Education service delivery and students' satisfaction: a study of private colleges in Malaysia.
Education is one of the most important industries and playing a vital role in national development. In relation to the importance of education, Brunat (2006) has studied on the relationship between education and economic growth. Based on the findings from his study, he found that there is a correlation between education and economic growth but a correlation is not a cause-and-effect relationship. This is supported by the examples of countries like Germany, Japan and the Republic of Korea, in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries respectively, where they suggested that an educated population is a springboard for jumping to high economic performance.
There is a growing interest to use performance management and service quality improvement techniques in educational institutes in order to increase the competitiveness and quality of education in a globalized environment (Nejati et al., 2007).
Private education sector is growing rapidly in Malaysia over the past few years. The aim of this industry is to give an alternative road map for tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-stage, third level education, or higher education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. for those who failed to get admission into local universities and for those who intend to go for higher education locally. The target approach of the government is to have 20,000 undergraduate students in every public university by 2020 (Education in Malaysia Education in Malaysia may be obtained from government-sponsored schools, private schools, or through homeschooling. The education system is highly centralised, particularly for primary and secondary schools, with state and local governments having little say in the curriculum or , 2001).
The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of education service delivery on student satisfaction. The perceived service delivery attributes among the student borrowed from Yu and Dean (2001). The variables consist of six dimensions known as physical environment, course structure and content learning materials, administration, interaction and support at last feedback and assessment.
In fact, the competition in the private education has always been high and private colleges previously obtain high returns for relatively little efforts but now the time has changed and for the better satisfaction of students these private colleges need to change their strategy. Private colleges provide the services delivery to satisfy the student needs. Nowadays, service quality has emerged as a key strategic issue in management (Nejati and Nejati, 2009). As argued by Berry (1995) service is one of the important factors enhancing value, and can positively influence a college success. The students are customers for these colleges and colleges play an important role while helping students to offload To remove work from one computer and do it on another. See cooperative processing. potential burdens. The student expectation is an essential component to enhance a college service delivery measures. This means that in order to gain the best satisfaction among the students, we must know the characteristics of the course participants, college environment, lecturer support and many other factors should be considered so that the most effective perceived education service delivery can be provided to them.
This study will give us the view of the individual perspective of student's satisfaction. And on the basis of individual student satisfaction the college will be rated, more research is needed to give us close sight of the consequences and problem faced by the students.
This means that in order to gain the best satisfaction among the students, the characteristics of the course participants, college environment, lecturer support and many other factors should be considered so that the most effective perceived education service delivery can be provided to them. This study will give us the view of the individual perspective of students' satisfaction. Moreover, on the basis of individual student satisfaction, the college will be rated. This study is first of its kind in the private education sector while investigating the perceived service delivery to satisfy the needs and expectations of student. On the other hand, it is also considering the service delivery to improve the environment of private colleges for the satisfaction of the students. This research is a step ahead for perceived service delivery to improve the student's needs and better studying environment especially for the Malaysian private education industry.
Nowadays no organization can succeed unless it can attract and retain enough customers (Nejati et al., 2009). Similarly, colleges and educational institutes need to pay special attention to the students as their main customers and try to provide quality services that satisfy them. Service deliveries are drivers, which contributes to student's satisfaction.
Kasper et al. (1999) define service quality as "the extent to which the service, the service process and the service organization can satisfy the expectations of the user". On the other hand, Gronroos (1978) suggests that service quality is made of two components--technical quality and functional quality. Technical quality refers to what the service provider delivers during the service provision while functional quality is how the service employee provides the service. Parasuraman et al. (1988) also defines service quality as "a function of the difference between service expected and customers' perceptions of the actual service delivered".
The new vision of service delivery is given by Yu and Dean (2001). It has already been argued by Cuthbert (1996) that SERVQUAL SERVQUAL Service Quality is an instrument to measure the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of educational experiences. Then the multi-itemed disconfirmation scale which is relatively similar to SERVQUAL is used to measure the component of satisfaction which is given by Yu and Dean (2001). This scale has been used to measure the cognitive component of satisfaction.
Yu and Dean (2001) have discussed the dimensions of service attributes which focuses on the teaching facilities offered by these private colleges to students in term of feedback and assessment of physical environment, interaction and support, administration, learning materials, course structure and content as shown in the Figure 1.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The evaluation of the service is not only based on the outcome of services. But also on the service cycle which provides that service and is very important. Having a look at the top 100 rating of the Colleges and Universities in the world, it can be noticed that it keeps on changing form time to time. All these ratings depend on many parameters but one of the important parameter (1) Any value passed to a program by the user or by another program in order to customize the program for a particular purpose. A parameter may be anything; for example, a file name, a coordinate, a range of values, a money amount or a code of some kind. is service quality. As said by Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry, (1990) the perception of service quality stress form how better provider delivers via a customer.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Zeithaml et al. (1990) and Gronroos (2001), the term service is basically heterogeneous, inseparable in·sep·a·ra·ble
1. Impossible to separate or part: inseparable pieces of rock.
2. Very closely associated; constant: inseparable companions. and intangible offered by the service provider. Comparatively it is not easy for customers to judge good service quality. As discussed by Zeithaml (1987) that service market's service quality is determined by customer's judgment regarding the subject overall excellence or superiority.
The first ever-developed model to measure the service quality and to conceptualize con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: as the gap between customer's perception and expectations of the services was given by Parasuraman et al. (1985) to measure the service quality. In the beginning, the model has ten determinants, including:
(a) Reliability: the ability to deliver the pledged service on time, accurately and dependably.
(b) Responsiveness: the ability to deal effectively with complaints and promptness of the service.
(c) Credibility: the extent to which the service is believed and trusted.
(d) Competence: the necessary skills, knowledge and information to perform the service effectively.
(e) Access: the ease of approachability and contact.
(f) Courtesy: the politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness shown to the customers by the contact personnel.
(g) Security: the freedom from danger, risk and doubt, which involves physical safety, financial security and confidentiality.
(h) Communication: keeping customers informed about the service in a language that they can understand and listening to the customers.
(i) Tangibles: the state of facilitating good, physical condition of the buildings and the environment, appearance of personnel and equipment.
(j)Understanding the customer: this involves trying to understand the customer's needs and specific requirements, providing individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. attention and recognizing regular customer.
In this research, the above ten attributes were condensed con·dense
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.
2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.
a. into five. The reason to this was to exclude overlap between variables and to refine the original model and improve reliability and validity. The model of SERVQUAL has changed into five dimensions which are as follows:
(1) Tangibles: This dimension includes physical facilities equipments and appearance of personnel. Any Thing that customers can see, hear, touch, test or smell will affect their perception of this dimension.
(2) Reliability: This dimension involves the consistency and reliability of the service performance and the service promise conveyed reliably and accurately to the customer.
(3) Responsiveness: This dimension refers to the staff's willingness to help customer and provide prompt service. Also included is the competence of the staff.
(4) Assurance: This dimension refers to the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence in customer.
(5) Empathy empathy
Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing. : This dimension refers to the human factors involved in the service performance. Caring, friendliness and individualized attention provided to customers are some of the main aspects of the empathy dimension.
Service problems, and for pure understanding to refine and improve service quality can be used as a tool by this model. As argued by Parasuraman, Zeithmal, and Berry (1994) measurement of service quality that takes into observation and evaluation the customer expectations, provide stronger and comprehensive information as compared to focusing only on perception. They have provided a measuring instrument for service quality in a broader range of service.
Student satisfaction is the term which can be explained and evaluated in many ways. Kaldenberg, Browne and Brown (1998) discussed and found that in the college, student satisfaction was driven by evaluating the quality of coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's and other curriculum activities and other factors related to the college. The lecturers should treat students with sensitivity and sympathy, and assistance should be provided when necessary. Even simple listening is appreciated. For example the lecturers or tutors who fail to turn up in class or arrive late will project a bad image in the students' minds. Also, preparation of lecture or tutorial An instructional book or program that takes the user through a prescribed sequence of steps in order to learn a product. Contrast with documentation, which, although instructional, tends to group features and functions by category. See tutorials in this publication. material could be devalued de·val·ue also de·val·u·ate
v. de·val·ued also de·valu·at·ed, de·val·u·ing also de·val·u·at·ing, de·val·ues also de·val·u·ates
1. To lessen or cancel the value of. by such behaviors. Grossman (1999) discussed that student could be treated like a customer or a client within the college and in that case, the college serve the students on a better priority to fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. their expectations and needs. According to Oliver (1980) "disconfirmation of expectation" model of satisfaction explaining that consumer satisfaction is the result of comparison between company performance and customer expectation. The performance is very important to evaluate the student satisfaction.
Patterson, Johnson and Spreng (1997) argued statistically that there is a strong bond between customer satisfactions and repurchase re·pur·chase
tr.v. re·pur·chased, re·pur·chas·ing, re·pur·chas·es
To buy (something) again.
The act of buying something that one previously sold or owned.
Noun 1. intentions. The repurchase in term of students recommending the college to friends and relatives was heavily influenced by the extent of interactions between the student and college. It is a complex phenomenon to measure the student satisfaction, considering their level of education and their various expectations. However, as argued by Babin and Griffin (1998) there are a number of satisfaction measurement scales lacking face validity face validity (fāsˑ v·liˑ·di·tē),
n due to contamination of other related constructs. As discussed by Athiyaman (1997), student satisfaction is type of attitude, which is not durable and varies form time to time and it is for short period measuring the student's educational experience. Messer and Mires (2001) discussed that a well-designed performance management should be the cornerstone of a firm's employee development efforts. They further argued that the traditional view of employee development as what takes place in a classroom is much too narrow. The more effective, broader view requires that firms understand the meaning of performance management. These collages do need to focus on the student development and give them more effective trainings and skills that can guide the students. The student satisfaction is best tested when the performance results are realized when lecturers gives feedback.
There are hypotheses developed from the research model, in order to test the influences of independent variables as follows:
H1: The student's satisfaction of private colleges is significantly influenced by the perceived service delivery.
H1a: There is as significant positive relationship between physical environment and the student satisfaction.
H1b: There is a significant relationship between interaction and support influencing student satisfaction.
H1c: There is a significant relationship between structure and contents influencing student satisfaction.
H1d: There is a significant relationship between feedback and assessment influencing student satisfaction.
H1e: There is a significant relationship between Administration and student satisfaction.
H1f: There is a significant relationship between learning materials and student satisfaction.
A pilot study was undertaken using 5 students from one of private collage collage (kəläzh`, kō–) [Fr.,=pasting], technique in art consisting of cutting and pasting natural or manufactured materials to a painted or unpainted surface—hence, a work of art in this medium. in Penang. The time taken to complete the questionnaire ranged from15-20 minutes. Feedback on clarity of words and instructions were good, with no assistance needed.
The study is conducted in the Private collages in Penang. The list of these private colleges was taken from Malaysian education websites and popular search engines such as Google and Yahoo. The respondents were students from private colleges. The students were randomly selected from different courses and programs from private colleges.
As mentioned before, the population for this research consisted of students of Private colleges of Penang. 200 students were selected randomly from these colleges. To achieve the objectives of the research, convenient sampling method was used among the 10 private colleges in Penang. However, due to the semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s break, the response rate was low, however, a total 200 self administered questionnaires were distributed among respondents in the private colleges.
To ensure higher return rates the unfilled questionnaires were again distributed to the colleges where the response rate was higher, in order to compensate the adequate number of samples.
The dependent variable (student satisfaction) was an ordinal (mathematics) ordinal - An isomorphism class of well-ordered sets. variable with the 1-5 scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree which investigated the factors influencing the improvement of the students satisfaction in private colleges. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed to diploma, and bachelor students in the private colleges. From the total number of 200 questionnaires distributed, 166 were returned; therefore, the response rate was about 83%. However, some of the questionnaires were not fully completed by the respondents and hence they were abandoned from the analysis. Finally, a total of 108 usable questionnaire remained.
Most of the respondents were Chinese (77.8%). Following them were Malay (7.4%), Indian (9.3%) and other different races respondents such as Siks (Punjabies) and mix respondents (5.6%).
Result and Analysis
In order to determine the reliability of the research method and the questionnaire, the Cronbach Alpha has been used (See Table 1). Through this method, it has been ensured that the items comprising factors produced a reliable scale. According to Sekaran (2003) the level of reliabilities less than 0.60 are considered to be poor and questionable. As discussed by Nunnally (1967), the reliability of 0.50 to 0.60 is acceptable for the beginning levels of research, but Sekaran (2003) said that reliability over 0.80 is considered good; where as in the range of 0.70 is considered acceptable.
To examine the perceived service delivery with student satisfaction, multiple regression analysis In statistics, a mathematical method of modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others. For example, a model might estimate sales based on age and gender. has been used. The basic objectives of the multiple regression analysis were inspected, to ascertain the requirements were fulfilled. The independent variable was perceived service delivery and the dependent variable was student satisfaction. The regression results are presented in Table 2.
The summary in Table 2 shows that the R square was 65.1% indicating that 65.1% of variance in is explained by independent variables perceived knowledge management and perceived service attributes. Durbin-Watson index was 2.099, which falls within the range of 1.50 to 2.50, meaning that there is no auto correlation problem. The tolerance value for all variables was more than 0.10 and the variance inflation faction fac·tion 1
1. A group of persons forming a cohesive, usually contentious minority within a larger group.
2. Conflict within an organization or nation; internal dissension: (VIF VIF - VHDL Interface Format. Intermediate language used by the Vantage VHDL compiler. "A VHDL Compiler Based on Attribute Grammar Methodology", R. Farrow et al, SIGPLAN NOtices 24(7):120-130 (Jul 1989). ) was less than 10. Hence, it shows no serious colinearity among variables.
The student satisfaction has been identified as a behavior that distinguishes between satisfaction levels between the students. Therefore, student's behavior could possibly be controlled and managed with regard to perceived service attributes in term of satisfaction of students to meet their expectations and needs. In regards with this, factors such as physical environment, interaction and support, structure and content, feedback and assessment, administration and learning materials were measured. The study findings show that the perceived benefits of the dimension on the student satisfaction were found to be related to course structure, content, feedback and assessment, and administration (significant at P < .05). The significant levels are supported for H1.c, H1.d and H1.e, while the rest of them were insignificant. All of the variables for student satisfaction were taken form private colleges and they were selected based on those highly related to educational environment.
This study is based on evaluation of students satisfaction based on increased recognition in service industry and greater emphasis on meeting the expectations and needs of students as discussed by Cheng & Tam (1997). In order to be competitive and flourishing in the private education sector, the private colleges must identify what is top priority to the students and on the bases of these objectives students should be delivered what they expect from the private college. As it is observed by many researchers, the service delivery can be maintained and it has longterm attitude implications, where as consumer satisfaction is a transitory judgment and keeps on changing according to the delivery of service, and it cannot me maintained.
Suggestions for Future Research
For educational institutes including colleges and universities, it is very important to have an ongoing monitoring of the quality of their services and their service delivery and performance levels. The future research must identify other variables that contribute to students' satisfaction. In this research, the main idea lies on population and sampling selection approach. As this study is a limited study and it has covered the problem to a certain extent, basically the study was focused on specific population and sampling. At the same time service delivery (physical environment, interaction and support structure and content, feedback and assessment, administration, and at the last learning materials) were put as variables contributing to student satisfaction.
Received 15 February 2009
Reviewed 24 March 2009
Revised 26 March 2009
Accepted 26 March 2009
Athiyaman, A. (1997), Linking Student Satisfaction and Service Quality Perceptions: The Case of University Education. European Journal of Marketing, 31, 528-540.
Babin, B, J., & Griffin, M. (1998), The Nature of Satisfaction: An Updated Examination and Analysis. The Journal of Business Research, 41,127-136.
Berry, L.L. (1995), "Relationship Marketing of Services--Growing Interest, Emerging Perspectives", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 236-45.
Brunat, E. (2006), "The importance of higher education to attract investment and contribute tosustain economic growth and competitiveness in Kaliningrad", Baltic Rim Economies, Bimonthly bi·month·ly
1. Happening every two months.
2. Happening twice a month; semimonthly.
1. Once every two months.
2. Twice a month; semimonthly.
n. pl. Review 3f2006, 22.6.2006.
Cheng, Y. C. and Tam, W. M. (1997), "Multi-Models of Quality in Education", Quality Assurance in Education, 5 (1), pp. 22-31.
Cuthbert, P.F. (1996), "Managing Service Quality in HE: Is SERVQUAL the Answer?", Managing service quality, 6, pp. 11-20.
Education in Malaysia, (2001), A Journal to Excellence. A. G. Grafik Sdn Bhd SDN BHD Sendirian Berhad (Malay equivalent to incorporated) , pp. 111-119. Gronroos, C. (1978), "A service oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. approach to marketing of services", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 12 No. 8, pp. 588-601.
Grossman, R. P. (1999), "Relational Versus Discrete Exchanges: The Role of Trust and Commitment in Determining Customer Satisfaction", The Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 47-58.
Kaldenberg, Browne, W., and Brown D (1998), "Student as Customer: Factors Affecting Satisfaction and Assessments of Institutional Quality". Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 8 No. 3, pp. 1-14.
Kasper, H., Van Helsdingen, P. and De Vries de Vries. For some persons thus named use Vries. , V. (1999), Services Marketing Services marketing is marketing based on relationship and value. It may be used to market a service or a product.
Marketing a service-base business is different from marketing a product-base business. Management, John Wiley John Wiley may refer to:
- John Wiley & Sons, publishing company
- John C. Wiley, American ambassador
- John D. Wiley, Chancellor of the University of Wisconsin-Madison
- John M. Wiley (1846–1912), U.S.
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , NY.
Messer, R.F., and Mires, L.A. (2001), Performance Appraisals--A tool for employee development. Available at www.acec.org/case/case_pdf/2001_oct.pdf (Last Access: March 25, 2009)
Nejati, M. and Nejati, M. (2008), "Service quality at University of Tehran Central Library", Library Management, Emerald Publishing Group, Vol. 29 No. 6/7, pp. 571-582.
Nejati, M., Nejati, M. and Bayat Nejad, F. (2007), "Quality Enhancement in Medical Education", Lex See yacc.
1. (tool) Lex - A lexical analyser generator for Unix and its input language. There is a GNU version called flex and a version written in, and outputting, SML/NJ called ML-lex. ET Scientia International Journal, No. XIV.
Nejati, M., Nejati, M., and Shafaei, A. (2009), "Ranking airlines' service quality factors using a fuzzy fuzz·y
adj. fuzz·i·er, fuzz·i·est
1. Covered with fuzz.
2. Of or resembling fuzz.
3. Not clear; indistinct: a fuzzy recollection of past events.
4. approach: study of the Iranian society", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 26 No. 3, pp. 247-260.
Nunnally, J.C (1967), Psychometric psy·cho·met·rics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 172-235, see especially formulas 6-26, p. 196
Oliver, R.L., (1980), "A Cognitive Model The term cognitive model can have basically two meanings. In cognitive psychology, a model is a simplified representation of reality. The essential quality of such a model is to help deciding the appropriate actions, i.e. of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions", Journal of Marketing Research, XVII, pp. 460-469.
Patterson, P.G., Johnson, L.W and Spreng, R.A. (1997), "Modeling the Determinants of Customer Satisfaction for Business-to-Business Professional Services (job) professional services - A department of a supplier providing consultancy and programming manpower for the supplier's products. ", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25 (1), pp. 4-17.
Parasuraman, A., Berry, L.L. and Zeithaml, V.A. (1988), "SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 12-37.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985), A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research, Journal of Marketing, 49 (Fall), pp. 41-50.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithmal, V.and Berry, L (1994), "Reassessment Reassessment
The process of re-determining the value of property or land for tax purposes.
Property is usually reassessed on an annual basis. You may request a "reassessment" if you disagree with your assessment. of Expectations as A Comparison Standard in Measuring SQ: Implications for Further Research", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, January, pp. 111-124.
Sekaran, U. (2003), Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach, John Wiley&Sons, New York, NY.
Yu, Y.T., & Dean, A. (2001), "The Contribution of Emotional Satisfaction to Consumer Loyalty", International Journal of Service Industrial Management, Vol. 12, pp. 234-250.
Zeithaml, V.A. (1987), "Consumer Perception of Price, Quality and Value: A Mean-end Model and Synthesis of Evidence", Journal of Marketing, 52 (3), pp. 2-22.
Zeithaml, V.A., Parasuraman, A., & Berry. L.L (1990), Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations, The Free Press, New York.
Fawad Hussain can be contacted at: email@example.com
Fawad Husain, Suhaiza Hanim, Yudi Fernando, and Mostafa Nejati
School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) (马来西亚理科大学,理大) is a public university with a main campus in Penang, Malaysia. (USM USM
1. United States Mail
2. United States Mint
USM n abbr (= United States Mint) → US-Münzanstalt (= United States Mail) → US-Postbehörde ), Penang, Malaysia
Table l. Reliability Coefficients of Variables No of items Alpha Variables Total Items deleted Coefficient Physical Environment 4 1 0.81 Interaction and support 4 1 0.78 Structure and content 2 None 0.68 Feed back and assessment 3 None 0.81 Administration 3 None 0.81 Learning Materials 2 2 0.78 Student Satisfaction 5 None 0.90 Table 2. Multiple Regression Analysis Indicators Standardized Independent Variable Beta Sig Physical Environment 0.062 0.365 Interaction and support 0.132 0.106 Structure, content, Feedback and assessment 0.359 0.000 Administration 0.223 0.010 Model Summary R Square 0.651 Adj R Square 0.625 Sig 0.000 Durbin Watson 2.099
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Husain, Fawad; Hanim, Suhaiza; Fernando, Yudi; Nejati, Mostafa|
|Publication:||Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2009|
|Previous Article:||Determining critical success factors of international expansion in African telephony industry.|
|Next Article:||Organizational factors for exploration and exploitation: a conceptual review.|