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Effect of soil pH and zinc on rice cultivars in Missouri.

Abstract: Approximately 71,000 hectares of rice are planted in Southeast Missouri each year. Many of the irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice.  wells used to flood rice fields contain water with high concentrations of calcium carbonate calcium carbonate, CaCO3, white chemical compound that is the most common nonsiliceous mineral. It occurs in two crystal forms: calcite, which is hexagonal, and aragonite, which is rhombohedral. . Soil pH before flooding is often above 6.5 in these fields. Zinc is an important rice nutrient, which becomes less available to plants as soil pH increases. A two year investigation was begun in 1998 on a Crowley silt loam loam, soil composed of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter in evenly mixed particles of various sizes. More fertile than sandy soils, loam is not stiff and tenacious like clay soils. Its porosity allows high moisture retention and air circulation.  soil (fine, moatmorillonitic, thermic thermic /ther·mic/ (ther´mik) pertaining to heat.

thermic

pertaining to heat.
 Typic Albaqualf) at Qulin, Missouri Qulin (pronounced like "Q-lin") is a city in Butler County, Missouri, United States. The population was 467 at the 2000 census. Geography
Qulin is located at  (36.596802, -90.249245)GR1.
. The study had the following objectives: (i) determine if elevated soil pH from carbonates inhibits rice Zn uptake, and (ii) determine the efficacy of zinc fertilization fertilization, in biology, process in the reproduction of both plants and animals, involving the union of two unlike sex cells (gametes), the sperm and the ovum, followed by the joining of their nuclei.  on different rice cultivars. A split plot design was used with three replications. Main plots contained different rice cultivars. Cypress, Kaybonnet, and Drew cultivars were drill seeded in main plots. Subplots had annual applications of lime and zinc treatments. Lime treatment levels were no lime (check) and lime. Zinc treatments were untreated, soil applied Zn as [ZnSO.sub.4], and foliar foliar

pertaining to or having the quality of leaves.
 applied Zn as Zn-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid /eth·y·lene·di·a·mine·tet·ra·a·ce·tic ac·id/ (EDTA) (-di?ah-men-tet?rah-ah-se´tik) a chelating agent that binds calcium and other metals, used as an anticoagulant for preserving blood specimens; also used ) chelate chelate

Any of a class of coordination or complex compounds consisting of a central atom of a metal (usually a transition element) attached to a large molecule (ligand).
. After two years, lime applications increased soil pH from 6.1 to 7.2. Soil pH had a significant effect on the extractable soil Zn following two years of applying [ZnSO.sub.4] fertilizer. In plots receiving [ZnSO.sub.4], soil tests from plots without lime averaged 8.9 mg Zn [kg.sup.-1] compared to soil tests from plots with lime that tested 3.3 mg Zn [kg.sup.-1]. Plant tissue tests showed that soil pH did not significantly effect plant Zn concentrations. In 1999, tissue analysis revealed differences in Zn plant uptake between Zn fertilizer treatments in Kaybonnet and Drew cultivars. Soil applied Zn fertilizer increased Zn concentrations in plant tissue more than foliar Zn. This trend was not observed in Cypress rice. All rice plants contained Zn concentrations greater than 35 mg Zn [kg.sup.-1]. Lime and zinc applications did not significantly effect rice growth or yield in any of the three cultivars.

Introduction

Rice zinc deficiency zinc deficiency (zinkˑ d·fiˑ ·sh  occurs in Southeast Missouri. When present, the deficiency is usually observed shortly after the permanent flood is established at the first tiller growth stage. Low levels of zinc in rice plants can cause loss of turgidity of the leaves, basal chlorosis chlo·ro·sis
n.
A form of chronic anemia, primarily of young women, characterized by a greenish-yellow discoloration of the skin and usually associated with deficiency in iron and protein. Also called chloremia.
 of the leaves, delay of plant development, "bronzing" of leaves, and in some cases death of the rice seedlings (Wells et al., 1993). Zinc tissue concentrations generally range from 25 to 150 mg Zn [kg.sup.-1], with deficiency symptoms deficiency symptom
n.
A symptom caused by the lack of a substance, such as an enzyme or a vitamin, that is necessary for normal structure and function of an organism.
 appearing whenever the tissue concentrations are less than 20 mg [kg.sup.-1] (Tisdale et al., 1985).

The availability of zinc in rice soils decreases as soil pH increases (Ntamatungiro et al., 1999; Barbosa et al., 1992). Because well water used to irrigate ir·ri·gate
v.
To wash out a cavity or wound with a fluid.
 rice in Southeast Missouri is usually high in calcium carbonate, flooding rice fields often has a liming effect, which increases soil pH. Tracy and Hefner (1991) found that the average concentration of Ca in irrigation wells in Butler County, Missouri Butler County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. As of 2000, the population was 40,867. Its county seat is Poplar Bluff6. The county was organized from Wayne County in 1849 and named for William O.  was 249 part per million. They calculated that applying 1,234 [m.sup.3] (1 acre foot An acre foot is a unit of volume commonly used in the United States in reference to large-scale water resources, such as reservoirs, aqueducts, canals, sewer flow capacity, and river flows. ) of irrigation water was equivalent to applying 1.9 tonnes of calcium carbonate equivalents per hectare.

Soluble soil Zn concentrations vary greatly in the aqueous phase aqueous phase
n.
The water portion of a system consisting of two liquid phases, one that is primarily water and a second that is a liquid immiscible with water.
 (2 to 75 [mu]g [L.sup.-1]), with the specific concentration dependent upon the native amount of soil Zn, the pH, the quantity and type of organic materials, and the character of the adsorbing oxide and clay surfaces (Mills and Jones, 1996). Approximately 65% of the total Zn in the aqueous phase is organically complexed. Sajwan and Lindsay (1986) demonstrated that Zn applications to flood irrigated rice increased the DTPA DTPA diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; see pentetic acid.

DTPA

diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid.
 (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) extractable levels of Zn and decreased the levels of DTPA extractable Mn and Fe. The DTPA concentrations for Zn, Mn, and Fe were proportional to the corresponding metal uptake by nce. Sajwan and Lindsay suggested the elevated levels of Mn might effectively reduce the plant uptake of Zn.

In Arkansas, Slaton et al. (1999) reported that recent field studies suggest that rice yield response to Zn fertilization occur less frequently today than 25 years ago. This may be due to improvements in rice cultivars. On one site, Slaton et al. (1999) found a significant effect on grain yield from the type of Zn fertilizer applied.

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether elevated soil pH is antagonistic antagonistic adjective Referring to any combination of 2 or more drugs, which results in a therapeutic effect that is less than the sum of each drug's effect. Cf Additive, Synergism.  towards Zn uptake in Missouri rice. The secondary objective was to determine the efficacy of zinc fertilization with soil and foliar Zn applications on rice cultivars.

Materials and Methods

A rice study was conducted on a field at the Missouri Rice Research Farm (36[degrees]N, 90[degrees]W) in Dunklin County, Missouri Dunklin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. Its county seat is Kennett6. The county was organized in 1845 and is named for Daniel Dunklin, a former Governor of Missouri who had died the year before. Geography
According to the U.S.
 in 1998 and 1999. Rice was planted on a Crowley series (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualf). The soil has a silt loam eluvial horizon which overlies a thick silty silt  
n.
A sedimentary material consisting of very fine particles intermediate in size between sand and clay.

v. silt·ed, silt·ing, silts

v.intr.
 clay loam argillic horizon. This is a typical soil for producing drill seeded rice in Southeast Missouri (Garrett et al. 1978). The soil [pH.sub.water] of the surface horizon was 6.2. There was no record of zinc fertilizer ever being applied on the site. The field was conventionally tilled.

The experimental design was a split plot design with three replications. Rice was planted with a grain drill in late May in 1998 and 1999. Main plot treatments were three high yielding, medium season rice cultivars available to Missouri rice producers in 1997 (Minor and Stafford, 1998). The cultivars were Cypress, Kaybonnet, and Drew. Each subplot sub·plot  
n.
1. A plot subordinate to the main plot of a literary work or film. Also called counterplot, underplot.

2. A subdivision of a plot of land, especially a plot used for experimental purposes.
 was 3.1m wide and 6.2 m long. Subplot treatments were six combinations of lime and Zn fertilization levels. Lime and soil Zn ([ZnSO.sub.4]) treatments were broadcast by hand on subplots two weeks before planting. The two lime treatment levels were 0 (control) and 4.48 tonnes [CaCO.sub.3] [ha.sup.-1]. In 1998, pelletized lime was applied. The value of this lime was 544 effective neutralizing material (ENM ENM École Nationale de la Magistrature (French)
ENM École Normale de Musique de Paris
ENM EPLRS (Enhanced Position Location Reporting System) Network Manager
ENM Enterprise Network Management
) per tonnes. In 1999, calcite calcite (kăl`sīt), very widely distributed mineral, commonly white or colorless, but appearing in a great variety of colors owing to impurities.  agricultural lime Agricultural lime is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk. The primary active component is calcium carbonate. Additional chemicals vary depending on the mineral source and may include calcium oxide, magnesium oxide and magnesium carbonate.  (431 ENM per tonne) was applied. Values for lime quality were determined at the University of Missouri Experiment Station Chemical Laboratory. The three zinc treatment levels were 0, 22.4 kg [ZnSO.sub.4] [ha.sup.-1], and 5.6 kg ZnEDTA [ha.sup.-1]. The [ZnSO.sub.4] was dissolved in water for each subplot and evenly applied with a watering can. The ZnEDTA was foliar applied in 187 L [ha.sup.-1] water with a [CO.sub.2] backpack sprayer before rice was flooded at first tiller growth stage.

Soil samples of the study area were collected from the 0 to 15 cm depth before planting in 1998 and one month after harvest each year. Soil analysis consisted of pH (water), neutralizable acidity acidity /acid·i·ty/ (-i-te) the quality of being acid; the power to unite with positively charged ions or with basic substances.

a·cid·i·ty
n.
The state, quality, or degree of being acid.
, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K. Na), loss on ignition Loss on Ignition is a test used in inorganic analytical chemistry, particularly in the analysis of minerals. It consists of strongly heating ("igniting") a sample of the material at a specified temperature, allowing volatile substances to escape, until its mass ceases to change.  (LOI LOI Letter of Indemnity (international trade and carriage business)
LOI Letter Of Intent
LOI Loss On Ignition
LOI Letter of Inquiry
LOI Lack Of Information
LOI Lack of Interest
LOI Letter of Invitation
LOI List Of Items
), Bray 1 extractable phosphorus phosphorus (fŏs`fərəs) [Gr.,=light-bearing], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol P; at. no. 15; at. wt. 30.97376; m.p. 44.1°C;; b.p. about 280°C;; sp. gr. 1.82 at 20°C;; valence −3, +3, or +5. , and DTPA extraction and atomic absorption determination of Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu.

Nitrogen fertilizer was applied at first tiller growth stage immediately prior to flood at the rates of 101 kg N [ha.sup.-1] as urea on Cypress rice and 84 kg N [ha.sup.-1] on Drew and Kaybonnet. All plots received 34 kg N [ha.sup.-1] urea applications at 1.3 cm internode in·ter·node
n.
1. A section or part between two nodes.

2. An internodal segment.



in
 elongation elongation, in astronomy, the angular distance between two points in the sky as measured from a third point. The elongation of a planet is usually measured as the angular distance from the sun to the planet as measured from the earth.  and a second application one week later. Proponil (3,4-dichloropropionanilide) was broadcast at a rate of 4 kg a.i. [ha.sup.-1] for grass control before the flood was established.

Twenty five new growth rice leaves were collected from each subplot at mid tillering and 1.3 cm internode elongation growth stages in 1998 and 1999. The elemental concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, Al, P, K, Zn, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Na in the leaves were determined by inductively coupled plasma An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electrical currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.  emission spectroscopy Emission spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique which examines the wavelengths of photons emitted by atoms or molecules during their transition from an excited state to a lower energy state.  after acid digestion of dried and ground plant tissues. Field measurements involved tiller counts, the number of panicles per row, the number of spikelets per panicle, seed weight, dry matter accumulation, moisture content and yield. The rice was harvested with a plot combine. Grain was collected from 1.5 m wide by 5.2 m long areas from each subplot. Yields were adjusted to 13% seed moisture content. Statistical analyses of the data were preformed with SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System.  (1990) using General Linear Modeling procedures. Fisher's Protected Least Significant Difference (LSD LSD or lysergic acid diethylamide (lī'sûr`jĭk, dī'ĕth`ələmĭd, dī'ĕthəlăm`ĭd), alkaloid synthesized from lysergic acid, which is found in the fungus ergot ( ) was calculated at the 0.05 probability level for making treatment mean comparisons.

Results and Discussion

Soil Characterization

Soil pH was increased in subplots by lime treatments. In 1999 the untreated check was pH 6.1 as compared to 7.3 for lime treatments (Table 1). This was due to two years of lime application on the same subplots. Soil pH had a significant effect on the extractable soil Zn following two years of applying [ZnSO.sub.4] (Table 1). Extractable soil Zn in plots that received [ZnSO.sub.4] fertilizer and no lime was 63% greater than Zn levels in plots with [ZnSO.sub.4] and lime. However, the DTPA extractable Zn was greater than 0.4 mg Zn [kg.sup.-1] in all plots, suggesting that Zn levels were sufficient for rice production. The extractable Mn values generally reflect the changes in pH associated with the lime treatments. Manganese manganese (măng`gənēs, măn`–) [Lat.,=magnet], metallic chemical element; symbol Mn; at. no. 25; at. wt. 54.938; m.p. about 1,244°C;; b.p. about 1,962°C;; sp. gr. 7.2 to 7.  levels decreased as pH increased. Iron values were not effected. There were no evidence for a Zn x Mn or Zn x Fe interactions, as suggested by Sajwan and Lindsay (1986).

Tissue Concentrations

The elemental concentrations of S, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, B, Cu, and Al were typical for normally developing rice (Mills and Jones, 1996). No significant differences in these elements were evident within or among cultivars. In 1998, the concentration of Zn was not effected by cultivars (Table 2). In 1999, a significant interaction between cultivars and zinc fertilizer sources for plant Zn concentration was found. Tissue Zn concentrations associated with soil Zn applications for Drew and Kaybonnet cultivars were significantly greater than for plants in foliar Zn and untreated check plots. There were no differences found in plant Zn uptake in Cypress plots. All Zn concentrations were above the deficiency threshold of 20 mg Zn [kg.sup.-1], especially for the 1999 trial.

Growth and Yield

Cultivar cultivar

Any variety of a plant, originating through cloning or hybridization (see clone, hybrid), known only in cultivation. In asexually propagated plants, a cultivar is a clone considered valuable enough to have its own name; in sexually propagated plants, a
, Zn, and lime treatments did not significantly effect tillering, panicle development, or seed weight. The only significant differences in rice yield were due to cultivar selections.

Conclusions

After two growing seasons growing season, period during which plant growth takes place. In temperate climates the growing season is limited by seasonal changes in temperature and is defined as the period between the last killing frost of spring and the first killing frost of autumn, at which , soil pH in plots with lime treatments was elevated to 7.2. Extractable soil Zn levels were lower in limed plots that received soil applied [ZnSO.sub.4] fertilizer than unlimed plots with [ZnSO.sub.4]. This indicates that elevated soil pH may be antagonistic towards extractable Zn levels. However, liming did not significantly reduce Zn plant uptake or the growth and development of rice on this soil. We attribute this lack of response to the high native levels of Zn released in the soil. High tissue levels of Mn may have inhibited the luxury uptake of Zn. Certainly the high Mn levels did not induce a Zn deficiency.

The effect of cultivars on Zn uptake was evident in 1999. Tissue tests showed that Drew and Kaybonnet cultivars were more efficient than Cypress in taking up soil applied [ZnSO.sub.4] This may be because these cultivars have better root systems for taking up nutrients including nitrogen. Missouri preflood nitrogen recommendations for Drew and Kaybonnet are 84 kg N [ha.sup.-1] compared to recommended rate of 101 kg N [ha.sup.-1] for Cypress. We did not observe the Zn deficiency symptoms in rice in this study that are sometimes found in farmer's fields. If soil pH values had increased to near 8.2, Zn deficiency would have been more likely. Based on the results of this test, we recommend that if a field has a history of Zn deficiency that a farmer soil apply [ZnSO.sub.4] fertilizer and plant one of the newer cultivars.
Table 1

Mean effect of lime and zinc applications on soil pH, Fe, Mn and Zn
concentrations in 1999

Applications                pH        Fe        Mn          Zn

                             Units          mg [kg.sup.-1]

No Lime       No zinc       6.1      108       42.0       1.21
              Soil zinc     6.0      104       35.7       8.91
              Foliar zinc   6.1      107       37.3       3.01
Lime          No zinc       7.2      102       30.3       1.35
              Soil zinc     7.1       97       30.3       3.25
              Foliar zinc   7.2      102       30.3       2.05
[LSD.sub.05]                0.3        3        5.9       1.85
C.V.%                       8          5       30.5       19.8

Table 2

Mean effect of lime and zinc applications on rice plant nutrient
concentrations at internode elongation growth stage and yield in 1998

Cultivar      Zinc               Fe              Mn
              Application

                           mg [kg.sup.-1]  mg [kg.sup.-1]

Cypress

No Lime       No zinc           150             1266
              Soil zinc         138             1240
              Foliar zinc       180             1341
Lime          No zinc           159             1247
              Soil zinc         147             1105
              Foliar zinc       184             1289

Kaybonnet

No Lime       No zinc           232             1772
              Soil zinc         183             1698
              Foliar zinc       140             1629
Lime          No zinc           165             1827
              Soil zinc         183             1569
              Foliar zinc       119             1178

Drew

No Lime       No zinc           132             1392
              Soil zinc         176             1758
              Foliar zinc       152             1343
Lime          No zinc           179             1571
              Soil zinc         119             1199
              Foliar zinc       150             1371
[LSD.sub..05]                   ns (a)           ns
C.V.%                           32.5            20.0

Cultivar            Zn          Rice Yield


              mg [kg.sup.-1]  kg [ha.sup.-1]

Cypress

No Lime             44             5242
                    34             5393
                    24             5292
Lime                21             5645
                    36             6098
                    27             5544

Kaybonnet

No Lime             36             7560
                    28             6754
                    30             7510
Lime                31             6754
                    36             6905
                    32             6552

Drew

No Lime             37             6804
                    48             7358
                    33             6955
Lime                30             7056
                    25             6602
                    41             7106
[LSD.sub..05]       ns              ns
C.V.%              55.1            11.6

(a) Means were not significantly different at the 0.05 level.

Table 3

Mean effect of lime and zinc applications on rice plant nutrient
concentrations at internode elongation growth stage and yield in 1999

Cultivar           Zinc Application        Fe              Mn

                                     mg [kg.sup.-1]  mg [kg.sup.-1]

Cypress

No Lime            No zinc                212             1104
                   Soil zinc              256             1107
                   Foliar zinc            235             1261
Lime               No zinc                256             1269
                   Soil zinc              274             1242
                   Foliar zinc            208             1182

Kaybonnet

No Lime            No zinc                223             1167
                   Soil zinc              280             1231
                   Foliar zinc            222             1132
Lime               No zinc                208             977
                   Soil zinc              184             1250
                   Foliar zinc            271             1181

Drew

No Lime            No zinc                304             1126
                   Soil zinc              197             1384
                   Folair zinc            310             1374
Lime               No zinc                244             1468
                   Soil zinc              237             1269
                   Folair zinc            195             1131
[LSD.sub..05]
(comparisons
within cultivars)                          ns (a)          ns
C.V.%                                     29.0            16.0

Cultivar                 Zn          Rice Yield

                   mg [kg.sup.-1]  kg [ha.sup.-1]

Cypress

No Lime                  54             7610
                         49             6703
                         58             7157
Lime                     55             7006
                         58             7358
                         46             7308

Kaybonnet

No Lime                  48             7358
                         65             7358
                         41             7711
Lime                     46             7661
                         61             6552
                         53             6955

Drew

No Lime                  44             7711
                         63             7006
                         53             7610
Lime                     52             7157
                         66             6955
                         54             7358
[LSD.sub..05]
(comparisons
within cultivars)        16              ns
C.V.%                   20.0            6.4

(a) Means were not significantly different at the 0.05 level. Analysis
of variance showed a significant interaction between cultivar and zinc
fertilizer for plant zinc concentration.


References

Barbosa, F., N. Fageria, O. Silva, A. Barboa, and O. Da Silva. 1992. Interactions between liming and zinc on nutrient uptake and yield of upland rice in the greenhouse. Revista Brasileria de Ciencia do Solo. 16:355-360.

Garrett, J., F. Allgood, B. Brown, R. Grossman, and C. Scrivner. 1978. Soils of the Southeast Missouri Lowlands-major types, fertility, and yield information for soils found in the lowlands of the Bootheel area. Univ. of Missouri-Extension Circular 922.

Mills, H. and J. Jones. 1996. Agronomic a·gron·o·my  
n.
Application of the various soil and plant sciences to soil management and crop production; scientific agriculture.



ag
 and plantation crops-Interpretative values (Oryza sativa) p. 189. (ed.) H. Mills and J. Jones. Plant analysis handbook II. MicroMacro Publishing, Inc., Athens, GA.

Minor, H., and G. Stafford. 1998. Missouri rice variety performance trials. 1997 p. 7-9. In G. Stevens (ed.) Missouri Rice Research Update. Univ. of Missouri Special Report 98-1.

Ntamatungiro, S., N. Slaton, C. Wilson, M. Daniels, J. Robinson, L. Ashlock, and T. Windham. 1999. Effects of lime, phosphorus, and zinc application on rice and soybean soybean, soya bean, or soy pea, leguminous plant (Glycine max, G. soja, or Soja max) of the family Leguminosae (pulse family), native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Asia, where it has been  production. Univ. of Arkansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Series. 468:268-276.

Sajwan, K.S., and W.L. Lindsay. 1986. Effects of redox redox (rē`dŏks): see oxidation and reduction.  and zinc deficiency in paddy rice. Soil Sci. Soc, Am. J. 50:1264-1269.

SAS Institute SAS Institute Inc., headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig. . 1990. SAS/STAT guide for personal computers. Version 6.0. SAS Inst. Cary, N.C.

Slaton, N., S. Ntamatungiro, S. Wilson, and R. Norman. 1999. Evaluation of granular granular /gran·u·lar/ (gran´u-lar) made up of or marked by presence of granules or grains.

gran·u·lar
adj.
1. Composed or appearing to be composed of granules or grains.

2.
 and foliar zinc sources in rice. Univ. of Arkansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Series. 468:291-297.

Tisdale, S.L., W.L. Nelson, and J.D. Beaton. 1985. Soil fertility and fertilizers. MacMillan Publishing Company, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
.

Tracy, P. and S. Hefner. 1991. Calculating crop nutrient value from irrigation inputs: a survey of Southeast Missouri irrigation. Univ. of Missouri- Columbia Ext. Water Quality Bull. WQ278.

Wells, B., B. Huey, R. Norman, and R. Helms. 1993. Rice deficiency symptoms-zinc. p. 16. In W. Bennett (ed.) Nutrient deficiencies and toxicities in crop plants. APS Press. Am. Phytopathological Soc., St. Paul St. Paul

as a missionary he fearlessly confronts the “perils of waters, of robbers, in the city, in the wilderness.” [N.T.: II Cor. 11:26]

See : Bravery
, MN.
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