Emotional intelligence & managerial effectiveness: role of rational emotive behaviour.
It is an undeniable fact that only high-performing organizations employing highly result-oriented managers can survive and grow in today's globalized era. High-performing organizations, no doubt, try to attract the best talent from the job market. In fact, hiring potentially effective and result-oriented managers has, in recent times, become the greatest challenge for HR managers of any progressive organization. However, hiring potentially effective managers calls for a proper understanding of the personality related factors that invariably influence a manager's effectiveness in his job. Only continuing research in this area would help in identifying important personality variables which can predict managerial behaviour.
Although by common understanding, effective managers are those who deliver results and add value to the company, some of the researchers tried to define the concept of managerial effectiveness and distinguish it from other related concepts. Reddin (1970:4) distinguished between managerial effectiveness, apparent effectiveness and personal effectiveness while defining managerial effectiveness as "the extent to which a manager achieves the output requirements of his position". Mintzberg (1973) observed that all managerial jobs are similar in nature and therefore they could be described by certain common behaviours or roles. He put forward ten managerial roles falling under three categories: (1) interpersonal (figurehead, leader, liaison), (2) informational (monitor, disseminator, spokesperson), and (3) decisional (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator). According to Mintzberg, managers working in different positions could be effective depending on the combination of these ten roles. Das (1991) compared Mintzberg's managerial roles with Indian managerial roles and found certain skills such as interpersonal relations, crisis management, employee counselling, oral communication, etc. as critical to become an effective executive in India. A study by Das & Manimala (1993) on middle and senior level managers employed in a variety of organizations revealed that several of the roles suggested by Mintzberg are played by Indian managers. Roles such as 'leader', 'monitor' and 'entrepreneur' were found to be the important aspects of the managers' job whereas, roles such as 'figurehead', 'negotiator', and 'spokes-person' were found to be less important aspects of the managers' job.
There are several theoretical conceptualizations of managerial effectiveness incorporating various managerial roles, skills, and competencies available in literature. Yukl (1989) integrated several decades of managerial-role research into a taxonomy of managerial behaviour. A role-based framework is consistent with Katz and Kahn's (1978) open systems approach in which roles are determined by inputs from the environment as well as variations in style as determined by the individual. They defined behavioural roles as the "recurring actions of an individual, appropriately interrelated with the repetitive activities of others so as to yield a predictable outcome" (p.125). Other significant models of managerial effectiveness include the ones proposed by Luthans et al (1988), Balaraman (1989), Quinn (1990), Gupta (1996), Hamlin (2002), and Srivastava & Sinha (2007).
Gupta (1996:399) defined managerial effectiveness as the "ability of a manager to carry out the activities required of his position while achieving the results both current and in terms of developing further potential". Using factor analysis, 16 dimensions of managerial effectiveness were identified, viz., confidence in subordinates, communication & task assignment, networking, colleagues management, discipline, resource utilization, management of market environment, conflict resolution, integrity & communication, client management & competence, motivating, delegation, image building, welfare management, consultative, and inspection & innovation. This model has been developed for the Indian context and it seems to encompass all the relevant dimensions of managerial effectiveness incorporated in other models. A closer look at these 16 dimensions reveals that there is high degree of man-management focus inherent in Gupta's (1996) construct. This means that personal variables that are related to managers' ability to manage people can have a significant impact on their managerial effectiveness (Nair & Yuvaraj 2000).
A few studies have examined the role of certain personality variables on managerial effectiveness in the Indian context. For instance, Rastogi and Dave (2004) studied the managerial effectiveness of top and lower level managers in production and marketing departments in relation to their personality type using a sample of 80 managers from various private sector organizations from the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. The Managerial Effectiveness Questionnaire (Gupta 1996) was used to measure managerial effectiveness. The major findings were that in the production department, both top and lower level managers having Type-B personality were found more effective and in marketing department top-level managers having Type-A personality and lower level managers having Type B personality were found more effective in comparison to their counterparts.
Emotional Intelligence & Managerial Effectiveness
In the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the role of emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) on managerial behaviour (Callahan Fabian 1999, Bryant 2000). Researchers are particularly trying to understand the role emotions and emotional intelligence play in the organization through change efforts, leadership effectiveness, training and organizational performance.
The genesis of the study of EI has its roots in David Wechsler's idea of "non-collective aspects of general intelligence", which reaches as far back as 1940 (Wechsler 1940). Subsequently, Leeper (1948) proposed that "emotional thought" is part of and contributes to "logical thought" and intelligence in general. These early proposals were succeeded nearly half a century later by the ideas of Harvard University's Howard Gardner, who felt that intelligence encompasses multiple dimensions, combining a variety of cognitive aspects with emotional intelligence (or "personal intelligence" as he called it). The emotional or personal dimension of his concept of "multiple intelligence" included two general components that he referred to as "intrapsychic capacities" and "interpersonal skills" (Gardner 1983). On the other hand, Mayer and Salovey looked primarily at six components of "emotional intelligence" that are very similar to BarOn's components (Mayer et al. 1990).
Based on Gardener's (1983) theory, BarOn (1997a) defined emotional intelligence as "an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures". This suggests that non-cognitive intelligence helps to predict success because it reflects how a person applies knowledge to the immediate situation. In a way he suggested that measuring emotional, personal, or social intelligence is to measure one's ability to cope with daily situations to get along in the world.
A study by Singh (2001) concluded that different professions do require different levels of EQ. However, having a high or average EQ may not be labelled as 'good' or 'bad' in a profession. It is necessary to have a right balance of various emotional competencies which may help one become a star performer. It also found that many professions exhibited moderate EQ. However, it should not be interpreted that high EQ is not required in these professions.
Studies have indicated positive relationship between emotional intelligence and managerial success. For instance, Daftuar et al (2000) investigated the relationship between EQ and sixteen dimensions of managerial effectiveness using EQ Map of Cooper & Sawaf (1997). They found the self- awareness of managers to be positively correlated with 9 dimensions; resilience with 12 dimensions, interpersonal connection with 12 dimensions, integrity with 12 dimensions and intuition with 14 dimensions of managerial effectiveness. Shipper et al (2003) explored the relationship between EI and managerial effectiveness using a cross-cultural sample of 3,785 managers of a multinational firm located in U.S, UK, and Malaysia. They found that empathy, self-awareness, and self- regulation are highly related to managerial effectiveness. In a study by Sy et al (2006), participants were 187 food service workers and their 62 managers at nine divergent locations of the same restaurant franchise. The results of this study also support previous research (e.g. Wong & Law 2002, Law et al. 2004) indicating that employees with higher EI have higher job performance. The study suggests that employees with high EI are more adept at using their emotions to facilitate job performance. Employees with high EI are more adept at using their emotions to facilitate job performance. In the Indian context, similarly, Kumar (2001) found high correlations of emotional intelligence with team cohesiveness, organizational effectiveness, job satisfaction, and transformational leadership among executives.
Rational Emotive Behaviour
Rational Emotive Behaviour (REB), another construct having emotional undercurrents has, in recent times, been found to have implications for managerial behaviour. The theory behind Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis (1973), posits that our feelings are primarily caused by the specific thoughts and messages we tell ourselves. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is active-directive, but is also unusually post-modernistic and constructivist in that it specializes in showing clients how their conscious and unconscious absolutistic philosophies lead to much of their dysfunctional feelings and behaviours, and what they can do to make themselves more open-minded and flexible in their intra-personal and interpersonal relationships (Ellis 1998). Ellis posited that if people could be prevented from indulging in irrational thoughts and beliefs, they would improve their ability to direct their energy toward self-actualization (the rational drive), which he believed could best be accomplished through reason (Ellis 1994). The ABC framework is the cornerstone of rational emotive practice. In this framework, 'A' stands for an activating event, 'B' stands for beliefs or evaluative cognitions of the world, and 'C' stands for emotional and behavioural consequences.
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy has been used to study the influence of rational thinking and emotions and its influence on personality since long. REBT consists of belief systems which further comprises rational beliefs which are provable and verifiable, are associated with appropriate emotions, and more productive and self- helping behaviours. These are usually logical and consistent and lead to desirable and happy feelings. On the other hand, irrational beliefs deal with no evidence to support the belief, and are associated with inappropriate emotions. They are also associated with less productive and self-helping behaviours. These beliefs are often illogical and inconsistent and often lead to undesirable and miserable feelings.
Kilburg (1996) has described a number of the typical goals of coaching, including (i) increasing the client's behavioural range, flexibility, and effectiveness; (ii) improving the client's social and psychological awareness and competencies; (iii) increasing the client's tolerance and range of emotional responses; and (iv) strengthening the client's hardiness and stress management skills. Given the identified outcomes of the REBT process, they believed it is possible to use the basic principles of this therapeutic approach to meet a number of these goals.
Executive coaching forms an important aspect of Managerial Effectiveness. Sherin and Caiger (2004) have suggested behavioural change as an important component of executive coaching and thus suggested the use of REBT for executive coaching. The study suggested that much of executive coaching involves assisting them to strategically develop adaptive work behaviours. Underlying many of these interventions is the need to effect behavioural change. Indeed, many coaching models include behavioural change as a fundamental aspect of their process. For example, Saporito's (1996) four stages of executive coaching include effecting and monitoring behaviour change as a key component of the coaching which is an important managerial process. An emotionally intelligent person is high at traits like assertiveness, independence, empathy, inter-personal relationship, happiness, etc. An emotionally intelligent person is also efficient at stress tolerance and impulse control. Additionally, such a person is also optimistic and believes in reality testing, thus, helping in understanding as to how rational he or she is.
In a study by Sporrle and Welpe (2006), by adopting the theoretical framework of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (Ellis 1962, 1994), the cognitive antecedents of functional behaviour and adaptive emotions as indicators of emotional intelligence (EI) were examined and central assumptions of REB were tested. In an extension of REB, it was hypothesized that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more EI than maladaptive emotions, which result from irrational cognitions, because the former leads to functional behaviour. The results of the first study using organizational scenarios in an experimental design confirmed central assumptions of REB and supported the hypotheses. In a second correlational study the connection between rational cognitions and EI by measuring real person data using psychometric scales was replicated. Both studies indicated that irrational attitudes result in reduced job satisfaction.
This study was carried out with the following objectives.
1. To find out the nature of relation between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness.
2. To ascertain the nature of relationship between Rational Emotive Behaviour and Managerial Effectiveness.
3. To study the role of Rational Emotive Behaviour in the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness.
Based on the review of relevant literature, the following hypotheses were formulated and verified in the study.
H1.Emotional Intelligence will be positively related to Managerial Effectiveness.
H2.Rational Emotive Behaviour will be positively related to Managerial Effectiveness.
H3.Rational Emotive Behaviour will moderate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness.
1. Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi): BarOn (1997b, 2000) describes the Emotional Quotient inventory as a self report measure of emotionally and socially competent behaviour which provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. The instrument was initiated in the early 1980s as an experimental tool. EQ- i, consists of 15 subscales with 133 items. It has a five point rating scale. A score of 1 is awarded if the respondent has checked on Very Seldom or Not True of Me, 2 to Seldom True of Me, 3 to Sometimes True of Me, 4 to Often True of Me and a score to Very Often True of Me or True of Me. Out of the 133 items belonging to different sub-scales 57 are to be reverse scored.
Emotional Self Awareness (ES), Self-Regard (SR), Assertiveness (AS), Independence (IN), and Self--Actualization (AS) constitute Intra-personal skills. Inter-personal skills on the other hand consist of Empathy (EM), Social Responsibility (SRES), and Interpersonal Relationship (IR). Additionally there is the adaptability scale, which consists of Reality Testing (RT), Flexibility (FL), and Problem Solving (PS). Equally important is the Stress Management skill which includes Impulse Control (IC) and Stress Tolerance (ST). The General mood scales on the other hand are Happiness (HA) and Optimism (OP). Bar On (2000) has reported the internal reliability by using the Cronbach alpha ranging from 0.70 for Social Responsibility to 0.89 for Self -Regard. Kumar (2001) in his Indian study reported the internal consistency of the 15 sub-scales ranging from 0.65 to 0.89. The Cronbach alpha value of EQi computed in this study is 0.68.
2. Rational Behaviour Inventory: The Rational Behaviour Inventory (RBI) developed by Shorkey and Whiteman (1977) has a five point rating scale. It consists of 37 items. The reliability index computed in this study is 0
3. Managerial Effectiveness Scale: This scale developed by Gupta (1996) consists of 45 items measuring 16 dimensions. The scale has been further factor analysed giving 3 factors named as Activities of His Position, Achieving the Results and Developing Further Potential. It has positively and negatively worded items with a five point rating scale. Positive items are scored by assigning 5 to a rating of Always; 4 to Usually; 3 to Neutral; 2 to Sometimes; and 1 to Never. The test-retest reliability and split half reliability are 0.73 (Gupta 1996). The Cronbach alpha value computed in this study is 0.88.
The present study consisted of 305 managers from several industries across India including manufacturing, information technology, human resource consulting, banking, energy, and telecommunication. Out of the 305 managers, 197 participants were middle level managers and 108 were entry level managers. A sample of around 300 executives was primarily the target sample so as to ensure a good mix of male- female, middle level- entry level, and private-public sector categories of executives. It has been seen that the roles and responsibilities of entry level and middle level managers (viz. team working; decision making; planning and organizing) are quite similar in nature in comparison to senior level managers where the roles and responsibilities include transformational leadership, strategic thinking, mission and vision formation of the organization. First-line managers are primarily involved in project management activities. Middle-level managers are heavily involved in personnel supervision activities, though they are still involved in project management. Upper-level managers are heavily involved in strategic planning, however they also have involvement in project management and personnel supervision but, comparatively to much lower extent (Friedman & Fleishman 1990). For this purpose, it has been decided to adopt purposive sampling method to study entry level and middle level managers to maintain the homogeneity of the sample. To give a wider representation of the managerial population, the sample comprised managers from public sector as well as private sector industries. Out of the 305 managers, 148 were from public sector and 157 from private sector companies. These managers were from some of the top companies located in the major metro cities of India where the need to manage risk, handle stress, and to adapt efficiently is high. The entry-level managers ranged in age from 21 years to 40 years with an average age of 28 years whereas, the middle-level managers ranged in age from 24 years to 58 years with a mean age of 38 years. It was ensured that an entry level manager has a minimum of 1 year of experience and a middle level manager has a minimum experience of 3 years.
Results & Discussion
In order to study the distribution of data, descriptive statistics like Means and Standard Deviations were found out. For the purpose of testing the hypotheses and establishing relationships among the variables, statistics like correlation and simple regression were used. Further, Fisher's r to z transformation test was used to study the effect of the moderating variable.
In order to ensure that the public sector and private sector samples do not differ significantly on the variables under study, t-test was conducted. The results of t-test signify non-significant difference in Emotional Intelligence (t = 1.056, p<0.06, df = 147). Hence, the two samples were combined and all statistical analyses were done for the total sample. The statistical package used for data analysis in this study is SPSS 15.0.
Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics of the independent and dependent variables. Minimum- maximum ranges, means, and standard-deviations are listed in table 1. All variables have a high mean value. The specific skills of Emotional Intelligence and Rational Emotive Behaviour have high standard deviation values indicating a good spread of scores while variables of Managerial Effectiveness have low standard deviation value.
Results of correlational analysis presented in Table 2 reveal that there is a strong positive relation between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness. Results also show a significant positive relation between Rational Emotive Behaviour and Activities of His Position and Achieving the Results factor of Managerial Effectiveness. In addition, a strong correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Rational Emotive Behaviour is seen. All of the five specific skills of Emotional Intelligence are significantly correlated to Rational Emotive Behaviour.
Table 3 reveals that Emotional Intelligence (Adaptability Skills, Stress Management, and General Mood) is a significant predictor of Activities of His Position factor of Managerial Effectiveness. It can be seen from Table 4 that emotional Intelligence is not a significant predictor of Achieving the Results. Table 5 depicts that Emotional Intelligence (Inter-personal Skills, Adaptability, and General Mood) is a significant predictor of Developing Further Potential. Also, it can be seen from Table 6, that Rational Emotive Behaviour is a significant predictor of Activities of His Position, Achieving the Results, and Managerial Effectiveness as a composite score.
It was hypothesized that Rational Emotive Behaviour acts as a moderating variable in the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness. To study the effect of this moderating variable, the significance of difference of correlation has been studied between the values of r of Managerial Effectiveness corresponding to 'High' Emotional Intelligence and 'Low' Emotional Intelligence scores. For this purpose, the Fisher r to z transformation test has been used. Required correlation for high and low sub-groups which were already formed were computed. In order to implicate only extreme sub-groups on each of the two dimensions, those above [P.sub.66] and below [P.sub.33] cut-off points were considered in this analysis (Table 7).
The results of Fisher r to z transformation test reveal that Rational Emotive Behaviour acts as a moderating variable for the effect of Emotional Intelligence on Managerial Effectiveness (z= 2.25**, p< 0.01).
Significant positive relation has been found between Emotional Intelligence ([R.sup.2] = 0.19, = 0.37***, p<0.001) and Managerial Effectiveness. This supports Hypothesis 1 which states that Emotional Intelligence will be positively related to Managerial Effectiveness. It can be noted from the results that Emotional Intelligence is a significant predictor of Managerial Effectiveness. This is in line with the findings of the study by Shipper et al (2003) which conclude that empathy, self awareness, and self regulation are highly related to managerial effectiveness.
Significant positive relation has been found between Rational Emotive Behaviour ([R.sup.2] =0.18, = 0.239**, p<0.01) and Activities of His Position factor of Managerial Effectiveness. Significant positive relation has been found between Rational Emotive Behaviour ([R.sup.2] = 0.15, = 0.135**, p<0.01) and Achieving the Results factor of Managerial Effectiveness. Also, Rational Emotive Behaviour has been found to significantly predict Managerial Effectiveness as a whole ([R.sup.2] = 0.23, = 0.25**, p<0.01). This partially supports Hypothesis 2, which states that Rational Emotive Behaviour will be positively related to Managerial Effectiveness. DiMattia (1993) argued that the rational emotive behaviour approach suits the organizational context because of its preventive, psycho-educational emphasis and its short-term, solution-focused orientation. When successful, the REB process functions to increase the client's capacity for rational, critical, and psychologically sophisticated reasoning and thereby allows the client to challenge and replace any unrealistic expectations that might have negatively influenced his or her performance (Ellis 1994).
The Fisher r to z test confirms the significant moderating effect of Rational Emotive Behaviour (z= 2.01**, p< 0.01) on the relation between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness, thereby, lending support to Hypothesis 3. This suggests that when Emotionally Intelligent executives display Rational Emotive Behaviour, they can be predicted to be effective on their jobs. Possibly, Rational Emotive Behaviour provides executives with a set of rational choices to choose from (rather than being victims of one's own habit patterns), thereby, ensuring high level of managerial effectiveness.
Conclusions & Implications
The study reveals that Emotional Intelligence as a whole seems to be a significant predictor of Managerial Effectiveness. Except Achieving the Results, all other factors of Managerial Effectiveness are predicted by Emotional Intelligence. This helps to conclude that high level of Emotional Intelligence could lead to high Managerial Effectiveness. This conclusion of the present study is supported by a few earlier studies (e.g., Daftuar et al 2000 and Shipper et al, 2003).
Also, the moderating effect of Rational Emotive Behaviour has been found significant between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness. The effect of Emotional Intelligence on Managerial effectiveness is affected by Rational Emotive Behaviour. The ability to behave in a rationally emotive way by Emotionally Intelligent managers would enhance managerial effectiveness in an organisation.
This study suggests the quintessential role of behavioural variables such as Emotional Intelligence and Rational Emotive Behaviour for identifying result-oriented executives for organisations. The two-fold approach of hiring new personnel with these two behavioural skills and at the same time training the existing personnel on these skills would have a compound leverage effect. EI is yet not in ambit of organisational development initiatives of the Indian corporate sector. Hiring managers on the basis of their emotional intelligence as well as rational emotive behaviour could ensure better fit with managerial positions requiring higher levels of effectiveness.
The present study has a few limitations. Firstly, the sample is heterogeneous as the participants are from several industries. However, it is argued that heterogeneity of a sample contributes towards wider generalization of the findings and therefore it can be considered to be the strength rather than the weakness of a research (Kaur 1992, Shukla 1988, Srivastava 1990). The matter remains debatable as the non-random sampling method imposes further constraints on the generalization issue. However, since no significant difference was found in the mean Emotional Intelligence scores of public sector and private sector executives, the homogeneity of the sample is ensured. Secondly, the sample chosen consists of only entry-level and middle-level executives and does not involve the top-management. The top-management executive could not be included in the study because of the length of the questionnaire affecting the response time and because of the differences in their competencies when compared with the other two levels. Thirdly, all the measures used to assess the variables are self-report assessments.
While extending this research, future studies could focus on selecting a particular sector of industry to enhance the focus of the study. Also, studies could focus exclusively on the top management of the corporate sector to study the effect of Emotional Intelligence and Rational Emotive Behaviour on strategic competencies. Future studies could also use qualitative data sources like 360 degree feedback.
Balaraman, S. (1989), "Are Leadership Styles Predictive of Managerial Effectiveness?", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 24 (4): 399-415.
BarOn, R. (1997a), "Development of the BarOn EQ Inventory: A Measure of Emotional and Social Intelligence", Paper Presented at the 105th Annual Convention of the APA, Chicago.
BarOn, R. (1997b), BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Technical Manual, Canada: MHS Inc.
BarOn, R. (2000), "Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I)", in R. Bar-On and J.D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of Emotional Intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bryant, D. (2000), "The Components of Emotional Intelligence and the Relationship to Sales Performance", In K.P. Kuchinke (Ed.), Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. Baton Rouge, LA: Academy of Human Resource Development.
Callahan Fabian, J. L. (1999), "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization", in K. P. Kuchinke (Ed.), Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development, (pp. 1030-37). Academy of Human Resource Development, Baton Rouge, LA: Academy of Human Resource Development.
Cooper, R., & Sawaf, J. (1997), Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations. New York: Grosset/Punta.
Daftuar, C. N., Nair, P. & Nira, M. (2000), "EQ
and Managerial Effectiveness", Paper Submitted at the National Seminar on Leadership and Human Values: Creating a Global Context for Value Based Leadership, IIM Lucknow, April 12-14.
Das, H. (1991), "The Nature of Managerial Work in India: A Preliminary Investigation", ASCI Journal of Management, 21 (1): 1-13.
Das, H. & Manimala, M. J. (1993), "Roles Indian Managers Play: An Investigation into the Nature of Managerial Work in India", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations", 29 (2): 133-56.
DiMattia, D. J. (1993), "RET in the Workplace", Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 11(2): 61-63.
Ellis, A. (1962), Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, New York: Lyle Stuart.
Ellis, A. (1973), Humanistic Psychotherapy: The Rational Emotive Approach, New York: Julian Press, and McGraw--Hill Paperbacks.
Ellis, A. (1994), Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. New York: Birch Lane.
Ellis, A. (1998), "How Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Belongs in the Constructivist Camp", in M. F. Hoyt, (Ed.), (1998), The Handbook of Constructive Therapies: Innovative Approaches from Leading Practitioners, San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Friedman, L. & Fleishman, E. A. (1990), "The R&D Managerial Activity Inventory", Fairfax VA: George Mason University, Center for Behavioural and Cognitive Studies.
Gardener, H. (1983), Frames of Mind, New York: Basic Books.
Gupta, S. (1996), "Managerial Effectiveness: Conceptual Framework and Scale Development", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 31 (3): 392-409.
Hamlin, R. G. (2002), "A Study and Comparative Analysis of Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness in the National Health Service: an Empirical Factor Analytic Study within an NHS Trust Hospital", Health Service Management Resources, 15(4): 245-63.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978), The Social Psychology of Organizations (2nd ed.), New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Kaur, P. (1992), Success: Options and Organizational Dynamics, New Delhi: Segment Books.
Kilburg, R. R. (1996), "Towards a Conceptual Understanding and Definition of Executive Coaching", Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 48: 134-44.
Kumar, M. P. (2001), Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Behaviour: Consequences on Organizational Outcomes, Doctoral Dissertation, IIT Mumbai.
Law, K. S., Wong, C., & Song, L. J. (2004), "The Construct and Criterion Validity of Emotional Intelligence and its Potential Utility of Management Studies", Journal of Applied Psychology, 89: 483-96
Leeper, R. W. (1948), "A Motivational Theory of Emotions to Replace Emotions as Disorganised Responses", Psychological Review, 55: 5-21.
Luthans, F., Welsh, D. H. B., & Taylor, L. (1988), "A Descriptive Model of Managerial Effectiveness", Group and Organization Studies, 13(2): 148-62.
Mayer, J., DiPalo, M., & Salovey, P. (1990), "Perceiving Affective Content in Ambiguous Visual Stimuli: A Component of Emotional Intelligence", Journal of Personality Assessment, 54 (3-4): 772-81.
Mintzberg, H. (1973), The Nature of Managerial Work, New York: Harper & Row.
Nair, S. K. & Yuvaraj, S. (2000), "Locus of Control and Managerial Effectiveness: A Study of Private Sector Managers", Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 36(1): 41-52.
Quinn, R. (1990), Becoming a Master Manager: A Competency Framework, New York: Wiley.
Rastogi, R. & Dave, V. (2004), "Managerial Effectiveness: A Function of Personality Type and Organizational Components", Singapore Management Review, 26 (2): 79-87.
Reddin, W. J. (1970), Managerial Effectiveness, New York: McGraw Hill Inc.
Saporito, T. J. (1996), "Business-linked Executive Development: Coaching Senior Executives" Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 48: 96-103.
Sherin, J., & Caiger, L. (2004), "Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy: A Behavioural Change Model for Executive Coaching?" Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 56 (4): 225-233.
Shipper, F., Kincaid, J., Rotondo, D. M., & Hoffman, R. C., (2003), "A Cross-Cultural Exploratory Study of the Linkage between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11(3): 171.
Shorkey, C. T. & Whiteman, V. L. (1977), "Development of Rational Behavior Inventory: Initial Validity and Reliability", Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37: 527-34.
Shukla, A. (1988), Creativity, Competence and Excellence: Work Organizational Scenario, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.
Singh, D. (2001), Emotional Intelligence at Work (1st ed.), New Delhi: Response Books.
Sporrle, M. & Welpe, I. M. (2006), "How to Feel Rationally: Linking Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy with Components of Emotional Intelligence", Research on Emotion in Organization, 2: 291-332.
Srivastava, K. B. L. (1990), Exploration of Certain Resultants in Work Organizational Dynamics: An Indian Experience, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.
Srivastava, M. & Sinha, A. K. (2007), "Individual Characteristics for Managerial Effectiveness in a Competitive Environment: An Exploration", Paper presented at the Conference on Global Competition & Competitiveness of Indian Corporate, IIM Khozikode, May 18-19.
Sy, T., Tram, S., & O'Hara, L. A. (2006), "Relation of Employee and Manager Emotional Intelligence to Job Satisfaction and Performance" Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 68: 461-73.
Wechsler, D. (1940), "Non-intellective Factors in General Intelligence", Psychological Bulletin, 37: 444-45.
Wong, C. & Law, K. S. (2002), "The Effect of Leader and Follower Emotional Intelligence on Performance and Attitude: An Exploratory Study", Leadership Quarterly, 23: 243-74.
Yukl, G. A. (1989), Leadership in Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Nivedita Srivastava is Fellow Student at National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Mumbai and a Organisation Development consultant. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Shreekumar K. Nair is Professor (OB & HRM) in the same Institute E-mail : email@example.com
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of Independent and Dependent Variables Variable N Mean Minimum Maximum SD Intrapersonal 305 263.59 209 312 18.45 Interpersonal 305 103.83 61 135 16.89 Adaptability 305 88.95 58 115 10.61 Stress Management 305 60.54 34 82 9.149 General Mood 305 61.61 43 80 8.064 Rational Emotive Behaviour 305 21.03 7 34 5.135 Activities of his position 305 108.76 69 152 15.52 Achieving the results 305 23.90 10 32 4.309 Developing further potential 305 20.570 8 30 4.223 Table 2: Inter correlation Matrix Intra- Inter- Adap- Stress Mgt. personal personal tability Intra-personal 1 Inter-personal 0.718 ** 1 Adap-tability 0.789 ** 0.658 ** 1 StressMgt. 0.591 ** 0.471 ** 0.698 ** 1 GeneralMood 0.728 ** 0.625 ** 0.713 ** 0.471 ** RationalBeh. 0.214 ** 0.095 0.214 ** 0.342 ** AHP 0.04 0.11 0.125 ** 0.30 ** ATR 0.004 -0.021 0.064 -0.04 DFP 0.069 0.23 ** 0.179 ** 0.047 General Rational AHP ATR DFP Mood Beh. Intra-personal Inter-personal Adap-tability StressMgt. GeneralMood 1 RationalBeh. 0.119 * 1 AHP 0.31 ** 0.25 ** 1 ATR -0.004 0.135 ** 0.682 ** 1 DFP 0.122 * 0.064 0.867 ** 0.685 ** 1 * Significant at 0.05 level (2- tailed); ** Significant at 0.01 level (2- tailed) Table 3: Simple Linear Regression of Activities of His Position with Factors of Emotional Intelligence Adjusted DV IV [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2] Intra-personal 0.001 0.000 Activities of Inter-personal 0.012 0.008 His Position Adaptability 0.105 0.051 Stress Management 0.269 0.234 General Mood 0.134 0.112 DV IV [beta] F (1,303) Intera-personal 0.030 0.484 Activities of Intera-personal 0.11 3.724 His Position Adaptability 0.124 ** 4.779 Stress Management 0.305 ** 4.786 General Mood 0.324 ** 4.35 ** Significant at 0.01 level Table 4: Simple Linear Regression of Achieving the Results with Factors of Emotional Intelligence Adjusted DV IV [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2] Intra-personal 0.001 0.000 Activities of Inter-personal 0.000 0.000 His Position Adaptability 0.032 0.028 Stress Management 0.011 0.001 General Mood 0.012 0.011 DV IV F (1,303) Intra-personal 0.003 0.004 Activities of Inter-personal -.020 1.131 His Position Adaptability 0.113 1.225 Stress Management 0.041 0.139 General Mood 0.0296 1.501 Table 5: Simple Linear Regression of Developing Further Potential with Factors of Emotional Intelligence Adjusted DV IV [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2] Intra-personal 0.004 0.001 Developing Inter-personal 0.16 0.13 Further Adaptability 0.22 0.21 Potential Stress Management 0.020 0.018 General Mood 0.14 0.11 DV IV F (1,303) Intra-personal 0.068 1.437 Developing Inter-personal 0.130 ** 5.235 Further Adaptability 0.179 ** 10.080 Potential Stress Management 0.04 1.675 General Mood 0.121 ** 4.558 ** Significant at 0.01 level Table 6: Simple Linear Regression of Factors of Managerial Effectiveness and Managerial Effectiveness with Rational Emotive Behaviour Adjusted IV DV [R.sup.2] [R.sup.2] RE B Activities of His Position 0.18 0.17 Achieving the Results 0.15 0.146 Developing Further Potential 0.004 0.007 Managerial Effectiveness 0.23 0.21 IV DV F (1,303) RE B Activities of His Position 0.239 ** 6.19 Achieving the Results 0.135 ** 5.649 Developing Further Potential 0.06 1.232 Managerial Effectiveness 0.25 ** 5.92 ** Significant at 0.01 level Table 7: Fisher r to z Transformation Test for Rational Emotive Behaviour as a Moderating Variable for Emotional Intelligence (IV) and Managerial Effectiveness (DV) Moderating Correlated Variable Groups Variables r z Rational Emotive High Group (n=102) EI & ME 0.24 +2.25 ** Behaviour Low Group (n=107) EI & ME -0.017 ** significant at 0.01 level