to law; it is usually applied to children born out of lawful wedlock. A bastard is sometimes called an illegitimate child. , impoverished, and delinquent children (Coultas, 1989; hooks, 1981). These negative societal images and stereotypes have adversely affected the self-esteem and, consequently; the academic and emotional development of young African-American females (Neal & Wilson, 1989). For this reason, African-American adolescent females are prime candidates for counseling in schools.
The purpose of this article is three-fold: (a) to review issues that can be considered when counseling African-American adolescent females; (b) to discuss counseling implications based on those issues; and (c) through the use of a case example, to illustrate a school counselor A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. successfully assisting and empowering a member of this adolescent group.
This section discusses relevant issues to consider when counseling African-American adolescent females. These issues were selected based on our experiences as African-American females and on the literature pertaining to the mental health of African-American women. By no means are these the only issues that African-American adolescent females experience or present in counseling. However, school counselors might consider these highlighted general issues when conceptualizing cases involving these adolescents.
The phrase African-American adolescent females is used in this article to describe adolescent females who identify themselves as Black or African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. . Since these adolescents are not a homogeneous group, the reader is advised to use the information presented in this article as one of many resources to understand the complexities of growth and development an African-American female experiences.
Racism, Sexism sex·ism
1. Discrimination based on gender, especially discrimination against women.
2. Attitudes, conditions, or behaviors that promote stereotyping of social roles based on gender. , and Classism class·ism
Bias based on social or economic class.
classist adj. & n.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Almquist (1995), African-American women have the distinction of being the only group that was enslaved Enslaved may refer to:
The effects of dual and triple oppression are significant when conceptualizing the problems and concerns of African-American adolescent females. For instance, a school counselor might ask a 15-year-old African-American female with a 3.75 grade point average why she has not applied to college. The student might respond by stating, "Why should I? My family can't afford to pay for it, and they won't accept me anyway because I'm Black!" This student's response reflects feelings of hopelessness as a result of her family's financial as well as racial background. Or, another example might be a 12-year-old African-American female student who expresses discontent in school because she believes that she is not capable. When asked why she feels this way, she responds, "I'm not a Black boy, so I can't be a "star athlete" and I'm not White, so I can't be a "star student!" These perceptions linked to gender, race, and socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. can ultimately lead to feelings of powerlessness among African-American female adolescents (Fordham, 1993).
Body Image and Physical Attractiveness Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as pleasing or beautiful. It can include various implications, such as sexual attractiveness, cuteness, and physique.
The American ideals of beauty (e.g., blond hair, blue eyes Blue eyes are eyes that have blue irises (see eye color), and may also refer to:
... the dearth of affirming images of black femaleness in art, magazines, movies, and television reflects not only the racist white world's way of seeing us, but the way we see ourselves. It is no mystery to most black women that we have internalized racist / sexist notions of beauty that lead many of us to think we are ugly. (p. 84)
Examples of African-American women's struggles with physical attractiveness are found in African-American literature. For instance, Sinclair's 1994 African-American novel, Coffee Will Make You Blacker, is replete re·plete
1. Abundantly supplied; abounding: a stream replete with trout; an apartment replete with Empire furniture.
2. Filled to satiation; gorged.
3. with examples of how African-American women despair over their skin color, hair texture, and body features. The main character, Stevie, reflected on her mother's hopes for her:
Mama says she wishes I'd gotten more of Daddy's lighter color and especially his curly hair. She says she prayed that if I were a girl, I'd have good hair that didn't need to be straightened. Mama says one reason she married Daddy was cause she was looking out for her children. She says it was almost unheard of for a colored man to marry a woman who was darker than him. Mama was lucky she's glad I don't have a wide nose and big lips. (p. 8)
Unfortunately, a woman's physical attractiveness can be a significant factor in her life. Female physical attractiveness has been linked to such factors as mate selection (Hollender & Schafer, 1981), preferential treatment (Lynn & Simons, 2000), and job selection (Watkins & Johnston, 2000). For African-American females, physical attractiveness has been a source of great stress and many have been deeply scarred by negative reactions to African physical features (Fordham, 1993). Even more damaging is the degrading TO DEGRADE, DEGRADING. To, sink or lower a person in the estimation of the public.
2. As a man's character is of great importance to him, and it is his interest to retain the good opinion of all mankind, when he is a witness, he cannot be compelled to disclose manner in which African-American females are treated by other African Americans who have internalized society's messages about African-American physical features and female attractiveness (Gainor, 1992; Powell, 1982). An African-American father who openly wishes his young daughter had lighter skin or an African-American teacher who favors lighter-skinned African-American adolescent females with naturally "straight" hair are instances in which negative perceptions of physical features can have a long-lasting affect on the self-concept of young African-American females.
Ethnic Identity Development
Identity formation, as seen by Erikson (1968), is the primary developmental task of the adolescent years. Although all adolescents struggle -with identity issues, not all adolescents think about themselves in racial or ethnic terms. Phinney (1990) proposed a model of ethnic identity based on Marcia's (1966) four identity statuses, which are determined by the presence or absence of exploration and commitment. Phinney's model characterizes the variation in the ethnic identity search process as follows: (a) diffuse, a state in which there has been little exploration or active consideration of ethnicity, and no psychological commitment to any ethnic group; (b) foreclosed, a state in which a commitment has been made to a particular ethnic group's beliefs, values, and/or customs, without actively searching or exploring one's ethnic heritage or ethnicity; (c) moratorium A suspension of activity or an authorized period of delay or waiting. A moratorium is sometimes agreed upon by the interested parties, or it may be authorized or imposed by operation of law. , a state of active exploration of one's ethnicity in which no commitment has yet been made; and (d) achieved, a state of strong personal commitment to a particular ethnic identity following a period of high exploration or crisis.
Phinney (1990), like Marcia (1966), proposed that an individual needs a period of ethnic exploration in order to secure an achieved ethnic identity. Tatum (1997) suggested that it is this need for ethnic exploration that causes African-American students, particularly African-American female adolescents, to frequently socialize so·cial·ize
v. so·cial·ized, so·cial·iz·ing, so·cial·iz·es
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.
2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. with each other in school. In an exploratory study of the experience of identity in late-adolescent African-American females, Shorter-Gooden and Washington (1996) found that ethnic identity was the most salient aspect of this population's self-definition. Other research has indicated that there is a relationship between ethnic identity and African-American females' self-esteem (Phinney, Cantu, & Kurtz, 1997), ethnic socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. (Marshall, 1995), and selection of friends (Hamm, 2000).
Development of Trust
The willingness of a client to trust a counselor has long been considered an important aspect of the counseling relationship (Rogers, 1942). A number of investigators have even indicated that mistrust plays a significant role in the counseling process involving Black clients and White counselors (Terrell & Terrell, 1984; Thompson, Neville, Weathers, Poston, & Atkinson, 1990; Watkins & Terrell, 1988). African-American clients' mistrust of White counselors has been linked to the prejudicial prej·u·di·cial
1. Detrimental; injurious.
2. Causing or tending to preconceived judgment or convictions: and discriminatory practices of White Americans towards African Americans (Grief & Cobbs, 1968; Thompson, Worthington, & Atkinson, 1994). The term cultural paranoia paranoia (pr'ənoi`ə), in psychology, a term denoting persistent, unalterable, systematized, logically reasoned delusions, or false beliefs, usually of persecution or grandeur. has been used to describe this type of African-American mistrust (e.g., Ridley, 1984).
When counseling African-American adolescent females, school counselors should consider mistrust as a possible barrier to counseling. Terrell and Terrell (1981) purported that many Black students distrust White school personnel because of past prejudicial contact with White teachers and White individuals outside of the school. For instance, an African-American student, regardless of how he or she performs academically, may perceive a White teacher to be biased against him or her based on his or her race. This perception may also extend to White counselors. Therefore, school counselors, particularly White counselors, need to be cognizant of mistrust as a possible variable in the counseling process and, as a result, place emphasis on developing trust and rapport The former name of device management software from Wyse Technology, San Jose, CA (www.wyse.com) that is designed to centrally control up to 100,000+ devices, including Wyse thin clients (see Winterm), Palm, PocketPC and other mobile devices. with African-American adolescent females.
Religion and Spirituality
Religion and spirituality have historically played important roles in the lives of many African Americans, particularly African-American females (Chatters, Taylor, & Lincoln, 1999; Constantine, Lewis, Conner, & Sanchez, 2000; Nobles, 1991). For many African Americans, religion and spirituality are embedded Inserted into. See embedded system. deeply in their day-to-day activities and rituals (Constantine et al., 2000). For instance, studies (e.g., Taylor, Chatters, Jayakody, & Levin, 1996) over the past 10 years have reported that a majority of African Americans are affiliated with a religious denomination For other senses of this word, see denomination.
A religious denomination (also simply denomination) is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity. and, more specifically, African Americans have reported higher levels of attendance at religious services than Whites have. Interestingly, Broman (1996) found that African-American women are more likely than others to use prayer in response to interpersonal, physical, and emotional problems.
Considering the general importance of religious and spiritual beliefs in the lives of many African-American families, African-American adolescent females' behavior may be affected and shaped by these beliefs. For instance, an African-American female student may talk of prayer as a means of coping with her concerns, or she may be more focused on activities related to her church rather than those related to school.
Implications for School Counseling
As the previous counseling issues illustrate, African-American adolescent females may present a challenge for many school counselors. We believe that school counselors can play a pivotal role in empowering African-American adolescent females' sense of self. This section addresses several implications for school counselors when working with these adolescents.
Since many African-American adolescent females may have experienced rejection, disapproval, and / or prejudice in and outside the school setting, they may approach counseling with a great deal of anxiety, distrust, and apprehension. School counselors can minimize these emotions by demystifying the counseling process and focusing on developing a trusting relationship with these young females. By briefly and simply describing the counseling process before initiating it, the school counselor provides the young African-American female student the opportunity to ask questions about "what counselors do" and to identify the limitations of counseling. Counselors might also meet with these students in informal settings (e.g., cafeteria cafeteria: see restaurant. , school courtyard, playground, hall), which are less intimidating in·tim·i·date
tr.v. in·tim·i·dat·ed, in·tim·i·dat·ing, in·tim·i·dates
1. To make timid; fill with fear.
2. To coerce or inhibit by or as if by threats. and are perceived as "neutral" territory. Gibbs (1990) even suggested that initially African-American youths are more concerned about the counselor's interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability than the counselor's counseling skills counseling skills,
n the acquired verbal and nonverbal skills that enhance communication by helping a medical professional to establish a good rapport with a patient or client. . Gibbs, therefore, recommended that it is imperative for counselors to develop rapport with African-American adolescents so that trust is gained for future counseling.
One area in which school counselors can empower African-American female adolescents is assisting the adolescents to develop an attitude that reinforces their willingness to take responsibility for changes that need to be made in their life or schooling. According to Edwards and Polite (1992), this attitude positions African Americans to have a sense of control over their environment, which is often perceived as racist and hostile. This attitude also enhances the potential of African-American female adolescents' to achieve in the context of a society that has historically devalued their reference groups (e.g., women, African Americans).Young African-American females who take personal responsibility rarely talk of luck or chance but have the attitude that expresses, "If I want it, I have to go for it, work for it."
In order to instill in·still
To pour in drop by drop.
instil·lation n. this attitude of taking personal responsibility for one's success, school counselors can assist African-American female adolescents in developing procedural or goal sequences that lead to planned action. Although school counselors and other school professionals assist all students in developing goals, African-American adolescent females seem to benefit from this intervention because of the seemingly overwhelming barriers they face due to their race and gender. To begin this process, school counselors might ask young African-American females, "What do you want to be doing in 5 years? 10 years? 25 years? How do you plan to achieve your goal in 10 years?" By developing goals, organizing a plan to achieve the goal, implementing the plan, and then evaluating the outcome of the plan, an African-American female adolescent has a useful approach to achieving success in not only her schoolwork but also her personal life.
School counselors can also empower African-American female adolescents by helping them manage the impact of others' negative perceptions. While many African-American adolescent females may not dwell on their racial, gender, or economic status, coping with others' faulty perceptions based on stereotypes is an ongoing and difficult task that will likely impact the adolescents' lives (Boyd-Franklin & Franklin, 2000). The goal then is for these youths to avoid letting others' negative perceptions block their achievements. This, according to Edwards and Polite (1992), is a difficult but necessary task that requires African Americans to possess a "heightened sense of consciousness, a finely tuned sense of control, an ability to assess a situation, make critical judgments, and take appropriate action" (p. 249).
Assisting African-American female adolescents in managing the impact of others' negative faulty perceptions can be done by using case scenarios depicting problems involving racism, sexism, and/or classism as catalysts for discussions. During these discussions, it is important for school counselors to take a "nonexpert" role so that the adolescents feel comfortable expressing their feelings. Counselors can ask questions that provide the adolescents with an opportunity to not only articulate their feelings about racism but also brainstorm new ways of challenging and managing racist encounters. Examples of questions might include "What do you feel as you read/listen to this scenario?" "What is your first reaction to the scenario?" "What might happen next after your reaction?" and "How might others deal with this situation?"
As stated previously, living in a society that devalues one's race and gender can be a devastating dev·as·tate
tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates
1. To lay waste; destroy.
2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark. and challenging experience that impacts one's self-esteem and self-concept. For this reason, instilling in·still also in·stil
tr.v. in·stilled, in·still·ing, in·stills also in·stils
1. To introduce by gradual, persistent efforts; implant: "Morality . . . self-acceptance is a critical aspect of empowering African-American adolescent females. School counselors can assist this population to in developing self-acceptance by reminding the youths of their inner as well as outer beauty and the significant aspects of their African-American heritage. School counselors might invite African-American women from the community or community organizations (e.g., churches) to serve as mentors or "buddies" for African-American adolescent females struggling with self-acceptance.
School counselors might also encourage these students to research their ethnic heritage by reading selected literature, attending cultural exhibits, and interacting with "experts" on African-American history / culture. Developing groups for African-American females has been supported in the literature as one way in which to encourage ethnic identity exploration (Gainor, 1992; Muller, 2000).
And, lastly; incorporating spirituality and religion into the counseling process can be an important consideration when counseling African-American female adolescents. Recognizing the importance of religion and spirituality in the lives of these adolescents enables school counselors to more fully appreciate indigenous support resources (e.g., deacons, ministers, pastors) in the adolescents' communities. School counselors may invite the support individuals to be part of open counseling groups, or the counselors may develop professional alliances with these persons to consult on specific cases, within the mandates of confidentiality. Counselors who recognize and encourage the disclosure of religious and spiritual beliefs in counseling may provide their African-American female clients with an important source of empowerment.
Determining the appropriate counseling intervention for an African-American female adolescent requires the school counselor to consider many of the issues previously discussed. The following case example is presented to illustrate an effective and empowering counseling intervention used with a 13-year-old African-American female student.
Angela is a student at Western Middle School (fictional name), which is located in a predominately White suburb of a large city. Two years earlier, Angela's family had moved to the suburbs from a predominately Black community in Chicago. The relocation was quite difficult for Angela. She missed her friends and was unaccustomed to being a numerical "minority" among fellow students.
After a few months at Western, Angela's grades (which had been all A's and B's) declined, and she complained of having difficulty developing friendships. In addition to her academic and friendship concerns, Angela accused her teachers of being racist and discriminatory. She also reported that many students called her "racial names" and that she felt like an "outsider." Before long, Angela became involved in several confrontations with students and teachers. Teachers, consequently, perceived Angela to be a "problem student."
Initially, the school counselor requested that Angela meet with her for a short "get-to-know-you" conference. During the conference, the school counselor spent a significant amount of time listening and empathizing with Angela's concerns. Because it was apparent from Angela's body language (e.g., crossed arms, lack of eye contact, frowning frown
v. frowned, frown·ing, frowns
1. To wrinkle the brow, as in thought or displeasure.
2. , sitting in a chair far away from the counselor) that she was not comfortable, the counselor focused primarily on Angela's interests and hobbies.
Over the next month, Angela met with the school counselor informally. She shared her perceptions that many of Western's teachers and students were prejudiced and racist. Although the counselor was unsure of the accuracy of Angela's accusations, the counselor validated and listened to her concerns. In order to better understand the racial incidents, the counselor asked Angela to describe and then role play the incidents. When processing the role plays, the counselor did not take on an "expert" role. Instead, she allowed Angela to discuss her thoughts, feelings, and perceptions. Following these conversations with Angela, the school counselor met with the principal to discuss her concerns about the possible racial insensitivity in·sen·si·tive
1. Not physically sensitive; numb.
a. Lacking in sensitivity to the feelings or circumstances of others; unfeeling.
b. among faculty and students. Based on informal meetings with ethnic minority students and parents regarding the school's climate, the principal initiated a series of professional development workshops on cultural sensitivity for the school's faculty.
As Angela's trust in the counselor grew, Angela agreed to set goals and discuss strategies for getting better grades and feeling more comfortable at school. The school counselor asked Angela to develop at least one goal related to academics and one related to making friends or feeling more comfortable at school. Angela's first goal was to increase her semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s grades by one letter grade. Her second goal was to attend a school-sponsored dance. As Angela and the counselor discussed her goals, it became apparent that Angela linked her inability to feel more comfortable at school to her race/ethnicity. She disclosed that she felt alienated al·ien·ate
tr.v. al·ien·at·ed, al·ien·at·ing, al·ien·ates
1. To cause to become unfriendly or hostile; estrange: alienate a friend; alienate potential supporters by taking extreme positions. from the other girls because of her physical features (e.g., dark skin, full lips, and short curly curl·y
adj. curl·i·er, curl·i·est
1. Having curls.
2. Having the tendency to curl.
3. Having a wavy grain: curly maple wood. hair). The counselor engaged Angela in activities that required her to assess society's unfair definitions of beauty. They reviewed magazines for hidden messages about beauty and how different cultures define beauty. The school counselor also made sure to highlight Angela's positive personality and academic characteristics so that physical attributes were not the sole focus of defining beauty. It is important to note that the counselor had read literature pertaining to the social and emotional development of African-American females to further her understanding of Angela's experiences (see Appendix for listing of books about African-American women).
After several meetings with the school counselor, Angela opened up about her anxieties about being Black at Western and her fears of not being accepted. The counselor used empathy, encouragement, reflection of feelings, and clarifying to empower Angela to be more self-accepting. By the end of the year, Angela had two best friends and her grades increased dramatically. Although she was still a bit uncomfortable with many of her teachers, she reported that school was "O.K!"
As the case example illustrates, school counselors who understand the distinct issues and challenges associated with being African American and female in America constitute a potent force for making educational and social empowerment for African-American adolescent females a reality. In his work on African-American young males, Lee (1992) suggested that counselors should have "a solid Black cultural knowledge base to address the educational challenges facing Black males" (p. 16). We believe the same is true for African-American female adolescents. In order for school counselors to serve these female adolescents effectively; the counselors must be attuned at·tune
tr.v. at·tuned, at·tun·ing, at·tunes
1. To bring into a harmonious or responsive relationship: an industry that is not attuned to market demands.
2. to the social realities of the youths' environments as well as to the stereotypes and faulty perceptions about African-American women held by many (Greene, 1994).
Adhering to the recommendations outlined in this article will likely empower African-American female adolescents; however, school counselors must not stop with these recommendations. The process of becoming more sensitive to the needs and issues of these youths is ongoing. We believe that concerned school counselors should also participate in professional development activities that promote cultural responsiveness with African-American female adolescents. Examples of such activities that provide opportunities to enhance school counselors' work with this population include, but are not limited to, the following:
1. Examine one's own attitudes, stereotypes, and biases regarding African Americans and, in particular, African-American females.
2. Read relevant literature pertaining to African-American culture, particularly that of African-American females (see the Appendix).
3. Develop a professional support network with African-American female counseling professionals.
4. Participate in professional development activities (e.g., workshops, conference sessions) that specifically address issues related to African American females, particularly young African-American females.
School counselors must be aware that young African-American females are faced with the difficult task of resisting negative stereotypes about African-American women. Therefore, school counselors who understand this task, along with the challenges that confront African-American women because of their race, gender, and, oftentimes of·ten·times also oft·times
Adv. 1. oftentimes - many times at short intervals; "we often met over a cup of coffee"
frequently, oft, often, ofttimes , socioeconomic background, are better equipped to empower and assist young African-American females in acquiring optimum development.
Selected Literature Related to African-American Females
Angelou, M. (1970). I know why the caged bird sings I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is a 1969 autobiographical novel about the early years of author Maya Angelou's life. The autobiography explores the isolation and loneliness faced by Angelou, and the attributes of her character that helped her cope with the prejudices of . New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Bantam Bantam
Former city and sultanate, Java. It was located at the western end of Java between the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean. In the early 16th century it became a powerful Muslim sultanate, which extended its control over parts of Sumatra and Borneo. .
Angelou, M. (1974). Gather together in my name. New York: Random House.
Angelou, M. (1977). Singing and swinging and getting merry like Christmas. New York: Bantam Books.
Angelou, M. (1981). The heart of a woman. New York: Random House.
Angelou, M. (1986). All God's children need traveling shoes. New York: Random House.
Bambara, T. C. (1970). The black woman. New York: Random House.
Benjamin, L. (1991). The black elite: Facing the color line color line
A barrier, created by custom, law, or economic differences, separating nonwhite persons from whites. Also called color bar.
Noun 1. in the twilight of the twentieth century. Chicago: Nelson- Hall.
Boyd-Franklin, N. (1989). Black families in therapy: A multisystems approach. New York: Guilford.
Cole, J. B. (1993). Conversations: Straight talk with America's sister president. New York: Doubleday.
Davis, A. (1983). Women, race, and class. New York: Vintage Books.
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (1989). Children of color not of the white race; - commonly meaning, esp. in the United States, of negro blood, pure or mixed.
See also: Color : Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden : Jossey-Bass.
Hooks, b. (1992). Black looks: Race and representation. Boston: South End Press.
Hurston, Z. N. (1991). Their eyes were watching God. Chicago: University of Illinois Press The University of Illinois Press (UIP), is a major American university press and part of the University of Illinois. Overview
According to the UIP's website: .
Lorde, A. (1984). Sister outsider. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press.
Morrison, T. (1972). The bluest eye. New York: Washington Square Press.
Naylor, G. (1983). The women of Brewster place Brewster Place is a ABC drama series which aired for a few episodes in May 1990. The series was a spinoff from the 1989 miniseries The Women of Brewster Place, which was based upon Gloria Naylor's novel of the same name. . New York: Penguin.
Rudwick, B. M. (1971). Black matriarchy matriarchy, familial and political rule by women. Many contemporary anthropologists reject the claims of J. J. Bachofen and Lewis Morgan that early societies were matriarchal, although some contemporary feminist theory has suggested that a primitive matriarchy did : Myth or reality? Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Russell, K., Wilson, M., & Hall, R. (1992). The color complex: The politics of skin color among African Americans. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovic
Almquist, E. M. (1995). The experiences of minority women in the U.S.: Intersections of race, gender, and class. In J. Freeman (Ed.), Women: A feminist perspective (pp. 573-606). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Beale, E (1970). Double jeopardy double jeopardy: see jeopardy.
In law, the prosecution of a person for an offense for which he or she already has been prosecuted. In U.S. : To be Black and female. In T. Cade (Ed.), The Black woman (pp. 90-100). New York: New American Library.
Blumberg, R. (1991). Afterword af·ter·word
See epilogue. : Racial ethnic women's labor: Factoring in gender stratification stratification (Lat.,=made in layers), layered structure formed by the deposition of sedimentary rocks. Changes between strata are interpreted as the result of fluctuations in the intensity and persistence of the depositional agent, e.g. . In R. Blumberg (Ed.), Gender, family, and economy: The tri-overlap (pp. 201-208). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Boyd-Franklin, N. (1991). Recurrent themes in the treatment of African American women in group psychotherapy group psychotherapy, a means of changing behavior and emotional patterns, based on the premise that much of human behavior and feeling involves the individual's adaptation and response to other people. . Women and Therapy, 11, 25-40.
Boyd-Franklin, N., & Franklin, A. J. (2000). Boys into men: Raising our African American teenage sons. New York: Dutton.
Broman, C. L. (1996). Coping with personal problems. In H. W. Neighbors & J. S. Jackson (Eds.), Mental health in Black America (pp. 117-129). Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Sage.
Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Lincoln, K. D. (1999). African American religious participation: A multi-sample comparison. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38, 132-146.
Constantine, M. G., Lewis, E. L., Conner, E. L., & Sanchez, D. (2000). Addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling African Americans: Implications for counselor training and practice. Counseling and Values, 45, 28-39.
Coultas, V. (1989). Black adolescent females and self-esteem. Gender and Education, 1, 283-294.
Edwards, A., & Polite, C. K. (1992). Children of the dream: The psychology of black success. New York: Doubleday.
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Fordham, S. (1993). Those loud black adolescent females: Black women, silence, and gender passing in the academy. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 24, 3-32.
Gainor, K. (1992). Internalized oppression as a barrier to effective group work with Black women. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 17, 2-6.
Gibbs, J. T. (1988). Conceptual, methodological, and sociocultural so·ci·o·cul·tur·al
Of or involving both social and cultural factors.
soci·o·cul issues in Black youth suicide: Implications for assessment and early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay. . Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 18, 73-89.
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A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A , and European American A European American (Euro-American) is a person who resides in the United States and is either the descendant of European immigrants or from Europe him/herself.
Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate  adolescents' selection of friends. Developmental Psychology developmental psychology
Branch of psychology concerned with changes in cognitive, motivational, psychophysiological, and social functioning that occur throughout the human life span. , 36, 20%219.
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1. An eating disorder, common especially among young women of normal or nearly normal weight, that is characterized by episodic binge eating and followed by feelings of guilt, depression, and self-condemnation. symptomatology symptomatology /symp·to·ma·tol·o·gy/ (simp?to-mah-tol´ah-je)
1. the branch of medicine dealing with symptoms.
2. the combined symptoms of a disease.
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The sense of oneself as a distinct continuous entity.
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Cheryl C. Holcomb-McCoy, Ph.D., is an assistant professor, Department of Counseling and Personnel Services, University of Maryland University of Maryland can refer to: