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Emotional intelligence and academic performance of college honors and non-honors freshmen.



A positive freshman year experience is critical for student persistence and long-term success in college (Tinto Tin´to

n. 1. A red Madeira wine, wanting the high aroma of the white sorts, and, when old, resembling tawny port.
, 1975; Tinto & Goodsell,1993). Recently, institutions have begun to recognize that student factors beyond demographics, academic records, and standardized test scores influence the likelihood of a positive freshman year experience (Levitz & Noel, 1989). "Emotional intelligence" is one such factor which is instrumental in situations that call upon students to adjust successfully from one environment to another (Hettich, 2000). While there is some data on the personality characteristics of college Honors students (Grangaard, 2003), to our knowledge no data have been collected on their emotional intelligence. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate two hypotheses. First, we wondered whether Honors college freshmen differed from their non-Honors peers in emotional intelligence. Second, we were interested in determining whether measures of emotional intelligence were predictive of first-semester college GPAs in addition to traditional predictors such as SAT scores and high-school GPAs.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EI)

Our study follows the research of Salovey and Mayer (1997) who define EI as "the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate as·sim·i·late
v.
1. To consume and incorporate nutrients into the body after digestion.

2. To transform food into living tissue by the process of anabolism.
 emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in the self and others" (p. 10). There is a fairly substantial body of literature which suggests that as a measured construct, EI is predictive of performance in educational as well as industrial/organizational settings (Goleman, 1995; 2001; Tett, Fox, & Wang, manuscript submitted for publication).

EI AND THE ACADEMICALLY TALENTED

Some researchers have argued that academically gifted children tend to have increased social and emotional difficulties (Winner, 2000), and that these difficulties may occur due to stereotyping of giftedness (Yewchick & Jacoby, 1991). Research also suggests that behavioral problems for gifted and high ability students can be exacerbated by unchallenging curricula, as well as educator and peer myths (Callahan, 2001; Garland & Zigler, 1999; Johnson, 2000). Some of these myths include negative stereotyping such as the "nerd," "know-it-all," and "teacher's pet" (Moulton, Moulton, Housewright, & Bailey, 1998). Accordingly, one might expect these negative stereotypes to increase levels of emotional and behavioral maladjustment maladjustment /mal·ad·just·ment/ (mal?ah-just´ment) in psychiatry, defective adaptation to the environment.

mal·ad·just·ment
n.
1. Faulty or inadequate adjustment.

2.
 leading to lower levels of measured EI.

In contrast, another line of research suggests that there are multiple intelligences and that intellectual and emotional intelligence may go hand in hand (Gardner, 1993). In proposing the construct of "emotional giftedness," Mayer and his colleagues (2000) claim that giftedness comes in many forms, and that high ability in one area (e.g., regulating one's emotions) can positively affect the performance in another area (e.g., academic achievement). As evidence for this, other researchers (Schutte et al. 1998) have found that EI scores of college freshmen were correlated with first-year college GPAs.

Further research is needed to explicate the two opposing views on the emotional intelligence of the academically talented (e.g., the "nerd" versus the emotionally gifted). Indeed, previous researchers (Clark, 2000; Grangaard, 2003; Palmer & Wohl, 1972) have noted the dearth of data regarding the personality characteristics of academically talented students. Moreover, there have been no studies that have reported on their emotional intelligence. Therefore, under Hypothesis 1 of the present study we compared the EI scores of Honors college freshmen with their non-Honor peers.

EI AND THE FRESHMAN-YEAR EXPERIENCE.

Effective managing of the emotional, social, and academic challenges associated with the "freshman experience" is needed to transition successfully from highschool to the university environment (Tinto, 1975). Indeed, the aforementioned study by Schutte et al (1998) corroborated cor·rob·o·rate  
tr.v. cor·rob·o·rat·ed, cor·rob·o·rat·ing, cor·rob·o·rates
To strengthen or support with other evidence; make more certain. See Synonyms at confirm.
 the relationship between emotional functioning and freshman GPA GPA
abbr.
grade point average

Noun 1. GPA - a measure of a student's academic achievement at a college or university; calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted
. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that have determined whether emotional intelligence might be predictive of Honors students' GPA in college. Specifically, for Hypothesis 2, the present study undertook a regression analysis In statistics, a mathematical method of modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others. For example, a model might estimate sales based on age and gender.  to determine whether EI as well as traditional measures of academic performance (e.g., high-school GPA and SAT scores) would be predictive of first-semester college GPA. We performed separate regression analyses on both Honors students and their non-Honors peers. This type of analysis proves useful when researchers want to determine the degrees to which variables (e.g., high-school GPA) are predictive of some outcome (e.g., college GPA). Separate analyses were undertaken on Honors and non-Honors students to determine whether different sets of predictors might exist for these groups. This outcome seemed likely because each group might react differently to the academic and social expectations placed upon them as they transition from high-school to college (Yewchuk & Jacoby, 1991).

THE MAYER-SALOVEY-CARUSO EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TEST (MCSEIT)

The present study used the MSCEIT MSCEIT Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test  (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000) which is the first standardized test developed by researchers to measure EI. According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the test developers, MSCEIT possesses high internal inconsistency in·con·sis·ten·cy  
n. pl. in·con·sis·ten·cies
1. The state or quality of being inconsistent.

2. Something inconsistent: many inconsistencies in your proposal.
 (r = .92) and good test-retest reliability (r = .86). Moreover, a confirmatory factor analysis In statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a special form of factor analysis. It is used to assess the the number of factors and the loadings of variables.  supported the test developers' intent to organize the MSCEIT around a four-branch model of emotional functioning (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios, 2003):

Perception of Emotion (Branch 1): The ability to be open to feelings, and to modulate To insert a data signal into a carrier wave or direct current. See modulation.  them in oneself and others as to promote personal understanding and growth.

Emotional Facilitation Facilitation

The process of providing a market for a security. Normally, this refers to bids and offers made for large blocks of securities, such as those traded by institutions.
 of Thought (Branch 2): The ability to generate, use and feel emotion as necessary to communicate feelings or employ them in other mental processes.

Understanding Emotion (Branch 3): The ability to understand emotional information such as how emotions progress through relationship transitions, and to reason about such emotional meanings.

Managing Emotion (Branch 4): The ability to be open to feelings, to modulate them in oneself and others to promote personal understanding and growth.

There are also two main area scores assessed by the MSCEIT: Area 1 which is an Emotional Experiential ex·pe·ri·en·tial  
adj.
Relating to or derived from experience.



ex·peri·en
 (EE) score and Area 2 which is an Emotional Reasoning (ER) score. The EE score is a combined score of branch 1 and 3 scores while the ER score is a combined score of branch 2 and 4 scores. These area scores are then combined with the branch scores, and together they constitute a total EI score. The area scores are defined as follows (Mayer et. al. 2000, p. 47).

EE score (Area 1): A person's ability to perceive, respond and manipulate emotional information--without necessarily understanding it. It also indexes how accurately a person can "read" and express emotion, and how well a person can compare emotional stimulation to other sorts of sensory experiences (e.g., colors or sounds).

ER score (Area 2): A person's ability to understand and manage emotions-without necessarily perceiving it well or fully experiencing feelings. It indexes how accurately a person understands what emotions signify (e.g., that sadness typically signals a loss) and how emotions in him/herself and others can be managed.

In sum, emotional intelligence is seen as the "ability to perceive accurately, appraise appraise v. to professionally evaluate the value of property including real estate, jewelry, antique furniture, securities, or in certain cases the loss of value (or cost of replacement) due to damage.  and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth" (Mayer et al. 2000, p. 23).

METHOD

SAMPLE

The 300 Honors and 230 non-Honors sampled in the present study were all firstsemester freshmen attending a large metropolitan research university in the Southeastern United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . Table 1 shows the demographic and academic performance data of these two groups as a function of gender.

Table 1 shows that the mean high-school GPA and mean SAT scores of incoming Honors students are considerably higher than for non-Honors freshman. In fact, the mean SAT score for our sample of Honors students (M = 1291) is over 100 points higher than the overall mean reported for our university (M = 1167).

MEASURES

The MSCEIT takes approximately 30 to 45 min. to complete, and is self-paced. Four branch scores, two main area scores, and a total EI score are derived from the MSCEIT. The test developers encourage the reporting of total EI scores because this composite score has a face validity face validity (fāsˑ v·liˑ·di·tē),
n
 similar to IQ scores (which are also composites and have a mean normed value of 100 points). In addition, first-semester college GPA, High School GPA, and Scholastic Aptitude Test ap·ti·tude test
n.
An occupation-oriented test for evaluating intelligence, achievement, and interest.
 (SAT) scores were obtained from the university registrar.

PROCEDURE

The MSCEIT was distributed in booklet form to a class of Honors students during their required attendance at an Honors freshman symposium. It was given to the non-Honors group in booklet form and via Internet test form during class, as a method to obtain extra credit in a General Psychology class. Both groups were instructed to take it at their convenience, and to bring the completed response sheets back within a week.

RESULTS

GROUP COMPARISONS

Table 1 shows mean age, GPA (high school and college) and MSCEIT scores as a function of group (Honors and non-Honors) and gender. MSCEIT scores that were analyzed included: Total Score, Area 1 and 2 Scores, Branch 1, 2, 3, and 4 scores. Separate completely randomized ran·dom·ize  
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment.
 2 (Honors vs. non-Honors) x 2 (male vs. female) Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) were used in making all group comparisons. All statistically significant values were beyond p < .05 (dfs may vary as a function of missing values In statistics, missing values are a common occurrence. Several statistical methods have been developed to deal with this problem. Missing values mean that no data value is stored for the variable in the current observation. ).

SAT SCORES AND HIGH-SCHOOL GPA

As expected, Honors students had higher high-school GPAs (M = 4.28) compared to non-Honors students (M = 3.67), F (1, 543) = 229.19. Honors students had higher total SAT scores (M = 1291.39) compared to non-Honors students (M = 1089.91), F (1, 520) = 460.78.

FIRST-SEMESTER COLLEGE GPA

Honors students (M = 3.40.) had higher first-semester GPAs compared to non- Honors students (M = 3.25), F (1, 543) = 58.09. Additionally, women (M = 3.38) had higher first-semester GPAs than men (M = 3.27), F (1, 543) = 4.86.

TOTAL EI SCORES

A 2 x 2 ANOVA anova

see analysis of variance.

ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there
 revealed that Honors students had higher total EI scores (M = 100.86) than non-Honors students (M = 97.94), F (1, 528) = 5.83. Furthermore, women (M = 102.08) had higher total scores than men (M = 96.32), F (1, 528) = 18.36.

AREA 1 SCORES (EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE)

The only significant effect was for gender. Specifically, women had higher Area 1 scores (M = 102.26) than men (M = 98.67), F (1,532) = 7.21.

AREA 2 SCORES (EMOTIONAL REASONING)

Women displayed higher Area 2 scores (M = 102.37) compared to men (M = 96.06, F (1, 528) = 19.34. In addition, Honors students ( M = 101.07) had higher scores than non-Honors students (M = 97.77), F (1, 528) = 6.77.

BRANCH 1 SCORES (PERCEIVING EMOTION)

A 2 x 2 ANOVA revealed no main effects. However, a significant group x gender interaction was obtained., F (1, 534) = 4.97. Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD LSD or lysergic acid diethylamide (lī'sûr`jĭk, dī'ĕth`ələmĭd, dī'ĕthəlăm`ĭd), alkaloid synthesized from lysergic acid, which is found in the fungus ergot ( ) Test indicated that female Honors students had higher Branch 1 Scores than the other three groups which did not differ from each other, [t.sub.LSD] = 3.04. This interaction can be seen in Figure 1.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

BRANCH 2 SCORES (EMOTIONAL FACILITATION OF THOUGHT)

The only significant effect obtained was for gender. Specifically, women had higher Branch 2 Scores (M = 100.94) than men (M = 96.60), F (1, 532) = 11.37.

BRANCH 3 SCORES (UNDERSTANDING EMOTION)

Honors students (M = 103.73) had higher Branch 3 Scores than non-Honor students (M = 98.79, F (1, 531) = 14.50. Moreover, women (M = 103.77) had higher scores than men (M = 98.79), F (1, 531) = 14.63.

BRANCH 4 SCORES (MANAGING EMOTION)

No main effects were found for either group or gender. However, there was a significant two-way interaction, F (1, 529) = 17.50. Fisher's LSD Test revealed that Honors' women had higher scores than non-Honors women while the Branch 4 scores of Honors men and non-Honors men did not differ, [t.sub.LSD] = 2.00. This interaction can be seen in Figure 2.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

CORRELATIONAL ANALYSES

Separate correlational analyses were performed for Honors and non-Honors students using all of the variables shown in Table 1. We were most interested in determining whether any variables would correlate with first-semester college GPA. It turns out that four variables were correlated with first semester se·mes·ter  
n.
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.



[German, from Latin (cursus) s
 GPA when Honors students are considered. These variables were: high-school GPA [r (170) = +.47)], Branch 2 scores [r (168) = +.22)], Area 1 scores [r (168) = +.16)], and Total MSCEIT scores [r (165) = +.16)].

When non-Honors students are considered, only two variables were correlated with first-semester college GPA: high-school GPA [r (177) = +.39)] and SAT Total scores [r (169) = +.20)]. For non-Honors students, none of the MSCEIT measures correlated with their college academic performance.

Finally, it should be noted that when all student data were included in a correlational analysis Noun 1. correlational analysis - the use of statistical correlation to evaluate the strength of the relations between variables
statistics - a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of
, a positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation
 was found between total MSCEIT scores and total SAT Scores [r (321) = +.17)]. This analysis also found that total MSCEIT scores were correlated with first-semester college GPA [r (334) = +.13)]. While the strength of this correlation may appear low, it is similar in magnitude to that found between total SAT scores and first-semester college GPA [r (335) = +.12)].

MULTIPLE REGRESSION

Based on the first two correlational analyses reported above, separate multiple regression analyses with a forward stepping solution were undertaken for Honors and non-Honors students. In each analysis, first-semester college GPA was treated as the dependent variable and any other variables that were correlated with first-semester college GPA were entered as the independent variables. A step-wise multiple regression analysis for Honors students revealed that high-school GPA ([R.sup.2] change = .21) and Branch 2 scores ([R.sup.2] change = .02) were predictive of first-semester college GPA, F (1, 286) = 42.42. A similar analysis for non-Honors students revealed that only high-school GPA ([R.sup.2] = .15) was predictive of their first-semester college GPA, F (1, 226) = 39.75.

DISCUSSION

Regarding Hypothesis 1 of the present study, we were able to dispel the notion that high academic performance and emotional difficulties are associated. In fact, the results found here support the notion that academically talented college freshmen exhibit higher levels of EI than their non-Honors peers. In line with the results reported by Schutte et al (1998), we also found that women had higher overall levels of EI than men. When Hypothesis 2 is considered, we found that one EI subscale (Branch 2 scores-Emotional Facilitation of Thought) was predictive of firstsemester college GPA for Honor students. In contrast, none of the EI measures was predictive of first-semester college GPA in non-Honors students. It was also the case that for both groups of students, high-school GPA was a reliable predictor of first-semester college GPA.

We believe that the pattern of results reported here convey three important lessons for Honors students and their instructors. First, regardless of the negative stereotyping (e.g., the "nerd") that may exist toward the academically talented, Honors students should take heart. The fact is that Honors students function at a higher level of emotional intelligence than their non-Honors peers.

Second, the predictiveness of Branch 2 scores for academic performance in Honors students was small albeit significant. This suggests that Honors students are able to effectively use their emotions (Branch 2 scores) in ways that promote academic success. Thus, compared to their non-Honor peers, when Honors students experience negative emotions (e.g., test anxiety), they are better able to re-channel the negative thoughts and feelings associated with these emotions into adaptive behaviors (e.g., spending more time on test preparation). As a consequence, this adaptive behavior Adaptive behavior is a type of behavior that is used to adapt to another type of behavior or situation. This is often characterized by a kind of behavior that allows an individual to substitute an unconstructive or disruptive behavior to something more constructive.  is likely to produce higher academic performance. This suggests that this relationship between EI and academic performance is a characteristic of Honors students, but not their non-Honors peers. Future research is needed to replicate this relationship and to determine whether it is a characteristic of high achievers in other domains such as the arts, sports, and business.

Third, we are not advocating that Honors educators use EI measures as a means for predicting academic performance in their students. Rather, we would prefer that the results of our study reinforce the view that Honors instructors should approach their students in a holistic fashion. That is, instructors should not only consider their students' high levels of intellect, but also their emotional intelligence in the promotion of academic and personal excellence. From an institutional perspective, Honors programs that have freshman orientation seminars and residence life activities should take advantage of their students' high level of emotional intelligence when fostering an Honors sense of identity and community.

REFERENCES

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Clark, L. (2000). A review of the research on personality characteristics of academically talented college students. Teaching and Learning in Honors, 7-20. Ames, IA: National Collegiate Honors Council.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, NY: Basic Books, Publishers.

Garland, A. & Zigler, E., (1999). Emotional and behavioral problems among highly intellectually gifted youth. Roeper Review, 22(1), 41-44.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam Bantam

Former city and sultanate, Java. It was located at the western end of Java between the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean. In the early 16th century it became a powerful Muslim sultanate, which extended its control over parts of Sumatra and Borneo.
 Books.

Goleman, D. (2001). The emotionally intelligent workplace: How to select for, measure, and improve emotional intelligence in individuals, groups, and organizations. San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden , CA: Jossey-Bass.

Grangaard, D. R. (2003). Personality characteristics and favorite topics of students enrolled in Introduction to Psychology, Honors. Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council, 4, 41-47.

Hettich, P. (2000). Transition processes from college to career. Eric document no.:ED447368.

Johnson, K. (2000). Affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.

af·fec·tive
adj.
1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.

2.
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Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267-298.

Mayer, J. D., Perkins, D. M., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2000). Emotional intelligence and giftedness [Intelligence theories on gifted education]. Roeper Review Special Issue, 23(3), 131-137.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000). Test manual for the MSCEIT V.2. The Mayer, Salovey & Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Towanda, NY: Multi Health Systems.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0. Emotion, 3(1), 97-105.

Moulton, P., Moulton, M., Housewright, M., & Bailey. K. (1998). Gifted and talented: Exploring the positive and negative aspects of labeling. Roeper Review, 21, 153-154.

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Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey, & D.J. Sluyter (Eds.). Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications. NY: Basic Books, 3-34.

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177.

Tett, R P., Fox, K. E., & Wang, A. Y. Emotional intelligence as a multidimensional personality construct: Development and validation of a self-report measure. Manuscript submitted for publication to Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin is a scientific journal published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP). It publishes original empirical papers on subjects like social cognition, attitudes, group processes, social influence, intergroup relations, .

Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout (1) On magnetic media, a bit that has lost its strength due to a surface defect or recording malfunction. If the bit is in an audio or video file, it might be detected by the error correction circuitry and either corrected or not, but if not, it is often not noticed by the human  from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45, 89-125.

Tinto, V. & Goodsell, A. (1993). Freshman interest groups and the first year experience: Constructing student communities in a large university. ERIC document no.: ED358778.

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The author may be contacted at awang@mail.ucf.edu

ANDREW LANG
For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball).


Andrew Lang (March 31 1844, Selkirk – July 20 1912, Banchory, Kincardineshire) was a prolific Scots man of letters.
, AIMEE RAILE RAILE Retro-Assisted Imaging Laser Experiment , AND JOY THRALL

ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY
Table 1 Means (Standard Deviations) for all variables as a function of
student group and gender.

                            Honors Students

                  Female (n = 156)   Male (n = 144)

Total EI          104.55(14.64)      96.88 (17.49)

College GPA
(1st semester)    3.47 (.61)         3.32 (.70)

High School GPA   4.36 (.35)         4.22 (.38)

SAT Total         1273.67 (80.22)    1309 (84.73)

Age (yrs.)        17.95 (.42)        18.04 (.46)

Branch 1 Score    105.91 (14.43)     101.28 (15.97)

Branch 2 Score    101.84(12.55)      96.61 (15.81)

Branch 3 Score    106.42(15.09)      100.90 (18.44)

Branch 4 Score    101.94(14.20)      94.33 (16.37)

Area 1 Score      104.91 (14.06)     98.48 (16.28)

Area 2 Score      104.66(15.13)      97.21 (18.05)

                         Non-Honors students

                  Female (n = 145)   Male (n = 85)

Total EI          99.44 (12.83)      95.37 (16.29)

College GPA
(1st semester)    3.28 (.67)         3.18 (.64)

High School GPA   3.76 (.55)         3.51 (.69)

SAT Total         1073.15 (115.72)   1121.52 (124.04)

Age (yrs.)        18.40 (.90)        18.63 (1.30)

Branch 1 Score    100.85 (13.66)     101.99 (13.29)

Branch 2 Score    99.97 (13.79)      96.57 (15.54)

Branch 3 Score    100.93 (14.47)     95.14 (18.73)

Branch 4 Score    99.09 (15.93)      94.71 (18.47)

Area 1 Score      100.18(12.97)      98.99 (13.73)

Area 2 Score      99.92 (15.49)      94.12 (19.56)
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Title Annotation:Multiperspectivism in Honors
Author:Castro-Johnson, Malaika; Wang, Alvin Y.
Publication:Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2003
Words:3471
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