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Effectiveness of library resources in the libraries of agricultural research institutes in Nigeria.


Nigeria's agricultural research institutes in Nigeria were founded during the period of colonial administration (1861-1950). They passed through the periods of internal self-government (1951-1960), and have continued to develop and grow during the post-independence era. There are fourteen agricultural research institutes in Nigeria, which were founded in different circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
     2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or
 at different times to satisfy different agricultural needs (Idachaba 1987). The purpose of these institutes is to conduct research in various areas of agriculture to enhance agricultural production. Research results are communicated to farmers through agricultural extension Agricultural extension was once known as the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of extension now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organised for rural people by . Each institute's responsibilities call for specialized spe·cial·ize  
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es

1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.

 information collections to achieve their objectives and to function efficiently. The agricultural research library is responsible for supplying and organizing information that is relevant to the work of the institutes.

The agricultural research libraries face problems that may make them ineffective: poor funding, poor infrastructure, and lack of technology. These libraries cannot improve without evaluation of the present situation. This study assesses the level of user satisfaction with agricultural research institutes' library resources in order to identify impediments IMPEDIMENTS, contracts. Legal objections to the making of a contract. Impediments which relate to the person are those of minority, want of reason, coverture, and the like; they are sometimes called disabilities. Vide Incapacity.
 to effectiveness and offer research-based solutions.

Literature Review

Nigerian agricultural research institutes face rising demand for scientific data and information, which places more demand on the libraries. Fabunmi (2004) describes library effectiveness as including information customized to meet individual needs, stating that effective library systems are timely in delivery, meet their specific needs, are easy to understand/use, and are delivered by courteous cour·te·ous  
Characterized by gracious consideration toward others. See Synonyms at polite.

[Middle English corteis, courtly, from Old French, from cort, court; see
 and knowledgeable staff.

Effective research libraries provide ICTs that aid timely delivery of information in response to researchers' needs. ICTs are combined with standardized information delivery techniques. Librarians This is a list of people who have practised as a librarian and are well-known, either for their contributions to the library profession or primarily in some other field.  in administrative and management positions coordinate these things to provide an effective system. Nwalo (1997) advises that library effectiveness be measured in terms of the satisfaction expressed by library users.

The effectiveness of library resources and services can be measured in various ways. Nwalo (1997) citing Ene (1978) states, "libraries are judged by set objectives ... [And] application of set standards to measure the quantity of operations ... " Ifidon (1977) observes that library evaluation can use both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.

irrespective of
preposition despite 
 whether the evaluation is quantitative or qualitative, parameters are set to be judged by users, who are in the best position to evaluate the effectiveness of the library. Agricultural institute researchers should have the prerogative An exclusive privilege. The special power or peculiar right possessed by an official by virtue of his or her office. In English Law, a discretionary power that exceeds and is unaffected by any other power; the special preeminence that the monarch has over and above all others,  of evaluating the agricultural research institute libraries. Kellaher (2005) gives six reasons why library evaluation from user's perspective is very important.

* the place of initiative services;

* the quality of these services;

* the flexibility of these services;

* users ability to effect changes to services they receive;

* how initiative service can fit with mainstream services; [and]

* how the library might develop mechanisms for assuring quality in library resources and services.

The scope of this study covers facilities available in the libraries, serials collection, library services, and special services such as selective dissemination of information (library) Selective Dissemination of Information - (SDI) (From Library Science) SDI is a current awareness system which alerts you to the latest publications in your specified field(s) of interest.  (SDI (1) (Serial Digital Interface) A physical interface widely used for transmitting digital video in various formats. For electrical transmission, it uses a high grade of coaxial cable and a single BNC connector with Teflon insulation. ), current contents search, and reprography re·prog·ra·phy  
The process of reproducing, reprinting, or copying graphic material especially by mechanical, photographic, or electronic means.

[repro(duction) + -graphy.
. Library adequacy variables in this study are internal to the library.


This is social survey research that involves systematic collection of data about opinion, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors of people (Aina, 2002). The survey technique was chosen for this research, which involves evaluation of the information services See Information Systems.  of many research libraries and their diverse resources. This total population for the study consists of research officers in the fourteen agricultural research institutes in Nigeria. The research officers include veterinary doctors, medical laboratory scientists, animal health scientists, horticulturists, biochemists This page aims to list articles on about famous biochemists.

This list is not necessarily complete or up to date - if you see a biography that should be here but isn't (or one that shouldn't be here but is), please update the page accordingly, even if you have no information at
, agricultural scientists, and so on. The research officers in the branch offices (Outstations) were not involved because a majority of such branches do not have libraries.

The objectives and the hypotheses of this study necessitated the use of questionnaire, structured interview and direct observation to collect the required data.

Table 1 shows that respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  are unsatisfied with electronic resources in the libraries. Buckland's (1975) views on library services state that, "intellectual access to recorded information has quite properly been a major pre-occupation of librarians," and that "intellectual access needs to be accompanied by physical access if the documents are to be used to obtain information." The libraries must enhance electronic access to be in line with current trends in information selection and distribution to spur productivity.

Table 2 shows that respondents find their library's collections unsatisfactory. The libraries are not meeting user expectations. The books that are available are not current as reported by the respondents in Table 1. Electronic resources can substitute for print collections, which are not available in most of the libraries.

More than three quarters of the respondents indicate that the libraries are ineffective, which implies that the productivity of the research scientists could be hampered.


The results of the survey show that the agricultural research institute libraries in Nigeria are ineffective in supporting their institution's research mandate. This ineffectiveness has resulted from gross underfunding of the libraries by the parent institutions and failure by the management to give the library the status it deserves. This has adversely affected the resources and services of the library. The low research and publication productivity of agricultural research officers may be attributable in part to the ill-equipped libraries.


Aina, L.O. (2002). Research in information sciences. In Onyango. R.A.O. (Ed.), Data collection instruments in information sciences. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden. pp. 63-109.

Buckland, M. K. (1975). Book availability and the library user. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Pergamon.

Ene, N. (1978). Analysis of the clientele of the public libraries in Benin-City and the effectiveness the libraries in meeting their needs . Unpublished doctoral dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion  
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.


, University of Ibadan The University of Ibadan is the oldest Nigerian university, and is located five miles (8 kilometres) from the centre of the major city of Ibadan in Western Nigeria. It has over 12,000 students.

The University was founded on its own site on 17 November 1948.

Fabunmi, B.A. (2004). Planning the university libraries for effective customer services in Nigeria . In Madu, E.C. (Ed.), Technology for information management and service: Modern libraries and information centers on developing countries. Ibadan : Evi-Coleman. pp. 147-158.

Idachaba, F.S. (1987). Food for all Nigerians: Is there hope? Alumni Lecture of the University of Ibadan Alumni Association An alumni association is an association of graduates (alumni) or, more broadly, of former students. In the United Kingdom and the United States, alumni of universities, colleges, schools (especially independent schools), fraternities, and sororities often form groups with alumni , Ibadan: Ibadan University press.

Ifidon, S. A. (1977). A quantitative assessment of adequacy of Nigerian university library collections in the humanities and social sciences in relation to postgraduate research Postgraduate research (commonly referred to as graduate research in the United States) represents a formal area of study which is recognized by a university or institute of higher learning. . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ibadan.

Kellaher, L. (2005) Quality measurement: A user approach. Available: http://www.psi PSI - Portable Scheme Interpreter

Nwalo, K.I.N. (1997). Measures of library effectiveness in Nigerian polytechnic libraries with emphasis on user satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ibadan.

Lily lily, common name for the Liliaceae, a plant family numbering several thousand species of as many as 300 genera, widely distributed over the earth and particularly abundant in warm temperate and tropical regions.  Oluebube Ezeala, PhD

Technical Services Unit, Library Division

National Veterinary Research Institute

Vom, Nigeria

Result and Interpretation
Table 1: Assessment of user satisfaction with Electronic Resources

Types of Electronic Resources                 Responses

                              Very Inadequate           Inadequate

                               No          %           No          %

Functional Computers          104         41.6         63         25.2
Photocopying Machines          87         34.8         74         29.6
CD-ROM Resources              127         50.8         68         27.2
Microforms                    136         54.4         79         31.6
Microform Readers             153         61.2         63         25.2
Fax Machines                  187         74.8         37         14.8
Internet Services             111         44.4         38         15.2
Local Area Network            126         50.4         56         22.4
Radio Message                 150         60.0         52         20.8
Telephone                     111         44.4         48         19.2
Lighting                       49         19.6         34         13.6
No. of Computer Work          125         50.0         64         25.6
 Stations for the Library
Mean                          122         48.9         56         22.5

                                    Fair                  Adequate

                               No          %           No          %

Functional Computers           38         15.2         29         11.6
Photocopying Machines          40         16.0         39         15.6
CD-ROM Resources               32         12.8         18          7.2
Microforms                     23          9.2          7          2.8
Microform Readers              24          9.6          5          2.0
Fax Machines                   11          4.4         12          4.8
Internet Services              38         15.2         38         15.2
Local Area Network             32         12.8         27         10.8
Radio Message                  30         12.0         13          5.2
Telephone                      44         17.6         33         13.2
Lighting                       56         22.4         84         33.6
No. of Computer Work           39         15.6         15          6.0
 Stations for the Library
Mean                           34         13.6         27         10.7

                               Very adequate               Total

                               No          %           No          %

Functional Computers           16         6.4         250        100.0
Photocopying Machines          10         4.0         250        100.0
CD-ROM Resources               5          2.0         250        100.0
Microforms                     5          2.0         250        100.0
Microform Readers              5          2.0         250        100.0
Fax Machines                   3          1.2         250        100.0
Internet Services              25        10.0         250        100.0
Local Area Network             9          3.6         250        100.0
Radio Message                  5          2.0         250        100.0
Telephone                      14         5.6         250        100.0
Lighting                       27        10.8         250        100.0
No. of Computer Work           7          2.8         250        100.0
 Stations for the Library
Mean                           11         4.4         250        100.0

Table 2: User Satisfaction with the Library's Collection

Types of Library Collection             Responses

                           Very dissatisfied        Dissatisfied

                           No            %         No          %

Text books                 35          14.0        77        30.8
Journals                   36          14.4        85        34.0
Reference books            29          11.6        75        30.0
Newspapers                 36          14.4        37        14.8
Magazines                  58          23.2        89        35.6
Microforms                 102         40.8        63        25.2
CD -ROM                    98          39.2        64        25.6
The entire collection      28          11.2        83        33.2
Mean                       53          21.1        72        28.7

                              Undecided               Satisfied

                           No            %         No          %

Text books                 34          13.6        92        36.8
Journals                   21           8.4        90        36.0
Reference books            53          21.2        79        31.6
Newspapers                 37          14.8        92        36.8
Magazines                  57          22.8        38        15.2
Microforms                 68          27.2        15         6.0
CD -ROM                    56          22.4        28        11.2
The entire collection      77          30.8        57        22.8
Mean                       50          20.2        61        24.6

                            Very  satisfied             Total

                           No            %         No          %

Text books                 12           4.8        250        100
Journals                   18           7.2        250        100
Reference books            14           5.6        250        100
Newspapers                 48          19.2        250        100
Magazines                   8           3.2        250        100
Microforms                  2           0.8        250        100
CD -ROM                     4           1.6        250        100
The entire collection       5            2         250        100
Mean                       14           5.6        250        100

Table 3: Overall Assessment

Effectiveness of the library   Frequency     Percentage

Very Ineffective               13            5.2
Ineffective                    177           70.8
Effective                      58            23.2
Very effective                 2             0.8

Total                          250           100.0
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Author:Ezeala, Lily Oluebube
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Survey
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Feb 1, 2009
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