Effect of wood vinegar on the performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora in weanling pigs.
Since their discovery, antibiotics have been used as therapeutic and growth-promoting agents and this has lead to improvements in the performance of animals (Doyle, 2001). However, the development of bacterial resistance (Ogawara, 1981; Russell, 1991) and the problem of antibiotic residues in animal products have lead to regulatory pressure and public perception of the need to ban antibiotics from animal feeds (Han, 2007). Thus it is necessary to identify alternative to antibiotics to maintain growth performance (Bae et al., 1999). Organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, and phytogenic phy·to·gen·ic also phy·tog·e·nous
Having a plant origin, as coal. substances have been tested as possible alternatives to replace antibiotics (Kamel, 2001; An et al., 2008). The addition of organic acids like citric cit·ric
Of or relating to citric acid.
of or derived from citrus fruits or citric acid
Adj. 1. , fumaric, formic for·mic
1. Of or relating to ants.
2. Of, derived from, or containing formic acid.
[From Latin form and propionic acid propionic acid /pro·pi·on·ic ac·id/ (pro?pe-on´ik) a three-carbon saturated fatty acid produced as a fermentation product by several species of bacteria; its salts, calcium and sodium propionate, are used as preservatives for food and to the diets of pigs is one of the most widely used alternative for antibiotics and has been reported to improve their performance (Kirchgessner et al., 1997; Partanen and Mroz, 1999). Their effects have been related to reduction in the growth of coliform bacteria (Partanen, 2001), known to be involved in digestive disorders.
Wood vinegar is the product obtained by distilling the smoke arising from burning wood and it is a complex mixture of 80-90% water, and 10-20% organic compounds. In addition wood vinegar contains several phenolic phe·no·lic
Of, relating to, containing, or derived from phenol.
Any of various synthetic thermosetting resins, obtained by the reaction of phenols with simple aldehydes and used as adhesives. compounds such as guaiacol guai·a·col
A yellowish, oily, aromatic substance derived from guaiacum or wood creosote and used chiefly as an expectorant, a local anesthetic, and an antiseptic. and cresol cresol (krē`sōl), CH3C6H4OH, any one of three aromatic alcohols present in coal tar. The three compounds are structural isomers; they may be thought of as hydroxy derivatives of toluene or as methyl derivatives , and organic acids like acetic acetic /ace·tic/ (ah-se´tik) (ah-set´ik) pertaining to vinegar or its acid; sour.
pertaining to vinegar or its acid; sour. , formic and propionic acids. It can be refined by fractional distillation to produce a food-grade product (Sakaguchi et al., 2007). Wood vinegar is being used to remove the odor of landfill site leachate (Huh et al., 1999) and ammonia in animal farms (Park et al., 2003). Wood vinegar has been shown to induce a significant increase in egg production and improvements in the feed efficiency of laying hens (Sakaida et al., 1987; Li and Ryu Ryū (竜 or りゅう or リュウ Ryū , 2001) and to enhance intestinal calcium absorption in rats (Kishi et al., 1999). Nonetheless, there are fewer reports on the effect of wood vinegar in pigs and thus further scientific investigations are needed.
Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the optimal inclusion level of wood vinegar (Exp. 1) and to comparatively evaluate the use of wood vinegar as an alternative to antibiotic in the diet of weanling weanling /wean·ling/ (wen´ling)
1. recently weaned.
2. a recently weaned infant.
see weaner. pigs (Exp. 2).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental design, animals and their diets
In Exp. 1, 224 crossbred weanling pigs (Landracex YorkshirexDuroc; average BW of 6.12 [+ or -] 0.10 kg; 21 [+ or -] 3 d of age) were used to investigate the effect of adding different levels of wood vinegar in the diet on performance and nutrient digestibility digestibility
the proportion of a feed or diet which can be digested by the normal animal of the subject species.
see digestibility coefficient. . Pigs were randomly allotted to four treatments based on body weight and gender (male: female, 1:1). Each treatment had 4 replications with 14 pigs per replicate. Experimental feeding of mash diets was done for 28 days in two phases: phase I (d 0 to 14) and phase II (d 15 to 28). The ingredient and chemical composition of basal diets for both phases is presented in Table 1. Wood vinegar was added to the basal diets at 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% as dietary treatments. All nutrients met or exceeded NRC NRC
1. National Research Council
2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Noun 1. NRC - an independent federal agency created in 1974 to license and regulate nuclear power plants (1998) requirements. The diets of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% wood vinegar treatments had 21.25, 21.18, 21.23 and 21.22% crude protein and 1.66, 1.62, 1.65 and 1.67% lysine lysine (lī`sēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. in phase I diets, and 19.2, 19.5, 19.3 and 19.2% crude protein and 1.35, 1.35, 1.34 and 1.36% lysine in phase II diets, respectively.
In Exp. 2 comparisons were made among different growth promoters (antibiotic, organic acid and wood vinegar) added to the diets of piglets by studying their growth performance, apparent fecal nutrient and ileal amino acid digestibility and intestinal microflora microflora /mi·cro·flo·ra/ (-flor´ah) the microscopic vegetable organisms of a special region.
The bacterial population in the intestine. . Weanling pigs (n = 224; Landrace Landrace
a large white pig with ears pitched forwards and top edge level with topline of snout. There are many ethnic varieties. Originated in Denmark. x Yorkshire x Duroc; average body weight of 6.62 [+ or -] 0.31 kg; 21 [+ or -] 3 d of age) were randomly allotted to four treatments based on body weight and gender (male: female, 1:1). Each treatment had 4 replications with 14 pigs per replicate. The dietary treatments were control (corn-soybean meal basal diet without antibiotics) and basal diets added with 0.2% antibiotic (aparamycin), 0.2% organic acid and 0.2% wood vinegar. The ingredient and chemical composition of experimental diets is presented in Table 2. All nutrients met or exceeded NRC (1998) requirements. The experimental diets in mash form were fed for 28 days in 2 phases: phase I (d 0 to 14) and phase II (d 15 to 28). The analyzed composition of control, antibiotic, organic acid and wood vinegar diets used during phase I showed 20.83, 20.78, 20.82 and 20.80% crude protein and 1.53, 1.50, 1.54 and 1.51% lysine, respectively; and phase II diets had 19.98, 20.00, 19.96 and 19.91 % crude protein and 1.30, 1.31, 1.29 and 1.28% lysine, respectively.
In both experiments, pigs were housed in partially slotted and concrete floor pens of 1.90x2.54 m size with a self feeder and nipple drinker to allow ad libitum access to the feed and water. The experiments underwent proper ethical standards and were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Kangwon National University Kangwon National University (KNU) was established in 1947 in Chuncheon, Kangwon province, South Korea. As one of the ten major national universities in South Korea, Kangwon National University serves as the flagship educational institution of Kangwon-do. .
Wood vinegar (Vital Force L[R]) used in the present study was obtained from Kangwon Mogcho Industrial Co. Ltd., Yeongwol-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea. Oak (Quercus acutissima) chips of Yeongwol-gun were burned at 500 to 700[degrees]C then the smoke was cooled by a water cooling system and distilled. The crude vinegar was stored for more than 6 months and then the supernatant supernatant /su·per·na·tant/ (-na´tant) the liquid lying above a layer of precipitated insoluble material.
the liquid lying above a layer of precipitated insoluble material. was collected, purified and used. The chemical composition of wood vinegar as analyzed by the Korean Forest Research Institute (KFRI KFRI Korea Food Research Institute , 2002) showed 3.99% acetic acid and 10.89% propionic acid. The organic acid was obtained from Korean Milk Product Inc. (Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do, Korea), and was composed of 21% phosphoric acid, 3.25% propionic acid, 2.8% formic acid, 10% calcium formate and 5% calcium propionate.
Measurements and sampling
In both experiments the individual pigs were weighed at the end of each phase and the feed offered and refusals from each pen were noted to calculate average daily gain (ADG ADG
average daily gain.
ADG Ambulatory diagnostic group ), average daily feed intake (ADFI ADFI Average Daily Feed Intake ) and feed efficiency (F/G).
In order to study the apparent fecal nutrient digestibility, all pigs were fed their originally assigned diets mixed with chromic oxide (0.25%) from d 21 to 28 of phase II in Exp. 1 and d 7 to 14 of phase I in Exp. 2. The fecal samples were collected from d 25 to 28 and d 11 to 14 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. The fecal samples were freshly collected from each pen, then dried in a forced-air drying oven at 60[degrees]C for 72 h and ground with a 1 mm mesh Wiley mill for chemical analysis. Moreover, in Exp. 2, at the end of phase I, 2 representative pigs from each replicate (8 pigs per treatment) reflecting average body weights were sacrificed by electrocution electrocution
Method of execution in which the condemned person is subjected to a heavy charge of electric current. The prisoner is shackled into a wired chair, and electrodes are fastened to the head and one leg so that the current will flow through the body. . Immediately after slaughter, their digestive tract was excised. The ileal (about 20 cm from the ileo-ceacal junction) chyme was collected in a sterilized plastic bottle, kept on ice and then brought to the laboratory and freeze-dried until analyzed for apparent ileal amino acid digestibility. Also chyme from the ileum ileum: see intestine.
Final and longest segment of the small intestine. It is the site of absorption of vitamin B12 (see vitamin B complex) and reabsorption of about 90% of conjugated bile salts. (for total anaerobic bacteria, Lactobacillus lactobacillus
Any of the rod-shaped, gram-positive (see gram stain) bacteria that make up the genus Lactobacillus. They are widely distributed in animal feeds, manure, and milk and milk products. spp. and Coliforms) and cecum cecum (sē`kəm): see intestine. (for total anaerobic bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. and Coliforms) was aseptically collected and a weighed amount was suspended in sterile phosphate buffer solution Noun 1. phosphate buffer solution - a solution containing a phosphate buffer
buffer solution - a solution containing a buffer containing cysteine cysteine (sĭs`tēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian protein. (0.05% wt/vol), and used for enumeration 1. (mathematics) enumeration - A bijection with the natural numbers; a counted set.
2. (programming) enumeration - enumerated type. of bacteria populations.
Analysis of the experimental diets and excreta excreta /ex·cre·ta/ (eks-kret´ah) excretion (2).
Waste matter, such as sweat or feces, discharged from the body. was done according to the methods of AOAC (1990). Gross energy was measured by a bomb calorimeter (Model 1216, Parr Instrument Co., Molin. IL), and chromium was determined with an automated spectrophotometer spectrophotometer, instrument for measuring and comparing the intensities of common spectral lines in the spectra of two different sources of light. See photometry; spectroscope; spectrum. (Shimadzu, Japan), according to the procedure of Fenton and Fenton (1979). Following acid hydrolysis hydrolysis (hīdrŏl`ĭsĭs), chemical reaction of a compound with water, usually resulting in the formation of one or more new compounds. in 6 N HCl at 105[degrees]C for 24 h, amino acid concentrations were analyzed by HPLC HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography.
high performance liquid chromatography.
HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography Lab instrumentation A highly sensitive analytic method in which analytes are placed (Waters 486, USA). Sulfur-containing amino acids were analyzed after cold performic acid oxidation (Moore, 1963) overnight with subsequent hydrolysis.
Analysis of microbial microbial
pertaining to or emanating from a microbe.
the breakdown of organic material, especially feedstuffs, by microbial organisms. populations
The microbial assay was carried out by the procedure suggested by Torrallardona et al. (2003). One gram of mixed intestinal contents was diluted with 9 ml of Bufferfields phosphate buffer dilution solution, followed by further serial dilutions in Buffer-fields phosphate buffer dilution solution. The microbial groups analyzed were total anaerobic bacteria (Tryptic tryp·tic
Relating to or resulting from trypsin.
relating to or resulting from digestion by trypsin. soy agar), Bifidobacterium spp. (MRS agar), Lactobacillus spp. (MRS agar) and Coliform bacteria (Voilet red bile agar). Duplicate plates were inoculated with 0.1 ml sample and incubated. The anaerobic anaerobic /an·aer·o·bic/ (an?ah-ro´bik)
1. lacking molecular oxygen.
2. growing, living, or occurring in the absence of molecular oxygen; pertaining to an anaerobe. conditions were generated using an anaerobic jar with a gas generator envelope (GasPak Plus, disposable [H.sub.2] and C[O.sub.2] generating system with palladium catalyst). The final anaerobic atmosphere consisted of 6.5 to 7.5% C[O.sub.2], 25 to 35% [H.sub.2], with the balance being [N.sub.2]. The bacterial populations were transformed ([log.sub.10]) before statistical analysis and expressed as [log.sub.10] cfu/g of intestinal contents.
Data generated was subjected to statistical analysis using the SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System. statistical software package. In Exp. 1, linear and quadratic quadratic, mathematical expression of the second degree in one or more unknowns (see polynomial). The general quadratic in one unknown has the form ax2+bx+c, where a, b, and c are constants and x is the variable. contrasts were used to compare effects of increasing dietary wood vinegar levels. In Exp. 2, data was analyzed by ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there and when significant differences were noted, the means were separated by using LSD's multiple range test. The replicate was the experimental unit of analysis in both experiments. The level of significance was accepted at p<0.05.
During phase I, linear (p = 0.044) improvements in the ADG with increasing amount of wood vinegar in the diet were observed, but there were no differences (p>0.05) in ADFI and F/G (Table 3). In phase II, ADG (p = 0.032) and ADFI (p = 0.022) increased linearly as dietary wood vinegar level was increased, although the F/G (p>0.05) remained unaffected. Consequently, for the overall period, ADG (linear, p = 0.035) and ADFI (linear, p = 0.016) were higher in pigs fed with increasing levels of wood vinegar. Linear improvements in the apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter (p = 0.013), gross energy (p = 0.019) and crude protein (p = 0.033) with an increase in dietary wood vinegar level were recorded (Table 4).
Pigs fed with the antibiotic diet showed the highest (p<0.001) ADG during phase I, II and the overall period, followed by pigs fed wood vinegar and organic acid diets, while pigs fed the control diet had the lowest ADG throughout the study (Table 5). The ADFI during phase I and the overall period was highest (p<0.001) in pigs fed the wood vinegar diet and lowest in pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed the antibiotic diet showed better feed efficiency (p<0.001) throughout the feeding period, while pigs fed the wood vinegar diet had better feed efficiency than pigs fed organic acid and control diets. The apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter was higher (p = 0.049) in pigs fed the antibiotic diet when compared with pigs fed the control diet, while the digestibility of gross energy was significantly higher (p = 0.045) in pigs fed antibiotic, organic acid and wood vinegar diets than pigs fed the control diet (Table 6). The digestibility of crude protein was higher (p = 0.014) in pigs fed antibiotic and wood vinegar diets than those fed the control diet. But no differences in the apparent nutrient digestibility were observed when compared among pigs fed with antibiotic, organic acid and wood vinegar diets.
In general pigs fed the control diet had the lowest apparent ileal digestibility of all individual amino acids (Table 7). Ileal digestibility of arginine arginine (är`jənĭn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins. was lower (p = 0.023) in pigs fed wood vinegar when compared with pigs fed the antibiotic diet while isoleucine isoleucine (ī'səl`sēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. digestibility of pigs fed the wood vinegar diet was lower than pigs fed antibiotic and organic acid diets. The apparent ileal digestibility of leucine leucine (l`sēn), organic compund, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. , methionine methionine (mĕthī`ənēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the L-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. , threonine threonine (thrē`ənēn), organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. and alanine alanine (ăl`ənēn'), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins (see stereochemistry). was higher (p<0.001) in pigs fed wood vinegar when compared with pigs fed antibiotic and organic acid diets.
The population of total anaerobic bacteria both in the ileum and cecum were comparable among the dietary treatments (Table 8). Pigs fed the wood vinegar diet had higher (p = 0.004) Lactobacillus population in the ileal contents when compared with pigs fed antibiotic and control diets, while the population of Lactobacillus was comparable among pigs fed wood vinegar and organic acid diets. The population of coliform bacteria in the ileal and cecal cecal /ce·cal/ (se´k'l)
1. ending in a blind passage.
2. pertaining to the cecum.
Of, relating to, or having the characteristics of the cecum. contents was higher (p<0.001) in pigs fed the control diet than pigs fed antibiotic, organic acid and wood vinegar diets, while the Bifidobacterium were not affected by the dietary treatments.
There has been growing concern about the negative effect of the use of antibiotics in pig diets (Monroe and Polk, 2000). Therefore, numerous studies are being conducted to find alternatives to replace antibiotics in diets for young pigs. Organic acids are currently considered as one of the attractive additives for weanling pigs (Jensen, 1998; Partanen and Mroz, 1999) to replace antibiotics in feed. Organic acids added to diets can maintain a low pH of gastric contents and subsequently modify or decrease the intestinal microflora (Thomlison and Lawrence, 1981; Kirchegessner and Roth, 1982; Burnell et al., 1988). It has been reported that wood vinegar also shows strong acid activity at pH 3 and contains 280 different components, the major ones being acetic and propionic acid (Kim, 1996) and antioxidant antioxidant, substance that prevents or slows the breakdown of another substance by oxygen. Synthetic and natural antioxidants are used to slow the deterioration of gasoline and rubber, and such antioxidants as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), butylated hydroxytoluene substances like phenolic compounds (Loo et al., 2008); thus wood vinegar is also termed as natural organic acids (Sasaki et al., 1999).
The pigs fed 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% wood vinegar diets had 1.4, 4.0 and 6.0% higher overall daily gain, respectively, than pigs fed diets without added wood vinegar. At the same time their daily feed intake was 2.3, 2.5 and 2.7% higher while there were no differences in the feed efficiency. These higher gains may be attributed to the higher feed intake as well as higher apparent nutrient digestibility in pigs fed increasing wood vinegar levels. In line with our findings, improvements in body weight gain and feed intake have been reported in Hanwoo cattle (Kook and Kim, 2003) and meat-type duck (Kook et al., 2002) when bamboo vinegar was added to their diets.
In Exp. 2, the pigs fed diets with added growth promoters in the form of antibiotics, organic acid and wood vinegar had better growth performance and higher apparent and ileal amino acid digestibility than pigs fed diets devoid of growth promoters. Nevertheless, feeding of antibiotics has resulted in the best growth performance of pigs. Improvements in the performance of pigs fed with antibiotics have been well documented (Yen and Pond, 1990; Doyle, 2001; Li et al., 2008). The organic acids added to diets influence the performance of pigs by lowering the gastric pH (Oh, 2004), activating endogenous enzyme secretion (Thaela et al., 1998), improving mineral absorption (Kirchgessner and Roth, 1982), stimulating intermediary metabolism (Grassmann et al., 1992), acting as an energy source for the gastrointestinal tract (Bosi et al., 1999), and reducing the number of pathogenic bacteria (Kirchgessner et al., 1997). In our study, pigs fed wood vinegar had better performance than those fed organic acids. It can be speculated that wood vinegar might have similar effects in influencing the performance of pigs due to the presence of different organic acids (Sasaki et al., 1999); in addition wood vinegar has anti-oxidative effects (Pszczola, 1995).
The different additives used in Exp. 2 were effective in reducing the population of coliforms in the ileum and cecum. However, pigs fed wood vinegar diets had higher Lactobacilli Lactobacilli,
n a type of bacteria that may play an important role in tooth decay. It is usually found in small amounts in dental plaque. Its concentration increases with high sugar intake. in their ileum than pigs fed control and antibiotic diets. These results suggest that antibiotics not only reduce the harmful coliforms but they also inhibit the beneficial bacteria. Similar findings have been reported by Cromwell (1991) and Dibner et al. (2007). Watarai and Tana (2005) noticed that wood vinegar added to the diet of birds inhibited the growth of harmful intestinal Salmonella enteritidis but promoted the beneficial microbes such as Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium thermophilum. In line with the latter findings, wood vinegar added to the diets of pigs selectively reduced the harmful coliforms and was favorable towards beneficial bacteria. The organic acids supplemented in the diet of pigs are also effective in reducing pathogenic bacteria (Bolduan et al., 1988; Kluge (jargon) kluge - /klooj/, /kluhj/ (From German "klug" /kloog/ - clever and Scottish "kludge") 1. A Rube Goldberg (or Heath Robinson) device, whether in hardware or software. et al., 2006) and help beneficial microorganisms to dominate the gastrointestinal tract (Mathew et al., 1991).
The reduction of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal tract can be expected to improve nutrient digestibility and growth performance, alleviating weaning stress and lowering the inflammatory responses to sub-clinical infections (Anderson et al., 1999; Blank et al., 2001). Previous results have demonstrated improved amino acid and energy digestibility due to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (Dibner and Buttin, 2002). Also, the greater population of Lactobacilli in the ileum of pigs fed wood vinegar diets might inhibit harmful coliforms in the intestinal tract by blocking possible intestinal receptors of these pathogens or by secreting toxic metabolites against gram negative bacteria (Cranwell et al., 1976; Danielson et al., 1989).
Thus the findings of our study suggest that wood vinegar added to the diets of pigs could improve the performance, apparent nutrient digestibility and selectively inhibit the harmful coliforms. Moreover, even though the feeding of antibiotics resulted in better performances in pigs, the performance of pigs fed wood vinegar was better than pigs fed organic acids.
The authors sincerely acknowledge the partial financial support provided by the Institute of Animal Resources at Kangwon National University, Korea.
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J. Y. Choi (1), P. L. Shinde (1), I. K. Kwon (2), Y. H. Song (1) and B. J. Chae (1), *
College of Animal Resources Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
* Corresponding Author: Byung-Jo Chae. Tel: +82-33-250-8616, Fax: +82-33-244-4946, E-mail: email@example.com
(1) Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Resources Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea.
(2) Department of Animal Product and Food Science, College of Animal Resources Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea.
Received June 24, 2008; Accepted September 22, 2008
Table 1. Ingredient and chemical composition of the basal diets used for feeding trial (Exp. 1) (1) Ingredients (%) Phase I Phase II (d 0 to 14) (d 15 to 28) Corn 42.73 51.39 Soybean meal (48%) 8.24 14.53 Whey powder 12.3 15.38 Lactose 12.00 -- Bakery byproduct 5.00 6.00 Spray dried porcine plasma 6.00 4.00 Soy protein concentrate 4.00 -- Fish meal 5.00 4.00 Soy oil 2.00 2.00 L-lysine HCl (78%) 0.43 0.37 DL-methionine (100%) 0.12 0.08 MCP 0.59 0.61 Limestone 0.84 0.89 Salt 0.20 0.20 Choline chloride (25%) 0.05 0.05 Vitamin premix (2) 0.30 0.30 Mineral premix (3) 0.20 0.20 Calculated chemical composition (%) ME (kcal/kg) 3,380 3,360 Crude protein 21.00 20.00 Calcium 0.82 0.82 Available phosphorus 0.4 0.4 Lysine 1.60 1.44 Methionine+cystine 0.82 0.76 (1) Wood vinegar was added to the basal diets at 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% as dietary treatments. (2) Supplied per kg diet: 9,600 IU vitamin A, 1,800 IU vitamin [D.sub.3], 24 mg vitamin E, 1.5 mg vitamin [B.sub.1], 12 mg vitamin [B.sub.2], 2.4 mg vitamin [B.sub.6,] 0.045 mg vitamin [B.sub.12], 1.5 mg vitamin [K.sub.3], 24 mg pantothenic acid, 45 mg niacin, 0.09 mg biotin, 0.75 mg folic acid. (3) Supplied per kg diet: 162 mg Fe, 96 mg Cu, 72 mg Zn, 46.49 mg Mn, 0.9 mg I, 0.9 mg Co, 0.3 mg Se. Table 2. Ingredient and chemical composition of the basal diets used for feeding trial (Exp. 2) (1) Ingredients (%) Phase I Phase II (d 0 to 14) (d 15 to 28) Corn 51.42 49.38 Soybean meal (48%) 26.39 34.72 Whey powder 13.00 -- Bakery byproduct -- 6.00 Fish meal 3.61 -- Rice bran -- 4.00 Soy oil 2.88 2.80 L-lysine HCl (78%) 0.37 0.25 DL-methionine (100%) 0.08 0.17 MCP 0.61 -- TCP -- 1.75 Limestone 0.89 0.31 Salt 0.20 0.25 Choline chloride (25%) 0.05 0.05 Vitamin premix (2) 0.30 0.12 Mineral premix (3) 0.20 0.20 Calculated chemical composition (%) ME (kcal/kg) 3,360 3,380 Crude protein 20.00 20.50 Calcium 0.82 0.80 Available phosphorus 0.39 0.42 Lysine 1.43 1.35 Methionine+cystine 0.77 0.75 (1) Dietary treatments were: Control (basal diet without antibiotic), Antibiotic (basal diet added with 0.2% aparamycin), organic acid (basal diet added with 0.2% organic acid), Wood vinegar (basal diet added with 0.2% wood vinegar). Aparamycin, organic acid and wood vinegar were added at 0.2% of diet at the expense of corn. (2) Supplied per kg diet: 9,600 IU vitamin A, 1,800 IU vitamin [D.sub.3], 24 mg vitamin E, 1.5 mg vitamin [B.sub.1], 12 mg vitamin [B.sub.2], 2.4 mg vitamin [B.sub.6], 0.045 mg vitamin [B.sub.12], 1.5 mg vitamin [K.sub.3], 24 mg pantothenic acid, 45 mg niacin, 0.09 mg biotin, 0.75 mg folic acid. (3) Supplied per kg diet: 162 mg Fe, 96 mg Cu, 72 mg Zn, 46.49 mg Mn, 0.9 mg I, 0.9 mg Co, 0.3 mg Se. Table 3. Effect of dietary wood vinegar levels on growth performance of weanling pigs (Exp. 1) Wood vinegar (%) Item 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Phase I (d 0 to 14) ADG (g) 282 286 293 299 ADFI (g) 420 419 422 424 F/G 1.50 1.46 1.44 1.42 Phase II (d 15 to 28) ADG (g) 417 422 434 441 ADFI (g) 657 659 663 667 F/G 1.58 1.56 1.53 1.51 Overall (d 0 to 28) ADG (g) 349 354 363 370 ADFI (g) 529 541 542 543 F/G 1.52 1.53 1.49 1.47 p-value (2) Item SEM (1) Linear Quadratic Phase I (d 0 to 14) ADG (g) 3.17 0.044 0.885 ADFI (g) 1.25 0.214 0.507 F/G 0.02 0.102 0.856 Phase II (d 15 to 28) ADG (g) 4.31 0.032 0.864 ADFI (g) 1.63 0.022 0.734 F/G 0.02 0.140 1.000 Overall (d 0 to 28) ADG (g) 3.75 0.035 0.873 ADFI (g) 2.21 0.016 0.117 F/G 0.02 0.201 0.566 (1) Standard error of the means. (2) Linear and quadratic effect of increasing concentration of wood vinegar (0.0 to 0.3%) in the diet. Table 4. Effect of dietary wood vinegar levels on the apparent fecal nutrient digestibility of weanling pigs (Exp. 1, d 28) Wood vinegar (%) Item 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Dry matter 83.38 83.67 84.78 85.24 Gross energy 83.19 83.31 84.15 84.83 Crude protein 81.64 81.82 82.38 83.40 p-value (2) Item SEM (1) Linear Quadratic Dry matter 0.30 0.013 0.871 Gross energy 0.27 0.019 0.568 Crude protein 0.30 0.033 0.460 (1) Standard error of the means. (2) Linear and quadratic effect of increasing concentration of wood vinegar (0.0 to 0.3%) in the diet. Table 5. Effect of dietary treatments on growth performance of weanling pigs (Exp. 2) Treatments (1) Organic Item Control Antibiotic acid Phase I (d 0 to 14) ADG (g) 298 (d) 349 (a) 315 (c) ADFI (g) 459 (d) 466 (c) 472 (b) F/G 1.54 (a) 1.34 (d) 1.50 (b) Phase II (d 15 to 28) ADG (g) 397 (d) 423 (a) 406 (c) ADFI (g) 672 678 680 F/G 1.69 (a) 1.60 (c) 1.68 (a) Overall (d 0 to 28) ADG (g) 348 (d) 388 (a) 361 (c) ADFI (g) 557 (c) 559 (bc) 563 (b) F/G 1.60 (a) 1.44 (d) 1.56 (b) Treatments (1) Wood Item vinegar SEM (2) p-value Phase I (d 0 to 14) ADG (g) 339 (b) 5.27 <0.001 ADFI (g) 489 (a) 2.85 <0.001 F/G 1.44 (c) 0.02 <0.001 Phase II (d 15 to 28) ADG (g) 413 (b) 2.55 <0.001 ADFI (g) 677 1.32 0.240 F/G 1.64 (b) 0.01 <0.001 Overall (d 0 to 28) ADG (g) 377 (b) 3.96 <0.001 ADFI (g) 570 (a) 1.43 <0.001 F/G 1.51 (c) 0.02 <0.001 (a,) (b,) (c,) (d) Values with different superscripts in the same row significantly differ (p<0.05). (1) Control (basal diet without antibiotic), antibiotic (basal diet added with 0.2% aparamycin), organic acid (basal diet added with 0.2% organic acid), wood vinegar (basal diet added with 0.2% wood vinegar). (2) Standard error of the means. Table 6. Effect of dietary treatments on the apparent nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs (Exp. 2, d 14) Treatments (1) Organic Wood Item Control Antibiotic acid vinegar At 14 day Dry matter 81.67 (b) 84.63 (a) 82.06 (ab) 83.63 (ab) Gross energy 82.46 (b) 84.31 (a) 84.13 (a) 84.14 (a) Crude protein 81.11 (b) 83.22 (a) 82.28 (ab) 82.62 (a) Item SEM (2) p-value At 14 day Dry matter 0.49 0.049 Gross energy 0.28 0.045 Crude protein 0.26 0.014 (a,) (b) Values with different superscripts in the same row significantly differ (p<0.05). (1) Control (basal diet without antibiotic), antibiotic (basal diet added with 0.2% aparamycin), organic acid (basal diet added with 0.2% organic acid), wood vinegar (basal diet added with 0.2% wood vinegar. (2) Standard error of the means. Table 7. Effect of dietary treatments on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in weanling pigs (Exp. 2, d 14) Treatments (1) Organic Wood Item Control Antibiotic acid vinegar Essential amino acids Arginine 77.26 (c) 80.71 (a) 79.78 (ab) 77.67 (bc) Histidine 69.96 (b) 71.97 (ab) 74.89 (a) 74.38 (a) Isoleucine 69.96 (c) 76.90 (a) 76.92 (a) 73.65 (b) Leucine 72.67 (c) 76.70 (b) 76.66 (b) 79.45 (a) Lysine 71.87 (b) 79.25 (a) 76.45 (b) 78.40 (ab) Methionine 74.07 (c) 77.10 (b) 78.63 (b) 81.66 (a) Phenylalanine 73.41 (c) 76.79 (b) 80.02 (a) 79.71 (a) Threonine 68.35 (c) 72.6 (b) 73.46 (b) 75.60 (a) Valine 69.12 (b) 73.28 (a) 74.74 (a) 74.67 (a) Non-essential amino acids Alanine 73.06 (d) 75.82 (c) 77.00 (b) 79.53 (a) Aspartic acid 75.44 (b) 77.09 (b) 79.98 (a) 81.00 (a) Cystine 61.92 (c) 63.44 (bc) 65.65 (ab) 67.41 (a) Glutamic acid 76.12 (c) 78.74 (b) 80.32 (ab) 81.87 (a) Glycine 63.07 (b) 68.95 (a) 68.54 (a) 71.15 (a) Proline 72.03 (b) 77.56 (a) 75.30 (a) 75.58 (a) Serine 73.39 (b) 75.16 (b) 78.64 (a) 78.00 (a) Tyrosine 69.72 (b) 72.38 (a) 71.67 (ab) 73.67 (a) Item SEM (2) p-value Essential amino acids Arginine 0.51 0.023 Histidine 0.73 0.037 Isoleucine 0.80 <0.001 Leucine 0.67 <0.001 Lysine 0.80 <0.001 Methionine 0.79 <0.001 Phenylalanine 0.75 <0.001 Threonine 0.74 <0.001 Valine 0.67 <0.001 Non-essential amino acids Alanine 0.62 <0.001 Aspartic acid 0.63 <0.001 Cystine 0.65 <0.001 Glutamic acid 0.62 <0.001 Glycine 0.88 <0.001 Proline 0.62 <0.001 Serine 0.62 0.019 Tyrosine 0.50 <0.001 (a,) (b,) (c,) (d) Values with different superscripts in the same row significantly differ (p<0.05). (1) Control (basal diet without antibiotic), antibiotic (basal diet added with 0.2% aparamycin), organic acid (basal diet added with 0.2% organic acid), Wood vinegar (basal diet added with 0.2% wood vinegar. (2) Standard error of the means. Table 8. Effect of dietary treatments on intestinal microbial populations (Exp. 2, d 14) Treatments (1) Microbial population Organic ([log.sub.10] cfu/g) Control Antibiotic acid Ileum Total anaerobic bacteria 8.55 7.76 7.81 Lactobacillus spp. 7.27 (c) 7.43 (b) 7.53 (ab) Coliform bacteria 5.85 (a) 3.85 (b) 3.90 (b) Cecum Total anaerobic bacteria 8.77 8.7 8.78 Bifidobacterium spp. 8.69 8.66 8.64 Coliform bacteria 7.73 (a) 5.89 (b) 5.86 (b) Treatments (1) Microbial population Wood ([log.sub.10] cfu/g) vinegar SEM (2) p-value Ileum Total anaerobic bacteria 7.90 0.21 0.566 Lactobacillus spp. 7.86 (a) 0.09 0.004 Coliform bacteria 3.82 (b) 0.23 <0.001 Cecum Total anaerobic bacteria 8.74 0.06 0.969 Bifidobacterium spp. 8.68 0.14 0.999 Coliform bacteria 5.95 (b) 0.21 <0.001 (a,) (b,) (c) Values with different superscripts in the same row significantly differ (p<0.05). (1) Control (basal diet without antibiotic), antibiotic (basal diet added with 0.2% aparamycin), organic acid (basal diet added with 0.2% organic acid), Wood vinegar (basal diet added with 0.2% wood vinegar. (2) Standard error of the means.
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|Author:||Choi, J.Y.; Shinde, P.L.; Kwon, I.K.; Song, Y.H.; Chae, B.J.|
|Publication:||Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences|
|Date:||Feb 1, 2009|
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