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Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on growth and lipid composition of juvenile snail (Semisulcospira gottschei).



ABSTRACT A feeding trial of 5 dietary protein levels (12%, 22%, 32%, 42%, and 52%) and 2 dietary energy levels (3.3 and 3.9 kcal/g diet) factorial factorial

For any whole number, the product of all the counting numbers up to and including itself. It is indicated with an exclamation point: 4! (read “four factorial”) is 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24.
 design with three replicates was conducted to investigate the proper dietary protein and energy levels for the growth of the snail (Semisulcospira gottschei). Snails, initial averaging 37 mg, were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk. Survival of each group was all above 80% and no significant difference among treatments. Mean weight gain of the snails was improved with increasing dietary protein level up to 22% and 32% at 3.3 and 3.9 kcal/g diets (P < 0.05), respectively, and reached a plateau above these levels (P > 0.05). Mean weight gain of snails fed the 22% protein diets with 3.3 kcal/g diet was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from that of snails fed the 32% to 52% protein diets with both energy levels. Lipid content of snails fed the 3.9 kcal/g diets showed higher values than that of the 3.3 kcal/g diet at the same protein level. Snails fed the 3.9 kcal/g diets showed a tendency toward to higher in 18:1 n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and 22:6n-3 and lower in 20:4n-6 and 22:1n-9 than those of snails fed the 3.3 kcal/g diets energy diets. The results of this study indicate that a diet containing 22% protein and 3.3 kcal/g diet with P/E ratio P/E ratio

Current stock price divided by trailing annual earnings per share or expected annual earnings per share. Assume XYZ Co. sells for $25.50 per share and has earned $2.55 per share this year; $25.50 = 10 times $2.55. XYZ stock sells for ten times earnings.
 of 69 mg protein/kcal was recommended for snail growth.

KEY WORDS: dietary protein and energy, snail, Semisulcospira gottschei

INTRODUCTION

Protein is one of the most important nutrient affecting animal growth and the feed cost. Protein requirements have been studied in aquaculture aquaculture, the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production.  species with the aim of determining the minimum amount required to produce maximum growth and not be used for energy. The protein requirement of fish varies with fish species, fish size, dietary protein quality, and environmental conditions (NRC NRC
abbr.
1. National Research Council

2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Noun 1. NRC - an independent federal agency created in 1974 to license and regulate nuclear power plants
 1993). The non protein energy levels may also influence the dietary protein requirement of fish. When insufficient non-protein energy is available in feeds, dietary protein is deaminated deaminated (dēam´inātd),
adj
 in the body to supply energy for metabolism rather than being used for tissue growth, and excreted ammonia can reduce water quality (Phillips 1972, Shyong et al. 1998). Because fish consume food to satisfy their energy requirement, excess dietary energy may limit intake of essential nutrients An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from a dietary source. Some categories of essential nutrient include vitamins, dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.  like protein and amino acids amino acid (əmē`nō), any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins. . Thus, excesses of energy can lead to growth reduction and increase fat deposition in fish (Daniels & Robinson 1986).

The snail (Semisulcospira gottschei) is becoming a candidate shellfish shellfish, popular name for certain edible mollusks (see Mollusca), e.g., oysters, clams, and scallops, and for certain edible crustaceans, e.g., crabs, lobsters, and shrimps. All are aquatic invertebrates with shells; they are not fish.  for aquaculture, because this species has high consumer's demand as the health food in Korea. However, limited study has been performed on nutritional requirements nutritional requirements,
n the food and liquids necessary for normal physiologic function.
 of this species except for essential fatty acids Essential fatty acids
Sources of fat in the diet, including omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

Mentioned in: Nutritional Supplements
 requirement and carbohydrate use (Lee et al. 2002, Lim et al. 2003). Therefore, this study investigates the effects of dietary protein and energy levels on growth and lipid composition of snails.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental Diets

A 5 x 2 factorial design using three replications was used. Ten experimental diets were formulated to contain 5 protein levels (12%, 22%, 32%, 42%, and 52%) and 2 energy levels (3.3 and 3.9 kcal/g diet). Gross energy levels of diets were calculated based on 4 kcal/g protein, 9 kcal/g lipid and 4 kcal/g N-free extract (Garling & Wilson 1976). Ingredients and nutrients contents of the experimental diets, and fatty acid fatty acid, any of the organic carboxylic acids present in fats and oils as esters of glycerol. Molecular weights of fatty acids vary over a wide range. The carbon skeleton of any fatty acid is unbranched. Some fatty acids are saturated, i.e.  compositions of dietary lipid sources are presented in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively. Casein casein (kā`sēn), well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cow's milk, but only 40% in human milk.  increased mainly at the expense dextrin dextrin, any one of a number of carbohydrates having the same general formula as starch but a smaller and less complex molecule. They are polysaccharides and are produced as intermediate products in the hydrolysis of starch by heat, by acids, and by enzymes.  to increase the protein level in diets. The mixture of squid liver oil, linseed oil linseed oil, amber-colored, fatty oil extracted from the cotyledons and inner coats of the linseed. The raw oil extracted from the seeds by hydraulic pressure is pale in color and practically without taste or odor. , and corn oil corn oil
n.
A pale yellow liquid obtained from the embryos of corn grains, used especially as a cooking and salad oil and in the manufacture of margarines.

Noun 1.
 was added 4.5% and 12% for low and high-energy diets, respectively, in each protein level. Procedures for feed preparation were adapted from the method of Mat et al. (1995a) who studied for abalone abalone (ăbəlō`nē), popular name in the United States for a univalve gastropod mollusk of the genus Haliotis, members of which are also called ear shells, or sea ears, as their shape resembles the human ear.  feed. Experimental diets were dried at room temperature and stored at -25[degrees]C until used. Crude lipid contents in some experimental diets were somewhat reduced during the process of rolling and dipping into the solution of Ca[Cl.sub.2] to make a flake type of feed.

Experimental Conditions

Juvenile snails (Semisulcospira gottschei) were obtained from a private hatchery hatchery

a commercial establishment dedicated to the hatching of bird eggs to provide day old chicks and poults to the poultry industry.


hatchery liquid
the contents of unfertilized eggs. Used in petfood manufacture.
 (Pyungchang, Korea). They were acclimated to a recirculating system in our laboratory for 1 wk by feeding a commercial abalone diet containing 30% protein and 5% lipid. They were then randomly redistributed re·dis·trib·ute  
tr.v. re·dis·trib·ut·ed, re·dis·trib·ut·ing, re·dis·trib·utes
To distribute again in a different way; reallocate.

Adj. 1.
 into 25-L tanks (20 L of water each) at a density of 100 snails (37 mg/snail) per tank. Three replicate groups of snails were fed once in 2 days for 12 wk. Before feeding, uneaten diets in each tank were cleaned by siphoning and 20% of water volume in system was replaced with fresh water every 2 days. Fresh water was supplied at a flow rate of approximately 0.3 L/min in the recirculating system. Photoperiod photoperiod /pho·to·pe·ri·od/ (fo´to-per?e-od) the period of time per day that an organism is exposed to daylight (or to artificial light).photoperiod´ic

pho·to·pe·ri·od
n.
 was left at the natural condition, and water temperature ranged from 15[degrees]C to 22[degrees]C during the feeding trial. Snails in each tank were collectively weighed on the day of initiation and on the day of termination of the feeding trial, after being fasted for 24 h.

Sample Collection and Chemical Analysis

Three hundred snail samples at the beginning and all snails at the end of the feeding trial were sacrificed and stored at -70[degrees]C for chemical analysis. Proximate proximate /prox·i·mate/ (prok´si-mit) immediate or nearest.

prox·i·mate
adj.
Closely related in space, time, or order; very near; proximal.



proximate

immediate; nearest.
 composition of experimental diets and snails were analyzed as follows. Crude protein was determined by Kjeldahl method The Kjeldahl method in analytical chemistry is a method for the quantitative determination of nitrogen in chemical substances developed by Johan Kjeldahl [1].

The method as described in Julius Cohen's Practical Organic Chemistry
 using Auto Kjeldahl System (Buchi B-324/ 435/412, Switzerland). Crude lipid was determined with ether ether, in chemistry
ether, any of a number of organic compounds whose molecules contain two hydrocarbon groups joined by single bonds to an oxygen atom.
 extraction in a soxhlet extractor A Soxhlet extractor is a piece of laboratory apparatus invented in 1879 by Franz von Soxhlet. It was originally designed for the extraction of a lipid from a solid material. However, a Soxhlet extractor is not limited to the extraction of lipids. , moisture was determined by dry oven (105[degrees]C for 12 h), and ash was determined by a muffle furnace (550[degrees]C for 4 h). Lipid for fatty acid analyses was extracted by the method of Folch et al. (1957), and fatty acid methyl esters A fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) can be created by an alkali catalyzed reaction between fats or fatty acids and methanol. The molecules in biodiesel are primarily FAMEs, usually obtained from vegetable oils by transesterification.  were prepared by transesterification with 14% B[F.sub.3]-MeOH (Sigma, Chemical Co., USA). Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by using a gas chromatography gas chromatography (GC)

Type of chromatography with a gas mixture as the mobile phase. In a packed column, the packing or solid support (held in a tube) serves as the stationary phase (vapour-phase chromatography, or VPC) or is coated with a liquid stationary phase
 (HP 5890, Hewlett-Packard, USA) with flame ionization detector A flame ionization detector (FID) is a type of detector used in gas chromatography. Principle
The Flame Ionization Detector (FID) is one of the many methods by which to analyze materials coming off of gas chromatography column.
, equipped with HP-INNOWax capillary capillary (kăp`əlĕr'ē), microscopic blood vessel, smallest unit of the circulatory system. Capillaries form a network of tiny tubes throughout the body, connecting arterioles (smallest arteries) and venules (smallest veins).  column (30 m x 0.32 mm i.d., film thickness 0.5 [micro]m, Hewlett-Packard, USA). Injector and detector temperatures were 250[degrees]C and 270[degrees]C, respectively. The column temperature was programmed from 170[degrees]C to 225[degrees]C at a rate of 1[degrees]C/min. Helium was used as the carrier gas. Fatty acids were identified by comparison with retention times of the standard fatty acid methyl esters (Sigma, USA).

Statistical Analysis

The data of result were subjected to 1- and 2-way ANOVA anova

see analysis of variance.

ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there
 to test the effects of dietary protein and energy levels. Where significant (P < 0.05) differences were found in the 1-way ANOVA test, Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan 1955) was used to rank the groups. All statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance.  Version 10.0 (SPSS, Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Survival and growth of snails fed the diets containing various protein and energy levels for 12 wk are presented in Table 3. Survival of each group was all >80% and no significant difference among treatments. Mean weight gain was significantly (P < 0.001) affected by only dietary protein level. No significant interactions were observed between dietary protein and energy levels (P > 0.05) regarding growth and survival responses. Mean weight gain of snails was improved with increasing dietary protein level up to 22% and 32% at low and high energy levels (P < 0.05), respectively and reached a plateau above these levels (P > 0.05). This trend, which is in agreement with other studies, showed that growth of fish linearly increased up to the minimum required protein level, and then growth was similar without difference above these levels of protein (Mai et al. 1995b, Shyong et al. 1998). In this study, mean weight gain of snails fed the diets containing 22% protein with low energy level was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from that of snails fed the diets containing 32% to 52% protein with both energy levels. Considering this growth response, optimum dietary protein and energy levels are about 22% and 3.3 kcal/g diet for growth of snails. The optimum dietary protein level for snails determined in this study is comparable with that reported for abalone, Haliotis discus discus /dis·cus/ (dis´kus) pl. dis´ci   [L.] disk.

dis·cus
n. pl. dis·ci
A flat circular surface; a disk.



discus

pl. disci [L.]

1.
 hannai (Uki et al. 1986, Mai et al. 1995b).

In addition, the nonprotein energy sources may also influence the dietary protein requirement of fish. Adequate levels of nonprotein energy sources in diets can minimize use of protein as a source of energy (NRC 1993), and the protein sparing Protein sparing is the process by which the body derives energy from sources other than protein. Such sources can include fatty tissues, dietary fats and carbohydrates. Protein sparing conserves muscle tissue.  effect by fat and carbohydrate in diets has been reported in other fish (Cho & Kaushik 1990, De Silva et 'al. 1991). However, no significant difference on weight gain of snails was observed between low and high energy levels at same protein level in this study. This indicates that protein sparing by dietary lipid is not expecting for snail growth.

Lipid content and fatty acid composition of snails fed the diets containing various protein and energy levels for 12 wk are presented in Table 4. Lipid content was significantly (P < 0.01) affected by only dietary energy level, and lipid content of snails fed the high energy diets showed tendency toward higher values than that of the low energy diets at all protein levels in this study. The effect of dietary energy on body fat in this study was in agreement with reports for other studies that showed that high dietary energy level increased lipid content of fish (Lee et al. 2000, Lee et al. 2003).

It has been reported that dietary lipid level influence fatty acid compositions of fish lipid (Silver et al. 1993), and similar results were observed in this study. In this study, a good agreement between the fatty acid compositions of snail lipid and dietary lipid was observed as reported from the previous snail study (Lee et al. 2002). The 16:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 were the most abundant saturated, monoenoic, n-6 and n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids unsaturated fatty acids,
n.pl the double- or triple-bonded fatty acids contained primarily in vegetable oils and fish, which remain liquid at room temperature; linked to a reduction in the risk of developing heart disease.
 in snails fed the experimental diets, respectively, in this study. Snails fed the high-energy diets showed a tendency toward higher in 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and 22:6n-3 and lower in 20:2n-6, 20:4n-6, and 22:1n-9 than those of snails fed the low energy diets. Relative high levels (5.0% to 7.6%) of 20:4n-6 were observed in snails fed the experimental diets though 20:4n-6 content was about 0.2% in dietary lipid, in this study. Lee et al. (2002) reported that considerable content of 20:4n-6 was found in snails fed the diets containing no 20:4n-6. These results indicate that this snail may have capacity to elongate e·lon·gate  
tr. & intr.v. e·lon·gat·ed, e·lon·gat·ing, e·lon·gates
To make or grow longer.

adj. or elongated
1. Made longer; extended.

2. Having more length than width; slender.
 or desaturate 20:4n-6 from shorter chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Noun 1. polyunsaturated fatty acid - an unsaturated fatty acid whose carbon chain has more than one double or triple valence bond per molecule; found chiefly in fish and corn and soybean oil and safflower oil . It has been known that eicosanoids derived from 20:4n-6 are physiologically active in reproductive processes of fish (Tocher & Sargent 1984) and immune function Immune function
The state in which the body recognizes foreign materials and is able to neutralize them before they can do any harm.

Mentioned in: Herbalism, Traditional Chinese, Stress Reduction
 (Kinsella & Lokesh 1990). The 20:4n-6 is also one of the main components of phosphatidylinositol in fish tissues (Bell & Dick 1990, Sargent et al. 1999). Furthermore, Castell et al. (1994) reported that dietary 20:4n-6 is essential for the normal growth and development of juvenile turbot turbot: see flatfish.
turbot

Species (Scophthalmus maximus, family Scophthalmidae or Bothidae) of broad-bodied European flatfish, a highly valued food fish. It lives along sand and gravel shores.
. Whereas, Lee et al. (2002) suggested that snail require n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids as essential fatty acids in diets for normal growth, and plant oil could be used as an energy source when n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids requirement is satisfied. However, limited information on the biologic function of 20:4n-6 in snails is available. Therefore, more detailed studies on biologic function of 20:4n-6 in snails are needed.

The results of this study indicate that a diet containing 22% protein and 3.3 kcal/g diet with P/E ratio of 69 mg protein/kcal was recommended for snail growth.
TABLE 1.
Ingredients and nutrients content of the experiment diets.

                              12LE    12HE    22LE    22HE    32LE

Ingredients (%)
  Casein                      10.3    10.3    20.7    20.7    31.0
  Lipids (1)                   4.5    12.0     4.5    12.0     4.5
  Dextrin                     50.0    50.0    40.0    40.0    30.0
  Vitamin premix (2)           2.0     2.0     2.0     2.0     2.0
  Mineral premix (3)           3.0     3.0     3.0     3.0     3.0
  Na alginate                 18.0    18.0    18.0    18.0    18.0
  [alpha]-cellulose           11.7     4.2    11.3     3.8    11.0
  Choline salt                 0.5     0.5     0.5     0.5     0.5
Nutrients content (dry
    matter basis)
  Crude protein (%)           11.7    12.4    22.8    23.0    33.0
  Crude lipid (%)              2.4     7.2     3.6     8.7     3.6
  Ash (%)                      8.4     9.3     8.5     9.2     8.9
  Crude fiber (%)             13.7     5.7    13.3     5.2    13.0
  N-free extract (%) (4)      77.5    72.1    65.1    59.1    54.5
  Energy (kcal/g diet) (5)     3.24    3.80    3.31    3.86    3.31
  P/E ratio (mg/kcal)         36      33      69      60     100

                              32HE     42LE     42HE     52LE     52HE

Ingredients (%)
  Casein                      31.0     41.3     41.3     51.7     51.7
  Lipids (1)                  12.0      4.5     12.0      4.5     12.0
  Dextrin                     30.0     20.0     20.0     10.0     10.0
  Vitamin premix (2)           2.0      2.0      2.0      2.0      2.0
  Mineral premix (3)           3.0      3.0      3.0      3.0      3.0
  Na alginate                 18.0     18.0     18.0     18.0     18.0
  [alpha]-cellulose            3.5     10.7      3.2     10.3      2.8
  Choline salt                 0.5      0.5      0.5      0.5      0.5
Nutrients content (dry
    matter basis)
  Crude protein (%)           32.4     42.1     43.1     52.2     51.3
  Crude lipid (%)             10.3      4.4     10.8      5.0     11.5
  Ash (%)                      9.9      9.5      9.9     10.2      9.7
  Crude fiber (%)              4.9     12.6      4.6     12.2      4.2
  N-free extract (%) (4)      47.4       44     36.2     32.6     27.5
  Energy (kcal/g diet) (5)     3.92     3.33     3.96     3.35     4.02
  P/E ratio (mg/kcal)         83      126      109      156      127

(1) The mixture of squid liver oil, linseed oil and corn oil (1:1:1).

(2) Vitamin mix contained the following amount which were diluted in
cellulose (g/kg mix): L-ascorbic acid, 200; DL-[alpha]-tocopheryl
acetate, 20; thiamin hydrochloride, 5; riboflavin, 8; pyridoxie
hydrochloride, 2; niacin, 40; Ca-D-pantothenate, 12; myo-inositol,
200; D-biotin, 0.4; folic acid, 1.5; p-amino benzoic acid, 20;
menadione, 4; retinyl acetate, 1.5; cholecalciferol, 0.003;
cyanocobalamin, 0.003.

(3) Mineral mix contained the following ingredients (g/kg mix):
NaCl, 10; MgS[O.sub.4] * 7[H.sub.2]O, 150; Na[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4] *
2[H.sub.2]O, 250; K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 320;
Ca[H.sub.4][(P[O.sub.4]).sub.2] * [H.sub.2]O, 200; Ferric citrate,
25; ZnS[O.sub.4] * 7[H.sub.2]O, 4; Ca-lactate, 38.5; CuCl, 0.3;
Al[Cl.sub.3] * 6[H.sub.2]O, 0.15; KI[O.sub.3], 0.03;
[Na.sub.2][Se.sub.2][O.sub.3], 0.01; MnS[O.sub.4] * [H.sub.2]O,
2; Co[Cl.sub.2] * 6[H.sub.2]O, 0.1.

(4) Calculated by the difference (= 100-crude protein-crude
lipid-ash-crude fiber).

(5) Calculated based on 4 kcal/g protein, 9 kcal/g lipid and 4
kcal/g N-free extract (Garling & Wilson, 1976).

TABLE 2.
Fatty acid composition (% of total fatty acids) of
dietary lipid sources.

                                 Dietary Lipid

                 Squid Liver Oil     Linseed Oil     Corn Oil

Fatty acids
  12:0                 3.6               1.9            0.3
  14:0                 6.5               0.9            0.3
  16:0                13.3               5.7           11.6
  16:1n-7              9.1
  18:0                 1.7               2.7            3.3
  18:1n-9             12.8              16.1           19.1
  18:2n-6              1.4              15.6           55.3
  18:3n-3              1.0              53.6            6.7
  18:4n-3              3.6
  20:1 n-9             8.5
  20:4n-6              0.7
  20:4n-3              0.8
  20:5n-3             15.2
  22:1n-9              4.7
  22:5n-3              1.0
  22:6n-3             13.7
  n-3HUFA (1)         30.7

(1) Highly unsaturated fatty acids (C [greater than or equal to] 20).

TABLE 3.
Survival and weight gain of snails fed the diets containing various
protein and energy levels for 12 weeks. (1)

                    Initial Mean       Survival     Mean Weight Gain
     Diets           Weight (mg)         (%)           (mg/snail)

12LE               38 [+ or -] 4.0    82.3 [+ or     15.4 [+ or -]
                                        -] 4.98         0.40 (ab)
12HE               41 [+ or -] 3.8    81.7 [+ or     13.9 [+ or -]
                                        -] 2.33          2.21 (a)
22LE               37 [+ or -] 7.6    83.0 [+ or     29.3 [+ or -]
                                        -] 3.21         5.22 (cd)
22HE               34 [+ or -] 3.7    80.0 [+ or     24.7 [+ or -]
                                        -] 2.08         1.27 (bc)
32LE               38 [+ or -] 5.7    81.7 [+ or     29.4 [+ or -]
                                        -] 2.73         0.44 (cd)
32HE               38 [+ or -] 2.2    80.3 [+ or     34.6 [+ or -]
                                        -] 5.04         7.10 (cd)
42LE               37 [+ or -] 2.2    85.0 [+ or     34.4 [+ or -]
                                        -] 1.00         4.78 (cd)
42HE               38 [+ or -] 4.9    87.3 [+ or     38.9 [+ or -]
                                        -] 3.67          2.58 (d)
52LE               34 [+ or -] 1.8    84.3 [+ or     29.7 [+ or -]
                                        -] 2.19         1.85 (cd)
52HE               34 [+ or -] 1.2    87.3 [+ or     38.0 [+ or -]
                                        -] 2.67          0.77 (d)
Two-way ANOVA
Dietary protein                        P < 0.4          P < 0.001
Dietary energy                         P < 0.9          P < 0.3
Interaction                            P < 0.9          P < 0.4

(1) Values (mean [+ or -] SE of three replications) in the same
column not having a common superscript are significantly
different (P < 0.05).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank Mr. Y.-J. Kim for donation of snail samples. This research was supported by a grant from the Pyongchang Agricultural Development and Technology Center, Gangwondo, Korea.

LITERATURE CITED

Bell, M. V. & J. R. Dick. 1990. Molecular species composition of phosphatidylinositol from brain, retina, liver and muscle of cod (Gadus morhua). Lipids 25:691-694.

Castell, J. D., J. G. Bell, D. R. Tocher & J. R. Sargent. 1994. Effects of purified diets containing different combinations of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid docosahexaenoic acid /do·co·sa·hexa·eno·ic ac·id/ (do-ko?sah-hek?sah-e-no´ik) an omega-3, polyunsaturated, 22-carbon fatty acid found almost exclusively in fish and marine animal oils.  on survival, growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Aquaculture 128:315-333.

Cho, C. Y. & S. J. Kaushik. 1990. Nutritional energetics en·er·get·ics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
1. The study of the flow and transformation of energy.

2. The flow and transformation of energy within a particular system.
 in fish: energy and protein utilization in rainbow trout rainbow trout

Species (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of fish in the salmon family (Salmonidae) noted for spectacular leaps and hard fighting when hooked. It has been introduced from western North America to many other countries.
 (Salmo gairdneri). World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 61:132-172.

Daniels, W. H. & E. H. Robinson. 1986. Protein and energy requirements of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture 53:243-252.

De Silva, S. S., R. M. Gunasekera & K. F. Shim A small piece of software that is added to an existing system program or protocol in order to provide some enhancement.

(jargon, memory management) shim - A small piece of data inserted in order to achieve a desired memory alignment or other addressing property.
. 1991. Interactions of varying dietary protein and lipid levels in young red tilapia tilapia (təlä`pēə) or St. Peter's fish, a spiny-finned freshwater fish of the family Cichlidae, native chiefly to Africa and the Middle East. : evidence of protein sparing. Aquaculture 95:305-318.

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple-range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11: 1-42.

Folch, J., M. Lees & G. H. S. Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509.

Garling, D. L. & R. P. Wilson. 1976. Optimum dietary protein to energy ratio for channel catfish channel catfish

see ictaluruspunctatus.


channel catfish virus disease
acute herpesvirus disease of young catfish fry. There is ascites, exophthalmos and hemorrhage in the fins. Widespread in North America.
 fingerlings, Ictalurus punctatus. J. Nutr. 106: 1368-1375.

Kinsella, J. E. & B. Lokesh. 1990. Dietary lipids, eicosanoids and the immune system immune system

Cells, cell products, organs, and structures of the body involved in the detection and destruction of foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. Immunity is based on the system's ability to launch a defense against such invaders.
. Care Med. 18:S94-S113.

Lee, S.-M., S. H. Cho & K.-D. Kim. 2000. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on growth and body composition of juvenile flounder flounder: see flatfish.
flounder

Any of about 300 species of flatfishes (order Pleuronectiformes). When born, the flounder is bilaterally symmetrical, with an eye on each side, and it swims near the sea's surface.
 Paralichthys olivaceus. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 31:306-315.

Lee, S.-M., K.-D. Kim, T.-J. Lim & I. C. Bang. 2002. Effects of dietary lipid sources on growth and body composition of snail (Semisulcospira gottschei). J. Fish. Sci. Tech. 5:165-171.

Lee, S.-M., K.-D. Kim & S. P. Lall. 2003. Utilization of glucose, maltose, dextrin and cellulose by juvenile flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquaculture 221:427-438.

Lim, T.-J., K.-D. Kim, S.-H. Kim, S.-M. Lee & I. C. Bang. 2003. Effects of different dietary carbohydrate sources on growth and body composition of juvenile snail (Semisulcospira gottschei). J. Aquacult. 16:187-189.

Mai, K., J. P. Mercer & J. Donlon. 1995a. Comparative studies on the nutrition of two species of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata L and Haliotis discus hannai Ino. II. Response of abalone to various levels of dietary lipid. Aquaculture 134:65-80.

Mai, K., J. P. Mercer & J. Donlon. 1995b. Comparative studies on the nutrition of two species of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata L and Haliotis discus hannai Ino. IV. Optimum dietary protein level for growth. Aquaculture 136:165-180.

National Research Council (NRC). 1993. Nutrient requirements of fish. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Phillips, A. M. 1972. Calorie and energy requirements. In: J. E. Halver, editor. Fish nutrition. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Academic Press. pp. 2-29.

Sargent, J. R., J. G. Bell, L. A. McEvoy, D. Tocher & A. Estevez. 1999. Recent developments in the essential fatty acid
    Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet.
     nutrition of fish. Aquaculture 177:191-199.

    Shyong, W.-J., C.-H. Huang & H.-C. Chen. 1998. Effects of dietary protein concentration on growth and muscle composition of juvenile Zacco barbata. Aquaculture 167:35-42.

    Silver, G. R., D. A. Higgs, B. A. Dosanjh, B. A. McKeown, G. Deacon deacon: see orders, holy.

    DEACON - Direct English Access and CONtrol. English-like query system. Sammet 1969, p.668.
     & D. French. 1993. Effect of dietary protein to lipid ratio on growth and chemical composition of chinook salmon chinook salmon
     or king salmon

    Prized North Pacific food and sport fish (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of the salmon family. The average weight is about 22 lbs (10 kg), but individuals of 50–80 lbs (22–36 kg) are not unusual.
     (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in seawater seawater

    Water that makes up the oceans and seas. Seawater is a complex mixture of 96.5% water, 2.5% salts, and small amounts of other substances. Much of the world's magnesium is recovered from seawater, as are large quantities of bromine.
    . In: S. J. Kaushik & P. Luquet, editors. Fish nutrition in practice. Paris: Les Colloques, No. 61. INRA INRA Institut National de la Recherché Agronomique (France; National Institute for Agronomic Research)
    INRA Institute for Natural Resources in Africa
    INRA Inland Northwest Research Alliance
     Edns. pp. 459-468.

    Tocher, D. R. & J. R. Sargent. 1984. Analyses of lipids and fatty acids in ripe roes of some Northwest European marine fish. Lipids 19:492-499.

    Uki, N., A. Kemuyama & Y. Watanabe. 1986. Optimum protein levels in diets for abalone. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 52:1005-1012.

    SANG-MIN LEE * AND TAE-JUN LIM

    Faculty of Marine Bioscience and Technology, Kangnung National University, Gangneung 210-702, Korea

    * Corresponding author. E-mail: smlee@kangnung.ac.kr
    COPYRIGHT 2005 National Shellfisheries Association, Inc.
    No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
    Copyright 2005, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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    Author:Lim, Tae-Jun
    Publication:Journal of Shellfish Research
    Geographic Code:1USA
    Date:Jan 1, 2005
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