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Effect of Rhizobium and Bacillus strains on the growth, symbiotic properties and nitrogen and phosphorus content of lablab bean (Lablab purpureus L.).

Introduction

Legumes are capable of developing root nodules through the symbiotic relationship with N-fixing bacteria. They can be used for human food and animal feed

Forage legumes have many uses; thy can be used as green manure, cover crops and as animal feed. Like other legumes, they improve soil nitrogen content through nitrogen fixation.

Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus L.) is a fest growing annual legume. In Sudan, it could be sown for grain as well as forage with maize and sorghum or alone. Generally, it is grown in River Nile, Gezira and Khartoum states [1]. It could be sown all over the year although seed productivity is reduced in winter.

Biofertilizers are substances which contain living microorganisms which when applied to seed, plant surface or soil colonize the rhizosphere or the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of nutrients to the host plant [21]. They include the nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing and plant growth promoting microorganisms [6].

Biological nitrogen fixation is an important part of the microbial process. A wide range of organisms have the ability to fix nitrogen. An examination of the history of biological nitrogen fixation showed the interest on the symbiotic system of leguminous plants and rhizobia. These associations have the greatest quantitative impact on the nitrogen cycle [4].

The N2-fixing capability of rhizobia varies greatly up to 450kg N/ha among host plant species and bacterial strains .Selection of the best strain must take into account rhizobia-host compatibility. The strain must have high N2-fixation rate and be able to compete with the indigenous rhizobia [20].

Phosphorus is the second limiting plant nutrient after nitrogen [18]. Soils usually contain a high amount of total phosphorus but its availability to plant is very low. In addition to traditional methods of mineral phosphate fertilization, microbial phosphate solubilization may increase the availability of phosphorus in arable soils [10].

Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms include largely bacteria and fungi. The most efficient phosphate solubilizing microorganisms belong to genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas in bacteria and Aspergillus, Penicillum and mycorrhza in fungi [16]. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms play a key role in the plant metabolism and crop productivity. They have been reported to increase the availability and uptake of native soil phosphorus in different crops [15].

Several studies have conclusively shown that the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms solubilized and fixed soil phosphorus and applied phosphate resulting in higher crop yields [8].

As they share common microhabitat in the root-soil surface, rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria must interact during their process of root colonization-same plant growth promoting rhizobacteria can improve nodulation and nitrogen fixation in legumes [9]. Co-inoculation of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing Bacillus increased germination, nutrient uptake, plant hight, number of branches, nodulation, yield and total biomass of chick pea [17].

Thy increased nodulation and nirtogenase activity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in soybean culture system [5].

Materials and methodes

Two field experiments were conducted in the same season in two different locations. The first location was at the experimental farm of El Hudaiba Research Station, El Hudaiba, River Nile State. The second one was at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sudan, Shambat, Sudan. The objectives of the study are to assess the effects of biofertilizers on the symbiotic properties of lablab bean and nitrogen and phosphorus content of the plant.

Randomized complete block design was adopted in each experiment in a factorial combination of 5 Rhizobial strains x 3 BMP x 4 replications x 2 times of sampling.

In both experiments, the land was prepared by ploughing, leveling and ridging. The land was then divided into plots 4 x4 meters each. Five ridges were made per plot with 60 cm between then.

Seeds were inoculated with charcoal based inoculums of the appropriate rhizobial strain and/or BMP strain. Inoculated seeds were then left to air dry under shade.

Four Rhizobium strains were used. There were: cowpea strain, ENRRI 16A, TAL 169 and USDA 5019. Two BMP strains were used, these were: phosphobacterin and phosphorin.

Seeds were sown by hand on the eastern side of the ridge in holes 20 cm apart. Four seeds were planted per hole. Plots were irrigated immediately after sowing and then 10-15 days intervals. Weeding was carried out by hand twice in the season.

Two saplings were carried out at 6 and 8 weeks from sowing. At each sampling, three samples were taken from the middle ridges of the plot by digging around the plants to avoid pulling the plant.

The soil was carefully removed from the roots by hand and then washed gently. Samples were kept in paper-bags and then transferred to the laboratory for parameters measurements.

For each sampling, nodules numbers, nodules dry weight, shoot and root dry weights and nitrogen and phosphorus content of the plant were measured.

Multifactor analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of each treatment, and interaction between treatments on the measured parameters. Comparisons between means of treatments for various parameters measured were made by standard error calculation [7]. The objectives of the statistical analysis was also to separate the variations due to intrinsic factors. Data were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). [19]. Significance was accepted at P[less than or equal to]0.05.

Results and discussion

In both location at 6 and 8 day after sowing, Rhizobium inoculation with either strain significantly (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increased lablab bean shoot dry weight over the uninoculated control plants (Tables 1). No significant differences were observed between Rhizobium strains at 6 weeks at El-Hudiba where as strain TAL 169 showed a significant (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increase in the shoot dry weight over the other strains at Shambat after 6 weeks from sowing. At 8 weeks from sowing. Cowpea strain, ENRRI 16A and USDA 5019 showed a significant (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increase in this parameter over strain TAL 169 and the uninoculated control at Shambat and no significant differences between the strains at El-Hudiba.

In both sites and at each sampling, cowpea strain was recommended the best followed by strain ENRRI 16A,TAL 19 and USDA 5019 strains.

The results obtained reflect the positive effect of Rhizobium inoculation which increased the fixed nitrogen by the symbiotic relation with lablab bean and hence increased the plant growth. Several studies displayed this positive symbiosis between Rhizobium and leguminous plants, faba bean [11], soybean [2] chick pea and lablab bean [12].

BMP inoculation significantly (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increased shoot dry weight over the uninoculated control in the two locations and both samplings. The results showed a significant differences between phosphorin and phosphopacterin at 6 weeks after sowing at Elhudiba but no differences were observed at 8 weeks and at the two samplings at Shambat. Generally, phosphobacterin over weighed phosphorin in the two samplings in both locations.

The results obtained may ascribed to the effect of BMP on enhancing root growth [14] by solubilizing phosphorus and making at available in the rhizosphere which increased the root biomass and its ability to absorb nutrients and hence increased the plant growth.

The results were in accord with the observations of [8] and [17] and [23] in green gram.

Co-inoculation with Rhizobium strains and BMP strain significantly (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increased shoot dry weight at El-Hudiba at both samplings but not at Shambat. At both locations and the two samplings period the interaction between phosphobacterin and either cowpea strain or strain ENRRI 16A resulted in a higher shoot dry weight compared to Rhizobium alone, BMP alone or a combination between BMP and other strains. [17] [23] reported the interaction between Rhizobium and BMP strains in increasing shoot dry weight of check pea and green gram.

Table (2) showed the effect of the treatments on root dry weight of lablab bean plant. Rhizobium inoculation significantly (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased the root dry weight per plant in the two site at the two times of sampling.

Cow pea strain and ENRRI 16A strain showed no significant difference between them but they significantly (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased the root dry weight per plant over TAL 169 and USDA 5019 stains. Cow pea strain was superior at 6 weeks where as ENRRI 16A was superior at 8 weeks after sowing.

The fact that Rhizobium inoculation increased the root dry weight of leguminous plants was observed by many research workers [12] in chick pea and [23] in green gram and [11] in faba bean.

No significant differences were observed between phosphobacterin in El-Hudaiba or Shambat. Both of them showed a significant (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased in the root dry weigh over the control uninoculated plants at 6 or 8 weeks after sowing in the two sites. The results could be taken as an evidence for the effectiveness of the BMP strains on solubilizing phosphorus and making it available to the plant [8] and enhancing root growth [14].

Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and BMP significantly (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased root dry weight, with the superiority of cow pea strain in combination with phosphobacterin in the two sites at both times of sampling. Similar results were obtained by [17] in chick pea.

Table (3) showed the effect of the treatment on lablab bean nodulation. Rhizobium inoculation significantly (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increased nodules numbers per plant at both sites at 6 and 8 weeks from sowing over the uninoculated plants. No significant differences were observed between the strains although the cowpea strain was superior at Shambat sites in both samplings and at 6 weeks after sowing in El-Hudiba followed by ENRRI 16 and USDA 5019.

The findings that Rhizobium inoculation increased nodulation in legumes were reported by many research workers, [12] in chickpea and [13] in soybean.

BMP inoculation as phosphorin or phosphobacterin significantly (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increased nodules number per lablab bean plant. No significant differences were observed between the two strains at Shambat site and at Elhudiba after 6 weeks from sowing. Phosphobacterin inoculation resulted in a higher nodule numbers.

At 8 weeks after sowing, at Elhudiba site, phosphobacterin strain showed a significant increase in nodulation over phosphorin strain. These results were in accord with many findings that showed the positive effects of BMP inoculation on nodulation of chickpea and faba bean [12].

In both locations, the interaction of Rhizobium and BMP inoculation showed no significant differences in nodulation at 6 weeks after sowing. At 8 weeks sampling a significant (P[less than or equal to]0.05) differences were observed. Cowpea strain and TAL 169 with phosphobacterin showed the higher nodules number per lablab bean plant in both sites.

From the results shown in Table (4), the two sites, more or less show thee same pattern in the dry weight of the nodules. Rhizobium inoculation by either strain significantly (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increased nodules dry weight per plant compared to uninoculated control plants in the two samplings. Cowpea strain and ENRRI 16A strain over weighed other strains. Previous results showed this significant increase in this parameter [13].

BMP inoculation alone significantly (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increased nodules dry weight per lablab plant. Phosphopacterin have the better nodules dry weight at 6 and 8 weeks after sowing. [24] and [9] observed the same results.

Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and BMP has no significant effect on nodules dry weight per plant at 6 weeks after sowing although a significant (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increase was observed at 8 weeks after sowing. Phosphobacterin with either cowpea strain or ENRRI 16A produced the higher dry weight of nodules. Other research workers observed the same results, [3] and [22].

Rhizobium inoculation by either strain significantly (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased nitrogen content of lablab bean shoot at the two experimental site (Table 5) no significant difference in plant nitrogen content were observed between cow pea strain and ENRRI 16A strain but both of them significantly (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased the nitrogen content over USDA 5019 and TAL 169 strains. Increasing the nitrogen content in the plant shoot by Rhizobium can be used as a direct criterion to determine the effectiveness of the Rhizobium strains on fixing nitrogen. [17].

BMP inoculation significantly (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased the oa nitrogen content. At El-Hudiba, site no significant differences were observed between phosphobacterin and phosphorin, where as a significant difference between them was observed at Shambat site. In both sites phosphobacterin gave the highest amount of the nitrogen accumulated in the shoot.

At both locations, the co-inoculation with Rhizobium and BMP significantly (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased shoot nitrogen content of the plant. The interaction between phosphobacterin and cow pea strain or ENRRI 16A showed the higher nitrogen content follow by phosphorin with cowpea strain.

The results are in accord with the findings of [17] who reported that the combined inoculation of Rhizobium and BMP gave a higher nutrient uptake compared to individual inoculation or uninoculated control.

Although [17] showed that the phosphorus that has been available by the treatments utilized by the plant, lablab bean inoculation with Rhizobium or BMP alone or together significantly (p[less than or equal to]0.05) increased shoot phosphorus content in the two experimental sites. Cowpea strain followed by ENRRI 16A gave the highest results compared to USDA 5019 or TAL 169 strains. Likewise, phosphopacterin gave the best values.

Phosphobacterin and cowpea strain co-inoculation resulted in higher amount of phosphorus shoot content in both sites. While phosphorin and cowpea strain be the second at Shambat site, phosphobacterin with ENRRI 16A was the second at El-Hudiba (Table 5).

References

[1.] Ahmed, A.T., 1996. Food Legume Production Situation. In: Production and Improvement of cool-Season Food Legumes in the Sudan (Eds: Salih, S.H.: Ageeb, O.A.; Saxena, MC. and Solh, M.B.). Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan.

[2.] Ali, A.E., T. Horiuchi and S. Miyagawa, 1997. Nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of soybean plants (Glycine max Merr.) in soil supplemented chitin and chitosan. Japanese Journal of Crops Science, 66(1): 100-107.

[3.] Barea, J.M., D. Werner, C. Azcon-Aguilar and R. Azcon, 2005. Interactions of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Nitrogen Fixing Symbiosis in Sustainable Agriculture. In: Werner D, Newton WE, (eds.). Agriculture, Forestry, Ecology and the Environment. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

[4.] Brockwell, J., P.J. Bottomley and J.E. Thies, 1995. Manipulation of rhizobia micro flora for improving legume productivity and soil fertility: a critical assessment. Plant and Soil, 174: 143-180.

[5.] Chebotar, V.K., C.A. Asis and S. Akao, 2001. Production of growth-promoting substances and high colonization ability of rhizobacteria enhance the nitrogen fixation of soybean when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 34: 427-432.

[6.] Goel, A.K., R.D. Laura, D.V. Pathak, G. Anuradha and A. Goel, 1999. Use of biofertilizers: potential, constrains and future strategies review. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 17: 1-18.

[7.] Gomez, K.A. and A.A. Gomez, 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agriculture Research. John Wiley and Sons. New York.

[8.] Gull, Y., I. Hafeez, M. Salaam and K.A. Malik, 2004. Phosphorus uptake and growth promotion of chickpea by co-inoculation of mineral phosphate solubilizing bacteria and a mixed rhizobial culture. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 44: 623-628.

[9.] Lucas-Garcia, J.A., A. Probanza, B. Ramos, J.J. Colon-Flores and F.J. Gutierrez-Manero, 2004. Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) on the biological nitrogen fixation, nodulation and growth of Lupinus albus I. cv. Multolupa Engineering Life Science, 4: 71-77.

[10.] Mikanova, O. and J. Novakova, 2002. Evaluation of P-solubilizing activity of soil microorganisms and its sensitivity to soluble phosphate. Rostlinna vyroba. Research institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic, 9: 97-400.

[11.] Mohamed Ahmed, T.H. and A.S. Abdalla, 2004. Response of some legumes to Rhizobium inoculation and NPK fertilizer in Gandato agricultural scheme. Shendi University Journal, 1: 62-81. (In Arabic).

[12.] Mohamed Ahmed, T.H., M.E. Abdelgani and A.G. Osman, 2006. Responce of chick pea and common bean. ..., to rhizobial cross inoculation in River Nile State. Shendi University Journal, 3: 142-157. (In Arabic).

[13.] Mohamed, S.S., 2005. Effect of co-inoculation with Rhizobium and Azospirillum on groundnut and lablab bean. Environmental and Natural Resources Research Institute Annual Scientific Report 2005.

[14.] Mullins, G.L., B.F. Hajedk and C.W. Wood, 1996. Phosphorus in Agriculture. Bull. No. 2. Dept. Agron. Soil, Auburn, USA, pp: 1-35.

[15.] Omokanye, A.T., 2001. Seed production, herbage residue and crude protein content of Centro (Centrosema pubescens) in the year of establishment at Shika, Nigeria. Tropicultura, 19(4): 176-179.

[16.] Raja, A.R., K.H. Shah, M. Aslam and M.Y. Memon, 2002. Response of phosphobacterial and mycorrhizal inoculation in wheat. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 1(4): 322-323.

[17.] Richardson, A.E., 2001. Prospect for using soil micro-organisms to improve the acquisition of phosphorus by plants .Austeralian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28: 897-906.

[18.] Rudresh, D.L., M.K. Shivaprakash and R.D. Prasad, 2004. Effect of combined application of Rhizobium, phosphate solubiling bacterium and Trichoderma spp. on growth, nutrient uptake and yield of chickpea (Cicer aritenium L.). Applied Soil Ecology, 28: 139-146.

[19.] Schachtman, D.P., R.J. Reid and S.M. Ayling, 1998. Phosphorus uptake by plants: From soil to cell. Plant Physiology, 16: 447-453.

[20.] Sendcor, G.W. and H.J. Cochran, 1987. Statistical methods. 7th Ed, Ames, IA. The Lowa State University Press, pp: 221-222.

[21.] Stephens, J.H.G. and H.M. Rask, 2000. Inoculants production and formulation. Field Crops Research, 65: 249-258.

[22.] Vessey, J.K., 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizer. Plant and soil, 255: 571-586.

[23.] Vivas, A., J.M. Barea and R. Azcon, 2005. Interactive effect of Brevbacillus brevis and Glomus mosseae, both isolated from Cd-contaminated soil, on plant growth, physiological mycorrhizal fungal characteristics and soil enzymatic activities in Cd polluted soil. Environmental pollution, 134: 257-266.

[24.] Zaidi, A., M.S. Khan and M. Aamil, 2004. Bio-associative effect of rhizospheric micro organic on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of green gram. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27: 599-610.

[25.] Zhang, F., N. Dashti, R.K. Hynes and D.L. Smith, 1996. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) nodulation and nitrogen fixation at suboptimal root zone temperatures. Annals Botany, 77: 453-459.

Corresponding Author

Tagelsir Hassan Mohamed Ahmed, Faculty of science and Technology, Shendi Universiy, Shendi, Sudan. E-mail: tagelsir4m@gmail.com Tel. 00249901236920 Fax 00249157793418

(1) Tag elsir Hassan Mohamed Ahmed, (2) Gadalla Abdalla Elhassan, (3) Migdam Elsheikh Abdelgani and (3) Ammar salama Abdalla

(1) Faculty of science and Technology, Shendi Universiy, Shendi, Sudan.

(2) Faculty of Agriculture, Sudan University for Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

(3) Environment and National Research Institute, the National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan.

Tag elsir Hassan Mohamed Ahmed; Gadalla Abdalla Elhassan; Migdam Elsheikh Abdelgani and Ammar salama Abdalla; Effect of Rhizobium and Bacillus strains on the growth, symbiotic properties and nitrogen and phosphorus content of lablab bean (Lablab purpureus L.)

Table 1: Effect of Rhizobium and BMP inoculation on shoot dry weight
(gm/plant)

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain    El-Hudaiba Site

                                            6 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        1.975
                        Cowpea strain       4.175
                        ENRRI 16A           4.025
                        TAL 169             4.975
                        USDA 5019           4.050
                                            3.840
Phosphorin              uninoculated        4.350
                        Cowpea strain       4.725
                        ENRRI 16A           4.475
                        TAL 169             5.000
                        USDA 5019           4.275
                                            4.565
Phosphobacterin         uninoculated        4.200
                        Cowpea strain       4.350
                        ENRRI 16A           3.575
                        TAL 169             4.900
                        USDA 5019           5.250
                                            4.655
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 0.417
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 0.539
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 0.933

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain

                                            8 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        17.125
                        Cowpea strain       17.975
                        ENRRI 16A           17.750
                        TAL 169             22.075
                        USDA 5019           22.250
                                            19.435
Phosphorin              uninoculated        22.000
                        Cowpea strain       32.725
                        ENRRI 16A           33.650
                        TAL 169             28.250
                        USDA 5019           24.200
                                            28.165
Phosphobacterin         uninoculated        23.075
                        Cowpea strain       32.725
                        ENRRI 16A           32.025
                        TAL 169             36.950
                        USDA 5019           39.725
                                            32.900
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 2.213
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 2.856
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 4.948

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain    Shambat Site

                                            6 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        1.767
                        Cowpea strain       5.970
                        ENRRI 16A           3.283
                        TAL 169             5.500
                        USDA 5019           5.560
                                            4.416
Phosphorin              uninoculated        1.743
                        Cowpea strain       5.603
                        ENRRI 16A           4.400
                        TAL 169             4.980
                        USDA 5019           6.13
                                            4.572
Phosphobacterin         uninoculated        3.953
                        Cowpea strain       5.787
                        ENRRI 16A           5.400
                        TAL 169             8.190
                        USDA 5019           6.377
                                            5.941
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 0.916
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 1.182
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 2.048

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain

                                            8 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        8.583
                        Cowpea strain       16.167
                        ENRRI 16A           16.033
                        TAL 169             14.450
                        USDA 5019           14.763
                                            14.399
Phosphorin              uninoculated        10.350
                        Cowpea strain       25.387
                        ENRRI 16A           24.720
                        TAL 169             18.550
                        USDA 5019           21.323
                                            20.066
Phosphobacterin         uninoculated        10.667
                        Cowpea strain       28.857
                        ENRRI 16A           27.993
                        TAL 169             23.523
                        USDA 5019           23.553
                                            22.919
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 1.461
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 1.886
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 3.266

Table 2: Effect of Rhizobium and BMP inoculation on root dry weight
(gm/plant)

MP strain               Rhizobium strain    El-Hudaiba Site

                                            6 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        0.196
                        Cowpea strain       0.387
                        ENRRI 16A           0.357
                        TAL 169             0.341
                        USDA 5019           0.337
                                            0.324
Phosphorin              uninoculated        0.261
                        Cowpea strain       0.684
                        ENRRI 16A           0.568
                        TAL 169             0.459
                        USDA 5019           0.466
                                            0.488
Phosphobacetrin         uninoculated        0.299
                        Cowpea strain       0.753
                        ENRRI 16A           0.711
                        TAL 169             0.488
                        USDA 5019           0.472
                                            0.545
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 0.037
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 0.048
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 0.083

MP strain               Rhizobium strain

                                            8 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        0.875
                        Cowpea strain       2.500
                        ENRRI 16A           2.25
                        TAL 169             2.465
                        USDA 5019           2.625
                                            2.143
Phosphorin              uninoculated        2.638
                        Cowpea strain       2.550
                        ENRRI 16A           3.700
                        TAL 169             2.900
                        USDA 5019           3.650
                                            3.088
Phosphobacetrin         uninoculated        1.725
                        Cowpea strain       3.663
                        ENRRI 16A           3.750
                        TAL 169             2.900
                        USDA 5019           2.475
                                            2.903
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 0.245
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 0.355
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 0.378

MP strain               Rhizobium strain    Shambat Site

                                            6 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        0.190
                        Cowpea strain       0.426
                        ENRRI 16A           0.389
                        TAL 169             0.477
                        USDA 5019           0.366
                                            0.362
Phosphorin              uninoculated        0.297
                        Cowpea strain       0.507
                        ENRRI 16A           0.483
                        TAL 169             0.406
                        USDA 5019           0.441
                                            0.427
Phosphobacetrin         uninoculated        0.268
                        Cowpea strain       0.650
                        ENRRI 16A           0.577
                        TAL 169             0.429
                        USDA 5019           0.25
                                            0470
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 0.031
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 0.04
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 0.069

MP strain               Rhizobium strain

                                            8 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        1.020
                        Cowpea strain       2.813
                        ENRRI 16A           2.700
                        TAL 169             2.233
                        USDA 5019           2.300
                                            2.213
Phosphorin              uninoculated        2.080
                        Cowpea strain       4.760
                        ENRRI 16A           3.933
                        TAL 169             3.093
                        USDA 5019           3.467
                                            3.467
Phosphobacetrin         uninoculated        2.083
                        Cowpea strain       5.067
                        ENRRI 16A           4.967
                        TAL 169              .053
                        USDA 5019           4.033
                                            4.041
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 0.178
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 0.229
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 0.397

Table 3: Effect of Rhizobium and BMP inoculation on nodules
number/plant

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain    El-Hudaiba Site

                                            6 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        0.460
                        Cowpea strain       1.850
                        ENRRI 16A           1.075
                        TAL 169             1.775
                        USDA 5019           1.025
                                            1.237
Phosphorin              uninoculated        0.980
                        Cowpea strain       6.000
                        ENRRI 16A           5.800
                        TAL 169             3.813
                        USDA 5019           4.500
                                            4.219
Phosphobacetrin         uninoculated        1.500
                        Cowpea strain       6.625
                        ENRRI 16A           6.750
                        TAL 169             6.553
                        USDA 5019           5.583
                                            5.402
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 1.699
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 1.682
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 2.914

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain

                                            8 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        1.225
                        Cowpea strain       4.975
                        ENRRI 16A           4.075
                        TAL 169             4.250
                        USDA 5019           3.500
                                            3.605
Phosphorin              uninoculated        1.775
                        Cowpea strain       15.375
                        ENRRI 16A           13.325
                        TAL 169             11.000
                        USDA 5019           9.250
                                            10.145
Phosphobacetrin         uninoculated        2.625
                        Cowpea strain       17.825
                        ENRRI 16A           16.100
                        TAL 169             12.250
                        USDA 5019           12.750
                                            12.310
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 1.379
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 1.78
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 3.084

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain    Shambat Site

                                            6 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        0.777
                        Cowpea strain       3.517
                        ENRRI 16A           3.577
                        TAL 169             2.000
                        USDA 5019           2.293
                                            2.433
Phosphorin              uninoculated        2.377
                        Cowpea strain       4.917
                        ENRRI 16A           4.600
                        TAL 169             3.600
                        USDA 5019           2.777
                                            3.654
Phosphobacetrin         uninoculated        2.570
                        Cowpea strain       5.135
                        ENRRI 16A           4.817
                        TAL 169             4.083
                        USDA 5019           3.533
                                            4.035
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 0.628
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 0.811
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 1.405

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain

                                            8 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        0.757
                        Cowpea strain       5.183
                        ENRRI 16A           4.600
                        TAL 169             5.890
                        USDA 5019           3.890
                                            4.064
Phosphorin              uninoculated        4.443
                        Cowpea strain       14.890
                        ENRRI 16A           12.667
                        TAL 169             9.333
                        USDA 5019           8.167
                                            9.900
Phosphobacetrin         uninoculated        3.553
                        Cowpea strain       16.033
                        ENRRI 16A           14.667
                        TAL 169             12.000
                        USDA 5019           11.367
                                            11.524
LSD for BMP (P)                             [+ or -] 1.124
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       [+ or -] 1.452
LSD for P * R                               [+ or -] 2.514

Table 4: Effect of Rhizobium and BMP inoculation on nodules
dry weight (mg/plant)

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain    El-Hudaiba Site

                                            6 weeks      8 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        0.003        0.003
                        Cowpea strain       0.028        0.045
                        ENRRI 16A           0.034        0.038
                        TAL 169             0.016        0.048
                        USDA 5019           0.018        0.036
                                            0.018        0.034
Phosphorin              uninoculated        0.005        0.006
                        Cowpea strain       0.082        0.227
                        ENRRI 16A           0.071        0.219
                        TAL 169             0.057        0.127
                        USDA 5019           0.067        0.121
                                            0.056        0.140
Phosphobacterin         uninoculated        0.005        0.072
                        Cowpea strain       0.085        0.322
                        ENRRI 16A           0.077        0.307
                        TAL 169             0.051        0.253
                        USDA 5019           0.052        0.250
                                            0.054        0.250
LSD for BMP (P)                             0.016        0.026
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       0.021        0.034
LSD for P * R                               0.036        0.058

BMP strain              Rhizobium strain    Shambat Site

                                            6 weeks      8 weeks

Uninoculated            uninoculated        0.004        0.070
                        Cowpea strain       0.023        0.190
                        ENRRI 16A           0.021        0.182
                        TAL 169             0.024        0.173
                        USDA 5019           0.019        0.160
                                            0.018        0.156
Phosphorin              uninoculated        0.012        0.090
                        Cowpea strain       0.041        0.420
                        ENRRI 16A           0.037        0.400
                        TAL 169             0.034        0.337
                        USDA 5019           0.037        0.265
                                            0.032        0.302
Phosphobacterin         uninoculated        0.097        0.083
                        Cowpea strain       0.050        0.460
                        ENRRI 16A           0.047        0.450
                        TAL 169             0.040        0.315
                        USDA 5019           0.035        0.293
                                            0.036        0.320
LSD for BMP (P)                             0.073        0.03
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                       0.095        0.038
LSD for P * R                               0.164        0.067

Table 5: Effect of Rhizobium and BMP inoculation on shoot nitrogen and
phosphorus content

BMP strain               Rhizobium strain    nitrogen content

                                             El-Hudaiba

Uninoculated             uninoculated        2.083
                         Cowpea strain       3.950
                         ENRRI 16A           3.840
                         TAL 169             3.170
                         USDA 5019           3.320
                                             3.273
Phosphorin               uninoculated        2.470
                         Cowpea strain       5.850
                         ENRRI 16A           5.233
                         TAL 169             4.177
                         USDA 5019           3.850
                                             4.316
Phosphobacetrin          uninoculated        2.267
                         Cowpea strain       6.283
                         ENRRI 16A           5.750
                         TAL 169             4.550
                         USDA 5019           3.967
                                             4.563
LSD for BMP (P)                              [+ or -] 0.274
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                        [+ or -] 0.354
LSD for P * R                                [+ or -] 0.613

BMP strain               Rhizobium strain

                                             Shambat

Uninoculated             uninoculated        2.563
                         Cowpea strain       3.800
                         ENRRI 16A           3.800
                         TAL 169             3.297
                         USDA 5019           3.553
                                             3.403
Phosphorin               uninoculated        2.707
                         Cowpea strain       5.933
                         ENRRI 16A           5.793
                         TAL 169             4.227
                         USDA 5019           3.993
                                             4.531
Phosphobacetrin          uninoculated        3.033
                         Cowpea strain       6.100
                         ENRRI 16A           5.913
                         TAL 169             5.767
                         USDA 5019           5.220
                                             5.207
LSD for BMP (P)                              [+ or -] 0.111
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                        [+ or -] 0.333
LSD for P * R                                [+ or -] 0.744

BMP strain               Rhizobium strain    Phosphorus content

                                             El-Hudaiba

Uninoculated             uninoculated        2.967
                         Cowpea strain       4.967
                         ENRRI 16A           4.283
                         TAL 169             4.733
                         USDA 5019           3.917
                                             4.173
Phosphorin               uninoculated        3.547
                         Cowpea strain       5.933
                         ENRRI 16A           5.650
                         TAL 169             4.433
                         USDA 5019           4.733
                                             4.859
Phosphobacetrin          uninoculated        3.883
                         Cowpea strain       6.400
                         ENRRI 16A           5.933
                         TAL 169             4.667
                         USDA 5019           4.100
                                             4.997
LSD for BMP (P)                              [+ or -] 0.348
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                        [+ or -] 0.449
LSD for P * R                                [+ or -] 0.779

BMP strain               Rhizobium strain

                                             Shambat

Uninoculated             uninoculated        3.467
                         Cowpea strain       4.553
                         ENRRI 16A           4.017
                         TAL 169             3.950
                         USDA 5019           3.667
                                             3.931
Phosphorin               uninoculated        3.467
                         Cowpea strain       6.467
                         ENRRI 16A           6.333
                         TAL 169             5.600
                         USDA 5019           5.567
                                             5.487
Phosphobacetrin          uninoculated        3.633
                         Cowpea strain       6.667
                         ENRRI 16A           6.333
                         TAL 169             5.933
                         USDA 5019           5.367
                                             5.587
LSD for BMP (P)                              [+ or -] 0.305
LSD for Rhizobium (R)                        [+ or -] 0.394
LSD for P * R                                [+ or -] 0.682
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Ahmed, Tag elsir Hassan Mohamed; Elhassan, Gadalla Abdalla; Abdelgani, Migdam Elsheikh; Abdalla, Amm
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6SUDA
Date:Jan 1, 2011
Words:5052
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