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Effects of two types of self-regulatory instruction programs on students with learning disabilities in writing products, processes, and self-efficacy.

Abstract. We examined the differential effects of the social cognitive model The term cognitive model can have basically two meanings. In cognitive psychology, a model is a simplified representation of reality. The essential quality of such a model is to help deciding the appropriate actions, i.e.  of sequential One after the other in some consecutive order such as by name or number.  skill acquisition (SCM (1) (Software Configuration Management, Source Code Management) See configuration management.

(2) See supply chain management.
 intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. ) and the self-regulated Self`-reg´u`la`ted

a. 1. Regulated by one's self or by itself.
 strategy development model (SRSD SRSD self-regulated strategy development
SRSD Southern Regional School District
 intervention) for writing. One hundred and twenty-one twenty-one: see blackjack.  5th- and 6th-grade Spanish Spanish, river, c.150 mi (240 km) long, issuing from Spanish Lake, S Ont., Canada, NW of Sudbury, and flowing generally S through Biskotasi and Agnew lakes to Lake Huron opposite Manitoulin island. There are several hydroelectric stations on the river.  students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or and/or  
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.

Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing.
 low achievement (LA) were randomly assigned as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

 either to an experimental intervention group or the standard instruction group. Both self-regulatory interventions showed a significant improvement with a large effect size in the structure, coherence coherence, constant phase difference in two or more Waves over time. Two waves are said to be in phase if their crests and troughs meet at the same place at the same time, and the waves are out of phase if the crests of one meet the troughs of another. , and quality of students' writing products, as determined in terms of reader-and text-based (jargon) text-based - Working under a non-window-based operating system (e.g. MS-DOS) as opposed to a graphical user interface (e.g. Microsoft Windows).

An MS-DOS text-based program uses a screen with a fixed array of 80x25 or 80x40 characters.
 measures. Additionally, both interventions demonstrated a substantial increase in the time students spent on writing and revising their texts; the latter was noted especially in the SCM intervention group although only the SRSD intervention showed a significant increase in the time students dedicated to planning text. Finally, with regard to writing self-efficacy self-efficacy (selfˈ-eˑ·fi·k , only the SCM intervention group experienced a significant improvement.


Since the pioneering work of Hayes Hayes, river, c.300 mi (480 km) long, rising in a lake NE of Lake Winnipeg, central Manitoba, Canada, and flowing NE to Hudson Bay. It was the chief route used by Hudson's Bay Company traders from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg and the interior; York Factory, an  and Flower (1980), considerable progress has been made in understanding the cognitive processes Cognitive processes
Thought processes (i.e., reasoning, perception, judgment, memory).

Mentioned in: Psychosocial Disorders
 involved in writing. The last quarter of the 20th century provided opportunity for extensive research in writing with the appearance of new theoretical models of writing. The majority of these models describe writing as a difficult and demanding task. The process of writing a text comprises components that are employed recursively. Coordinating co·or·di·nate  
1. One that is equal in importance, rank, or degree.

2. coordinates A set of articles, as of clothing or luggage, designed to match or complement one other, as in style or color.

 these processes in a way that results in a text that meets the demands of the writing task requires extensive attention control and self-regulation The term self-regulation can signify
  • in systems theory: homeostasis
  • in sociology / psychology: self-control
  • in educational psychology: self-regulated learning
  • Self-Regulation Theory (SRT) is a system of conscious personal health management
. Skilled writing as a self-planned, self-initiated, and self-sustained Adj. 1. self-sustained - needing no outside support
unfueled - not provided with fuel
 activity involves high levels of self-regulation (Graham & Harris Harris, Scotland: see Lewis and Harris. , 1997; Zimmerman Zimmerman may refer to: People
  • Charles A. Zimmerman, bandmaster of USNA and composer of "Anchors Away"
  • Dick Zimmerman, magician and pianist
  • Eric Zimmerman, a computer game designer
  • Franklin B.
 & Risemberg, 1997).

Several researchers have argued, therefore, that teaching self-regulation in general, and specifically the cognitive strategies for planning and revising text, should yield a marked improvement in the quality of the texts that students produce. Indeed, this hypothesis explains the rapid growth and development of cognitive and self-regulation strategy instruction studies in the last two decades (Wong n. 1. A field. , Harris, Graham, & Butler, 2003), especially with students with learning disabilities (LD), who have serious problems in managing writing process and demonstrate ineffective use of strategies.

A review of empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence.  shows that self-regulatory processes play an important role in developing proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy  
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.

Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence
 in writing texts. Results of instructional programs based on different models, such as the Self-Regulated Strategy Development Model (Graham & Harris, 2003; Harris & Graham, 1996); the Social Cognitive Model of Sequential Skill Acquisition (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 1999; 2002); the Cognitive Strategy Instruction in Writing Model (Englert et al., 1991; Englert, Raphael Raphael (răf`ēəl, rā`–), archangel. He is prominent in the book of Tobit, as the companion of Tobias, as the healer of Tobit, and as the rescuer of Sara from Asmodeus. Milton made him a featured character of Paradise Lost.  & Anderson Anderson, river, Canada
Anderson, river, c.465 mi (750 km) long, rising in several lakes in N central Northwest Territories, Canada. It meanders north and west before receiving the Carnwath River and flowing north to Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Arctic
, 1992); Strategy Content Learning Instruction (Butler, 1994; 1995); and Genre-Specific Writing Strategies Research (Wong, Butler, Ficzere, Kuperis, & Corden, 1994; Wong, Butler, Ficzere, & Kuperis, 1996; 1997), provide strong evidence for the efficacy of self-regulation writing strategies in improving writing performance.

The study reported on here extends the existing research in several ways.

First, we broaden the understanding of the effects of the cognitive and self-regulatory strategies instruction models for students with LD from a different language group and educational culture. Schunk SCHUNK Germany
Among basic conditions, Friedrich Schunk founded his "mechanical workshop" in a garage in Lauffen/Neckar, Germany in 1945. The production of brake drums and fly wheels for the NSU Prince 4 and precision parts for the Porsche 365 were his first larger orders.
 (2005) recently suggested the need to study different language groups and educational cultures as a route for future research on self-regulation.

Second, we explore the differential effects of two cognitive and self-regulatory strategy intervention programs based on two intervention models whose individual effectiveness has been supported by existing research in students with and without LD. The instructional pattern of the first model is based on a social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition--SCM (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997; Zimmerman, 2000, 2002), whose efficacy in acquiring skills in writing revision and self-regulation has been proven in studies with nondisabled students (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 1999, 2002). The second model is based on the self-regulated strategy development model--SRSD; it has great practical application in writing instruction with LD students (see Graham & Harris, 2003, for a meta-analysis meta-analysis /meta-anal·y·sis/ (met?ah-ah-nal´i-sis) a systematic method that takes data from a number of independent studies and integrates them using statistical analysis.  of SRSD studies).

In general, the two models are very similar, given that they share key features such as the use of cognitive modelling, social feedback, and scaffolding. However, there are differences mainly associated with their general pattern of instruction and the type of cognitive modelling used; for example, the SCM model involves more extensive modeling, combining mastery and coping, and different models, such as expert (instructor) and novice (peers), which can influence the effects of the intervention on the writing product and process or on modulation modulation, in communications
modulation, in communications, process in which some characteristic of a wave (the carrier wave) is made to vary in accordance with an information-bearing signal wave (the modulating wave); demodulation is the process by which
 variables, such as self-efficacy. Furthermore, the different patterns of instruction can reveal which pattern is more suitable for primary students with LD. With this in mind, the SRSD approach (Harris & Graham, 1996) has been used extensively in previous research on strategy-based writing instruction with LD students; however, the SCM approach has never been implemented with this population. Therefore, this study attempts to prove its usefulness with LD students, and its comparative suitability versus the SRSD approach with this population.

And third, we explore the ways in which this type of intervention affects the writing process. While the effectiveness of this kind of intervention has been broadly supported by the findings of existing research, previous studies have tended to assess the efficacy of these interventions solely in terms of changes in the end products of writing and personal variables such as knowledge of writing, self-efficacy or metacognition Metacognition refers to thinking about cognition (memory, perception, calculation, association, etc.) itself or to think/reason about one's own thinking. Types of knowledge , based on the assumption that changes in writing products are caused by changes in writing process. It is considered pertinent PERTINENT, evidence. Those facts which tend to prove the allegations of the party offering them, are called pertinent; those which have no such tendency are called impertinent, 8 Toull. n. 22. By pertinent is also meant that which belongs. Willes, 319.  to also explore the ways in which this kind of training affects the processes involved in writing. For this reason, we assess the effectiveness of these instructional programs by combining on-line measurements (writing log measurements) with writing product measurements, aiming not just to determine whether interventions result in improved text but also to explore the nature of this action. The use of on-line measurements of the writing process constitutes a significant contribution as to-date few studies have employed this type of measurement (Braaksma, Rijlaarsdam, van den Bergh Bergh   , Henry 1811-1888.

American reformer who founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1866).
, & van Hout-Wolters, 2004; Torrance Torrance, industrial and residential city (1990 pop. 133,107), Los Angeles co., SW Calif.; inc. 1921. It has large aircraft and electronics industries. Among its many manufactures are aircraft, electronics, communications equipment, aluminum products, steel, and , Fidalgo Fi`dal´go

n. 1. The lowest title of nobility in Portugal, corresponding to that of Hidalgo in Spain.
, & Garcia Gar·ci·a   , Jerome John Known as "Jerry." 1942-1995.

American musician who gained fame as the cofounder and lead guitarist of the folk-rock group the Grateful Dead (1965-1995).
, in press) and, to our knowledge, never with the LD population.

On the other hand, although the main objective of this study was not strictly to increase writing self-efficacy perceptions, it is worthwhile to examine the effects of both cognitive and self-regulatory interventions on this motivational factor. Researchers in the field of writing composition have focused particular attention on investigating the affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.

1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.

 or motivational factors that influence writing, such as self-efficacy, which is assumed to be the principal component of academic motivation, based on the assumption that the beliefs that students create, develop, and hold to be true about themselves are vital forces in their academic success or failure (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2003; Pajares, 2003). Findings have shown that writing self-efficacy is predictive of writing performances and is associated with other motivation variables such as perceived per·ceive  
tr.v. per·ceived, per·ceiv·ing, per·ceives
1. To become aware of directly through any of the senses, especially sight or hearing.

2. To achieve understanding of; apprehend.
 value of writing, persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second.  on the writing task, and personal interest. Thus, it plays a mediational role in the effect of previous performances on actual writing performance (Bruning & Horn, 2000; Pajares & Johnson, 1996; Pajares & Valiente, 1997; Rankin, Bruning, & Timme, 1994; Shell, Colvin Colvin may refer to:

In places:
  • Colvin Township, Minnesota, a US township
  • Colvin Township, North Dakota, in Eddy County, a US township
  • Colvin Taluqdars' College in Lucknow, India
People with the surname Colvin:
    , & Bruning, 1995; Wachholz & Ethridge, 1996; Zimmerman & Bandura ban`dur´a   

    n. 1. A traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument shaped like a lute, having many strings.
    , 1994).

    Moreover, on one hand, self-efficacy beliefs are expected to be linked reciprocally re·cip·ro·cal  
    1. Concerning each of two or more persons or things.

    2. Interchanged, given, or owed to each other: reciprocal agreements to abolish customs duties; a reciprocal invitation to lunch.
     to students' use of self-regulatory procedures. That is to say, students who learn to use cognitive and self-regulatory strategies in writing increase their perceptions of self-efficacy to write effectively (Zimmerman & Risemberg, 1997). On the other hand, effective self-regulation depends on the extent of self-efficacy for using skills to achieve mastery (Bandura, 1986, 1997); that is, students who feel that their performance is efficient are more likely to use cognitive and self-regulatory strategies and to have increased metacognition, and are more likely to plan, monitor, control, and regulate reg·u·late
    1. To control or direct according to rule, principle, or law.

    2. To adjust to a particular specification or requirement.

    3. To adjust a mechanism for accurate and proper functioning.

     themselves during a task (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2003; Pintrich, 1999; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990; Pintrich & Garcia, 1991; Wolters & Pintrich, 1998; Wolters, Yu, & Pintrich, 1996). For these reasons it is interesting to study the role of writing self-efficacy.



    Our sample was composed of 121 fifth- and sixth-grade Spanish students with LD and/or low achievement (LA) ranging in age between 10 and 12 years old. All participants had previously been identified as having a specific learning disability in writing (Jimenez Ji·mé·nez   , Juan Ramón 1881-1958.

    Spanish poet who introduced modernism to Spanish verse. Platero y Yo (1914) is his most popular work. He won the 1956 Nobel Prize for literature.

    Noun 1.
     & Hernandez, 1999; Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia, 1992). We excluded students who did not attend school on a regular basis and those who had a developmental disability developmental disability
    A cognitive, emotional, or physical impairment, especially one related to abnormal sensory or motor development, that appears in infancy or childhood and involves a failure or delay in progressing through the normal
     such as mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living.  or autism--diagnosed by psychoeducational psychoeducational (sīˈ·kō·ed·j  teams in Spain Spain, Span. España (āspä`nyä), officially Kingdom of Spain, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 40,341,000), 194,884 sq mi (504,750 sq km), including the Balearic and Canary islands, SW Europe.  as having special educational needs--and students whose delay and/or difficulties could be attributed to a physical, psychological, or sensory sensory /sen·so·ry/ (sen´sor-e) pertaining to sensation.

    1. Of or relating to the senses or sensation.

     disability, or a lack of schooling.

    Participants were selected as follows. First, the teachers carried out an initial screening consisting of an interview or questionnaire about the achievement of students with difficulties in writing. Then, psychoeducational teams assessed those students using IQ and aptitude tests The following organizations provide aptitude and proficiency tests in programming and computer topics.

    Berger Series
    A set of proficiency and aptitude tests from Psychometrics, Inc., Henderson, NV (
    , parents' and teachers' reports, observations and interviews with the students, and also the students' grades. However, because in Spain there are no specific grade tests, the psychoeducational teams determined which students had LD and/or LA, but not identified as having special educational needs--a developmental disability--in order to exclude students whose difficulties could be attributed to a physical, a psychic psychic /psy·chic/ (si´kik)
    1. pertaining to the psyche.

    2. mental (1).

     or a sensory disability, or a lack of schooling. As a result, only students with a significant delay, compared with their peers, in writing performance were included in the study.

    Moreover, every student had to complete the EAE EAE

    1. experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    2. enzootic abortion of ewes.
     (Writing Self-Regulation Assessment) based on the tasks of EPP (1) (Enhanced Parallel Port) See IEEE 1284.

    (2) (Ethernet Packet Processor) A chip from Kalpana, Inc., Santa Clara, CA that doubles speed of Ethernet transmission to 20Mbits/sec. In 1994, Kalpana was acquired by Cisco.
     and FPE FPE Final Prediction Error
    FPE Floating Point Exception (a computer math error)
    FPE Fokker-Planck Equation
    FPE Fire Protection Engineering
    FPE Free Primary Education (Africa) 
     (Planning Processes and Other Writing Psychological Factors Assessment) as an assessment of proficiency to establish that every student had a delay of at least two years in composition writing and other psychological aspects, such as attitudes towards writing, metacognition with regard to writing, self-efficacy in writing, and reflexivity-impulsivity towards writing related to composition writing. This test was designed by our research team, and was validated val·i·date  
    tr.v. val·i·dat·ed, val·i·dat·ing, val·i·dates
    1. To declare or make legally valid.

    2. To mark with an indication of official sanction.

     in a previous study with a sample comprised of 968 students (509 males and 459 females) from 3rd (primary school) to 11th grade (high school), ranging in age from 8 to 18 years old. The results confirmed that the EAE test fulfils the desired psychometric psy·cho·met·rics  
    n. (used with a sing. verb)
    The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and
     properties with a high reliability ([alpha] 968 = .88) for internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. . In addition, the construct, structural, and content validity content validity,
    n the degree to which an experiment or measurement actually reflects the variable it has been designed to measure.
     are adequate, so we can state that the device meets with the desired psychometric properties (Fidalgo, 2005).

    Students were selected without considering whether they had LD or LA. The IQ-achievement discrepancy DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q.v.)
         2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial.
     is not established in the Spanish educational system, and both types of students are included in the same groups. This decision is justified by studies that have not found significant differences in cognitive profiles based on IQ tests (low achievement with or without discrepancy) (Fletcher Fletcher may refer to one of the following: Ideas and companies
    • A fletcher makes arrows, see fletching.
    • Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the graduate school of international relations of Tufts University, located in Medford, Massachusetts.
     et al., 1994; Stanovich & Siegel Siegel, a surname, is associated with two ethnic groups.

    As a Jewish surname Siegel (סג"ל) it could be an acronym of Segan Levi (סגן לוי), meaning "Assistant Levite".
    , 1994). Elimination of the aptitude-achievement discrepancy criteria in the conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize  
    v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
    To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way:
     of LD has been broadly recommended (Aaron Aaron (âr`ən), in the Bible, the brother of Moses and his spokesman in Egypt, and the first high priest of the Hebrews. He is presented as the instrument of God in performing many signs, such as the turning of his rod into a serpent and , 1997; Algozzine, Ysseldyke, & McGue, 1995; Fletcher et al., 1998; Stanovich & Stanovich, 1996), providing a further reason not to specify whether a student had LD and/or only LA.

    Each of our participants had seriously low achievement in writing but we systematically excluded children who were diagnosed as having special educational needs by psychoeducational teams (with a type of developmental disability) to ensure that our samples consisted of children whose learning problems were more consistent with the American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of  definition of LD. (We acknowledge that for more precise international comparison of research and treatments, in the future, we have to obtain IQ and achievement measures of every subject, as the scores obtained previously by psychoeducational teams are only accessible for administrative and placement purposes and are not available for research purposes.)

    Participants were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a comparison group. The first experimental group was made up of 48 students, who were exposed to cognitive self-regulation instruction based on the self-regulated strategy development model, SRSD (Harris & Graham, 1996). The students in the second experimental group (N = 41) were taught using cognitive self-regulation based on a social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition (Zimmerman, 2000, 2002; Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 1999, 2002). Finally, the comparison group (N = 32) received the standard curriculum. Sample details are summarized in Table 1.

    The sample was drawn from 11 primary schools in Leon Leon

    Medieval kingdom, northwestern Spain. Leon proper included the cities of León, Salamanca, and Zamora—the adjacent areas of Vallodolid and Palencia being disputed with Castile, originally its eastern frontier.
     in northwest Spain. The schools were closely matched to ensure similarity Similarity is some degree of symmetry in either analogy and resemblance between two or more concepts or objects. The notion of similarity rests either on exact or approximate repetitions of patterns in the compared items. . All of them were state-funded schools, with a similar educational infrastructure with regard to student-teacher ratio Student-Teacher ratio refers to the number of teachers in a school/university with respect to the number of students who attend the school/university. For example, a student teacher ratio of 10:1 means that there are 10 students for every teacher available. , as well as such aspects as resources or availability of psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. , for example. Their populations were demographically similar as well, drawing exclusively from a middle-class middle class
    The socioeconomic class between the working class and the upper class.

     native-Spanish population.

    The interventions were delivered by four educational psychologists (two psychologists per program), who were specifically trained in the psychology of writing and the cognitive strategy model used. Moreover, they were explicitly trained in how to apply the assessment methods and the intervention program in weekly sessions. The sessions were carried out during the school timetable “Schedule” redirects here. For other uses, see Schedule (disambiguation).

    A timetable or schedule is an organized list or schedule, usually set out in tabular form, providing information about a series of arranged events: in particular, the time at which
     to the same small groups, extracted from different classrooms where they received their regular lessons. The psychologists were blind to the purpose and the design of the study. Furthermore, they were randomly assigned to an intervention group, counterbalanced coun·ter·bal·ance  
    1. A force or influence equally counteracting another.

    2. A weight that acts to balance another; a counterpoise or counterweight.

     by the schools and groups of LD and/or LA students.

    Writing Tasks

    Participants in the experimental groups completed two compare-contrast essay tasks prior to (pretest pre·test  
    a. A preliminary test administered to determine a student's baseline knowledge or preparedness for an educational experience or course of study.

    b. A test taken for practice.

    ) and following (posttest post·test  
    A test given after a lesson or a period of instruction to determine what the students have learned.
    ) the intervention. Students in the comparison group completed the same tasks at the same times and with the same interval between pre-and posttest as for the experimental groups.

    The topics for the tasks were based on the content delivered as part of the 4th- and 5th-grade curriculum. For all tasks students were provided with reference sheets (approximately 500 words of text) providing topic-relevant information. For pedagogic ped·a·gog·ic   also ped·a·gog·i·cal
    1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of pedagogy.

    2. Characterized by pedantic formality: a haughty, pedagogic manner.
     reasons topics were not counterbalanced over the time of testing, but were matched for complexity of content and extent of coverage in previous teaching. Thus, for the baseline The horizontal line to which the bottoms of lowercase characters (without descenders) are aligned. See typeface.

    baseline - released version
     assessment, all students wrote about the similarities and differences between demonstratives and possessives and at posttest about the similarities and differences between vertebrates and invertebrates.

    For all tasks it was stressed that students should write full prose and not just lists of ideas, and that they should produce the best possible text because it would be seen by their teacher and compared with essays by students from other parts of the country. Students were free to use the reference materials and their own ideas as they wished; they did not have to adhere to adhere to
    verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful

     a strict time limit.

    Product Measures

    The quality of the completed comparative-contrast essays was assessed (a) in terms of qualitative qualitative /qual·i·ta·tive/ (kwahl´i-ta?tiv) pertaining to quality. Cf. quantitative.


    pertaining to observations of a categorical nature, e.g. breed, sex.
    , reader-based criteria where raters consider an essay as an entity and assign a score to indicate the degree to which it reflects the construct of interest; and (b) by more quantitative text-based criteria where raters identify certain elements or linguistic features within the essay and then count or combine those elements to arrive at the score. This type of measure included productivity, coherence, and structure measures, as used in previous research (Torrance et al., in press). A synthesis of the types of measurements used is presented in Table 2.

    Text-Based Measures

    Productivity. Productivity concerns the quantity of text produced for each task. It was measured by number of words, including the determiners, which in the Spanish language Spanish language, member of the Romance group of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Romance languages). The official language of Spain and 19 Latin American nations, Spanish is spoken as a first language by about 330 million persons  are the definitive and the indefinite articles indefinite article
    An article, such as English a or an, that does not fix the identity of the noun modified.

    indefinite article

    Grammar either of the words `a' or `an'
    , numerals, possessive pos·ses·sive  
    1. Of or relating to ownership or possession.

    2. Having or manifesting a desire to control or dominate another, especially in order to limit that person's relationships with others:
     and demonstrative LEGACY, DEMONSTRATIVE. A demonstrative legacy is a bequest of a certain sum of money; intended for the legatee at all events, with a fund particularly referred to for its payment; so that if the estate be not the testator's property at his death, the legacy will not fail: but be payable  adjectives; the content words, which in Spanish have a fixed referent ref·er·ent  
    A person or thing to which a linguistic expression refers.

    Noun 1. referent - something referred to; the object of a reference
    , such as nouns, verbs, qualifying adjectives Noun 1. qualifying adjective - an adjective that ascribes to its noun the value of an attribute of that noun (e.g., `a nervous person' or `a musical speaking voice')
    descriptive adjective

    adjective - a word that expresses an attribute of something
     and interjections; the functional words, which in Spanish do not have fixed referent, such as possessive, personal and demonstrative pronouns Noun 1. demonstrative pronoun - a pronoun that points out an intended referent

    pronoun - a function word that is used in place of a noun or noun phrase
    , prepositions and conjunctions; and a total (Garcia & de Caso, 2004; Justicia Justicia (syn. Acelica, Adhatoda, Amphiscopia, Anisostachya, Aulojusticia, Averia, Beloperone, Calliaspidia, Calymmostachya, Chaetothylopsis, Chiloglossa, Cyphisia, Cyrtanthera, Cyrtantherella, Dianthera, Dimanisa, Drejerella, Duvernoia, Emularia, Ethesia, Glosarithys, , 1995; Wong, 1998), number of paragraphs, number of sentences, and number of verbs.

    Coherence. Coherence covered seven linguistic indicators of referential or relational See relational algebra, relational calculus, relational database, relational query and relational operator.  coherence (Haliday & Hassan Hassan (häsän`), d. 1894, sultan of Morocco (1873–94). He brought the weak and disorganized country firmly under his control and held in check attempts by European powers at domination. , 1976; Sanders San´ders

    n. 1. An old name of sandalwood, now applied only to the red sandalwood. See under Sandalwood.
    , Spooren, & Noordman, 1992), whose function is to tie together the different components of the text (sentences or paragraphs).

    Referential coherence includes two types of ties: anaphoric a·naph·o·ra  
    1. The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs; for example,
     and lexical lex·i·cal  
    1. Of or relating to the vocabulary, words, or morphemes of a language.

    2. Of or relating to lexicography or a lexicon.

    [lexic(on) + -al1.
    . Relational coherence includes five types of linguistic indicators, based on a classification by Bosque Bosque is the name for areas of riparian forest found along the flood plains of stream and river banks in the southwestern United States. It derives its name from the Spanish word for .  and Demonte (1999): metastructural, structural, connective connective - An operator used in logic to combine two logical formulas. See first order logic. , reformulation, and finally, argumentational ties. All are summarized and described with examples in the Table 3.

    Scores for these coherence measures were based on the counts of the following linguistic markers: referential coherence (anaphoric and lexical ties); relational coherence (metastructural, structural, connective, reformulation, argumentational ties); total coherence (referential and relational coherence); and density of coherence (calculated as the number of ties per 100 words of text), which considers the amount of the text written.

    Structure. This involved recording whether or not the text included the three main parts of text: introduction, main body, and conclusion.

    Reader-Based Measures

    This assessment was based on measures for structure, coherence, and general quality described by Spencer and Fitzgerald (1993). Table 4 summarizes the descriptive information about each measure.

    Structure measure. This was assessed on a 4-point scale, from 1 = unstructured to 4 = well structured. Ratings were based on the extent to which readers perceived that the text included (a) background information introducing the text, (b) cues indicating text structure, (c) an introductory topic or thesis This article or section has multiple issues:
    * It may require general cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.

    Please help [ improve the article] or discuss these issues on the talk page.
    This article is about the thesis in academia.
     sentence, (d) clear organisation of ideas based around a definite scheme, (e) unity of theme within paragraphs and across the whole essay, and (f) a conclusion that reiterated the purpose of the paper.

    Coherence measure. This was also assessed on a 4-point scale, from 1 = incoherent to 4 = very coherent A version of Unix developed by Mark Williams Co., Northbrook, IL, that was noted for its conservative use of resources on Intel-based PCs. , with ratings based on the extent to which the reader perceived that (a) a topic or theme was identified and remained a focus throughout the essay, (b) the text included a context that orientated o·ri·en·tate  
    v. o·ri·en·tat·ed, o·ri·en·tat·ing, o·ri·en·tates
    To orient: "He . . .
     the reader, (c) information was organized in a discernible dis·cern·i·ble  
    Perceptible, as by the faculty of vision or the intellect. See Synonyms at perceptible.

    dis·cerni·bly adv.
     pattern that was sustained throughout the text, (d) sentences and paragraphs were cohesively tied, and (e) the discourse flowed smoothly.

    Quality measure. This was assessed on a 6-point scale, from 1 = difficult to understand to 6 = excellent, with ratings based on the extent to which the text demonstrated (a) a clear sequence of ideas with little or no irrelevant Unrelated or inapplicable to the matter in issue.

    Irrelevant evidence has no tendency to prove or disprove any contested fact in a lawsuit.

    irrelevant adj.
     detail, (b) clear organization, (c) fresh and vigorous word choice, (e) varied and interesting detail, (f) correct sentence structure, and (g) accurate punctuation punctuation [Lat.,=point], the use of special signs in writing to clarify how words are used; the term also refers to the signs themselves. In every language, besides the sounds of the words that are strung together there are other features, such as tone, accent, and , capitalization capitalization n. 1) the act of counting anticipated earnings and expenses as capital assets (property, equipment, fixtures) for accounting purposes. 2) the amount of anticipated net earnings which hypothetically can be used for conversion into capital assets. , and spelling SPELLING, The art of putting the proper letters in words.
         2. It is a rule that when it appears with certainty what is meant, bad spelling will not avoid a contract; for example, where a man agreed to pay thirty pounds, he was held bound to pay thirty pounds;
    . These criteria varied slightly from those used by Spencer and Fitzgerald to make them appropriate for a comparative-contrast expository ex·po·si·tion  
    1. A setting forth of meaning or intent.

    a. A statement or rhetorical discourse intended to give information about or an explanation of difficult material.

     text based Also called "character based," it refers to handling text and not graphics. Simple charts and illustrations may be drawn, but they are limited to a set of special characters that are strung together to make up lines and shades (see OEM font).  on guidelines guidelines, a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
     suggested by Sorenson (1997).

    Self-efficacy measures. Writing self-efficacy was assessed using a self-report scale developed following a guide for constructing self-efficacy scales (Bandura, 2001). It asked students to provide self-judgments of their capability to successfully perform various writing skills in a writing task according to according to
    1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

    2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

     their academic level.

    It includes four items (the same four are repeated before and after the writing task) measuring students' beliefs about how certain they are that they can (a) produce a good text (item number 1, write your text well); (b) use correct punctuation and spelling (item number 2, get your punctuation and spelling right); (c) include good ideas (item number 3, include lots of good ideas); and (d) write a text that others (audience) understand (item number 4, write it so that people understand). Four items are implemented before the writing task and four items are implemented after the writing task, allowing comparison of scores; the scores are rated on a scale from 1 to 9.

    The writing self-efficacy questionnaire provides information about students' beliefs about substantial writing skills, such as quality of text, generation of good ideas, writing a text that the audience understands; and mechanical skills, such as spelling and punctuation skills; and a total writing self-efficacy belief representing the total of the questionnaire. The questionnaire has an adequate reliability (Cronbach [alpha] 121 = .876; and Standardized standardized

    pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.

    standardized morbidity rate
    see morbidity rate.

    standardized mortality rate
    see mortality rate.
     [alpha] 121 = .931) for all the samples in this study; both for the total of the scale, and for each of the measurements (Cronbach [alpha] from .838 to .880). Similarly, the validity of constructs is assured as every item is adapted to Bandura's guide for constructing self-efficacy scales (Bandura, 2001).

    Writing process measures. These measurements were taken on-line during the writing process, using a time-sampled self-report, a method adopted in several previous studies (e.g., Kellogg, 1988; Torrance et al., in press; Torrance, Thomas (language) Thomas - A language compatible with the language Dylan(TM). Thomas is NOT Dylan(TM).

    The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs
    , & Robinson, 1999). While performing the writing task students heard a 1-second tone played at random intervals of between 60 and 120 seconds, with a mean interval of 93 seconds. On hearing the tone students were instructed to respond by indicating in the writing log the activity in which they were currently engaged. It was stressed that they should report only the activity in which they were engaged at precisely the time that the tone sounded and not their main activity since the previous tone. Their possible activities were labelled and defined as follows: Reading references--reading information and data about the topic; Thinking about content--thinking about things to say in the essay; Writing outline--making a plan or notes about the essay that I am going to write; Writing text--writing essay; Reading text--reading through part or all of text; Changing text--making changes to writing (correcting spelling mistakes spelling mistake nfalta de ortografía , changing words, adding words, etc.); and Unrelated--doing or thinking something unrelated to the text (talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
    lecture, speech

    rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to
     partner, looking for Looking for

    In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with.
     a pen, looking through the window, etc.).

    These activities were collected in a writing log divided into multiple sections, each listing the seven possible writing activities, where students had to mark the activity by simple graphics so as to minimize the extent to which completing the log diverted di·vert  
    v. di·vert·ed, di·vert·ing, di·verts
    1. To turn aside from a course or direction: Traffic was diverted around the scene of the accident.

     attention from the writing task.

    Students were trained in using this method prior to completing the baseline assessment. We then determined students' accuracy in using the categorization scheme by playing a videotape videotape

    Magnetic tape used to record visual images and sound, or the recording itself. There are two types of videotape recorders, the transverse (or quad) and the helical.
     of a writer thinking aloud while planning and drafting text and asking them to indicate the writer's activity at each of 25 different points. Comparing students' categorization with that of an expert judge showed a kappa Kappa

    Used in regression analysis, Kappa represents the ratio of the dollar price change in the price of an option to a 1% change in the expected price volatility.

    Remember, the price of the option increases simultaneously with the volatility.
     coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
    1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.

     = .71.


    The experimental groups followed two specific instructional programs focusing on cognitive self-regulation strategies in writing, the SRSD model (Harris & Graham, 1996) and a model based on the social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition (Zimmerman, 2000, 2002; Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2002).

    Instructional program based on the self-regulated strategy development model. According to the SRSD model (Graham & Harris, 1987), the instructional program followed the six general stages of training.

    Stage 1. Develop and activate background knowledge. Students' background knowledge, previous knowledge, and any pre-skills are developed, because they are essential for understanding and executing the next stages.

    Stage 2. Strategy goals and significance. The instructor and students discuss the writing strategy to be learned: its purpose, benefits, importance, its steps, how, when and why to use it, and the goals of strategy instruction. In later stages, the instructor and students collaboratively evaluate the strategy and self-regulation procedures effectiveness and performance.

    Stage 3. Modeling of the strategy. The instructor models the specific strategy by thinking aloud. During the modeling, the instructor explicitly includes specific regulatory reg·u·late  
    tr.v. reg·u·lat·ed, reg·u·lat·ing, reg·u·lates
    1. To control or direct according to rule, principle, or law.

     statements: goal setting, self-assessment Self-assessment in an organisational setting, according to the EFQM definition, refers to a comprehensive, systematic and regular review of an organisation's activities and results referenced against the EFQM Excellence Model. , self-instructions, self-reinforcement, etc.; later students develop their personal statements.

    Stage 4. Memorization mem·o·rize  
    tr.v. mem·o·rized, mem·o·riz·ing, mem·o·riz·es
    1. To commit to memory; learn by heart.

    2. Computer Science To store in memory:
     of the strategy. Students memorize mem·o·rize  
    tr.v. mem·o·rized, mem·o·riz·ing, mem·o·riz·es
    1. To commit to memory; learn by heart.

    2. Computer Science To store in memory:
     and automate To turn a set of manual steps into an operation that goes by itself. See automation.  the steps of the writing strategy and some self-statements of their personal lists of self-regulation, sometimes by means of mnemonic Pronounced "ni-mon-ic." A memory aid. In programming, it is a name assigned to a machine function. For example, COM1 is the mnemonic assigned to serial port #1 on a PC. Programming languages are almost entirely mnemonics.  rules and charts or self-regulatory list.

    Stage 5. Collaborative col·lab·o·rate  
    intr.v. col·lab·o·rat·ed, col·lab·o·rat·ing, col·lab·o·rates
    1. To work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort.

     practice. Students and the instructor use the writing strategy and their self-instructions collaboratively to complete specific writing tasks. The instructor provides social feedback, support, and guidance, which is faded at an appropriate pace for individual students until effective use of the strategies was achieved and in the final stage.

    Stage 6. Independent performance. Students use the writing strategy independently and their self-instructions are covert COVERT, BARON. A wife; so called, from her being under the cover or protection of her husband, baron or lord.  in their thoughts.

    Finally, in order to promote maintenance and generalization gen·er·al·i·za·tion
    1. The act or an instance of generalizing.

    2. A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application.
     there are three additional sessions where supportive materials, such as graphic organizers Graphic organizers are visual representations of knowledge, concepts or ideas. They are known to help
    • relieve learner boredom
    • enhance recall
    • provide motivation
    • create interest
    • clarify information
    • assist in organizing thoughts
    , mnemonic charts of strategies or individual lists of self-instructions were deleted Deleted

    A security that is no longer included on a specified market. Sometimes referred to as "delisted".

    Reasons for delisting include violating regulations, failing to meet financial specifications set out by the stock exchange and going bankrupt.
    . In the first session, the instructor thought aloud while planning, writing and revising a comparative-contrast text. Later, students worked in pairs, each observing and commenting while the other thought aloud while planning, drafting and revising; the instructor provided additional feedback. Finally, students worked alone, planning, drafting and revising a compare-contrast text with additional feedback from the teacher.

    According to this instructional pattern, two writing strategies for planning and writing comparative-contrast essays and revising were implemented. The strategy for planning and writing comparative-contrast essays was POD+THE VOWELS, which comprised three general steps for planning and writing a text: POD: P = Pick ideas; this step encourages the writer to generate ideas related to differences and similarities of the two themes of the text; O = Organize your ideas following the vowels; here students follow a series of genre-specific prompts (the vowels) to organize and structure the content; D = Develop your text; here students are encouraged to use the plans already devised and to continue the planning process while writing, based on the POW strategy used in previous studies by Mason, Harris, and Graham (2002).

    In addition, five steps for planning the text were developed specifically for the purposes of this research. The mnemonic VOWELS (O+A+I+U+E) was used to help students to remember the key words to generate, organize, and structure the content in a compare-contrast type text. The key words in the frame served as a reminder to generate writing content related to: O = Objective or purpose of the text; A = Audience, suitable content according to the audience of the text; I = Ideas, generation of ideas related to similarities and differences of themes; U = United ideas, organization of ideas into similarities vs. differences, and hierarchical structure See hierarchical.  of main and secondary ideas; E = Essay draft, to develop the text.

    Furthermore, the specific writing strategy for revising the text was RED, a mnemonic developed for this instructional program. The acronym acronym: see abbreviation.

    A word typically made up of the first letters of two or more words; for example, BASIC stands for "Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
     highlights the three steps of the revision process: R = Read the text; students have to read their text several times: several comprehensive readings paying attention Noun 1. paying attention - paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people); "his attentiveness to her wishes"; "he spends without heed to the consequences"
    attentiveness, heed, regard
     to structure, paragraphs, and inter-intra paragraph links, and also quick readings, paying attention to the words and punctuation of sentences. When students are doing the first step of the revision process, they have to coordinate Belonging to a system of indexing by two or more terms. For example, points on a plane, cells in a spreadsheet and bits in dynamic RAM chips are identified by a pair of coordinates. Points in space are identified by sets of three coordinates.  the other two subprocesses of evaluating and diagnosing the different aspects of the text, E = Evaluate the different substantial and mechanical aspects of the text, to see if they are right or wrong; and carrying out the necessary tactics D = Do necessary changes. This routine helped students coordinate the process of reading, evaluating, and carrying out the necessary tactics to resolve a list of possible mechanical mistakes, such as spelling, grammar grammar, description of the structure of a language, consisting of the sounds (see phonology); the meaningful combinations of these sounds into words or parts of words, called morphemes; and the arrangement of the morphemes into phrases and sentences, called syntax. , presentation and punctuation; or substantive Substantive may refer to:

    In grammar:
    • a noun substantive, now also called simply noun
    • a verb substantive, a verb like English "be" when expressing existence (in contrast to use as a copula)
    In law:
     ones, such as, structure, paragraphs, ideas, and coherence. Figure 1 includes the graphic organizer for the RED revising strategy.

    Table 5 summarizes the instructional program, showing the number of sessions, stages, contents, strategies and techniques, and supportive materials.

    Instructional program based on the social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition. This instructional program was based on a social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition. According to this model, students can acquire new writing skills optimally in four sequential levels: observation, emulation (architecture) emulation - When one system performs in exactly the same way as another, though perhaps not at the same speed. A typical example would be emulation of one computer by (a program running on) another. , self-control self-control
    Control of one's emotions, desires, or actions by one's own will.
    , and self-regulation (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997; Zimmerman, 2000, 2002).

    These sequential levels provide the general pattern of instruction that was implemented in the program. At the first level, observation was the focus; the instructor provides a clear image of how a specific skill, in this case a writing process, should be performed. The instructor modeled how to perform the writing process by thinking aloud while doing it. Thinking aloud was partly spontaneous spontaneous /spon·ta·ne·ous/ (spon-ta´ne-us)
    1. voluntary; instinctive.

    2. occurring without external influence.


    having no apparent external cause.
    , but also included specific self-regulatory statements that students had previously been trained to incorporate, corresponding to the three cyclical cyclical

    Of or relating to a variable, such as housing starts, car sales, or the price of a certain stock, that is subject to regular or irregular up-and-down movements.
     phases of self-regulation (Zimmerman, 2000): (a) the forethought fore·thought  
    1. Deliberation, consideration, or planning beforehand.

    2. Preparation or thought for the future. See Synonyms at prudence.
     phase refers to influential processes that precede efforts to act and set the stage for it, which includes statements such as What is the aim of this writing task? What are the steps that I have to follow in this task? Or if I follow the writing strategy I will not encounter any problems, or I feel capable of writing a good text; (b) performance or volitional vo·li·tion  
    1. The act or an instance of making a conscious choice or decision.

    2. A conscious choice or decision.

    3. The power or faculty of choosing; the will.
     control involves the self-regulation processes that occur during motoric efforts and affect attention and action, which includes self-regulation statements such as Am I following all steps? I have to read the text and assess all ideas continuously; I did the first step, now the second step is ...; and (c) the self-reflection self-re·flec·tion
    Self-examination; introspection.

     phase involves those processes that occur after performance efforts and influence forethought regarding subsequent motoric efforts, such as self-evaluation (what must I do when I finish the text?); causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.


    relating to or emanating from cause.
     attributions (I have made a big effort and I got a good result); and self-reactions (I am very satisfied, my text is great).

    At this level, two types of modeling were developed: a coping model that considered one or more key errors in the process of writing; for example, the model neglects to specify some main subprocesses of planning, such as to remember the audience; or some self-regulatory strategies such as self-observation self-ob·ser·va·tion
    1. Observation of one's own countenance or appearance.

    2. Examination of one's own thoughts or emotions.
     subprocesses, such as to read the text and continuously assess the included ideas, but promptly corrected these errors. Also, a mastery model was developed and executed during the writing process without errors (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2002). Coping models are effective in teaching students to identify and eliminate errors, and mastery models provide positive standards of performance that students can use to make self-judgments regarding errors. For these reasons their incorporation in the instructional program was appropriate (Kitsantas, Zimmerman, & Cleary Clea·ry   , Beverly Born 1916.

    American author of children's books. Her works include a series of humorous novels featuring Henry Huggins.
    , 2000).

    The second level covered emulation. At this level, students learned to emulate em·u·late  
    tr.v. em·u·lat·ed, em·u·lat·ing, em·u·lates
    1. To strive to equal or excel, especially through imitation: an older pupil whose accomplishments and style I emulated.

     a model's performance that had been previously developed. Students worked in pairs, using a cognitive model that incorporated modeled explanations and demonstrations with verbalization of the model's thoughts and reasons for performing actions. This modellng was based on the exemplary performances implemented by the instructor in the previous sessions. Furthermore, it was based on the specific graphic organizers and list of self-regulatory statements (see Table 6). The students changed roles to play both observer and model. This type of emulative em·u·late  
    tr.v. em·u·lat·ed, em·u·lat·ing, em·u·lates
    1. To strive to equal or excel, especially through imitation: an older pupil whose accomplishments and style I emulated.

     experience provides aspiring as·pire  
    intr.v. as·pired, as·pir·ing, as·pires
    1. To have a great ambition or ultimate goal; desire strongly: aspired to stardom.

     writers with behavioural Adj. 1. behavioural - of or relating to behavior; "behavioral sciences"
     and social feedback to refine their performance and to develop self-regulative Self`-reg´u`la`tive

    a. 1. Tending or serving to regulate one's self or itself.
     standards that are essential for higher levels of learning (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2002).

    At the third level, which dealt with self-control, students learned from self-directed self-di·rect·ed
    Directed or guided by oneself, especially as an independent agent: the self-directed study of a language.

     and individual practice to achieve automation in their behavioral behavioral

    pertaining to behavior.

    behavioral disorders
    see vice.

    behavioral seizure
    see psychomotor seizure.
     writing process, focusing on the process rather than on its outcomes; that is, the quality of written text (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2002). At this level, students worked individually using a cognitive model based on the exemplary performances implemented by the instructor and the students themselves in the previous sessions. They were guided by graphic organizers and a previously used list of self-regulatory statements.

    Finally, at the fourth level, which considered self-regulation, the students learned to adapt their performance to changes in contextual environment, either internal or external. Thus, students shifted their attention from modeled processes to performance outcomes (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2002); for this reason, they were not guided by materials such as graphic organizers or lists of self-regulation self-instructions that support the specific modeled process, but adapted their writing process to get an adequate performance outcome.

    Table 6 summarizes this instructional program. In order to understand the similarities and differences between both types of experimental instruction, consult Table 7.

    Standard curriculum. Students in the comparison group followed the standard curriculum in their everyday settings. In Spain, a normative nor·ma·tive  
    Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.

     curriculum sets the objectives, content, and methodological rules for all subjects. For this reason, the language curriculum is similar in all Spanish schools. Standard instruction could be summed up in the following general pattern: students do not receive any process-oriented or cognitive-strategy instruction; they receive specific instruction about the mechanical writing process, such as spelling, grammar, or handwriting HANDWRITING, evidence. Almost every person's handwriting has something whereby it may be distinguished from the writing of others, and this difference is sometimes intended by the term.
    . They also receive specific instruction about the substantial characteristics of writing, such as structural features of different textual tex·tu·al  
    Of, relating to, or conforming to a text.

    textu·al·ly adv.
     genres. After this instruction, students practice writing different texts, which are later corrected by the teacher who highlights their marks and their mistakes in organization, spelling, grammar, or handwriting. The three groups received similar and comparable practices, and the teaching was accomplished during ordinary lessons.


    This intervention study was carried out during the second term of the 2003/04 academic year. The experimental students were exposed to the intervention program three times a week in groups of 6-8. They received 25 sessions in all, lasting about 50 minutes each.

    Before the program, students in the experimental and comparison groups were tested during the same week in composition writing and writing self-efficacy. Later, the program was delivered. In the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
    meantime, meanwhile
     students in the comparison group continued with their ordinary lessons. Finally, students of the comparison and experimental groups were tested during the same week in the same way as before the program.

    To ensure that the implementation of instructional programs and assessment were conducted correctly, we held a weekly meeting with the instructors. We interviewed them individually about their practice and experience from the previous week, and trained them for the sessions coming up. Besides, we collected all the materials and checked the student portfolios generated during training to ensure that all students had completed all the tasks appropriately. Evidence from the instructor interviews and portfolios was converged to enable the researchers to assess the fidelity Fidelity is a notion that at its most abstract level implies a truthful connection to a source or sources. Its original meaning dealt with loyalty and attentiveness to one's duty to a lord or a king, in a broader sense than the related concept of fealty.  of the interventions programs and to ensure that they were administered in an equivalent manner across all participating schools.


    Effects on Written Products

    To analyze an·a·lyze
    1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

    2. To separate a chemical substance into its constituent elements to determine their nature or proportions.

     the improvement in students' texts, we carried out a 2 x 3 multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
    n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.

    multivariate analysis,
    n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously.
     of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.

    In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality
     with repeated measures, taking the same variables into account (within-between) with the same values for each (before-after; comparison-experimental 1 SRSD-experimental 2 SCM).

    Text-based measures. There was a statistically significant improvement with a large effect size in all text-based measures for students in intervention conditions compared with students in the comparison group. The text-based measures are reported in Table 8.

    The pre/post differences in interaction with the treatment (comparison-experimental groups) for the comparative-contrast task showed statistically significant contrasts in the total indicators of productivity (number of words), F(2,118) = 34.31; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .36; referential coherence, F(2, 118) = 17.21; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .22; relational coherence, F(2, 118) = 59.39; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .50); total coherence, F(2, 118) = 35.54; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .37; and density of coherence, F(2, 118) = 19.25; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .26); as well as total structure, F(2,118) = 56.40; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .48; with a large effect size.

    The post hoc post hoc  
    adv. & adj.
    In or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by virtue of having happened earlier:
     analysis showed a significant improvement in all text-based measures of the experimental groups compared to the comparison group. However, only the structure measure showed significant differences between the experimental conditions (p < .001), with SRSD conditions getting greater improvement versus the SCM condition. Figure 2 illustrates the differences in the text-based measures for each group (SRSD intervention, SCM intervention, standard curriculum) and the moment of the assessment (pre-post). The effect size is large, in general, when we compare one of the experimental groups with the comparison group (for this analysis we used the Cohen cohen
     or kohen

    (Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male.
     d, and "the family effect size index;" see Onwuegbuzie, Levin lev·in  
    n. Archaic

    [Middle English levene, levin; see leuk- in Indo-European roots.]
    , & Leech leech, predacious or parasitic annelid worm of the class Hirudinea, characterized by a cylindrical or slightly flattened body with suckers at either end for attaching to prey. , 2003). For example, in productivity we reached a d = 1.989 comparing the SRSD group with the ordinary curriculum group; in total relational coherence we reached a d = 1.054 comparing the SCM group with the ordinary curriculum group; in density of relational coherence we reached a d = 1.058 when we compared the SCM group with the ordinary curriculum group. Moreover, in total structure we reached a d = 0.879 when we compared the SCM group with the comparison group. Finally, when we compared the experimental group, in general, we obtained a small or medium effect size; for example, in productivity (d = .113), in total relational coherence (d = .308), but a large or nearly large effect size in density of relational coherence (d = .766), and in total structure (d = .888).


    Reader-based measures. The results showed a substantially significant improvement in all reader-based writing measures for students in both experimental groups versus students in the comparison group, as well as a large effect size: structure, F(2,118) = 57.63; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .51; coherence, F(2,118) = 34.90; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .39; and quality, F(2,118) = 34.53; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .38. Moreover, post hoc analysis showed statistically significant differences between both the experimental groups and the comparison group. For example, when we compared one of the experimental groups with the standard curriculum group, we found a large effect size in structure (d = 1.308) comparing the SCM and ordinary curriculum groups, in coherence (d = 1.948) comparing the SRSD and ordinary curriculum groups, and in quality (d = 1.173) comparing the SCM and the standard curriculum group. However, post hoc analysis did not show statistically significant differences between both experimental groups. Table 9 summarizes the results related to the reader-based measures.

    Figure 3 provides an overview of the difference scores for each group (SRSD intervention, SCM intervention, ordinary curriculum) and moment of the assessment (pre-post). As illustrated, there was no evidence of systematic differences between both intervention groups.


    Effects on self-efficacy measures in writing. To analyze improvement in students' self-efficacy of writing, we performed a 2 x 3 multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, taking into account the same variables (within-between) with the same values for each (before-after; comparison-experimental 1 SRSD-experimental 2 SCM). Table 10 and Figure 4 summarize sum·ma·rize  
    intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
    To make a summary or make a summary of.

     the results in relation to self-efficacy writing measures.


    The results showed statistically significant differences between the groups in self-efficacy measures in relation to: general quality of written text (item 1); audience (item 4), and total writing self-efficacy previous to and after the writing task performance.

    However, the post hoc analysis showed that only the SCM experimental condition made statistically significant or nearly significant improvements versus the comparison group in total writing self-efficacy previous (p = .010) and after (p = .080) and audience previous (p = .042). However, there were no significant differences in either the SRSD experimental group or the comparison group. In general, the effect size is large, or nearly large, when we compare SCM experimental group with the ordinary curriculum group. For example, in total writing self-efficacy after the writing task, we found a d = 1.38 comparing the SCM with the standard curriculum group, and reached a d = .931 when we compared the SCM group with the comparison group in the self-efficacy total.

    Effects on writing process. The time spent on each of the seven writing log activities was estimated by multiplying mul·ti·ply 1  
    v. mul·ti·plied, mul·ti·ply·ing, mul·ti·plies
    1. To increase the amount, number, or degree of.

    2. Mathematics To perform multiplication on.
     the frequency of each activity in the writing log by the mean inter-tone interval (1.5 min). We calculated the time per activity along all writing processes and their temporal Having to do with time. Contrast with "spatial," which deals with space.  organization distributed over the three moments.

    These data were analyzed an·a·lyze  
    tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
    1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

    2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

     using a multivariate analysis of variance for the writing process measures among the groups. Table 11 summarizes the significant results related to time spent on activities during the writing process.

    The time on writing task for each of the SRSD interventions and of the SCM interventions in post-test was significantly higher than for the comparison group, F(2,118) = 21.00; p < .001, with a large effect size ([[eta].sup.2] = .26). Specifically, this significant improvement was due to an increase in both experimental groups versus the comparison group in the category writing full text time, F(2,118) = 13.92; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .19; in planning activities such as reading references time, F(2, 118) = 5.77; p = .004; [[eta].sup.2] = .08; or thinking about content time, although it is not significant statistically, we found a tendency towards significance in the SRSD intervention group versus the others, F(2,118) = 2.66; p = .074; [[eta].sup.2] = .04. And finally, revising activity categories such as reading text time and changing text time were also statistically significant, being higher in both intervention groups versus the comparison, F(2,118) = 3.15; p = .046; [[eta].sup.2] = .05; and F(2,118) = 3.60; p = .030; [[eta].sup.2] = .05, respectively. Figure 5 summarizes these significant results.


    With regard to the temporal organization of the writing process, the analysis also showed statistically significant differences between the experimental groups versus the comparison group. We analyzed the distribution of the writing process activities throughout the whole writing process, divided into three distinct moments.

    In the first stage of the writing process, we found that time spent on reading references, F(2, 118) = 5.83; p = .004; [[eta].sup.2] = .09; and writing full text, F(2,118) = 11.50; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .16, was statistically significant, being higher in the experimental groups than the comparison.

    In the second stage of the writing process, both experimental groups devoted more writing full text time, F(2,118) = 9.36; p < .001; [[eta].sup.2] = .13, than the comparison. In relation to the planning activities categories, the SRSD experimental group demonstrated statistically significantly more thinking about content time than the rest, F(2,118) = 2.79; p = .065; [[eta].sup.2] = .04. However, in relation to revision activity categories, the SCM intervention group devoted significantly more time. Specifically, reading text time and changing text time were statistically significant, being higher in the SCM intervention group than in the others, F(2,118) = 3.75; p = .026; [[eta].sup.2] = .06, and F(2, 118) = 3.21; p = .044; [[eta].sup.2] = .05, respectively.

    Finally, in the third stage of the writing process, both experimental groups devoted statistically significantly more time to revision activity categories than the comparison group, such as changing text, F(2,118) = 6.12; p = .033; [[eta].sup.2] = .09. The same pattern was observed in relation to writing full text time, which was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the comparison one, F(2,118) = 4.35; p = .015; [[eta].sup.2] = .06. Figure 6 shows these results.



    The present findings provide empirical evidence for the effectiveness of training cognitive and self-regulatory strategies to improve the writing outcomes of students with LD and/or LA. Both interventions, the SRSD-based and the SCM-based models, enhanced the global quality of written products, whether they were reader-based measures or text-based. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider some limitations in relation to their effectiveness in improving the writing competence of students with LD in this study.

    A major issue in strategy instructional research, especially for students with LD, concerns whether the effects of the program are maintained over time and are generalized gen·er·al·ized
    1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.

    2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.

     to new tasks and situations (Graham & Harris, 1997). To satisfy this requirement, it would have been necessary to collect data about the generalization or maintenance of the results in this comparative study. This is especially important for the social cognitive model of sequential skill acquisition, because no previous study has investigated whether the effects are maintained and generalized. On the contrary, several researchers have proven maintenance and generalization of writing effects following the self-regulated strategy development model (see a meta-analysis of the SRSD model in Graham & Harris, 2003).

    The findings do not allow us to confirm differential effects on written texts between the two cognitive and self-regulatory strategy interventions implemented. Both the instructional patterns were equally effective. This finding is explained by the fact that the two intervention programs share key instructional features, which may be the true reason behind the improvement of written products rather than their different instructional patterns.

    One key feature of effective instruction in writing shared by the intervention programs may be the cognitive modeling, which incorporates modeled explanations and demonstrations with thinking aloud of the models for performing the actions of the writing process. This technique has proven effective in previous studies and in other disciplines, such as mathematics (Schunk, 1998). This type of learning by observation has been shown to be more effective than direct instruction or step-by-step instruction (Couzijn & Rijlaarsdam, 1996). Students who learn by observation "step back" from the writing task and can focus on the learning task, creating a learning opportunity to broaden their knowledge about writing (Braaksma, van den Bergh, Rijlaarsdam, & Couzijn, 2001; Braaksma et al., 2004; Couzijn, 1999).

    Another feature shared by the intervention programs that could explain their effectiveness in improving writing skills is the use of self-speech to regulate the students' behavior. For example, self-instruction allows students to engage and implement writing or self-regulation procedures; problem definition allows students to determine the nature of a writing task; focusing of attention and planning helps students to focus on the writing task and generate a plan; self-evaluating assists students in evaluating their performance and spotting and correcting mistakes; and self-reinforcement rewards students for progress, persistence, and the quality of their written products (Harris & Graham, 1996). In general, this self-dialogue can guide performance and can improve self-awareness self-awareness
    Realization of oneself as an individual entity or personality.
     and self-regulation thinking, and thereby improve writing performance (Hartman Hartman may refer to: Surname
    • Bob Hartman
    • Brynn Hartman
    • Butch Hartman
    • Dan Hartman
    • David Hartman (rabbi)
    • David Hartman (TV personality)
    • Donald Adam Hartman
    • Edward Hartman
    • Elizabeth Hartman
    • Grace Hartman (disambiguation page)
    , 2001).

    There was also support for the efficacy of the instructional models across different student populations. While a body of self-regulation studies have been conducted in North American North American

    named after North America.

    North American blastomycosis
    see North American blastomycosis.

    North American cattle tick
    see boophilusannulatus.
     settings, there is a shortage of this kind of studies with other populations. This article provides empirical support to generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
    1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.

    2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively.
     this type of instruction in European European

    emanating from or pertaining to Europe.

    European bat lyssavirus
    see lyssavirus.

    European beech tree

    European blastomycosis
    see cryptococcosis.
     student populations with LD and/or LA.

    As for the labels of LD and/or LA, it would have been necessary to provide more information about their operational definition (e.g., IQ measures or achievement operational data) to characterize the specifics of the participating students (size of discrepancy, or severity of achievement gap between their peers). These measures were only taken into account in the prior assessment of the psychoeducational teams and were not available to the researchers, which poses a limitation.

    However, there has been much debate related to the incongruence in·con·gru·ent  
    1. Not congruent.

    2. Incongruous.

    in·congru·ence n.
     and incapability in·ca·pa·ble  
    a. Lacking the necessary ability, capacity, or power: incapable of carrying a tune; incapable of love.

     of the discrepancy model based on IQ measures to distinguish between IQ and achievement-discrepant low achievers (LD children) and non-discrepant ones (LA). Moreover, in Spain, we do not have the official category of LD; we have only the category special educational needs where we include any student who cannot learn with the standard resources of the educational system, and only children with severe problems are taken into account for special treatment. Whatever the cause of the learning difficulty (for example, a developmental disability), the students are considered as having special educational needs. In general, the majority of students with LD in Spain are educated by general education teachers, with the LD condition being treated as a type of common final pathway pathway /path·way/ (path´wa)
    1. a course usually followed.

    2. the nerve structures through which an impulse passes between groups of nerve cells or between the central nervous system and an organ or muscle.
     produced by different causes and not necessarily a specific problem, similar to the U.S. conceptualization as advanced by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD NJCLD National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities ) (Garcia, Fidalgo, & Arias-Gundin, 2005; Jimenez & Hernandez, 1999). However, this situation is about to change due to a new educational law in Spain (April 6, 2006) that promulgates the inclusion of the category of LD as a condition meriting different educational attention.

    With regard to the writing process, both interventions showed significant changes compared to the comparison group. Specifically, both experimental groups showed a substantial increase in the time students spent on editing and revising their text. Nevertheless, despite the fact that all writing processes were trained similarly, the findings in relation to planning activities were not very clear; only reading references time substantially increased in both experimental conditions. On the other hand, only the SRSD intervention showed a substantial increase in the time students spent thinking about content, which denoted some planning process. However, neither of the intervention groups demonstrated a significant increase in the time students spent outlining, which would show a greater metacognitive and self-regulated planning process pattern. This finding is contrary to cognitive-development studies suggesting that revision tends to emerge later than preplanning in developing writers (Berninger & Swanson, 1994). Nevertheless, these results confirm that revising processes are susceptible susceptible /sus·cep·ti·ble/ (su-sep´ti-b'l)
    1. readily affected or acted upon.

    2. lacking immunity or resistance and thus at risk of infection.

     to intervention in 5th-and 6th-grade students with LD and/or LA, which has been supported in previous intervention studies intervention studies, the epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause and effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.
     with older students (De la Paz La Paz, city, Bolivia
    La Paz (lä päs), city (1992 pop. 713,378), W Bolivia, administrative capital (since 1898) and largest city of Bolivia. The legal capital is Sucre.
    , Swanson, & Graham, 1998). Another explanation for these different effects on planning and revising processes could be related to personal variables. Students with LD and/or LA commonly make mistakes and errors in their written texts. Perhaps this prior experience involves a natural tendency to revise and make changes in their texts, because they rarely produce an acceptable draft at the first attempt.

    As for the temporal organization of writing processes, defined by several researchers as orchestration orchestration

    Art of choosing which instruments to use for a given piece of music. The sections of the orchestra historically were separate ensembles: the stringed instruments for indoors, the woodwind instruments for outdoors, the horns for hunting, and trumpets and drums
     (Braaksma et al., 2004; Graham & Harris, 2000; McCuthen, 2000), other conclusions are possible. From this point of view, we can claim that the editing process (writing full text) is dominant throughout the writing process, although it increases during the second stage and decreases in the third. As for the planning processes, they were introduced in the initial and second stages of the writing process, although their presence was slight, specifically in the SCM group. Finally, the revision processes were mainly introduced in the final stage of the writing process, although in the SCM intervention they were already established as they were presented in the second stage. Given these results, it would be interesting to do additional research to correlate the different distributions of writing processes during a writing task with different outcomes, for example, in line with previous research that has shown that orchestration of the writing processes is a decisive factor Noun 1. decisive factor - a point or fact or remark that settles something conclusively

    causal factor, determinant, determining factor, determinative, determiner - a determining or causal element or factor; "education is an important determinant of
     contributing to text quality (Breetvelt, van den Bergh, & Rijlaarsdam, 1994; Van den Bergh & Rijlaarsdam, 1999, 2001; Van der Hoeven Hoeven is a town in the municipality of Halderberge in the Netherlands. The name Hoeven originated from the purchase of a certain amount of ground in 1282 by the abby of Cistercienser of St. Bernard. This amount was equal to 100 "hoeven", a local measure of area in those days. , 1997).

    The importance of these on-line methods of investigation appear to be generally accepted for studying and analyzing the processes involved in writing, for estimating the general temporal organizing of these processes, for analyzing the recursiveness of writing, and for analyzing the different patterns of the writing process and their impact on the written products (Levy & Olive olive, common name for the Oleaceae, a family of trees and shrubs (including climbing forms) of warm temperate climates and of the Old World tropics, especially Asia and the East Indies. , 2002; Olive, Kellogg, & Piolat, 2002). However, their conclusions must be formulated for·mu·late  
    tr.v. for·mu·lat·ed, for·mu·lat·ing, for·mu·lates
    a. To state as or reduce to a formula.

    b. To express in systematic terms or concepts.

     carefully because of a critical issue in on-line techniques--whether they disrupt or misrepresents the writing processes of interest; that is, the reactivity re·ac·tiv·i·ty
    1. The property of reacting.

    2. The process of reacting.

    n the degree to which a being responds to a stimulus.
     of the on-line techniques. In this study we used a time-sampled self-report instead of a think-aloud method. This method was adopted in previous studies with adult writers (e.g., Kellogg, 1988; Torrance et al., 1999) and with primary-aged children (Torrance et al., in press) due to evidence that obtaining on-line writing-processes measures in this way is less reactive reactive /re·ac·tive/ (re-ak´tiv) characterized by reaction; readily responsive to a stimulus.

    1. Tending to be responsive or to react to a stimulus.

     than think-aloud methods, particularly for younger writers (Piolat & Olive, 2000; Stratman & Hamp-Lyons, 1994). Nevertheless, the choice of the interval tone may negatively affect writers' performance as a function of their expertise or the presence of learning disabilities. For this reason, additional studies are necessary with a focus on the reactivity of on-line methods in composition writing.

    Finally, with regard to writing self-efficacy it is possible to claim other relevant conclusions for cognitive and self-regulatory instruction because effective self-regulation depends on feeling self-efficacious in using the skills to achieve mastery (Bandura 1997; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). The findings suggest that both cognitive and self-regulatory instruction in writing resulted in an increase in students' writing self-efficacy. However, only the intervention based on a social cognitive model or sequential skill acquisition showed a statistically significant improvement in writing self-efficacy versus the other groups.

    One plausible explanation for these different results for the two interventions may be related to the modeling processes that were implemented. One of the sources of self-efficacy perceptions is vicarious vicarious /vi·car·i·ous/ (vi-kar´e-us)
    1. acting in the place of another or of something else.

    2. occurring at an abnormal site.

     experience (Bandura, 1997). Obviously, the effects of modeled consequences on observers' self-efficacy depend on factors such as age, sex, status, or type of modeling (Bandura, 1997; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). From this point of view, the cognitive modeling of the SCM intervention may be more suitable than the SRSD intervention for several reasons: cognitive modeling was implemented by instructors and peers, whose similar characteristics can explain a bigger effect in the development of self-efficacy because students may believe that they also can plan and manage writing process effectively, creating a high sense of self-efficacy for writing and motivating them to engage in these activities (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). In sum, the perceived similarity between model and observer is conjectured to be an important source of self-efficacy beliefs. Another positive effect of the cognitive modeling of SCM in writing self-efficacy is due to the combination of two types of cognitive models: a coping model and a mastery model; the latter was implemented in isolation in SRSD intervention. Observing a mastery model succeed can raise observers' efficacy and motivate them to try the task because they may believe that if others can succeed they can too (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). Similarly, a coping model in which one or more key errors or mistakes are initially made but are promptly self-corrected (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2002) can improve the writing competence beliefs of students with LD and/or LA, as they may believe that if others can overcome their mistakes or errors so can they.

    Nevertheless, with regard to the improved writing self-efficacy found for students with LD, it must be taken into consideration that empirical revisions have shown that LD and/or LA students tend to overestimate o·ver·es·ti·mate  
    tr.v. o·ver·es·ti·mat·ed, o·ver·es·ti·mat·ing, o·ver·es·ti·mates
    1. To estimate too highly.

    2. To esteem too greatly.
     their self-efficacy beliefs about writing (Klassen Klassen is the surname of:
    • Ben Klassen (1918-1993), American politician
    • Cindy Klassen (born 1979), Canadian skater
    • Danny Klassen (born 1975), American-Canadian baseball player
    , 2002a, 2002b). For this reason, it would have been interesting to assess the calibration calibration /cal·i·bra·tion/ (kal?i-bra´shun) determination of the accuracy of an instrument, usually by measurement of its variation from a standard, to ascertain necessary correction factors.  or the accuracy of their beliefs about writing competence and to know how close their self-efficacy beliefs are to their writing performances. Another interesting focus of research would be to explore the degree of congruence con·gru·ence  
    a. Agreement, harmony, conformity, or correspondence.

    b. An instance of this: "What an extraordinary congruence of genius and era" 
     between efficacy beliefs and actual performances of students with LD, and to assess the influence of instructional programs in the accuracy of calibration in students with LD, who tend to overestimate their efficacy to a much greater degree (Klassen, 2002a, 2000b), which hinders improvement of performance. By comparison, optimal efficacy judgments are those that slightly overestimate what actually can be accomplished (Bandura, 1986, 1997).

    In light of the arguments presented above, we can extract some obvious implications for educational practice in teaching composition writing to students with LD. First, we have facilitated both reflection and analysis of those instructional aspects that may be essential to improve composition writing. These aspects may also suit a more self-regulated or metacognitive approach in students with LD in composition writing, and these elements are those teachers should incorporate into their practice. One of the effective instructional practices present in both approaches used here was the cognitive model (emulation) and the development of the students' self-efficacy, mainly through partner work (Bandura, 1997), either the exemplary type or the incomplete one. Similarly, the procedures that increment To add a number to another number. Incrementing a counter means adding 1 to its current value.  self-regulation are those that contribute to the development of the writing in the children, thus coinciding co·in·cide  
    intr.v. co·in·cid·ed, co·in·cid·ing, co·in·cides
    1. To occupy the same relative position or the same area in space.

    2. To happen at the same time or during the same period.

     with findings in previous studies (Graham & Harris, 2003). Moreover, the instructional approaches presented in this study strengthen the metacognitive knowledge of a declarative de·clar·a·tive  
    1. Serving to declare or state.

    2. Of, relating to, or being an element or construction used to make a statement: a declarative sentence.

     type, as well as of procedural and conditional ones, of the writing task and its process, such as the self-regulated mastery of composition writing of students with LD. They also facilitate the achievement of a greater congruence between the students' self-efficacy in the task and their actual achievement; this is, the calibration of students' abilities and achievements, which is a key aspect in the case of students with LD (Klassen, 2002a; Pajares, 1996).

    In conclusion, teachers should be aware of the importance of these instructional strategies and procedures and try to incorporate them into the curriculum. All of them share the aim of helping students with LD become strategic learners (Wong et al., 2003). Moreover, if we consider the results of previous studies, which confirm that when instructional approaches are developed by teachers rather than researchers or specialized spe·cial·ize  
    v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es

    1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.

     professionals, maintenance and generalization of the results are greater (Graham & Harris, 2003). On many occasions teachers are reluctant to carry out this kind of strategic instruction. This could be overcome through, for example, joint work between university researchers and classroom teachers to develop ways to teach cognitive and metacognitive strategies, as suggested by Wong et al. (2003).


    During this research funds from the DirecciOn General de Investigacion del Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Espana [General Research Board of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology], DGI-MCyT, BSO BSO Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Excision of both ovaries 2003-03106, for 2004-2006, were awarded to the principal researcher, the first author.

    A short version of this paper was presented at a symposium symposium

    In ancient Greece, an aristocratic banquet at which men met to discuss philosophical and political issues and recite poetry. It began as a warrior feast. Rooms were designed specifically for the proceedings.
     in Burlington, Massachusetts Burlington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 22,876 at the 2000 census. History
    Burlington was first settled in 1641 and was officially incorporated on February 28, 1799.
    , October October: see month.  28-29, 2005, 14th Conference of Learning Disabilities Worldwide.

    We are very grateful to Jenny Gunn Jennifer Louise Gunn (born 9 May 1986 at Nottingham) is an English cricketer and a member of the current England women's team. She is the daughter of former Nottingham Forest player Bryn Gunn.  for the English 1. English - (Obsolete) The source code for a program, which may be in any language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced from it by a compiler. The idea behind the term is that to a real hacker, a program written in his favourite programming language is  correction.

    Correspondence should be directed to: Jesus-Nicasio Garcia, Psicologia Evolutiva y de la Educacion, Universidad Universidad (English: University) may refer to:
    • Universidad Católica, Chilean football club
    • Universidad de Chile, Chilean football club
    • Club Universidad Nacional, Mexican football club
     de Leon, Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24071--Leon, Spain;


    Aaron, P. G. (1997). The impending im·pend  
    intr.v. im·pend·ed, im·pend·ing, im·pends
    1. To be about to occur: Her retirement is impending.

     demise Death. A conveyance of property, usually of an interest in land. Originally meant a posthumous grant but has come to be applied commonly to a conveyance that is made for a definitive term, such as an estate for a term of years.  of the discrepancy formula. Review of Educational Research, 67(4), 461-502.

    Algozzine, B., Ysseldyke, J. E., & McGue, M. (1995). Differentiating low-achieving students: Thoughts on setting the record straight. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 10(3), 140-144.

    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory Social Cognitive Theory utilized both in Psychology and Communications posits that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. . Englewood Englewood (ĕng`gəlwd).

    1 City (1990 pop. 29,387), Arapahoe co., N central Colo., on the South Platte River, a residential and industrial suburb of Denver; inc. 1903.
     Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
    In 1913, law professor Dr.

    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York New York, state, United States
    New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
    : Freeman Freeman can mean:
    • An individual not tied to land under the Medieval feudal system, unlike a villein or serf
    • A person who has been awarded Freedom of the City or "Freedom of the Company" in a Livery Company
    • The Freeman
     and Company.

    Bandura, A. (2001). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales (Revised). Available from Frank Pajares, Emory University Emory University (ĕm`ərē), near Atlanta, Ga.; coeducational; United Methodist; chartered as Emory College 1836, opened 1837 at Oxford. It became Emory Univ. in 1915 and in 1919 moved to Atlanta. .

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    William Butterfield
     (Ed.), Children's writing: Toward a process theory of the development of skilled writing (pp. 57-81). Greenwhich, CT: JAI JAI Java Advanced Imaging
    JAI Justice et Affaires Interiéures (French: Justice and Home Affairs)
    JAI Journal of ASTM International
    JAI Just An Idea
    JAI Jazz Alliance International
    JAI Joint Africa Institute

    Bosque, I., & Demonte, V. (1999). Gramatica descriptive de la lengua espanola Espanola (ĕs'pənyōl`ə), city (1990 pop. 8,389), Rio Arriba and Santa Fe counties., N central N.Mex., on the Rio Grande, in the heart of pueblo country; founded 1880, inc. 1964. . Vol 3: Entre la oracion y el discurso [Descriptive Grammar Noun 1. descriptive grammar - a grammar that is produced by descriptive linguistics
    linguistics - the scientific study of language

    grammar - the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes also deals with semantics)
     of Spanish Language. Vol. 3 Between sentence and discourse]. Madrid Madrid (mədrĭd`, Span. mäthhrēth`), city (1990 pop. 3,120,732), capital of Spain and of Madrid prov., central Spain, and the focus of its own autonomous region, on the Manzanares River. : Espasa Calpe Calpe (kăl`pē), ancient name, possibly Phoenician in origin, of Gibraltar. It is one of the Pillars of Hercules, at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. , S.A.

    Braaksma, M.A.H., Bergh, H. van den, Rijlaarsdam, G., & Couzijn, M. (2001). Effective learning activities in observation tasks when learning to write and read argumentative Controversial; subject to argument.

    Pleading in which a point relied upon is not set out, but merely implied, is often labeled argumentative. Pleading that contains arguments that should be saved for trial, in addition to allegations establishing a Cause of Action or
     texts. European Journal European Journal is a weekly Deutsche Welle (DW) news program produced in English. It is broadcast from Brussels, Belgium and primarily covers political and economic developments across the European Union and the rest of Europe, as well as issues of particular concern to  of Psychology of Education, 1, 33-48.

    Braaksma, M.A.H., Rijlaarsdam, G., van den Bergh, H., & van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A. (2004). Observational learning For other uses, see Social learning.
    Observational learning (also known as: vicarious learning or social learning or modeling) is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others.
     and its effects on the orchestration of writing processes. Cognition cognition

    Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing.
     and Instruction, 22(1), 1-36.

    Breetvelt, I., Berg, H. van den, & Rijlaarsdam, G. (1994). Relations between writing processes and text quality. When and how? Cognition and Instruction, 12, 103-123.

    Bruning, R., & Horn, C. (2000). Developing motivation to write. Educational Psychologist psy·chol·o·gist
    A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy.

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    Butler, D. L. (1994). From learning strategies to strategic learning: Promoting self-regulated learning The term self-regulated can be used to describe learning that is guided by metacognition, strategic action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a standard), and motivation to learn  by post secondary students with learning disabilities. Canadian Canadian (kənā`dēən), river, 906 mi (1,458 km) long, rising in NE New Mexico. and flowing E across N Texas and central Oklahoma into the Arkansas River in E Oklahoma.  Journal of Special Education, 4, 69-101.

    Butler, D. L. (1995). Promoting strategic learning by post secondary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 170-190.

    Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences Behavioural sciences (or Behavioral science) is a term that encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world.  (2nd ed.). Hillsdale Hillsdale, borough (1990 pop. 9,750), Bergen co., NE N.J.; inc. 1923. It is primarily residential. , NJ: Lawrence Lawrence.

    1 City (1990 pop. 26,763), Marion co., central Ind., a residential suburb of Indianapolis, on the West Fork of the White River. It has light manufacturing.

    2 City (1990 pop. 65,608), seat of Douglas co., NE Kans.
     Erlbaum Associates.

    Couzijn, M. (1999). Learning to write by observation of writing and reading processes: Effects on learning and transfer. Learning and Instruction, 2, 109-142.

    Couzijn, M., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (1996). Learning to write by reader observation and written feedback. In G. Rijlaarsdam, H. van der Bergh, & M. Couzijn (Eds.), Effective teaching and learning of writing (pp. 224-253) Amsterdam Amsterdam, city, Netherlands
    Amsterdam (ăm`stərdăm', Dutch ämstərdäm`), city (1994 pop. 724,096), constitutional capital and largest city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, North Holland prov.
    : University Press.

    De La Paz, S., Swanson, P. N., & Graham, S. (1998). The contribution of executive control to the revising by students with writing and learning difficulties. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(3), 448-460.

    Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., & Anderson, L. M. (1992). Socially mediated me·di·ate  
    v. me·di·at·ed, me·di·at·ing, me·di·ates
    1. To resolve or settle (differences) by working with all the conflicting parties:
     instruction: Improving students' knowledge and talk about writing. The Elementary School Journal Published by the University of Chicago Press, The Elementary School Journal is an academic journal which has served researchers, teacher educators, and practitioners in elementary and middle school education for over one hundred years. , 92(4), 411-449.

    Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., Stevens Stevens, family of U.S. inventors.

    John Stevens, 1749–1838, b. New York City, was graduated from King's College (now Columbia Univ.) in 1768.
    , D.D., & Fear, K. L. (1991). Making writing strategies and self-talk self-talk,
    n in behavioral medicine, internal monologues that can have a positive or negative influence upon the individual.
     visible: Cognitive strategy instruction in writing in regular and special education classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 337-372.

    Fidalgo, R. (2005). La metacognicion en la composicion escrita: Revision, medida e instruccion. [Metacognition in writing: Revision, Assessment and Instruction]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion  
    A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.


    , University of Leon, Spain.

    Fletcher, J. M., Francis Francis, French prince, duke of Alençon and Anjou
    Francis, 1554–84, French prince, duke of Alençon and Anjou; youngest son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.
    , D.J., Shaywitz, S. E., Lyon Lyon
     English Lyons

    City (pop., 1999: city, 445,452; metro. area, 1,348,932), east-central France. Located at the confluence of the Rhône and Saône rivers, it was founded as the Roman military colony Lugdunum in 43 BC (see
    , G. R., Foorman, B. R., Stuebing, K. K., et al. (1998). Intelligent testing and the discrepancy model for children with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13(4), 186-203.

    Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz Katz , Bernard 1911-2003.

    German-born British physiologist. He shared a 1970 Nobel Prize for the study of nerve impulse transmission.
    , L., Liberman, I. Y., Stuebing, K. K., et al. (1994). Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (1), 6-23.

    Garcia, J. N., & de Caso, A. (2004). Effects of a motivational intervention for improving the writing of children with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(3), 141-159.

    Garcia, J. N., Fidalgo, R., & Arias-Gundin, O. (2005, October). The state of the art of learning disabilities in Spain. Proceedings of 14th LDW LDW Loss Damage Waiver (insurance)
    LDW Lane Departure Warning (Infiniti cars)
    LDW Laidlaw, Inc (former stock symbol)
    LDW Limited Damage Waiver
     Congress. Burlington Burlington, town, Canada
    Burlington, town (1991 pop. 129,575), SE Ont., Canada, on Lake Ontario. First settled (1798) by Mohawk Loyalist Joseph Brandt, Burlington's economy was built on the shipment of wheat, lumber, and quarried rock by waterway.
    , MA: LDW.

    Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1987). Improving composition skills of inefficient learners with self-instructional strategy training. Topics in Language Disorders language disorder Speech pathology Any defect in verbal communication and the ability to use or understand the symbol system for interpersonal communication. See Dyslexia. , 7, 66-77.

    Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1997). Self-regulation and writing: Where do we go from here? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22(1), 102-114.

    Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2000). The role of self-regulation and transcription transcription /trans·crip·tion/ (-krip´shun) the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template catalyzed by RNA polymerase; the base sequences of the RNA and DNA are complementary.

     skills in writing and writing development. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 3-12.

    Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2003). Students with learning disabilities and the process of writing. A meta-analysis of SRSD studies. In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris, & S. Graham. Handbook
    For the handbook about Wikipedia, see .

    This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
    "Pocket reference" redirects here.
     of learning disabilities (pp. 323-345). New York: The Guildford Guildford (gĭl`fərd), town (1991 pop. 61,509) and district, Surrey, SE England, on the Wey River. The county seat of Surrey, Guildford is a market and residential commuter town of London.  Press.

    Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Mason, L. (2005). Improving the writing performance, knowledge and self-efficacy of struggling young writers; The effects of self-regulated strategy development. Learning and Instruction, 30, 207-241.

    Halliday Halliday could refer to:
    • Halliday, North Dakota, a city located in Dunn County, North Dakota
    • Denis Halliday, former United Nations Humanitarian Co-ordinator in Iraq (1997-1998).
    • Fred Halliday, a Middle East Scholar.
    , M., & Hassan, R. (1976). Cohesion cohesion: see adhesion and cohesion.
    Cohesion (physics)

    The tendency of atoms or molecules to coalesce into extended condensed states. This tendency is practically universal.
     in English. London London, city, Canada
    London, city (1991 pop. 303,165), SE Ont., Canada, on the Thames River. The site was chosen in 1792 by Governor Simcoe to be the capital of Upper Canada, but York was made capital instead. London was settled in 1826.
    : Longman Longman was a publishing company founded in London, England in 1724. It is now an imprint of Pearson Education. History
    The Longman company was founded by Thomas Longman(1) (1699-1755), the son of Ezekiel Longman (d. 1708), a gentleman of Bristol.

    Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1996). Making the writing process work: Strategies for composing com·pose  
    v. com·posed, com·pos·ing, com·pos·es
    1. To make up the constituent parts of; constitute or form:
     and self-regulation. Cambridge Cambridge, city, Canada
    Cambridge (kām`brĭj), city (1991 pop. 92,772), S Ont., Canada, on the Grand River, NW of Hamilton. It was formed in 1973 with the amalgamation of Galt, Hespeler, and Preston, all founded in the early 19th cent.
    , MA: Brookline Brookline (brk`līn), town (1990 pop. 54,718), Norfolk co., E Mass., a suburb adjacent to Boston; settled 1630s, set off from Boston and inc. 1705. .

    Hartman, H. J. (2001). Developing students' metacognitive knowledge and skills. In H. J. Hartan (Ed.), Metacognition in learning and instruction (pp. 33-68). Dordrecht Dordrecht (dôr`drĕkht) or Dort (dôrt), city (1994 pop. 113,394), South Holland prov., SW Netherlands, at the point where the Lower Merwede divides to form the Noord and Oude Maas (Old Meuse) rivers. , The Netherlands Netherlands (nĕth`ərləndz), Du. Nederland or Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, officially Kingdom of the Netherlands, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 16,407,000), 15,963 sq mi (41,344 sq km), NW Europe. : Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. S. (1980). Identifying the organization of writing processes. In L. W. Gregg Gregg can refer to:
    • The forename, as in "Gregg Van Leuven": see (Greg)
    • The surname, as in "Judd Gregg": see Gregg (surname)
    • John Robert Gregg, the inventor of Gregg shorthand: see John Robert Gregg
     & E. R. Steinberg Noun 1. Steinberg - United States cartoonist (born in Romania) noted for his caricatures of famous people (1914-1999)
    Saul Steinberg
     (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing: An interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y  
    Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.

     approach (pp. 3-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Jimenez, J. E., & Hernandez, I. (1999). A Spanish perspective in LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(3), 267-275.

    Justicia, F. (1995). El desarrollo del vocabulario. Diccionario de frecuencias [Development of vocabulary: dictionary of frequencies] Granada Granada, city, Nicaragua
    Granada (gränä`thä), city (1995 pop. 74,396), W Nicaragua, on Lake Nicaragua. It is Nicaragua's third largest city and the center of commerce on Lake Nicaragua.
    : Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad de Granada.

    Kellogg, R. (1988). Attentional overload See information overload and overloading.  and writing performance: effects of rough draft and outline strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 14(2), 355-365.

    Kitsantas, A., Zimmerman, B. J., & Clearly, T. (2000). The role of observation and emulation in the development of athletic self-regulation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 241-250.

    Klassen, R. (2002a). A question of calibration: A review of the self-efficacy beliefs of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 88-102.

    Klassen, R. (2002b). Writing in early adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. : A review of the role of self-efficacy beliefs. Educational Psychology Review, 14(2), 173-203.

    Levy, C. M., & Olive, T. (2002). Real time studies in writing research progress and prospects. In T. Olive & C. M. Levy (Eds.), Contemporary tools and techniques for studying writing (pp. 1-9). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in student engagement and learning in the classroom. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19, 119-137.

    Mason, L. H., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2002). Every child has a story to tell: Self-regulated strategy development for story writing. Education and Treatment of Children, 25(4), 496-506.

    McCutchen, D. (2000). Knowledge, processing and working memory: Implications for a theory of writing. Educational Psychologist, 35, 13-23.

    Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia. (1992). Cajas Rojas Educacion Primaria Adaptaciones curriculares [Red boxes. Elementary School elementary school: see school. . Curriculum Adaptation adaptation, in biology, has several meanings. It can mean the adjustment of living matter to environmental conditions and to other living things either in an organism's lifetime (physiological adaptation) or in a population over many many generations (evolutionary ]. Madrid: MEC MEC Ministério da Educação (Ministry of Education)
    MEC Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (Spain: Ministry for Education and Science)
    MEC Mountain Equipment Co-Op

    Olive, T., Kellogg, R. T., & Piolat, A. (2002). The triple task technique for studying the process of writing. In T. Olive & C. M. Levy (Eds.), Contemporary tools and techniques for studying writing (pp. 31-61). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Levin, J. R., & Leech, N. L. (2003). Do effect-size measures measure up?: A brief assessment. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 9(1), 37-40.

    Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19, 159-172.

    Pajares, F., & Johnson, M. J. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in the writing of high school students: A path analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 163-175.

    Pajares, F., & Valiante, G. (1997). Influence of writing self-efficacy beliefs on the writing performance of upper elementary students. Journal of Educational Research, 90, 353-360.

    Page-Voth, T., & Graham, S. (1999). Effects on goal setting and strategy use on the writing performance and self-efficacy of students with writing and learning problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 230-240.

    Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 459-470.

    Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes (pp. 371-402). Greenwich Greenwich, borough, Greater London, England
    Greenwich (grĭn`īj, grĕn`–), outer borough (1991 pop. 200,800) of Greater London, SE England, on the Thames River. Manufactures include telephone equipment and underwater cable.
    , CT: JAI Press.

    Pintrich, P. R., & Groot, E. V. de (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40.

    Piolat, A., & Olive, T. (2000). How can the process and cost of writing texts be studied? The triple task methodology. Annee Psychologique, 100(3), 465.

    Rankin, J. L., Bruning, R. H., & Timme, V. L. (1994). The development of beliefs about spelling and their relationship to spelling performance. Applied Cognitive Psychology cognitive psychology, school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. It had its foundations in the Gestalt psychology of Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka, and in the work of Jean , 8, 213-232.

    Sanders, T.J.M., Spooren, W.P.M., & Noordman, L.G.M. (1992). Toward a taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.

    In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order,
     of coherence relations. Discourse Processes, 15(1), 1-35.

    Schunk, D. H. (1998). Teaching elementary students to self-regulate practice of mathematical skills with modeling. In D. H.

    Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 137-159). New York: Guilford Guilford (gĭl`fərd), town (1990 pop. 19,848), New Haven co., S Conn., on Long Island Sound; founded 1639. Fishing, agriculture, and tourism are economically important. Guilford lies in an area that includes several summer shore communities.  Press.

    Schunk, D. H. (2005). Commentary on self-regulation in school contexts. Learning and Instruction, 15, 173-177.

    Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1997). Social origins of self regulatory competence. Educational Psychologist, 32, 195-208.

    Shell, D. F., Colvin, C., & Bruning, R. H. (1995). Self-efficacy, attributions, and outcome expectancy A mere hope, based upon no direct provision, promise, or trust. An expectancy is the possibility of receiving a thing, rather than having a vested interest in it.

    The term has been applied to situations where an individual hopes and expects to receive something, generally
     mechanisms in reading and writing achievement: Grade level and achievement level differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 386-398.

    Sorenson, S. (1997). Student writing handbook: the only complete guide to writing across the curriculum (3rd ed.). New York: MacMillan Macmillan, river, c.200 mi (320 km) long, rising in two main forks in the Selwyn Mts., E Yukon Territory, Canada, and flowing generally W to the Pelly River. It was an important route to the gold fields from c.1890 to 1900. .

    Spencer, S. L., & Fitzgerald, J. (1993). Validity and structure, coherence, and quality measures in writing. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25(2), 209-231.

    Stanovich, K. E., & Siegel, L. (1994). Phenotypic phe·no·type  
    a. The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences.

     performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the Phonological-Core Variable-Difference Model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 24-53.

    Stanovich, K. E., & Stanovich, P. J. (1996). Rethinking the concept of learning disabilities: the demise of aptitude/achievement discrepancy. In D. R. Olson Olson may refer to:
    • Olson (constructor), a former racing car constructor
    • Olson Software
    • Olson database, also known as zoneinfo database
    • Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute
    • Olson (surname), people with the given name Olson
     & N. Torrance (Eds.), The handbook of educational and human development (pp. 117-147). Oxford: Blackwell Black·well , Elizabeth 1821-1910.

    British-born American physician who was the first woman to be awarded a medical doctorate in modern times (1849).

    Stratman, J. F., & Hamp-Lyons, L. (1994). Reactivity in concurrent At the same time. It implies that multiple processes are taking place simultaneously. See concurrent operation.  think-aloud protocols. In P. Smagorinsky (Ed.), Speaking about writing. Reflections on research methodology (Vol. 8, pp. 89-112). London: Sage.

    Torrance, M., Fidalgo, R., & Garcia, J. N. (in press). The teachability and effectiveness of strategies for cognitive self-regulation in sixth grade writers. Learning and Instruction.

    Torrance, M., Thomas, G. V., & Robinson, E. J. (1999). Individual differences in the writing behaviour of undergraduate students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 189-199.

    Van der Bergh, H., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (1999). The dynamics of idea generation during writing: An on-line study. In G. Rijlaarsdam, E. Esperet, M. Torrance, & D. Galbraith Gal·braith   , John Kenneth Born 1908.

    Canadian-born American economist, writer, and diplomat who served as U.S. ambassador to India (1961-1963). His works include The Great Crash (1955).

    Noun 1.
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    Van der Bergh, H., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2001). Changes in cognitive activities during the writing process, and relations with text quality. Educational Psychology, 21, 373-385.

    Van der Hoeven, J. (1997). Children's composing A study into the relationships between writing process, text quality, and cognitive and linguistic skills. Amsterdam: Atlanta Atlanta (ətlăn`tə, ăt–), city (1990 pop. 394,017), state capital and seat of Fulton co., NW Ga., on the Chattahoochee R. and Peachtree Creek, near the Appalachian foothills; inc. 1847. .

    Wachholz, P. B., & Etheridge Etheridge may be:
    • The Shire of Etheridge, Queensland in Australia
    • A mis-spelling of George Etherege
    • A reference to the singer-songwriter Melissa Etheridge
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    Wolters, C., & Pintrich, P. R. (1998). Contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics, English, and social studies classroom, Instructional Science, 26, 27-47.

    Wolters, C., Yu, S., & Pintrich, P. R. (1996). The relation between goal orientation and students' motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8, 211-238.

    Wong, B. (1998). Reflections on current attainments attainments npl (= skill) → talento sg

    attainments nplconnaissances fpl, résultats mpl

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    Wong, B., Butler, D., Ficzere, S., & Kuperis, S. (1997). Teaching adolescents with learning disabilities and low achievers to plan, write and revise compare and contrast essays. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 12(1), 2-15.

    Wong, B.Y.L., Butler, D. L., Ficzere, S. A., Kuperis, S., & Corden, M. (1994). Teaching problem learners revision skills and sensitivity to audience through two instructional modes: student-teacher versus student-student interactive dialogues. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 92(2), 78-90.

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    Zimmerman, B. J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Education Research Journal, 31, 845-862.

    Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (1999). Acquiring writing revision skill: Shifting from process to outcome self-regulatory goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 241-250.

    Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2002). Acquiring writing revision and self-regulatory skill through observation and emulation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 660-668.

    Zimmerman, B. J., & Risemberg, R. (1997). Becoming a proficient pro·fi·cient  
    Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.

    An expert; an adept.
     writer: A self-regulatory perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 73-101.

    JESUS-NICASIO GARCIA-SANCHEZ is a professor, University of Leon, Spain.

    RAQUEL Raquel is an alteration of the name Rachel, Hebrew for ewe.

    Raquel could refer to:
    • Raquel Carriedo-Tomas, a Spanish golfer
    • Raquel Chalfi, an Israeli poet
    • Raquel Guerra, a Portuguese singer and actress
     FIDALGO-REDONDO is an assistant professor, University of Leon, Spain.
    Table 1
    Student Distribution by Group, Level, and Gender
                          SRSD              SCM            Standard
                      Intervention      Intervention      Curriculum
                      5th      6th      5th      6th      5th      6th
    Male              14       15        9       17        6       17
    Female             4       15        6        9        1        8
    Total Level       18       30       15       26        7       25
    Total Group                48                41                32
                        Total          Total
                        Level         Gender
                      5th      6th
    Male              29       49       78
    Female            11       32       43
    Total Level       40       81
    Total Group               121
    Note. The three groups showed a delay in composition writing in the
    pretest of two years in productivity and in coherence/structure.
    Participants belonged to middle- and working-class families, spoke
    Spanish as their first language, and all were Spanish nationals.
    Table 2
    Assessed Aspects of Writing Products
    Type of          Assessed
    Measures          aspect                    Parameters
    Text-based     Productivity   * Number of paragraphs
                                  * Number of sentences
                                  * Number of verbs
                                  * Number of words (determiners, content,
                                      functional, and total)
                   Coherence      * Number of ties: anaphoric, lexical,
                                      metastructural, structural,
                                      connectives, argumentational,
                                  * Referential coherence: anaphoric and
                                      lexical ties
                                  * Relational coherence: metastructural,
                                      structural, connectives,
                                      argumentational and reformulation
                                  * Total coherence: referential and
                                      relational coherence
                                  * Density of coherence: number of ties
                                      per 100 words
                   Structure      * Number of main parts of text:
                                      introduction, main body and
    Reader-based   Structure      * Score (1-4)
                   Coherence      * Score (1-4)
                   Quality        * Score (1-6)
    Table 3
    Types of Linguistic Coherence Indicators
         Ties                Description                Examples
    Anaphoric         Pronouns and other devices  John is a teacher. He
                      for anaphoric reference     works at a school.
    Lexical           Semantic overlap or exact   John is a teacher at a
                      lexical repetition between  school. John got this
                      words (subjects or          job in 1990.
    Meta-structural   Phrases linking sentences   Now, I will
                      or pointing out previous    describe ...;
                      or subsequent text content
                                                  The previous paragraph
                                                  talks about ...
    Structural        Specific linguistic         First ...; second
                      markers for structuring     ...; finally ...;
                      the information.            later ...;
                      For example: at first,      eventually ...
                      second, later
    Connective        Specific linguistic         And ...; also ...;
                      markers that link           as well as ...
                      different parts of text.
                      For example: and, besides,
                      as well as, also, etc.
    Reformulation     Specific linguistic         In conclusion ...;
                      markers that summarize      that is to say ...;
                      (in conclusion, finally),   in other words ...
                      explain (that is), or
                      reiterate a point in a
                      different form (in other
    Argumentational   Specific linguistic         For example ...;
                      markers that persuade       however ...; despite
                      (however, despite this)     this ...
                      or provide evidences
                      (for example)
    Table 4
    Descriptive Criteria of Reader-Based
    Measures of Comparative-Contrast Essay
     Measure                            Procedure Used
    Structure   The rater considered the presence and development
                of six characteristics:
                   * Background information to present the text
                   * Structural cues
                   * An introduction: a topic or thesis sentence
                     that establishes the general comparison-contrast
                   * Clearly developed organization either whole by
                     whole, part by part, or likeness-differences
                   * Unity within individual paragraphs and, in the
                     case of a theme, within the entire paper
                   * A conclusion that reiterates the purpose of the
                     paper, to show comparisons or to show contrast
                     or to show both
    Coherence   The rater considered the presence and development
                of seven characteristics:
                   * Topic or theme identified
                   * Topic or theme extended without digressions
                   * A context that oriented the reader
                   * Details organized in a discernible plan
                     that was sustained through the text
                   * Cohesive ties linking sentences and/or
                     paragraphs together
                   * Discourse flowing smoothly
                   * Conclusion statement creating a sense of closure
    Quality     The rater considered the presence and development of
                seven characteristics:
                   * Clear sequence of ideas
                   * Text development with little or no irrelevant ideas
                   * Good organization
                   * Fresh, vigorous word choice
                   * Variety of interesting details
                   * Correct sentence structure
                   * Correct punctuation, capitalization, and spelling
     Measure                              Score Range
    Structure   From 1 to 4 points:
                   * Unstructured: 1 point
                   * Poorly structured: 2 points
                   * Partially structured: 3 points
                   * Well structured: 4 points
    Coherence   From 1 to 4 points:
                   * Incoherent: 1 point
                   * Nearly completely incoherent:
                     2 points
                   * Somewhat coherent: 3 points
                   * Very coherent: 4 points
    Quality     From 1 to 6 points:
                   * Inadequate; difficult to
                     understand: 1 point
                   * Barely adequate: 2 points
                   * Adequate: 3 points
                   * Good: 4 points
                   * Very good: 5 points
                   * Excellent: 6 points
    Note. Measures were adapted from Spencer and Fitzgerald (1993).
    Table 5
    Summary of Instructional Program Based on the Self-Regulated
    Strategy Development Model
    and session           Instructional Focus
    Develop               Knowledge of writing products,
    background            types of texts
    knowledge             Knowledge of writing process
    sessions              Self-regulation procedures
                          Knowledge of planning process
    Presentation of       Planning strategy: POD + OAIUE
    POD + THE VOWELS      P = Pick ideas
    planning strategy:    O = Organize your ideas
    goals and
    significance          O = Object
    4th session           A = Audience
                          I = Ideas
                          U = Unite ideas
                          E = draft Essay
                          D = Develop your text
    Modeling of           The instructor modeled the POD +
    POD + THE VOWELS      THE VOWELS planning strategy
    planning strategy     (while thinking aloud).
    5th-6th sessions      While planning the instructor
                          purposefully used self-regulatory
                          statements and self-instructions.
    Memorization          Steps of POD+VOWELS planning
    of POD + THE          strategy
    VOWELS planning       Individual adaptation of self-
    strategy              regulatory statements and self-
    7th session           instructions
    Collaborative         Collaborative application of POD +
    practice              VOWELS strategy in pairs
    8th-10th              Guided practice by instructor with
    sessions              materials
    11th-12th             Application of POD + VOWELS
    sessions              Individually
                          Guided practice and feedback
    Development           Knowledge of revising process
    of background
    13th session          Revising strategy: RED
    Presentation          R = Read text
    of RED revising       E = Evaluate text
    strategy: goals       D = Do necessary changes
    and significance
    14th session
    Modeling of           The instructor modeled the RED
    RED revising          revising strategy (while thinking
    strategy              aloud)
    15th-16th             While revising the instructor
    sessions              purposefully used self-regulatory
                          statements and self-instructions
    Memorization          Steps of RED revising strategy
    of RED revising       Individual adaptation of self-
    strategy              regulatory statements and
    17th session          self-instructions
    Collaborative         Collaborative application of RED
    practice              strategy in pairs
    18th-20th             Guided practice by instructor and
    Independent           Application of RED individually
    practice              guided practice and feedback faded
    21st-22nd             gradually
    Maintenance           The instructor modeled planning
    and                   and revising strategies (POD + THE
    generalization        VOWELS and RED) in the writing
    23rd session          process
    Maintenance           Collaborative application of
    and                   planning and revising strategies in
    generalization        pairs (POD + THE VOWELS and
    24th session          RED) in the writing process
                          Final registration sheet of text
    Maintenance           Individual application of planning
    and                   and revising strategies (POD + THE
    generalization        VOWELS and RED) in the writing
    25th session          process
    and session           Strategies and Techniques
    Develop               Brainstorming
    knowledge             Explicit and interactive
    1st-3rd               explanation
    sessions              Stimulation of prior knowledge
    Presentation of       Explicit instruction and explanation
    POD + THE VOWELS      Mnemonic rules
    planning strategy:    Memory strategies
    goals and
    4th session
    Modeling of           Cognitive modeling
    POD + THE VOWELS      Think aloud
    planning strategy     Self-regulation procedures, self-
    5th-6th sessions      instructions: problem definition,
                          focusing of planning, strategy
                          self-instructions, self-evaluating
                          and self-reinforcement
    Memorization          Aloud questions
    of POD + THE          Social feedback
    VOWELS planning       Memory strategies
    strategy              Group discussion
    7th session
    Collaborative         Working in pairs
    practice              Think aloud
    8th-10th              Guidance by teachers
    sessions              Social feedback
    11th-12th             Self-instructions explicit to
    sessions              encourage
    Development           Explicit and interactive explanation
    of background         Stimulation of prior knowledge
    13th session          Explicit instruction and explanation
    Presentation          Mnemonic rules
    of RED revising       Memory strategies
    strategy: goals
    and significance
    14th session
    Modeling of           Cognitive modeling
    RED revising          Think aloud
    strategy              Self-regulation procedures, self-
    15th-16th             instructions: problem definition,
    sessions              focusing of planning, strategy self-
                          instructions, self-evaluating and
    Memorization          Aloud questions
    of RED revising       Social feedback
    strategy              Memory strategies
    17th session          Group discussion
    Collaborative         Working in pairs
    practice              Think aloud
    18th-20th             Guidance by teachers
                          Social feedback
    Independent           Self-instructions explicit to
    practice              encourage
    Maintenance           Cognitive modeling
    and                   Think aloud
    generalization        Self-regulation procedures, self-
    23rd session          instructions: problem definition,
                          focusing of planning, strategy self-
                          instructions, self-evaluating and
    Maintenance           Working in pairs
    and                   Think aloud
    generalization        Guidance by teachers
    24th session          Social feedback
    Maintenance           Self-instructions explicit to
    and                   encourage
    25th session
    and session           Materials
    Develop               Conceptual map of writing
    knowledge             Writing process matrix
    sessions              Matrix and examples of different
                          types of texts
    Presentation of       Mnemonic chart POD + THE VOWELS
    POD + THE VOWELS      Example of text
    planning strategy:
    goals and
    4th session
    Modeling of           Mnemonic chart POD + THE VOWELS
    POD + THE VOWELS      Example of text
    planning strategy     Graphic organizer of planning strategy
    5th-6th sessions      List of self-regulatory statements, and
                          think aloud materials (for teacher)
                          General list of self-instructions
    Memorization          Mnemonic chart POD + THE VOWELS
    of POD + THE          General list of self-instructions
    VOWELS planning       Individual list of self-instructions
    7th session
    Collaborative         Mnemonic chart POD + THE VOWELS
    practice              Graphic organizer of planning strategy
    8th-10th              Individual list of self-instructions
    sessions              Registration sheet of text
                          Independent practice
    11th-12th             Mnemonic chart POD + THE VOWELS
    sessions              Graphic organizer of planning strategy
                          Individual list of self-instructions
                          faded gradually (if they felt it was necessary)
                          Registration sheet of text
                          continued on next page
    Development           Writing process matrix
    of background         Matrix of type of revisions:
    knowledge             mechanical vs. substantial
    13th session          Mnemonic chart RED revising strategy
    Presentation          Matrix of type of revisions: mechanical
    of RED revising       vs. substantial
    strategy: goals
    and significance
    14th session
    Modeling of           Mnemonic chart RED
    RED revising          Graphic organizer of revising strategy
    strategy              List of self-regulatory statements, and
    15th-16th             think aloud materials (for teacher)
    sessions              General list of self-instructions
    Memorization          Mnemonic chart RED
    of RED revising       General list of self-instructions
    strategy              Individual list of self-instructions
    17th session
    Collaborative         Mnemonic chart RED
    practice              Graphic organizer of revising strategy
    18th-20th             Individual list of self-instructions
                          Final sheet of text
    Independent           Mnemonic chart RED
    practice              Graphic organizer of revising strategy
    21st-22nd             Individual list of self-instructions
    sessions              (If they felt it was necessary)
                          Final registration sheet of text
    Maintenance           Final registration sheet of text
    23rd session
    24th session
    Maintenance           Final registration sheet of text
    25th session
    Table 6
    Summary of Instructional Model Based on the
    Social Cognitive Model of Sequential Skill Acquisition
    Instructional          Instructional Focus
    Stage and session
    Knowledge of           Writing functionality
    writing: general and   Types of texts
    planning process       Writing products
    1st-4th sessions       Importance of writing
                           Writing process
                           Processes directly
                           involved in
    Observation level      Self-regulation
    of planning process    of writing planning
    5th-6th sessions       processes
    Emulation level        Self-regulation
    of planning process    of writing planning
    7th session            processes
    Self-control--self-    Self-regulation
    regulation levels of   of writing planning
    planning process       processes
    8th - 9th sessions
    Knowledge of writing   Knowledge of
    --editing process      writing editing process
    10th session           Textual structure
    Observation level      Self-regulation
    of editing process     of writing editing
    11th-12th sessions     processes
    Emulation level        Self-regulation
    of editing process     of writing editing
    13th session           processes
    Self-control--self-    Self-regulation
    regulation levels      of writing editing
    of editing process     processes
    14th-15th sessions
    Knowledge of writing   Knowledge of writing
    --revising process     revising process
    16th session
                           Mechanical and
                           Substantive revision
    Observation level      Self-regulation
    of revising process    of writing revising
    17th-18th sessions     processes
    Emulation level        Self-regulation
    of revising process    of writing revising
    19th session           processes
    Self-control--self-    Self-regulation
    regulation levels      of writing revising
    of revising process    processes
    20th - 21st sessions
                           Feedback social
    Observation level      Self-regulation
    of writing process     of writing process
    22nd session
    Emulation level        Self-regulation
    of writing process     of writing
    23rd session           process
    Self-control--self-    Self-regulation
    regulation levels      of writing
    of writing process     process
    24th - 25th sessions
    Instructional          Strategies and Techniques
    Stage and session
    Knowledge of           Brainstorming
    writing: general and   Group discussion
    planning process       Direct and explicit instruction
    1st-4th sessions       Previous knowledge
                           Interactive explanation
                           Functionality examples
    Observation level      Cognitive modeled--coping
    of planning process    model--mastery model
    5th-6th sessions       Think aloud
                           Self-regulation procedures
                           Group discussion
    Emulation level        Emulative performance
    of planning process    Think aloud
    7th session            Self-regulation procedures
                           Feedback social
                           Working in pairs
    Self-control--self-    Individual performance
    regulation levels of   Think aloud
    planning process       Self-regulation procedures
    8th-9th sessions       Feedback social
    Knowledge of writing   Direct and explicit instruction
    --editing process      Previous knowledge
    10th session           Interactive explanation
                           Functionality examples
    Observation level      Cognitive modeled--coping
    of editing process     model--mastery model
    11th-12th sessions     Think aloud
                           Self-regulation procedures
                           Group discussion
    Emulation level        Emulative performance
    of editing process     Think aloud
    13th session           Self-regulation procedures
                           Feedback social
                           Working in pairs
    Self-control--self-    Individual performance
    regulation levels      Think aloud
    of editing process     Self-regulation procedures
    14th-15th sessions     Feedback social
    Knowledge of writing   Direct and explicit instruction
    --revising process     Previous knowledge
    16th session           Interactive explanation
                           Functionality examples of
                           mechanical and substantive revision
    Observation level      Cognitive modeled--coping
    of revising process    model--mastery model
    17th - 18th sessions   Think aloud
                           Self-regulation procedures
                           Group discussion
    Emulation level        Emulative performance
    of revising process    Think aloud
    19th session           Self-regulation procedures
                           Feedback social
                           Working in pairs
    Self-control--self-    Individual performance
    regulation levels      Think aloud
    of revising process
    20th-21st sessions
    Observation level      Cognitive mastery model
    of writing process     Think aloud
    22nd session           Self-regulation procedures
                           Group discussion
    Emulation level        Emulative performance
    of writing process     Think aloud
    23rd session           Self-regulation procedures
                           Feedback social
                           Working in pairs
    Self-control--self-    Individual performance
    regulation levels      Think aloud
    of writing process     Self-regulation procedures
    24th - 25th sessions   Feedback social
    Instructional          Materials
    Stage and session
    Knowledge of           Conceptual writing map
    writing: general and   Writing process matrix
    planning process       Matrix and examples of different types
    1st-4th sessions       of texts
                           Matrix of self-regulation procedures
                           Matrix of writing planning process
    Observation level      Example of think aloud
    of planning process    Coping model of planning process
    5th-6th sessions       Mastery model of planning process
                           Registration planning sheet
    Emulation level        Graphic organizer and control list:
    of planning process    planning process sheet
    7th session            List of self-regulation procedures in
                           planning process
    Self-control--self-    Graphic organizer and control list:
    regulation levels of   planning process sheet
    planning process       List of self-regulation procedures in
    8th-9th sessions       planning process
    Knowledge of writing   Writing process matrix
    --editing process      Example of text
    10th session           Matrix of writing editing process
    Observation level      Example of think aloud
    of editing process     Coping model of editing process
    11th-12th sessions     Mastery model of editing process
                           Registration edition sheet
    Emulation level        Graphic organizer of editing process sheet
    of editing process     List of self-regulation procedures in
    13th session           editing process
    Self-control--self-    Graphic organizer of editing process sheet
    regulation levels      List of self-regulation procedures in
    of editing process     editing process
    14th-15th sessions
    Knowledge of writing   Writing process matrix
    --revising process     Matrix of writing revising process
    16th session           Organizer
    Observation level      Example of think aloud
    of revising process    Coping model of revising process
    17th - 18th sessions   Mastery model of revising process
                           Final registration sheet
                           Matrix of writing revising process:
                           mechanical and substantial
    Emulation level        Matrix of writing revising process:
    of revising process    mechanical and substantial
    19th session           List of self-regulation procedures in
                           revising process
    Self-control--self-    Matrix of writing revising process:
    regulation levels      mechanical and substantial
    of revising process    List of self-regulation procedures in
    20th - 21st sessions   revising process
    Observation level      Graphic organizer of planning process
    of writing process     sheet
    22nd session           Graphic organizer of editing process sheet
                           Matrix of writing revising process:
                           mechanical and substantial
    Emulation level        Graphic organizer of planning process
    of writing process     sheet
    23rd session           Graphic organizer of editing process sheet
                           Matrix of writing revising process:
                           mechanical and substantial
                           List of self-regulation procedures in
                           revising process
    Self-control--self-    No materials
    regulation levels
    of writing process
    24th-25th sessions
    Table 7
    Summary of Similarities and Differences Between
    SRSD and SCM Instructional Programs and Between
    Both Instructional Programs and the
    Standard Curriculum
                     Similarities Between
    Dimensions       SRSD--SCM Interventions
    Mechanicals      Students received the same
                     number of instructional sessions
                     (25 sessions, 50 minutes each)
                     during the same term period
    Knowledge        Students were taught necessary
    of Writing       metacognitive (declarative,
                     procedural and conditional)
                     knowledge about: writing process
                     and written products
                     (background knowledge--SRSD
                     or knowledge of writing--SCM)
    Instructional    Both instructional programs
    Strategies       used cognitive modeling
                     Students in both interventions
                     were taught to use different types
                     of self-regulation procedures.
                     Both instructions used self-
                     questioning and self-speech in
                     thinking aloud
    Practice         Students of both interventions
                     followed collaborative practice
                     with the instructor and received
    Pattern of       Both interventions followed
    Instruction      maintenance and generalization
    Written          Both interventions combined
    Products         texts written by instructors and
                     students. Students composed
                     the same number of texts,
                     six texts
                     Instructors composed the same
                     number of texts: three texts
    Materials        Both interventions used materials
                     such as graphic organizers,
                     knowledge matrix, list of self-
                     regulatory procedures, etc.
                     Similarities Between
    Dimensions       Interventions--Standard
    Mechanicals      Students received the same
                     number of instructional sessions
                     (25 sessions), with the same
                     length (50 minutes)
                     covering the same period of
                     school year
    Knowledge        Students were taught
    of Writing       metacognitive, declarative, and
                     conditional knowledge about
                     written products
    Pattern of
    Written          Students wrote approximately the
    Products         same number of texts
                     Differences Between
    Dimensions       SRSD--SCM Interventions
    Knowledge        Number of sessions dedicated to
    of Writing       knowledge of writing:
                     * SRSD 4 sessions of
                     background knowledge
                     * SCM 6 sessions of
                     knowledge of writing
    Instructional    Number of sessions that used the
    Strategies       cognitive modeling:
    and              SRSD 3 sessions
    Procedures       SCM 11 sessions
                     Different types of cognitive
                     SRSD mastery model
                     (3 sessions)
                     SCM mastery (8 sessions) and
                     coping models (3 sessions)
                     Different models:
                     SRSD instructor (3 sessions)
                     SCM instructor (7 sessions) and
                     peers (4 sessions).
    Practice         Type of practice and sessions:
                     SRSD individual practice of
                     writing process (5 sessions),
                     collaborative practice with
                     peers (1 session)
                     SCM individual practice of
                     writing process (8 sessions)
                     and collaborative practice with
                     peers (4 sessions)
    Pattern of       Their general patterns of
    Instruction      instruction were different:
                       SRSD intervention followed
                       six general stages: background
                       knowledge; presentation
                       of cognitive writing strategy;
                       modeling; memorization
                       of cognitive writing strategy;
                       collaborative practice
                       and independent practice.
                       SCM intervention
                       followed four general levels
                       of instruction: observation,
                       emulation, self-control and
    Cognitive        Students in the SRSD intervention
    Writing          were taught specific cognitive
    Strategies       writing strategies to planning and
                     revising but students in the SCM
                     intervention were not
                     Differences Between
    Dimensions       Interventions--Standard
    Knowledge        Students of the comparison
    of Writing       group did not receive instruction
                     about metacognitive
                     knowledge (declarative,
                     procedural or conditional)
                     of writing processes or
                     procedural metacognitive
                     knowledge of written products
    Instructional    Standard curriculum did not
    Strategies       use cognitive modeling
                     Students of the comparison
                     group were not taught to use
                     different types of self-
                     regulation procedures. They
                     did not use self-questioning
                     or self-speech
    Practice         Students of comparison group
                     always write individually
    Pattern of       They did not receive any
    Instruction      process-oriented or cognitive
                     strategy instruction
                     They received direct instruction
                     about different textual
                     genres and mechanical
                     writing process
                     Later they practiced
                     writing the text which was
                     taught individually
                     Teacher corrects the texts
                     and provides feedback about
                     the results: spelling,
                     handwriting, organization,
    Written          The texts always were written
    Products         by students and revised/
                     corrected by teacher
    Materials        Standard instruction did not
                     use support materials such as
                     graphic organizers, knowledge
                     matrix, list of self-regulatory
                     procedures, etc.
    Cognitive        They did not use cognitive
    Writing          writing strategies
    Table 8
    Results of 2 x 3 Factorial Design of Repeated
    Text-Based Measures in Written Products
                               SRSD Intervention
                                    (N = 48)
                        M         SD         M        SD
    Variables          Pre        Pre      Post      Post
    Productivity      46.23     25.15     79.56     22.52
    (N Words)
    Referential        4.48      4.46     10.27      3.99
    Relational         2.10      1.83     11.15      3.29
    Total              6.58      5.86     21.42      6.19
    Density of        13.19      6.97     27.46      5.46
    Total              0.92      0.27      3.00      0.00
                                SCM Intervention
                                   (N = 41)
                        M         SD        M         SD
    Variables          Pre       Pre       Post      Post
    Productivity      48.10     17.33     82.12     42.88
    (N Words)
    Referential        5.12      4.18      1.80      7.46
    Relational         3.46      2.49      7.71      6.76
    Total              8.59      5.29     19.51     12.57
    Density of        16.17      7.30     23.27      6.09
    Total              1.05      0.63      1.95      1.18
                              Standard Curriculum
                                   (N = 32)
                         M        SD         M        SD
    Variables          Pre       Pre      Post      Post
    Productivity      58.19     22.59     35.25     22.27
    (N Words)
    Referential        6.06      5.19      4.31      3.88
    Relational         3.25      2.46      1.94      1.74
    Total              9.31      6.82      6.25      4.57
    Density of        16.20      8.25     16.82      7.59
    Total              0.88      0.49      0.91      0.64
                   [F.sub.              [[eta]
    Variables      (1,118)]      p      .sub.2]
    Productivity      23.48   < .001        .16
    (N Words)
    Referential       34.38   < .001        .22
    Relational       107.56   < .001        .47
    Total             74.40   < .001        .38
    Density of        65.59   < .001        .37
    Total            159.16   < .001        .57
                         BA--Time X Group
                   [F.sub.              [[eta]
    Variables      (2,118)]      P      .sub.2]
    Productivity      34.31   < .001        .37
    (N Words)
    Referential       17.21   < .001        .22
    Relational        59.39   < .001        .50
    Total             35.54   < .001        .38
    Density of        19.25   < .001        .26
    Total             56.40   < .001        .49
    Note. We include both the effect produced by time alone
    and the effect produced by interaction between the
    repeated measure, the moment of the assessment (BA:
    before-after), and the type of treatment (Self-regulated
    Strategy Development--SRSD; Social Cognitive Model--SCM;
    standard curriculum). We only represent the statistically
    significant results (p < .05). 112 (eta-squared statistic)
    = Estimates of effect size. The Cohen (1988) rule signals
    = .01-.06 (small effect); > .06-.14 (medium effect);
    > .14 (large effect).
    Table 9
    +Results of 2 x 3 Factorial Design of Repeated
    Measures in Reader-Based Measures of Written
                              SRSD Intervention
                                  (N = 48)
                       M       SD         M          SD
    Variables        Pre      Pre      Post        Post
    Structure        1.31     0.51      3.71        0.61
    Coherence        1.63     0.70      3.35        0.60
    Quality          1.65     0.86      3.71        0.89
                              SCM Intervention
                                (N = 41)
                       M       SD         M          SD
    Variables        Pre      Pre      Post        Post
    Structure        1.41     0.55      3.14        1.03
    Coherence        1.57     0.76      3.19        0.93
    Quality          1.43     0.60      3.35        1.33
                             Standard Curriculum
                                 (N = 32)
                       M       SD         M          SD
    Variables        Pre      Pre      Post        Post
    Structure        1.74     0.65      1.79        0.66
    Coherence        2.00     0.78      1.85        0.77
    Quality          2.07     0.95      1.78        0.69
                 [F.sub.             [[eta]
    Variables   (1, 118)]       P    .sub.2]
    Structure      219.58   < .001      0.66
    Coherence      122.39   < .001      0.52
    Quality        101.84   < .001      0.48
                         BA--Time X Group
                   [F.sub.             [[eta]
    Variables     (2,118)]     P       .sub.2]
    Structure       57.63   < .001      0.51
    Coherence       34.90   < .001      0.39
    Quality         34.53   < .001      0.38
    Note. We include both the effect produced by time alone
    and the effect produced by interaction between the
    repeated measure, the moment of the assessment
    (BA: before-after), and the type of treatment
    (intervention based on Self-Regulated Strategy
    Development--SRSD; Intervention based on Social
    Cognitive Model SCM; standard curriculum).
    We only represent the statistically
    significant results (p < .05).
    [[eta].sub.2] (eta-squared statistic) = Estimates of
    effect size. The Cohen (1988) rule signals = .01-.06
    (small effect); > .06-.14 (medium effect);
    >.14 (large effect).
    Table 10
    Results of 2 x 3 Factorial Design of Repeated
    Measures in Writing Self-Efficacy
                                    SRSD Intervention
                                        (N = 48)
                            M          SD           M          SD
    Variables              Pre        Pre         Post        Post
    Quality               5.71        1.90        7.23        1.65
    Audience              6.67        1.99        7.02        1.83
    Total Writing        23.06        6.29       26.31        6.03
    Quality               5.50        2.24        6.96        1.55
    Audience              5.66        2.35        6.72        1.63
    Total Writing        22.13        7.34       26.39        5.91
                                     SCM Intervention
                                        (N = 41)
                            M          SD           M          SD
    Variables              Pre         Pre        Post        Post
    Quality               5.78        2.58        7.73        1.44
    Audience              6.43        1.89        7.78        1.78
    Total Writing        24.46        7.30       28.67        5.11
    Quality               6.00        2.41        7.62        1.51
    Audience              3.65        2.76        7.32        2.14
    Total Writing        21.73        7.25       28.05        5.88
                                   Standard Curriculum
                                        (N = 32)
                            M          SD           M          SD
    Variables             Pre         Pre        Post        Post
    Quality               6.23        2.30        6.12        2.81
    Audience              5.88        3.06        6.04        2.44
    Total Writing        22.19        8.76       21.61        8.24
    Quality               6.12        2.81        5.64        2.64
    Audience              5.40        3.09        5.52        2.29
    Total Writing        21.12        9.35       21.32        7.63
                       [F.sub.                 [[eta]
    Variables         (1,118)]        p        .sub.2]
    Quality               0.83     < .001         0.16
    Audience              6.99       .009         0.06
    Total Writing        12.14       .001         0.10
    Quality              13.56     < .001         0.11
    Audience             30.45     < .001         0.22
    Total Writing        27.61     < .001         0.20
                                BA--Time X Group
                       [F.sub.                  [[eta]
    Variables         (2,118)]        p         .sub.2]
    Quality               0.90        .005        0.09
    Audience              2.51        .086        0.04
    Total Writing         4.18        .018        0.07
    Quality               6.92        .001        0.11
    Audience             12.84      < .001        0.19
    Total Writing         5.94        .004        0.10
    Note. We include both the effect produced by time alone and
    the effect produced by interaction between the repeated measure,
    the moment of the assessment (BA: before-after), and the type
    of treatment (Self-regulated Strategy Development - SRSD; Social
    Cognitive Model - SCM; ordinary curriculum). We only represent
    the statistically significant results (p < .05) [[eta].sub.2]
    (eta-squared statistic) = Estimates of effect size. The Cohen (1988)
    rule signals = .01 - .06 (small effect); > .06 - 14 (medium effect);
    > .14 (large effect).
    Table 11
    Results of a Multivariate Analysis of the Variance in Time
    Spent in Activities of Writing Log (as a Whole and Divided into
    Three Moments) Between the Groups
                                             (N = 48)
                                          M        SD
                                        Post      Post
    Writing Process as a Whole
    Time on Task                       1085.00   375.61
    Time on Reading References          153.06   130.80
    Time on Thinking About
    Content                             149.18   177.63
    Time on Writing Full Text           618.06   288.71
    Time on Reading Text                 89.12   128.63
    Time on Changing Text                54.25    81.01
    First Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Reading References           81.37    90.12
    Time on Writing Full Text           223.45   117.73
    Second Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Thinking About
    Content                              57.47    81.13
    Time on Writing Full Text           217.00   121.16
    Time on Reading Text                 20.02    37.00
    Time on Changing Text                 3.87    18.78
    Third Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Writing Full Text           177.60   139.62
    Time on Changing Text                46.50    79.09
                                               SCM             Standard
                                           Intervention       Curriculum
                                             (N = 41)          (N = 32)
                                          M        SD       M        SD
                                        Post      Post     Post     Post
    Writing Process as a Whole
    Time on Task                        998.04   439.67   531.84   336.75
    Time on Reading References          142.90   121.43    66.84    85.93
    Time on Thinking About
    Content                              83.92   111.60    87.18   143.56
    Time on Writing Full Text           585.21   284.55   305.15   240.00
    Time on Reading Text                102.07   124.43    37.78    61.86
    Time on Changing Text                74.85   108.49    20.34    56.56
    First Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Reading References           80.90    61.95    31.00    45.23
    Time on Writing Full Text           189.02   111.08   105.59    89.03
    Second Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Thinking About
    Content                              29.48    66.83    24.21    52.07
    Time on Writing Full Text           205.65   118.80   109.46   100.83
    Time on Reading Text                 31.75    49.25     6.78    21.89
    Time on Changing Text                24.19    52.56    10.65    37.44
    Third Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Writing Full Text           188.26   140.93    90.09    89.90
    Time on Changing Text                45.36    66.88     6.78    23.37
                                          F        P      .sup.2]
    Writing Process as a Whole
    Time on Task                         21.00   < .001     0.26
    Time on Reading References            5.77     .004     0.08
    Time on Thinking About
    Content                               2.66     .074     0.04
    Time on Writing Full Text            13.92   < .001     0.19
    Time on Reading Text                  3.15     .046     0.05
    Time on Changing Text                 3.60     .030     0.05
    First Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Reading References            5.83     .004     0.09
    Time on Writing Full Text            11.50   < .001     0.16
    Second Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Thinking About
    Content                               2.79     .065     0.04
    Time on Writing Full Text             9.36   < .001     0.13
    Time on Reading Text                  3.75     .026     0.06
    Time on Changing Text                 3.21     .044     0.05
    Third Stage of Writing Process
    Time on Writing Full Text             6.12     .003     0.09
    Time on Changing Text                 4.35     .015     0.06
    Note. We include both the effect produced by time alone and
    the effect produced by interaction between the repeated
    measure, the moment of the assessment (BA: before-after),
    and the type of treatment (Self-Regulated Strategy
    Development--SRSD; Social Cognitive Model--SCM;
    standard curriculum). We only represent the statistically
    significant results (p < .05) or near statistically.
    [[eta].sub.2] (eta-squared statistic) = Estimates of effect size.
    The Cohen (1988) rule signals = .01- 06 (small effect); > .06-.14
    (medium effect); > .14 (large effect).
    Figure 1. Graphic organizer of the revising strategy RED.
    R               E                                     D
    READ            EVALUATE                              DO
    COMPREHENSIVE   ... TEXTUAL   Is there an        YES  Continue
    READING OF THE  STRUCTURE     introduction?      NO   Change it
    ATTENTION                     Is there an        YES  Continue
    TO ...                        organized body?    NO   Change it
                                  Is there a         YES  Continue
                                  conclusion?        NO   Change it
                    ...           Is there an        YES  Continue
                    PARAGRAPHS    introduction       NO   Change it
                                  and a concluding
                                  Is there           YES  Continue
                                  organization       NO   Change it
                                  between the
                                  paragraphs of
                                  the text?
                                  Are the            YES  Continue
                                  ideas of each      NO   Change it
                    ...           Are there          YES  Continue
                    LINKS         links between the  NO   Change it
                                  ideas of each
                                  Are there          YES  Continue
                                  inter-             NO   Change it
    QUICK           ...           Are the            YES  Continue
    READING,        SENTENCES     sentences          NO   Change it
    PAYING                        of the text
    ATTENTION                     correct?
    TO ...
                    ...           Are the            YES  Continue
                    WORDS         words correct?     NO   Change it
                    ...           Is the             YES  Continue
                    PUNCTUATION   punctionation      NO   Change it
                    ...           Is the text        YES  Congratulations
                    PRESENTATION  neatly and              on your text!
                                  clearly            NO   Make a
                                  written?                neater copy
    COPYRIGHT 2006 Council for Learning Disabilities
    No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
    Copyright 2006, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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    Author:Fidalgo-Redondo, Raquel
    Publication:Learning Disability Quarterly
    Geographic Code:1USA
    Date:Jun 22, 2006
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