Elevated blood lead levels of children in Guiyu, an Electronic waste recycling town in China.BACKGROUND: Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment.
OBJECTIVES: We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring neigh·bor
1. One who lives near or next to another.
2. A person, place, or thing adjacent to or located near another.
3. A fellow human.
4. Used as a form of familiar address.
v. town of Chendian.
METHODS: We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry spectrophotometry
Branch of spectroscopy dealing with measurement of radiant energy transmitted or reflected by a body as a function of wavelength. The measurement is usually compared to that transmitted or reflected by a system that serves as a standard. . Hemoglobin hemoglobin (hē`məglō'bĭn), respiratory protein found in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of all vertebrates and some invertebrates. (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured.
RESULTS: BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 [micro]g/dL with a mean of 15.3 [micro]g/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 [micro]g/dL with a mean of 9.94 [micro]g/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p<<0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs[greater than]10 [micro]g/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p[greater than]0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p[greater than]0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns.
CONCLUSioNS: The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu.
KEY WORDS: children, China, environmental, e-waste, Guiyu, lead. Environ Health Perspect 115:1113-1117 (2007). doi:10.1289/ehp.9697 available via http://dx.doi.org/ [Online 28 March 2007]
Disposal of electronic waste, or e-waste, is an emerging global environmental issue, as these wastes have become the most rapidly growing segment of the municipal waste stream in the world [Dahl 2002; Halluite et al. 2005; Jang and Townsend 2003; Schmidt 2002; Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC SVTC Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition
SVTC Secure Video Teleconference ) 2001]. It is reported that approximately 500 million computers became obsolete between 1997 and 2007 in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. (National Safety Council 1999). Up to 80% of e-waste from the United States has seeped into Asia and Africa (Johnson 2006; Puckett et al. 2002; Schmidt 2002, 2006; SVTC 2001). It is noteworthy that the United States is the only developed country today that has not ratified the United Nations Basel Convention The Basel Convention (verbose: Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal) is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of , which bans the export of hazardous wastes Hazardous waste
Any solid, liquid, or gaseous waste materials that, if improperly managed or disposed of, may pose substantial hazards to human health and the environment. Every industrial country in the world has had problems with managing hazardous wastes. to developing countries (United Nat ns Environment Programme 1992, 2006; USA Today USA Today
National U.S. daily general-interest newspaper, the first of its kind. Launched in 1982 by Allen Neuharth, head of the Gannett newspaper chain, it reached a circulation of one million within a year and surpassed two million in the 1990s. 2002).
Together with New Delhi New Delhi (dĕl`ē), city (1991 pop. 294,149), capital of India and of Delhi state, N central India, on the right bank of the Yamuna River. in India, Guiyu in Shantou, Guangdong Province Noun 1. Guangdong province - a province in southern China
Guangdong, Kwangtung , China (Figure 1), is one of the popular destinations of e-waste (Brigden et al. 2005; Puckett et al. 2002). Within a total area of 52 k[m.sup.2] and local population of 132,000 (in 2003), Guiyu has accommodated millions of tons of e-waste from overseas and domestic a year. Nearly 60-80% of families in the town have engaged in e-waste recycling operations conducted by small scale family-run workshops, with approximately 100,000 migrant workers employed in processing e-waste. Because the implementation of a clean and safe high-tech recovery process was very expensive (Allsopp et al. 2006), the processes and techniques used during the recycling activities in Guiyu were very primitive. The result was that many tons of e-waste material and process residues were dumped in workshops, yards, roadsides, open fields, irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. canals, riverbanks, ponds, and rivers. Hazardous chemicals can be released from e-wastes through disposal or recycling processes, threatening the health of local residents. Several studies have reported the soaring levels of toxic heavy metals heavy metals,
n.pl metallic compounds, such as aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Exposure to these metals has been linked to immune, kidney, and neurotic disorders. and organic contaminants in samples of dust, soil, river sediment, surface water, and groundwater of Guiyu (Brigden et al. 2005; Puckett et al. 2002; Wang and Guo 2006; Wang et al. 2005; Wong et al. 2006; Yu et al. 2006). Previously, we have shown that the residents in Guiyu had high incidence of skin damage, headaches, vertigo vertigo (vûr`tĭgō), sensations of moving in space or of objects moving about a person and the resultant difficulty in maintaining equilibrium. , nausea, chronic gastritis Noun 1. chronic gastritis - persistent gastritis can be a symptom of a gastric ulcer or pernicious anemia or stomach cancer or other disorders
gastritis - inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating , and gastric and duodenal ulcers duodenal ulcer,
n a peptic ulcer located in the duodenum. See also ulcer, peptic.
duodenal ulcer An ulcer of the duodenum Epidemiology H pylori , all of which may be caused by the primitive recycling processing of e-waste (Qiu et al. 2004).
Of many toxic heavy metals, lead is the most widely used in electronic devices for various purposes, resulting in a variety of health hazards health hazard Occupational safety Any agent or activity posing a potential hazard to health. Cf Physical hazard. due to environmental contamination (Jang and Townsend 2003; Musson et al. 2006; Vann et al. 2006). Lead enters biological systems via food, water, air, and soil. Children are particularly vulnerable to lead poisoning--more so than adults because they absorb more lead from their environments (Baghurst et al. 1992; Grigg 2004; Guilarte et al. 2003; Jain and Hu 2006; Needleman 2004; Safi et al. 2006; Wasserman et al. 1998). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. (CDC See Control Data, century date change and Back Orifice.
CDC - Control Data Corporation ) defined elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) as those [greater than equal to]10 [micro]g/dL in children [less than equal to]6 years of age (CDC 1991). Nevertheless, studies have increasingly shown that low blood lead concentrations, even<10 [micro]g/dL, were inversely associated with children's IQ scores and academic skills (Canfield can·field
A form of solitaire.
[After Richard Albert Canfield (1855-1914), American gambler.]
Noun 1. et al. 2003; Lanphear et al. 2000, 2005; Nevin 2000; Schnaas et al. 2006). Therefore, no safety margin at existing exposures has been identified (Chiodo et al. 2004; Koller et al. 2004).
Considering the potential heavy metal contamination in the local living environment of Guiyu, we hypothesized that children living in Guiyu may have elevated BLLs and thus their physical and mental development may have been affected. In this study, we evaluated the mean BLLs in children 1-6 years of age living in Guiyu and compared them with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian, where no e-waste processing was taken.
Materials and Methods
Geographic location and site description.
There are 28 villages with a total area of 52 k[m.sup.2] and a resident population of 132,000 and around 100,000 migrant workers in Guiyu (Figure 1). We chose four villages for their differences in the scale and type of e-waste processing. Beilin village has dense e-waste workshops mainly involved in equipment dismantling, circuit board baking, and acid baths; Dutou village specializes in plastics sorting, including manually stripping plastic materials from electronic products and then crudely classifying them; Huamei village had workshops similar to those of Beilin, but they are fewer and scattered; and Longgang village was involved in plastic reprocessing Reprocessing may refer to:
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. were very similar to those of Guiyu.
Study population. The study population was composed of children [less than or equal to] 6 years of age. No children involved in the study had any occupational exposure to e-waste. A cluster sample of 165 children with a median age of 5.0 years lived in the four villages of Guiyu (Figure 1). Sixty-one children with a median age of 4.0 years resided in Chendian were included in the study for comparison. After written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians, blood samples were collected from the children at village kindergartens. To facilitate the counseling process, advice on dietary and eating habits to minimize lead exposure were provided to the local residents. All children found to have high BLLs were advised to get further hospital treatment. The study was approved by the Human Ethics Committee ethics committee A multidisciplinary hospital body composed of a broad spectrum of personnel–eg, physicians, nurses, social workers, priests, and others, which addresses the moral and ethical issues within the hospital. See DNR, Institutional review board. of Shantou University Shantou University was authorised and established in 1981 by State Council and Guangdong Province. Mr. Li Ka Shing contributed 2 billion HK dollars to the founding of the school. It is located on the seashore in the northern area of the city of Shantou. The area is 1. Medical College.
Measurement of BLLs and hemoglobin. Venipuncture venipuncture /veni·punc·ture/ (ven?i-pungk´chur) surgical puncture of a vein.
ve·ni·punc·ture or ve·ne·punc·ture
n. blood samples were obtained from each volunteer at the kindergarten, and collected in lead-free tubes by trained nurses. Lead in total blood was analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (also known as Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS)) is a type of spectrometry that uses a graphite-coated furnace to vaporize the sample. spectrometry spectrometry /spec·trom·e·try/ (spek-trom´e-tre) determination of the wavelengths or frequencies of the lines in a spectrum.
n. (GFAAS GFAAS Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ), which consisted of a Shimadzu AA- 660 AAS and GFA-4B graphite furnace atomizer atomizer /at·om·iz·er/ (at´om-i?zer) nebulizer.
A device used to reduce liquid medication to a fine spray or aerosol. and an ACS-60G autosampler (Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan). The main parameters used for the determination were a wavelength of 283.3 nm, current of 8 mA, a slit width of 1.00 nm, drying at 150[degrees]C, ashing at 325[degrees]C, and atomization Atomization
The process whereby a bulk liquid is transformed into a multiplicity of small drops. This transformation, often called primary atomization, proceeds through the formation of disturbances on the surface of the bulk liquid, followed by their at 1,400[degrees]C. The accuracy of the method was controlled by recoveries between 95% and 107% from the spiked blood samples. Repeated analyses of standard solutions confirmed the method's precision. The BLLs were expressed in micrograms per deciliter deciliter /dec·i·li·ter/ (dL) (des´i-le?ter) one tenth (10minus;1) of a liter; 100 milliliters.
100 cubic centimeters (cc).
Mentioned in: Hypercholesterolemia (1 [micro]g/dL = 0.0484 [micro]mol/L). Meanwhile, we assessed hemoglobin (Hgb) levels by hemoglobin cyanide cyanide (sī`ənīd'), chemical compound containing the cyano group, -CN. Cyanides are salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid, HCN) formed by replacing the hydrogen with a metal (e.g., sodium or potassium) or a radical (e.g. method with hemoglobinometer (XK-2, JiangSu, China).
Evaluation of physical developmental indexes. Children's physical growth and development, such as body height, weight, and head and chest circumferences were measured when blood samples were collected. Weight and height were measured using a weighing and height scale (TZ120; Yuyao Balance Instrument Factory, Yuyao, China) with maximum weight of 120 kg (minimum scale, 50 g) and minimum height of 70 cm (minimum scale, 0.5 cm). Head and chest circumferences were measured using graduated anthropometric an·thro·pom·e·try
The study of human body measurement for use in anthropological classification and comparison.
Statistical analyses. We performed statistical analyses using SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. version 10.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). We used independent sample t-tests or covariance Covariance
A measure of the degree to which returns on two risky assets move in tandem. A positive covariance means that asset returns move together. A negative covariance means returns vary inversely. analyses for comparisons of mean, chi-square analyses for test of frequency data, and linear regression Linear regression
A statistical technique for fitting a straight line to a set of data points. analysis for the association between BLLs and age. Differences were considered significant with a p-value<0.05.
Observation of e-waste processing. The primitive e-waste recycling procedures in Guiyu were mainly as follows: a) Old electronic equipment was dismantled (Figure 2) with electric drill, cutter, hammer, and screwdriver screwdriver,
n See instrument, screwdriver. into component parts such as monitor, hard drive, CD driver, wires, cables, circuit boards, transformer, charger CHARGER, Scotch law. He in whose favor a decree suspended is pronounced; vet a decree may be suspended before a charge is given on it. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 3, 7. , battery, and plastic or metal frame that are sold for reuse or to other workshops for further recycling. b) Circuit boards (Figure 3) of computers and other large appliances were heated over coal fires to melt the solder solder (sŏd`ər), metal alloy used in the molten state as a metallic binder. The type of solder to be used is determined by the metals to be united. Soft solders are commonly composed of lead and tin and have low melting points. Hard solders (i. to release valuable electronic components, such as dIOdes, resistors, and microchips. c) Circuit boards of cell phones and other hand-held devices were taken apart by a electrothermal e·lec·tro·ther·mal
1. Of, relating to, or involving both electricity and heat.
2. Of or relating to the production of heat by electricity. machine (Figure 4), which was a particular environmental and human health concern in the processing of e-waste in Guiyu. d) In acid baths (Figure 5), some microchips and computer parts were soaked to extract precious gold and palladium, from which the waste acids were discharged into nearby fields and streams. e) Wires and cables were stripped or simply burnt in open air to recover metals. f) Printer cartridges were ripped apart for their toner and recyclable aluminum, steel, and plastic parts. g) Plastic [e.g., polyvinyl chloride polyvinyl chloride (PVC), thermoplastic that is a polymer of vinyl chloride. Resins of polyvinyl chloride are hard, but with the addition of plasticizers a flexible, elastic plastic can be made. (PVC PVC: see polyvinyl chloride.
in full polyvinyl chloride
Synthetic resin, an organic polymer made by treating vinyl chloride monomers with a peroxide. ), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, or ABS, (chemical formula (C8H8· C4H6·C3H3N)n) is a common thermoplastic used to make light, rigid, molded products such as piping, musical instruments (most copolymer copolymer: see polymer. (ABS), high-density polyethylene high-density polyethylene
n. Abbr. HDPE
A strong, relatively opaque form of polyethylene having a dense structure with few side branches off the main carbon backbone. (HDPE HDPE
high-density polyethylene )] was sorted by workers according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. rigidity, color, and luster. Plastic scraps that cannot be sorted visually must be burned and classified by burning odor. Another way to sort different plastics was gravitational grav·i·ta·tion
a. The natural phenomenon of attraction between physical objects with mass or energy.
b. The act or process of moving under the influence of this attraction.
2. separation into ceramic jugs with brine brine
a salt solution used in the curing of meat. Standard ingredients are sodium chloride (15 to 30%) and sodium nitrate (0.15 to 1.50%) but many other ingredients may be added for special effects.
see artemia. (Figure 6), after which the pieces were spread on the sidewalk to dry; h) For reprocessing, after sorting plastic scraps were fed into grinders that spit out Verb 1. spit out - spit up in an explosive manner
cough out, cough up, expectorate, spit up, spit out - discharge (phlegm or sputum) from the lungs and out of the mouth
2. tiny pieces of plastic. i) For metals sorting and reprocessing, transformers, chargers, batteries, and cathode-ray tubes were separated and hammered open for recycling metals such as copper, steel, silver, aluminum, which were then reprocessed to raw material.
Although the methods for processing e-waste were primitive, the coordination of e-waste recycling in Guiyu was very well organized into specific tasks. Workshops specializing in dismantled equipment would not conduct circuit board baking or plastics and metals reprocessing. The chain of recycling components from each type of e-waste was well established in the town.
BLLs in children. We collected blood from 165 children in Guiyu and 61 children in Chendian and measured the BLLs in these children. Table 1 shows that the BLLs corresponded to the children's age, sex, and town of residence. As expected, BLLs among Guiyu children were much higher than those in the children of Chendian (p < 0.01). Among Guiyu children, 135 (81.8%) had BLLs[greater than]10 [micro]g/dL, whereas 23 (37.7%) in Chendian (p<0.01) had high levels. Among 135 (81.8%) Guiyu children with elevated BLLs, 61.8% and 20% had BLLs[greater than]10 [micro]g/dL and 20 [micro]g/dL respectively, but lead levels[greater than]45 [micro]g/dL were not found. And BLLs of Guiyu increased somewhat with age (p < 0.01); older children tended to have higher BLLs than younger ones. We found no evidence for the association in lead concentrations or prevalence of elevated BLLs differentiated by sex (both p > 0.05).
Table 2 presents BLLs for 165 exposed children in the four villages. The findings showed that BLLs from different villages were in the following descending order: Beilin, 19.34 [micro]g/dL[greater than]Dutou, 17.86 [micro]g/dL[greater than]Huamei, 14.23 [micro]g/dL[greater than]Longgang, 13.13 [micro]g/dL (Table 2). Children living in Beilin, where the number of e-waste workshops specializing in equipment dismantling, circuit board baking, and acid baths, had the highest BLLs. Dutou, which had many workshops specializing in plastics sorting, including strip plastic materials from e-waste, had the second highest BLLs in children. Huamei had e-waste workshops similar to those of Beilin, but fewer and less centralized cen·tral·ize
v. cen·tral·ized, cen·tral·iz·ing, cen·tral·iz·es
1. To draw into or toward a center; consolidate.
2. ; the BLLs of Huamei children were much lower than those of Beilin and Dutou. Longgang, a village specializing in reprocessing plastics collected from other villages that had no workshops directly processing e-waste, had the lowest BLLs. There was a significant difference in BLLs among the children of the four villages (p LT 0.01). In Beilin and Dutou, 88.8% and 100% children had elevated BLLs > 10 [micro]g/dL, respectively.
Table 2. Difference in birth weight associated with selected nonpollution variables (95% confidence interval). Variable Difference in birth weight (g) Child's sex Female (reference) Male 133.1 (130.1 to 136.1) Mother's education (years) 12 (reference) < 12 -32.7 (-38.3 to -27.1) 13-15 22.9 (18.4 to 27.3) > 15 34.1 (29.7 to 38.4) Unknown -36.1 (-56.1 to -16.1) Tobacco use by mother No (reference) Yes -176.5 (-182.2 to -170.9) Alcohol use by mother No (reference) Yes -9.4 (-21.5 to 2.6) Mother's marital status Married (reference) Unmarried -46.5 (-50.9 to -42.1) Mother's race White (reference) Black -97.8 (-102.9 to -92.7) Other -176.3 (-182.7 to -169.8) Month prenatal care began Month 1-3 (reference) Month 4-6 -29.2 (-34.8 to -23.6) Month [greater than or equal to]?7 -50.2 (-61.7 to -38.7) No care -102.8 (-140.1 to -65.4) Mother's age (years) 30-34 (reference) < 20 -41.8 (-49.7 to -34.0) 20-24 -39.4 (-44.8 to -34.1) 25-29 -16.4 (-20.6 to -12.3) 35-39 2.9 (-1.6 to 7.4) > 39 -19.8 (-28.3 to -11.3) Birth order Firstborn (reference) Not firstborn 101.9 (98.4 to 105.3) Gestational length (weeks) 39-40 (reference) 32-34 -1050.2 (-1061.8 to -1038.5) 35-36 -585.2 (-592.3 to -578.2) 37-38 -227.7 (-231.5 to -224.0) 41-42 122.3 (118.0 to 126.6) 43-44 62.4 (51.0 to 73.8) p < 0.01 for all associations except alcohol use.
As far as physical indexes and Hgb levels were concerned, there was no significant difference between Guiyu and Chendian (p > 0.05, Table 3).
In this study, we observed that the processing of e-waste in Guiyu was very primitive and the recycling industry depended mainly on manual processing methods. Despite the fact that the coordination of the e-waste recycling is well organized in family-based small business units, the manual processing methods and the deposition of the e-waste have contributed to the contamination by heavy metals in the living environment. Examination of the possible impact of the e-waste industry on the BLLs of children living in Guiyu revealed that Guiyu children had significantly higher BLLs than Chendian children. Of children tested in Guiyu, 81.8% had BLLs > 10 [micro]g/dL, indicating a correlation between the BLLs in children and the numbers of e-waste workshops. We speculated that the elevated BLLs in Guiyu children may be directly caused by the contamination of the lead during e-waste recycling. However, further study should be conducted to determine the relationship between BLLs in Children and the actual lead contamination in the environment.
Lead is considered one of the major heavy metal contaminants during the process of e-waste recycling. A cathode ray tube See CRT.
(hardware) cathode ray tube - (CRT) An electrical device for displaying images by exciting phosphor dots with a scanned electron beam. CRTs are found in computer VDUs and monitors, televisions and oscilloscopes. inside a television set or a computer monitor contains an average of 4-8 lb lead; monitor glass contains about 20% lead by weight; a typical battery weighs 36 lb and contains about 18 lb of lead. For decades, lead as a major component of solders has been used to attach electronic components to printed circuit boards. Lead compounds have also been used as stabilizers in some PVC cables and other products. Our study demonstrated in Guiyu a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age; older children tended to have higher BLLs than younger ones. This might be the result of increasing exposure risk because older children might have more outdoor activities. In addition, it may also be attributed to the fact that the heaviest lead-contaminated zone in air after the burning of the e-waste was 75-100 cm above the ground (Wang and Zhang 2006), which was the height range for normal Chinese children 5-6 years of age.
In China, the mean BLL BLL Blood Lead Level
BLL Bovis Lend Lease
BLL Business Logic Layer
BLL Buraku Liberation League (Japan)
BLL Billund, Denmark - Billund (Airport Code)
BLL Base Locator for Linkage of children was 9.29 [micro]g/dL, and 33.8% of the subjects had BLLs > 10 [micro]g/dL; boys' mean BLL was 9.64 [micro]g/dL, significantly higher than the girls' mean BLL of 8.94 [micro]g/dL (p LT 0.001) (Wang and Zhang 2006). Generally in China, BLLs of children living in industrial and urban areas were significantly higher than those of children in suburbs and rural areas (Wang and Zhang 2006). In Guiyu, the BLLs of children were higher than the mean level in China, and there were no significant different between boys and girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. . Although Guiyu is rural, the children's BLLs were nearly double those of a nearby urban area, Shantou City (7.9 [micro]g/dL; Luo et al. 2003). Compared with results from studies conducted in some other part of Guangdong province, such as Zhongshan City (7.45 [micro]g/dL; Huang et al. 2003) and Shenzhen City (9.06 [micro]g/dL; Wang et al. 2003), we observed higher BLLs not only in Guiyu children, but also in Chendian children (9.94 [micro]g/dL). The lead contamination may have spread from Guiyu to nearby Chendian by dust, river, and air and contributed to the elevation of Chendian children's BLLs.
In conclusion, elevated BLLs in Guiyu children are common as a result of exposure to lead contamination caused by primitive e-waste recycling activities. Lead contamination from e-waste processing appears to have reached the level considered to be a serious threat to children's health Children's Health Definition
Children's health encompasses the physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being of children from infancy through adolescence. around the e-waste recycling area. Based on these threats, it is necessary to increase public awareness about the effects of exposure to lead from e-waste and arouse local governments' interest in public health and safety, so that an infrastructure for safe management of e-waste can be established. More important, responsible management strategies should be undertaken to minimize e-waste production and make e-waste components more easily recycled and reused.
Table 1. Children's BLLs (g/dL) in Guiyu and Chendian. Guiyu Characteristic No. Mean SD Range Total 165 15.30 [+ or -] 5.79 4.40-32.67 Age (years) 1-4 22 12.88 [+ or -] 4.88 4.40-22.09 4-5 49 14.01 [+ or -] 6.06 4.90-30.25 5-6 94 16.54 [+ or -] 5.56 4.50-32.67 Sex Male 87 15.14 [+ or -] 5.91 4.40-32.67 Female 78 15.48 [+ or -] 5.68 5.21-29.49 Guiyu Characteristic No. (%) [greater than or equal to] 10 [micro]g/dL Total 135 (81.8) Age (years) 1-4 6 (72.7) 4-5 35 (71.4) 5-6 84 (89.4) Sex Male 71 (81.6) Female 64 (82.1) Chendian Characteristic Mean[+ or -] SD Range Total 61 9.94 [+ or -] Age (years) 1-4 14 10.02 [+ or -] 3.03 4-5 20 9.46 [+ or -] 3.82 5-6 27 10.27 [+ or -] 4.73 Sex Male 34 10.63 [+ or -] 4.30 6.01-23.10 Female 27 9.09 [+ or -] 3.61 Chendian Characteristic No. (%) [greater than or equal to] 10 [micro]g/dL Total 4.05 4.09-23.10 Age (years) 1-4 5.72-14.23 4-5 4.09-23.10 5-6 4.52-22.18 Sex Male 16 (47.1) Female 4.09-20.91 Chendian Characteristic Total 23 (37.7) Age (years) 1-4 6 (42.9) 4-5 5 (25.0) 5-6 12 (44.4) Sex Male Female 8 (29.6) Table 2. BLLs for exposed children (n = 165) in four villages of Guiyu. BLLs Beilin Dutou Huamei Longgang No. 18 41 48 58 Range 9.16-30.25 11.07-26.37 4.40-29.50 6.32-32.67 ([micro]g/dL) Mean(a) [+ or -] 19.34 [+ or 17.86 [+ or 14.23 [+ or 13.13 [+ or SE -] 1.26 -] 0.86 -] 0.80 -] 0.69 ([micro]g/dL) 4.40-9.99 2 (11.1) 0 (0) 14 (29.2) 14 (24.1)[micro]g/dL [no. (%)] 10.00-19.99 8 (44.4) 26 (63.4) 28 (58.3) 40 (69.0) [micro]g/dL [no. (%)] 20.00-32.70 8 (44.4) 15 (36.6) 6 (12.5) 4 (6.9) [micro]g/dL [no. (%)] a Mean adjusted by age. Table 3. Characteristics of the study population, in Guiyu and Chendian. GuiYu Characteristic Range Height (cm) Male 86.00-115.50 Female 69.50-113.70 Weight (kg) Male 11.00-33.50 Female 7.10-19.20 Head circumference (cm) Male 44.00-54.00 Female 42.80-51.50 Chest circumference (cm) Male 45.20-75.50 Female 42.20-55.20 Hgb level (g/L) 93-165 GuiYu Characteristic Mean [+ or -] SE Height (cm) Male 103.67 [+ or -] 0.49(a) Female 102.66 [+ or ] 0.49(a) Weight (kg) Male 15.74 [+ or -] 0.27(a) Female 15.09 [+ or -] 0.18(a) 12.50-19.10 Head circumference (cm) Male 49.51 [+ or -] 0.16(a) Female 48.41 [+ or -] 0.16(a) Chest circumference (cm) Male 51.58 [+ or -] 0.36(a) Female 51.12 [+ or -] 0.24(a) Hgb level (g/L) 127.55 [+ or -] Chendian Characteristic Range Height (cm) Male 92.80-115.60 Female 86.80-110.90 Weight (kg) Male 13.60-20.90 Female 15.61 [+ or -] 0.31(a) Head circumference (cm) Male 46.00-52.80 Female 44.50-49.90 Chest circumference (cm) Male 48.70-62.30 Female 48.00-55.20 Hgb level (g/L) 1.31 95-161 Chendian Characteristic Mean [+ or -] SE Height (cm) Male 102.90 [+ or -] 0.79(a) Female 101.81 [+ or -] 0.84(a) Weight (kg) Male 16.22 [+ or -] 0.43(a) Female Head circumference (cm) Male 49.22 [+ or -] 0.25a Female 47.60 [+ or -] 0.27(a) Chest circumference (cm) Male 52.95 [+ or -] 0.58(a) Female 51.08 [+ or -] 0.42(a) Hgb level (g/L) 123.46 [+ or -] 2.25 a Mean adjusted by age.
Allsopp M, Santillo D, Johnston P. 2006. Environmental and Human Health Concerns in the Processing of Electrical and Electronic Waste. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note. Available: http://www.greenpeace.to/ publications/Ewastetreatment-May2006-FINAL.pdf [accessed 30 August 2006].
Baghurst PA, McMichael AJ, Wigg NR, Vimpani GV, Robertson EF, Roberts RJ, et al. 1992. Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years: the Port Pirie Port Pirie (pĭr`ē), city (1991 pop. 14,110), South Australia, S Australia, on an inlet of Spencer Gulf. It is a railroad center and has uranium refineries and smelting works for the silver-lead mines at Broken Hill. Cohort Study A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study used in medicine and social science. It is one type of study design.
In medicine, it is usually undertaken to obtain evidence to try to refute the existence of a suspected association between cause and disease; failure to refute . N Engl J Med 327:1279-1284.
Brigden K, Labunska I, Santillo D, Allsopp M. 2005. Recycling of electronic wastes in China and India: workplace and environmental contamination. Available: http://www.greenpeace. org/india/press/reports/recycling-of-electronic-wastes [accessed 2 August 2006].
Canfield RL, Henderson CR Jr, Cory-Slechta DA, Cox C, Jusko TA, Lanphear BP. 2003. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. N Engl J Med 348:1517-1526.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1991. Preventing Lead Poisoning lead poisoning or plumbism (plŭm`bĭz'əm), intoxication of the system by organic compounds containing lead. in Young Children. Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control. Available: http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/ prevguid/p0000029/p0000029.asp#head001000000000000 [accessed 2 Sptember 2006].
Chiodo LM, Jacobson SW, Jacobson JL. 2004. Neurodevelopmental effects of postnatal postnatal /post·na·tal/ (-na´t'l) occurring after birth, with reference to the newborn.
Of or occurring after birth, especially in the period immediately after birth. lead exposure at very low levels. Neurotoxicol Teratol 26:359-371.
Dahl R. 2002. Who pays for e-junk? Environ Health Perspect 110:A196-A199.
Grigg J. 2004. Environmental toxins: their impact on children's health. Arch Dis Child 89:244-250.
Guilarte TR, Toscano CD, McGlothan JL, Weaver SA. 2003. Environmental enrichment Environmental enrichment, also called behavioral enrichment, refers to the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. The goal of environmental enrichment is to improve an animal's quality of life by increasing physical activity, reverses cognitive and molecular deficits induced by developmental lead exposure. Ann Neurol 53:50-56.
Halluite J, Linton JD, Yeomans JS, Yoogalingam R. 2005. The challenge of hazardous waste management in a sustainable environment: insights from electronic recovery laws. Corp Soc Responsib Environ Manage 12:31-37.
Huang DM, Xiao XX, Zhang HJ, Guo Y, Liao S, Yang HZ, et al. 2003. Study on blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children 1-6 years in Zhongshan city [in Chinese]. Chin J Child Health Care 11:344-345.
Jain NB, Hu H. 2006. Childhood correlates of blood lead levels in Mumbai and Delhi. Environ Health Perspect 114:466-470.
Jang YC, Townsend TG. 2003. Leaching of lead from computer printed wire boards and cathode ray tubes by municipal solid waste “Municipal waste” redirects here. For other uses, see Municipal waste (disambiguation).
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a landfill leachates. Environ Sci Technol 37:4778-4784.
Johnson T. 2006. E-waste dump of the world. Available: http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/ 2002920133_ewaste09.html [accessed 20 July 2006].
Koller K, Brown T, Spurgeon A, Levy L. 2004. Recent developments in low-level lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children. Environ Health Perspect 112:987-994.
Lanphear BP, Dietrich K, Auinger P, Cox C. 2000. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations < 10 microg/dL in US children and adolescents. Public Health Rep 115:521-529.
Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P, Bellinger DC, et al. 2005. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 113:894-899.
Luo WH, Yuan Zhang Y, Li H. 2003. Chidren's blood lead levels after the phasing out of leaded gasoline in Shantou, China. Arch Environ Health 58:184-187.
Musson SE, Vann KN, Jang YC, Mutha S, Jordan A, Pearson B, et al. 2006. RCRA RCRA Resource Conservation & Recovery Act of 1976
RCRA Resort and Commercial Recreation Association toxicity characterization of discarded electronic devices. Environ Sci Technol 40:2721-2726.
National Safety Council. 1999. Electronic Product Recovery and Recycling Baseline Report: Recycling of Selected Electronic Products in the United States. Washington, DC:National Safety Council, Environmental Health Center.
Needleman H. 2004. Lead poisoning. Annu Rev Med 55:209-222.
Nevin R. 2000. How lead exposure relates to temporal changes in IQ, violent crime, and unwed pregnancy. Environ Res 83:1-22.
Puckett J, Byster L, Westervelt S, Gutierrez R, Davis S, Hussain A, et al. 2002. Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia. Basel Action Network, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. Available: http://ban.org/E-waste/technotrashfinalcomp.pdf [accessed 20 May 2006].
Qiu B, Peng L, Xu X, Lin X, Hong J, Huo X. 2004. Medical investigation of e-waste demanufacturing industry in Guiyu town. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Waste and Extended Producer Responsibility Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of environmental costs associated with products throughout their life cycles into the market price of the products (OECD 1999). , April 21-22, 2004, Beijing, China:Greenpeace and Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences, 79-83.
Safi J, Fischbein A, El Haj S, Sansour R, Jaghabir M, Hashish hashish (hăsh`ēsh, –ĭsh), resin extracted from the flower clusters and top leaves of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, and C. indica. MA, et al. 2006. Childhood lead exposure in the Palestinian Authority Palestinian Authority (PA) or Palestinian National Authority, interim self-government body responsible for areas of the West Bank and Gaza Strip under Palestinian control. , Israel, and Jordan: results from the Middle Eastern regional cooperation project, 1996-2000. Environ Health Perspect 114:917-922.
Schmidt CW. 2002. e-Junk explosion. Environ Health Perspect 110:A188-A194.
Schmidt CW. 2006. Unfair trade: e-waste in Africa. Environ Health Perspect 114:A232-A235.
Schnaas L, Rothenberg SJ, Flores Flores, town, Guatemala
Flores (flōrəs), town (1990 est. pop. 2,200), capital of Petén department, N Guatemala. Flores was built on an island in the southern part of Lake Petén Itzá and on the site of the MF, Martinez S, Hernandez C, Osorio E, et al. 2006. Reduced intellectual development in children with prenatal lead exposure. Environ Health Perspect 114:791-797.
SVTC (Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition). 2001. Poison PCs and Toxic TVs. Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. Available: http:// svtc.igc.org/cleancc/pubs/ppcttv2004.pdf [accessed 1 September 2006].
United Nations Environment Programme. 2006. Parties to the Basel Convention. Secretariat of the Basel Convention, United Nations Environment Programme. Available: http://www.basel.int/ratif/convention.htm#113 [accessed 27 August 2006].
United Nations Environment Programme. 1992. Text of the Basel Convention. Secretariat of the Basel Convention, United Nations Environment Programme. Available: http://www. basel.int/text/documents.html [accessed 27 August 2006].
USA Today. 2002. Much toxic computer waste lands in Third World. Available: http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2002/ 02/25/computer-waste.htm [accessed 2 September 2006].
Vann KN, Musson SE, Townsend TG. 2006. Factors affecting TCLP TCLP Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (US EPA)
TCLP total concentrate leachate procedure
TCLP Type Classification Limited Procurement
TCLP Type Classification Limited Production lead leachability from computer CPUs. Waste Manag 26:293-298.
Wang D, Cai Z, Jiang G, Leung A, Wong MH, Wong WK. 2005. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers Polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDE, are a flame retardant sub-family of the brominated flame retardant group. They have been used in a wide array of household products, including fabrics, furniture, and electronics. in soil and sediment from an electronic waste recycling facility. Chemosphere chemosphere: see atmosphere. 60:810-816.
Wang JP, Guo XK. 2006. Impact of electronic wastes recycling on environmental quality. Biomed Environ Sci 19:137-142.
Wang S, Zhang J. 2006. Blood lead levels in children, China. Environ Res 101:412-418.
Wang WX, Li Q, Liu XN, Luo RR. 2003. Study on blood lead levels of children and the risk factors in Shenzhen city [in Chinese]. South China J Prev Med 28:16-18.
Wasserman GA, Staghezza-Jaramillo B, Shrout P, Popovac D, Graziano J 1998. The effect of lead exposure on behavior problems in preschool children. Am J Public Health 88:481-486.
Wong CS, Wu SC, Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Aydin A, Wong MH. 2006. Trace metal contamination of sediments in an e-waste processing village in China. Environ Pollut 145:435-442.
Yu XZ, Gao Y, Wu SC, Zhang HB, Cheung KC, Wong MH. 2006. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Any of a class of carcinogenic organic molecules that consist of three or more rings containing carbon and hydrogen and that are commonly produced by fossil fuel combustion. in soils at Guiyu. Chemosphere 65:1500-1509.
Central Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
Address correspondence to X. Huo, Central Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, 22 Xinling Rd., Shantou 515031, Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China. Telephone: 086-754-8900307. Fax: 086-754-8566774. E-mail: email@example.com
This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (No. 5008352) and the Shih Wing Ching Mr. Shih Wing Ching (施永青) was born in Shanghai in 1949. He came to Hong Kong at an early age and began his business in the property industry. Centaline Property Agency Limited was established in 1978 and throughout the years it has expanded tremendously. Foundation Limited of Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov. , with matching funds Noun 1. matching funds - funds that will be supplied in an amount matching the funds available from other sources
cash in hand, finances, funds, monetary resource, pecuniary resource - assets in the form of money from Shantou University Medical College.
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Shantou University Medical College.
The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.
Received 8 September 2006; accepted 28 March 2007.