Effects of Systematic Desensitisation (SD) therapy on the reduction of test anxiety among adolescents in Nigerian schools.This study investigated the effect of Systematic Desensitisation Noun 1. systematic desensitisation - a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety; client is exposed to the threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished (SD) therapy on the reduction of test anxiety on some identified test anxious students. In addition, three secondary independent variables were studied along. These were entry test anxiety level, sex, and locus of control locus of control
A theoretical construct designed to assess a person's perceived control over his or her own behavior. The classification internal locus indicates that the person feels in control of events; external locus . A 2 x 2 x 2 way factorial factorial
For any whole number, the product of all the counting numbers up to and including itself. It is indicated with an exclamation point: 4! (read “four factorial”) is 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24. design was employed. SD was found effective in the reduction of test anxiety of the students who were test anxious F-ratio = 9.261 with df (1,74). Entry test anxiety level of subjects was found to be significant on the level of reduction of test anxiety students F = 27.458 with df (1,74). Sex had no significant effect on the reduction of test anxiety of students F = 0.079 with df of (1, 74) and p > 0.05. There was no significant interaction effect of therapy and secondary independent variables. However, there was a significant interaction effect of entry test anxiety level and therapy at the end of treatment. Since SD has been found to be effective in the reduction of test anxiety among adolescents in Nigerian schools; it is recommended that this therapy be used in the treatment of test anxiety. It should be noted that before the treatment of test anxiety, the entry test anxiety level of subjects must be considered so as to set a baseline for the therapy.
In recent times, stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. are worried about the falling standard of education in Nigeria Courtesy of the oil boom years of the 1970s, tertiary education was expanded to reach every subregion of Nigeria. The Federal Government and the State Governments were previously the only bodies licensed to operate universities in Nigeria. . The media have equally raised alarm about examination malpractices as well as other educational ills in the nation's schools. Comments and seminars have equally been taken on this issue. The pros and cons pros and cons
the advantages and disadvantages of a situation [Latin pro for + con(tra) against] of these educational vices have been analysed in time past and are still being analysed today. While most people tend to focus attention on the educational system itself, some blame it on the teachers and the teaching methods, while others still blame it on the inability of the students to read and comprehend what have been taught (Adedipe, 1984; Okoye, 1986; and Amameze, 1992).
In addition, there could be the problem of emotional maladjustment maladjustment /mal·ad·just·ment/ (mal?ah-just´ment) in psychiatry, defective adaptation to the environment.
1. Faulty or inadequate adjustment.
2. , which seems to be plaguing the adolescents as a result of the sensitivity in the developmental stage. There is the inherent fear and anxiety resulting from high expectations from parents, peer group identification problems, paper qualification expectations, and adjustment in terms of sexual role. In order to meet up with these expectations, these adolescents could be caught in the grip of fears and anxieties. These situations, when applied to testing, may not make for high academic performance. For as long as the classroom situation does not provide for the emotionally maladjusted mal·ad·just·ed
Inadequately adjusted to the demands or stresses of daily living. adolescent, classroom activities such as assignments, projects, class works and tests may not be done properly. Studies have pointed to the fact that lessons are taught with less concern for the emotionally maladjusted, leaving no room for improvement on their situations (Egbochuku, 1998). Lack of concern could result in frustration, which may lead to fear and anxiety. These adolescents, while still groping grope
v. groped, grop·ing, gropes
1. To reach about uncertainly; feel one's way: groped for the telephone.
2. in the grip of fear and anxiety, could find themselves in the test and/or examination halls where they are expected to impress their teachers and parents in particular their worth academically. Performance under such conditions could be impaired.
Fear and anxiety are emotional problems, which if not attended to could be carried over to examination situation and researches have shown that this could result in neurotic neurotic /neu·rot·ic/ (ndbobr-rot´ik)
1. pertaining to or characterized by a neurosis.
2. a person affected with a neurosis.
adj. difficulties (Adeola, 1987). Fear and anxiety, in most cases, result in frustration and this is capable of affecting the totality TOTALITY. The whole sum or quantity.
2. In making a tender, it is requisite that the totality of the sum due should be offered, together with the interest and costs. Vide Tender. of the individual as well as his/her personality. It has also been noticed that most adolescents who are plagued by this social vice, may not have been exposed to appropriate counselling therapies. This is due to the fact that most schools do not employ the service of a guidance counsellor with the appropriate training and skills to manage such social vices. Numerous counselling therapies that enhance adaptive behaviour abound in the field of psychology. These therapies are derived from psychological theories, and are geared toward the elimination of maladaptive Maladaptive
Unsuitable or counterproductive; for example, maladaptive behavior is behavior that is inappropriate to a given situation.
Mentioned in: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy behaviours such as fear, anxiety, neurosis neurosis, in psychiatry, a broad category of psychological disturbance, encompassing various mild forms of mental disorder. Until fairly recently, the term neurosis was broadly employed in contrast with psychosis, which denoted much more severe, debilitating mental , insecurity Insecurity
Inseparability (See FRIENDSHIP.)
Insolence (See ARROGANCE.)
introspective, vacillating Prince of Denmark. [Br. Lit.: Hamlet]
cartoon character who is lost without his security blanket. and depression among others.
Systematic Desensitisation (SD) is a therapy that has been used with recorded successes among adolescents (Ellis, 1977; Kraft, 1992; Egbochuku, 1998). This is a behaviour modification therapy that involves the use of classical conditioning Classical conditioning
The memory system that links perceptual information to the proper motor response. For example, Ivan Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate when a bell was rung. methods in relaxing an individual who is anxious. It is a kind of counter conditioning Noun 1. counter conditioning - conditioning in which a second incompatible response is conditioned to an already conditioned stimulus; "counter conditioning lies behind many of the procedures used in behavior therapy" whereby an established habit can be weakened or off-set by learning something else. The goal is to get the feeling of relaxation to dominate over the feeling of fear and anxiety for certain critical situations in a person's life. Could it be effective in the reduction of test anxiety?
Sex has been found to affect test anxiety significantly (Martins, 1974; Makinde, 2000). Since this study looked at effect of the aforementioned therapies in co-educational schools, it is important that the issue of sex is considered along side so as to ascertain if treatment effect observed is as a result of gender interference i.e. sex by treatment interaction. The establishment of a baseline before treatment is of paramount importance in behaviour modification (Akinboye, 1992). This gives direction to the study and helps the researchers in ascertaining if treatment is effective or not. The entry test anxiety level of subjects must therefore be considered. This will help in the establishment of the baseline for this study and also show if it has any effect on the treatment and final test anxiety level of subjects. However, it is yet to be established whether the changes observed from treatment with the aforementioned therapies are due to other underlying factors such as entry test anxiety level, or sex that can reduce test anxiety among students. Thus, it is important that the interaction of factors such as entry test anxiety level, and sex with treatment be explored empirically.
The focus of this study was therefore two-fold: Firstly, it determined the effect of Systematic Desensitisation (SD) on the reduction of test anxiety of identified adolescents in Nigerian secondary schools that were experiencing test anxiety. Secondly, it established the relationship between the systematic desensitisation and sex. To guide the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated and tested.
1) There is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of groups with moderate and high entry anxiety level at the end of treatment.
2) There is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of groups subjected to SD therapy and Control after treatment.
3) There is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of male and female subjects after treatment.
This study was quasi [Latin, Almost as it were; as if; analogous to.] In the legal sense, the term denotes that one subject has certain characteristics in common with another subject but that intrinsic and material differences exist between them. experimental in nature. Three independent variables were involved namely, treatment (2 types), entry test anxiety level (2 levels), and Sex (2 levels). The independent variable of primary interest is the Systematic Desensitisation (SD). Entry test anxiety level and sex were used as moderator variables A moderator variable is, in general terms, a qualitative (e.g., sex, race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between dependent and independent variables. . Specifically, scores from entry test anxiety level were used as block variables. Total scores from pre-test of the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were used to block subjects into three groups, namely, group with low entry test anxiety level, moderate entry test anxiety level and those with high entry test anxiety level. However, research has shown that some element of anxiety is required for optimal performance by organisms (Campus Blues, 2003). This is the reason why this research did not consider those with low-test anxiety level. Also the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) specified that subjects whose score falls below 34.37 and 34.77 norm score for Nigerian sample should be regarded as not having problems with test anxiety for males and females respectively. Subjects who scored above the aforementioned score were then divided into two (2) groups of moderate entry test anxiety level and high entry test anxiety level with 34.48 and 34.78 to 49.99 as moderate and 50.00 and above as high. Of the remaining 2 independent variables, treatment was a manipulable variable with 2 types, which were Systematic Desensitisation (SD) and control while sex was used as a selection variable. Selection in the sense that subjects was selected by sex (male and female). Only one dependent variable, test anxiety level at the end of treatment was used in the study. The dependent variable has two (2) components: worry and emotionality, but the study employed the total score, meaning that the dependent variable was used as a univariate.
The population of the study comprised all secondary school students in Lagos (South West area of Nigeria). Only co-educational senior secondary schools were used. The reason for this was to enable the researchers decipher Same as decrypt. between responses of males and females as regards test anxiety and to ascertain their interactive effect on treatment. The stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. random sampling technique was used for the initial selection of schools from the pool. three schools were randomly selected. The stratified random sampling was also used for the selection of the subjects into their various strata namely, entry test anxiety level (moderate and high), sex (males and females) A selection test, the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) was used in the determination of the initial selection.
Administration of the instruments followed the steps below:
1. Pre treatment Assessment (pre test)
3. Post treatment Assessment (post test)
The main instrument used for assessment was Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) originally developed by Spielberger (1980) but revalidated in Nigeria by Perafom Psychometric psy·cho·met·rics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and Centre (PPC See Pocket PC, PowerPC and pay-per-click.
PPC - PowerPC ) in 1997, and further revalidated by the researchers in 2004. The inventory was administered to the randomly selected sample intact classes. Responses were scored according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the specification on the TAI manual. Scores that are above the Nigeria norm (34.77 for males and 34.37 for females) indicate presence of test anxiety and scores below this show no problem with test anxiety. Only subjects with test anxiety were included in this treatment. These were then randomly assigned to the two (2) treatment groups. A sample of one hundred and twenty-five (125) subjects were randomly selected for this study, out of which seventy eight (78) were test anxious and these went through the treatment programme:
The treatment programmes are of two types:
1. Systematic Desensitisation group
2. Control group
The SD group was exposed to treatment sessions. There were two sessions per week for 30 minutes per session. The whole treatment programme took twelve (12) sessions. In all, six (6) weeks was spent for the treatment programme. Systematic Desensitisation was not applied to the control group. They were only exposed to career opportunities within their localities.
In order to determine the effects of SD and entry test anxiety level of subjects, data collected from the 78 subjects from the two treatment groups were analysed using a two-way ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there (i.e. treatment versus entry level of test anxiety) for each level of the two levels of the dependent variable (test anxiety). Similarity among the two (2) treatment groups at pre test was established. The pre test scores from the TAI were used as a blocking variable rather than as a covariate of the post test scores because the correlation coefficient Correlation Coefficient
A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.
The correlation coefficient is calculated as: of the two was found to be 0.53.
In order to determine the effects of SD on the test anxiety level of groups at the end of treatment, the following hypotheses were tested using test anxiety level as dependent variable.
H[O.sub.1]: There is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of groups with moderate and high entry anxiety level at the end of treatment.
H[O.sub.2]: There is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of groups subjected to SD therapy and control after treatment.
H[O.sub.3] There is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of male and female subjects after treatment.
Data analyses for the testing of the above hypotheses are presented in Tables 1, 2, and 3.
In Table 1, a 2-way analysis of variance showed the F-ratio for the effect of entry test anxiety level to be 27.458 with df (1, 74). This was significant at p<0.05. Similarly, the F-ratio for treatment groups was found to be 9.261 with df (1,74), which was also significant at p<0.05. Thus, the two null A character that is all 0 bits. Also written as "NUL," it is the first character in the ASCII and EBCDIC data codes. In hex, it displays and prints as 00; in decimal, it may appear as a single zero in a chart of codes, but displays and prints as a blank space. hypotheses for test anxiety level and treatment were rejected. It is therefore concluded that:
(i) There was a significant difference in the test anxiety level of groups subjected to the SD therapy and control after treatment.
(ii) There was a significant difference in the test anxiety level of groups with moderate and high entry test anxiety level at the end of treatment.
Having found that treatment and entry test anxiety levels have main effects on the test anxiety level of subjects at the end of treatment, it was necessary to determine the main differences in effects of the two independent variables and at the end of treatment. Data analyses for testing the above hypotheses are presented in the tables below:
Table 2 reveals the mean scores of males and females after treatment. Perusal shows that the mean scores presented in the cells are quite close under each therapy, which indicates that there is no significant difference in the mean scores.
Similarly, the F-ratio for sex in Table 3, was found to be F = 0.079 with df of (1,74) and p > 0.05. This implies that there is no significant difference in the test anxiety level of males and females after treatment. Thus the null hypothesis null hypothesis,
n theoretical assumption that a given therapy will have results not statistically different from another treatment.
n earlier stated no significant difference in male and female subjects at the end of treatment is retained. This means that the effect of treatment was same in both males and females and the mean scores in Table 2 confirm this when mean scores are compared. Thus, the null hypothesis of no significant effect of treatment by gender on test anxiety level at the end of treatment stated earlier is retained.
The findings from the analyses indicated that there was a significant difference between the treatment and control groups on the reduction of test anxiety level at the end of treatment and that entry test anxiety level and treatments were significant in their effects on the reduction of test anxiety level at the end of treatment. The understanding of the entry test anxiety level of subjects will help the counsellor in setting the base line for treatment. This will also guide the counsellor in the tracking of the trend of the treatment during the treatment sessions and at the end of the sessions. It will help the students and counsellor appreciate the level of improvement attained. These findings are in line with Akinboye's (1992) findings on counselling procedure on treatment of psychological and emotional maladjustment. The findings also indicate that both high and moderate test anxiety subjects in the treatment and control groups responded differently.
Following the tested effect of entry test anxiety level on the final test anxiety level of subjects, further analysis was carried out on the other secondary independent variable, which was sex. Considering the hypothesis on sex, findings revealed that there was no significant difference between male and female subject in the reduction of test anxiety at the end of treatment. The analysis indicates that both males and females respond to treatment in the same way. In terms of test anxiety reduction, sex was not found to be significant. These findings cancel out Verb 1. cancel out - wipe out the effect of something; "The new tax effectively cancels out my raise"; "The `A' will cancel out the `C' on your record"
wipe out the general assumption that females tend to exhibit severe fear and anxiety more than their male counterparts in everyday life. These results agreed with the work of Seeley, Storey, Wagner, Walker, and Watts (2004), they lbund no statistical significance difference between sex and anxiety levels in their study on anxiety levels and sex differences in social volley ball Vol´ley ball
1. A game played by volleying a large inflated ball with the hands over a net 7 ft. 6 in. high. players. Other studies such as Kirkland (1971), confirm the above findings in his work on reduction of tear and anxiety primarily among elementary children.
However, a few researches conducted in this area have shown that there is a significant difference between males and females in their manifestation of fears and anxieties (Makinde, 2000). The result also showed that females manifest fears and anxieties at a greater degree in varying situations. Other studies, which indicated high female anxiety than their male counterpart, include Krane and Williams, (1994), Sewell and Edmondson (1996). Sewell and Edmondson (1996) found that females show a higher math anxiety, which could result in lower self-confidence than their male counterparts.
From the foregoing analysis and findings, it can be concluded:
Systematic Desensitisation (SD) therapy could be effective in the reduction of test anxiety among school children. Considering test anxiety reduction, the entry test anxiety level is a major variable. This will enable the counsellor set the baseline before treatment commences and to know the direction of effect of treatment. On sex effect, both males and females responded in similar manner to treatment, which could mean that sex may not really affect the outcome of systematic desensitisation therapy. The findings also indicated that whether male or female, both are prone to test anxiety. Since SD therapy proved effective in reducing test anxiety, it follows therefore that the result of this study is valuable to the Nigerian educational system because of the application of this technique in reducing test anxiety. The implementation of the results of this study will to a large extent bring about a reduction in anxiety, which could lead to a reduction in examination malpractice malpractice, failure to provide professional services with the skill usually exhibited by responsible and careful members of the profession, resulting in injury, loss, or damage to the party contracting those services. ; and wastage wastage
a loss of product or productivity; in terms of animal production includes losses due to deaths of animals, lowered production from survivors, including reproduction, and lost opportunity income.
wastage Fetal wastage, see there rates in the school system.
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The University was founded on its own site on 17 November 1948. . Ibadan.
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1. Of or relating to emotion: the emotive aspect of symbols.
2. Characterized by, expressing, or exciting emotion: therapy in the reduction of Test Anxiety. Journal of School of Languages. II. (2).25-50
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of . Lyle Stuart.
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A therapy technique that assumes improper or unwanted behavior is caused by unconscious, internal conflicts and focuses on gaining insight into these motivations.
Mentioned in: Group Therapy, Suicide Explanation for Rapidity of Treatment. Contemporary, Hypnosis hypnosis
State that resembles sleep but is induced by a person (the hypnotist) whose suggestions are readily accepted by the subject. The hypnotized individual seems to respond in an uncritical, automatic fashion, ignoring aspects of the environment (e.g. 9 (3), 175-181.
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A region of western Africa between the Sahara Desert and the Gulf of Guinea. It was largely controlled by colonial powers until the 20th century.
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Science of psychological measurement. Psychometricians design and administer psychological tests (see psychological testing), both to generate empirical data on mental processes and to refine their understanding of measurement techniques and the Centre (PPC) (1997). Test anxiety inventory. TAI manual, No. 7, PPC Nigerian Agency.
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Dr E. O. Egbochuku, Senior Lecturer senior lecturer
n. Chiefly British
A university teacher, especially one ranking next below a reader. and Coordinator, Counselling Centre, Department of Educational Psychology and Curriculum Studies, University of Benin There are several institutions called the University of Benin in West Africa:
Correspondence concerning this article should be emailed to Dr. Egbochuku at firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Table 1 2-way Analysis of Variance for Effects of Treatment Groups and Entry Test Anxiety Level at Post-test Source SS df MS F Entry test anxiety level 2201.566 1 2201.566 27.458 Treatments 742.580 1 742.580 9.261 2-Way Interactions Entry test anxiety level Vs Treatments 361.822 1 361.822 4.513 Error 5913.311 74 80.180 Source Sig. Entry test anxiety level .000 Treatments .003 2-Way Interactions Entry test anxiety level Vs Treatments .037 Error ** Significant at 0.05 Table 2 Distribution of Post-test Means on the Differences in the Test Anxiety Level of Males and Females After Treatment. Systematic Gender Desensitisation Control Total Male 43.58 (19) 49.45 (20) 46.59 (39) Female 42.00 (19) 49.65 (20) 45.92 (39) Total 42.79 (38) 49.55 (40) 46.26 (78) Table 3 2-way ANOVA showing interaction effects of treatment by sex at the end of treatment Significant Source SS df MS F probability Treatment 890.656 1 890.656 7.570 0.007 Sex 9.264 1 9.264 0.079 0.780 2-Way Interactions Treatment vs Sex 15.418 1 15.418 0.131 0.718 Error 74 117.650 Total 77 * Significant at P < 0.05
Elizabeth Egbochuku (Member): Effects of systematic desensitization(SD) therapy on the reduction of test anxiety among adolescents in Nigerian schools' 2/16/2008 3:21 PM
George Uhlig Publisher,
I observed with dismay as I searched through thefreelibrary.com web site that the article which I co-authored with a junior colleague is credited to her as the sole author. The title of the article is "Effects of systematic desensitization(SD) therapy on the reduction of test anxiety among adolescents in Nigerian schools' and was published in Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol. 32 No.4 December 2005. As a result, while in the site a search for "Egbochuku" returns no result. It is only when one searches for "Obodo" that the article appears.
This is unacceptable and I advice the error be corrected immediately.