Printer Friendly

Education for information professionals in Bangladesh: a case study of the University Of Dhaka.

Introduction

Professional competence is achieved through University education. University is the place where the root of knowledge in a field of study is fabricated fab·ri·cate  
tr.v. fab·ri·cat·ed, fab·ri·cat·ing, fab·ri·cates
1. To make; create.

2. To construct by combining or assembling diverse, typically standardized parts:
. It is also the forum where research and professional queries begin. As such, the curriculum is not only for the forming of knowledge but also for the forming of attitudes, academic and professional approaches. The impact of a departmental curriculum is far greater than the mere transfer of knowledge. Syllabus A headnote; a short note preceding the text of a reported case that briefly summarizes the rulings of the court on the points decided in the case.

The syllabus appears before the text of the opinion.
 or courses of studies are one-dimensional document that embody em·bod·y  
tr.v. em·bod·ied, em·bod·y·ing, em·bod·ies
1. To give a bodily form to; incarnate.

2. To represent in bodily or material form:
 the subjects and contents outline with broad time allocation. Curriculum is three-dimensional, and takes into account the needs of the society, students, professions and the instructional methodology (Karisiddappa and Sangam, 1994). The objective is to describe the course content or what is being studied. It is a blueprint blueprint, white-on-blue photographic print, commonly of a working drawing used during building or manufacturing. The plan is first drawn to scale on a special paper or tracing cloth through which light can penetrate.  that provides fundamental guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 for a department on: what is study; why; when; where and how it is to be studied; who should study and how the courses of studies are to be evaluated and trainees' assessed (Ocholla, 2000).

The use of ICT (1) (Information and Communications Technology) An umbrella term for the information technology field. See IT.

(2) (International Computers and Tabulators) See ICL.

1. (testing) ICT - In Circuit Test.
 has transformed a modern library into an electronic library providing access to information from local and remote databases through Internet and/or Intranet, CD Networks, e-books, e-journals, computerized in-house library operations such as acquisition, classification, cataloguing, circulation serial control, barcoding, etc. The concepts such as 'Library without walls', 'Virtual Library', 'Electronic Library' and 'Digital Library' have already come to light. New technologies have heralded not only new ways of handling information but also introduced new formats. Information started detaching itself from just the print format. Diverseness in format has created an independence of thought in approaching it. These changes transfigured the library education and obligated the professionals to prepare themselves for the coming era.

How do these changes affect education for library and information science? If professional values are changing minimally, professional parameters slowly and information technology rapidly, it follows that education of information professionals has to reflect minimal change, moderate change and total change - all at once! (Gorman, 1999). Educating information professionals for the future can be determined by examining what skills will be required by library information professionals to enable them to adapt new and changing demands in society (Wagner, 2000). There is a need to educate and train students to the best contemporary standards in terms of curricular aims and contents, teaching methodologies, assessment practices and quality control. Modularisations of the studies and their harmonisation Noun 1. harmonisation - a piece of harmonized music
harmonization

musical harmony, harmony - the structure of music with respect to the composition and progression of chords
 with actual needs of the running library and information centres are required. A standard formal library education should have devoted faculty members, well-resourced department, and scientifically liable curriculum indicating clear relationship between theory and practice, an enthusiastic and hard-working student body, management of training units. There should also be suitable classrooms, practical room, computer laboratories and computer and/or electronic equipment, suitable organizational placing, effective communication among all, and an emphasis on continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
continuing education
 or adult education

Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904).
 as community service. The University of Dhaka Coordinates:   has played a key role for the development and provision of library education in Bangladesh This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now.
. As professional, the future is never far from our thoughts, but the changes and challenges of the new millennium give a special reason to re-examine where we are coming from and where should be heading. An attempt has made here to scrutinize scru·ti·nize  
tr.v. scru·ti·nized, scru·ti·niz·ing, scru·ti·niz·es
To examine or observe with great care; inspect critically.



scru
 the bachelor program's syllabus of library education of the University since its inception of bachelor program.

Present Scenario of Library Education in Bangladesh

Library education is offered in different levels like Certificate, Post-Graduate Diploma (PGD PGD Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
PGD Postgraduate Diploma
PGD Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase
PGD Policy for Global Development
PGD PhpGmailDrive (file sharing utility)
PGD Product Group (US Marine Corps) 
), Bachelor, Master, MPhil and PhD. University of Dhaka is offering four-year bachelor (honors), one-year master, two-year master (evening), two-year MPhil and three-year PhD programs. University of Rajshahi is offering the same. University of Science & Technology Chittagong is offering certificate program, which has been designed by giving emphasis on Library Assistant of medical libraries only (Islam and Chowdhury, 2006). International Islamic University International Islamic University may refer to:
  • The International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)
  • The International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI)
 of Chittagong is offering one-year PGD program. Royal University of Dhaka has introduced two-year MSc in library management & information science. Darul Ihsan University is offering one-year PGD and two-year (4 semesters) MA program. Asian University of Bangladesh Asian University of Bangladesh (Bengali: এশিয়ান বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) or AUB is a private university of Bangladesh.  is offering two-year MSS MSS - maximum segment size  in information science & library management from the year 2008.

The above table shows different types of courses in library education are available in Bangladesh.

Library Association of Bangladesh (LAB, estd. 1956) has affiliated eleven institutions to conduct the certificate program in different places in Bangladesh. Fifteen institutions with the affiliation of National University conduct post-graduate diploma program. Besides, nine colleges are offering library and information science as an optional subject in BA (Pass) program. Among them Lalmatia Mohila College is offering four-year BA (honors) and two-year MA programs. Under the National University, ninety-nine teachers training colleges (14 govt. & 85 non-govt.) are offering Bachelor of Education A Bachelor of Education (BEd) is an undergraduate academic degree which qualifies the graduate as a teacher in schools. North America
In North America the degree is awarded for courses taken that generally last two years (one year in some Canadian universities).
 (BEd), Bachelor of Education (BEd) with honors and Master of Education (MEd) programs (BANBEIS BANBEIS Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics , 2008). In these programs library and information science has been included as an optional subject bearing one hundred marks in respective syllabuses (National University, 2009).

Development of Library Education at the University of Dhaka

University of Dhaka is the first ever university to establish a full-fledged department for library education in Bangladesh. Not only this, the inception of library science education in Bangladesh has been done by this university. The first three-month certificate program in librarianship li·brar·i·an  
n.
1. A person who is a specialist in library work.

2. A person who is responsible for a collection of specialized or technical information or materials, such as musical scores or computer documentation.
 started at the central library of the University in 1952. Considering the usefulness of the program, the university authority made a provision for organizing of certificate program in librarianship under the Faculty of Arts Historically the Faculty of Arts was one of the four traditional divisions of the teaching bodies of universities, the others being theology, law and medicine.[1] Nowadays it is a common name for the faculties teaching humanities. References

1.
 (Khorasani, 1986). This regular three months program thus started with the assistance of the Fulbright scholars and was called "Fulbright Course in Librarianship". Four Fulbright courses were conducted successively under the supervision of the then librarian (1) A person who works in the data library and keeps track of the tapes and disks that are stored and logged out for use. Also known as a "file librarian" or "media librarian." See data library.

(2) See CA-Librarian.
 of University of Dhaka, during 1955 -59 (Ahmed, 1994). The University then suspended sus·pend  
v. sus·pend·ed, sus·pend·ing, sus·pends

v.tr.
1. To bar for a period from a privilege, office, or position, usually as a punishment: suspend a student from school.
 the Fulbright certificate course, which ultimately led to the opening of one-year PGD program from the session 1959-60 based on the University of London For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 19 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Within the university federation they are known as Recognised Bodies  model (Ahmed, 1981).

In 1962, a one-year Master of Arts Master of Arts
Noun

a degree, usually postgraduate in a nonscientific subject, or a person holding this degree

Noun 1. Master of Arts - a master's degree in arts and sciences
Artium Magister, MA, AM
 (MA) program in library science was formulated for·mu·late  
tr.v. for·mu·lat·ed, for·mu·lat·ing, for·mu·lates
1.
a. To state as or reduce to a formula.

b. To express in systematic terms or concepts.

c.
 for PGD passed students as provided in the university ordinance A law, statute, or regulation enacted by a Municipal Corporation.

An ordinance is a law passed by a municipal government. A municipality, such as a city, town, village, or borough, is a political subdivision of a state within which a municipal corporation has been
 and regulation, chapter XXIV, Part XII (University of Dhaka, 1962). From the academic session 1962-63 with the services of distinguished American, British as well as eminent librarians This is a list of people who have practised as a librarian and are well-known, either for their contributions to the library profession or primarily in some other field.  of the country, the MA program was started on more extensive scale. The session 1964-65 is the milestone for the notable extension in the history of library education in Bangladesh as the programs and courses were recognized as full-fledged 'Department of Library Science' under the Faculty of Arts (University of Dhaka, 1965). In the session 1974-75, the University approved a two-year long Master of Philosophy (MPhil) program (University of Dhaka, 1974). However, it commenced from the 1 July of 1975-76 session (University of Dhaka, 1976). At the fag end of the session 1975-76, the University approved two-year MA program instead of one-year. Moreover, from the session 1978 -79, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) program in library science was launched (University of Dhaka, 1978). During the session 1987-88, a three-year undergraduate program, Bachelor of Arts (honors) in library and information science was started (University of Dhaka, 1988), and the one-year post-graduate diploma program stopped. The department's name change as "Library and Information Science".

To spread library education, library and information science as a subsidiary subject in degree (pass course) was introduced by the University for its affiliated colleges from the session 1991-92 (University of Dhaka, 1990). Again the university introduced one-year MA from the session 1990-91, instead of two-year program, for its own library and information science graduate students only (University of Dhaka, 1995). In the session 1997-98, instead of the three-year program, the University initiated a four-year BA (honors) program in information science and library management (University of Dhaka, 1999). In the session 1999-2000 the four-year bachelor program was declared as the professional degree with effect from the 1997-98 session (University of Dhaka, 2000). From the session 2001-02, the department adorned a·dorn  
tr.v. a·dorned, a·dorn·ing, a·dorns
1. To lend beauty to: "the pale mimosas that adorned the favorite promenade" Ronald Firbank.

2.
 with a new name 'Information Science and Library Management' (University of Dhaka, 2001). The University started two-year MA (evening) program from the session 2004-05 and introduced semester se·mes·ter  
n.
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.



[German, from Latin (cursus) s
 system instead of year course system for BA (honors) program from the session 2006-07. Currently, there are fourteen full-time faculty members, four part-time, and one supernumerary supernumerary /su·per·nu·mer·ary/ (-noo´mer-ar?e) in excess of the regular or normal number.

su·per·nu·mer·ar·y
adj.
Exceeding the normal or usual number; extra.
 professor in the Department. Among them, eight have PhD degree and others have master degree. One faculty member obtained his PhD from UK, one from India, and another one from South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. . Beyond this, one is pursuing PhD in Japan. Since the establishment of the Department, nearly 1200 students get BA (honors), 2000 students have MA, eight persons get MPhil, and eleven persons have been awarded PhD until December 2010. Most of the students who have passed are working in senior positions in various libraries in Bangladesh Government libraries
  • Bangladesh Public Library
  • Mymensingh Government Public Library
  • Islamic Foundation Library
  • Islamic Foundation Library, Mymensingh
  • Prime Minister's Office Library, Dhaka
  • Chief Adviser's Office Library, Dhaka
.

Library Education Syllabi syl·la·bi  
n.
A plural of syllabus.
 for Bachelor Programs

To prepare the professionals and meet the emerging needs of information users and services the department has revised the syllabus four times in the last twenty-three years. The latest revision of the syllabus of studies took place in 2006-07.

First syllabus (July, 1987 - June, 1994)

During the session 1987-88, the Department introduced a three-year BA (honors) program (University of Dhaka, 1988). This was the first time in Bangladesh to introduce bachelor program for library education through this syllabus. The syllabus remained unchanged until 1993-94 session which were as follows:

The students who liked to pursue honors in this subject, in the first and second year, two subsidiary courses had to be taken from non library science subject of two particular streams. One was Social Science and Humanities, which included Economics, Political Science, Sociology, History, Islamic History, English, Bengali, Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Sanskrit and Pali. The second stream was Sciences that included Physics, Chemistry, Zoology zoology, branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life. From earliest times animals have been vitally important to man; cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man. , Botany botany, science devoted to the study of plants. Botany, microbiology, and zoology together compose the science of biology. Humanity's earliest concern with plants was with their practical uses, i.e., for fuel, clothing, shelter, and, particularly, food and drugs.  and Mathematics. Students had to choose four courses from the two streams by their own choice. The respective departments taught the subsidiary subjects only. Each course bear full marks full marks
pl.n. Chiefly British
Full or due credit or praise.
 of 100, among that 20 was allotted al·lot  
tr.v. al·lot·ted, al·lot·ting, al·lots
1. To parcel out; distribute or apportion: allotting land to homesteaders; allot blame.

2.
 for in-course and 10 for tutorials.

Second syllabus (July, 1994 - June, 1997)

In the session 1994-95, the University approved the syllabus for integrated BA (honors) program (University of Dhaka, 1995). The most significant change in that session was that the whole university stopped the subsidiary programs for all the disciplines. As a result, with all other disciplines, the library science got a new dimension of integrated course, where the Department taught all the courses. The syllabus was followed until 1996-97 session. The course titles were as follows:

Third syllabus (July, 1997 - June, 2006)

In the session 1997-98, the department introduced four-year integrated BA (honors) instead of three-year program keeping pace with the changing situation in the field of information and communication technology, and necessary changes have also been made in the course curriculum that followed until 2005-06 session (University of Dhaka, 1998). The course titles were as depicted de·pict  
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.

2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent.
 below:

Fourth syllabus (July, 2006 - )

From the session 2006-07, the University introduced semester system instead of year system for BA (honors) program. A total eight semesters or four years is required to complete the whole program (University of Dhaka, 2008). At the same time, a new syllabus with credit system has been approved for semester system. Course titles, marks and credits are shown below:

Analysis of the Syllabuses

Before assessing the appropriateness of any syllabus, it is necessary to examine what contents it intended to fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil  
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.

2.
 first. Only when the nature and purpose of librarianship have been defined, and the abilities, qualities, knowledge and skills required practicing it identified, can one sensibly consider how they might be developed, inculcated or learnt (Line, 2007). All the courses may be categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 in three broad areas according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the course contents: i) Core courses, ii) Information technology related courses, iii) Non library related courses. The first two syllabuses were for three-year and the rest two were for four-year duration. The summary of all the four syllabuses introduced since the inception of honors program in 1987-88, can be summarized chronologically chron·o·log·i·cal   also chron·o·log·ic
adj.
1. Arranged in order of time of occurrence.

2. Relating to or in accordance with chronology.
 as follows:

The above table indicates that the first syllabus offered 14 courses that become 28 courses in the fourth syllabus, which is just double of the first one. None but only the first syllabus included the comprehensive test of 50 marks. No marks were assigned for practical examinations in the first syllabus. Class attendance and presentation were incorporated only in the fourth syllabus bearing 40 marks.

Total Marks Allotment A portion, share, or division. The proportionate distribution of shares of stock in a corporation. The partition and distribution of land.


ALLOTMENT. Distribution by lot; partition. Merl. Rep. h.t.
 

The first syllabus offered full marks of 1300. It became more than double and reached 3000 marks in the fourth syllabus. In the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile
, the second and third syllabuses offered full marks of 1500 and 2000 respectively and their increasing rate was very reasonable, while the full marks dramatically increased in the fourth syllabus than the third one.
Figure 1: Total marks offered in different syllabuses

            1987-88  1994-1995  1997-98  2006-07

Full Marks     1300       1500     2000     3000

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Consequently, distinctions of full marks have direct impact on the marks allotted for a year. In all the cases, there is a higher shape in each year than the previous one.

The mode also stayed alive in between syllabuses except with a little bit of fluctuation Fluctuation

A price or interest rate change.
 in the first and third syllabuses. The fourth syllabus assigned 650 marks for first and second year each and 850 marks for third and fourth year each.
Figure 2: Year wise allotment of total marks

          1987-88  1994-95  1997-98  2006-07

1st year      300      430      420      650
2nd year      400      530      520      650
3nd year      600      540      530      850
4nd year        0        0      530      850

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Number of Courses

The opening of honours program was done with 14 courses in 1987-88 session. It jumped to 22 courses after seven years when the integrated course was introduced by the second syllabus in 1993-94. After that the number of courses increased slowly but surely in the third and fourth syllabus at 27 and 28 respectively.

To keep pace with the ever-increasing number of courses in each syllabus, the number of courses in each year taught has increased too. Ten courses offered in the third year of the syllabus of 1994-95 is the highest number in a year among all the syllabuses.

The last syllabus offered six courses for the first two years each and eight courses for the rest years each.
Figure 4: Yearly number of courses offered in different syllabuses

          1987-88  1994-95  1997-98  2006-07

4nd year        0        0        8        8
3nd year        7        10       7        8
2nd year        4        8        8        6
1st year        3        5        4        6

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Core Courses

Core courses are indispensable for any discipline. Traditional thinking about the core curriculum places great emphasis on all the syllabuses. More stress have been given on historical development of books and libraries to modern concepts of librarianship, effective use of information institutions, evolution of own discipline, building library collection, library and information center, management of information sources, reference services, bibliography bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books. , indexing, abstracting, documentation, classification and cataloguing (theory), comparative librarianship, etc. are taught in most of the syllabuses as core course contents.

Comparatively, the last one incorporated some new issues like information marketing, awareness about copyright law and censorship censorship, official prohibition or restriction of any type of expression believed to threaten the political, social, or moral order. It may be imposed by governmental authority, local or national, by a religious body, or occasionally by a powerful private group. , records and archives management, information retrieval information retrieval

Recovery of information, especially in a database stored in a computer. Two main approaches are matching words in the query against the database index (keyword searching) and traversing the database using hypertext or hypermedia links.
 and dissemination dissemination Medtalk The spread of a pernicious process–eg, CA, acute infection Oncology Metastasis, see there , and emphasize has been given on these topics. It is found that the topics like research and analytical skills, modern library management, development of basic communication skills, organizing skills; preservation and conservation skills, service skills for special population, library planning, library public relation were neglected in broad scale.

Initially BA (honors) program was prepared with five core courses. The number of courses noticeably no·tice·a·ble  
adj.
1. Evident; observable: noticeable changes in temperature; a noticeable lack of friendliness.

2. Worthy of notice; significant.
 increased to 13 in second syllabus. It declines to 11 in the third syllabus but rose to 15 in the fourth syllabus. In the syllabus of 1994-95, the highest 65% of marks were allotted for core courses where others did not exceed more than 50%.

Information Technology Related Courses

In the first and second syllabus, only one IT-related course was offered. The course covered only 7.69% and 3.33% of total marks respectively. However, the involvement of IT increased and reached at 23.75% in the third syllabus but moderately decreased in the following syllabus by 7.08%. This is not a cheering feature at all, while curricula should reshaped in order to accommodate the rising needs for knowing and handling new technologies.

However, still now no provision has been made, so that the students can learn at least one library software in their four-year period. IT related courses were based on theory only, which has no implication without any practical application and data manipulation Processing data.  and retrieval. As a result, the inconsistencies remain in the syllabus. Though in the last syllabus, 500 marks were allocated for IT related courses, practical exam related to IT has not been assigned. To learn IT, theories are never adequate. Moreover, there is little or no use of learning practical in IT classes, If there is no provisions of evaluating what the students have learnt. As a nature, students give emphasis on those courses where there is an examination; otherwise, they give less priority to those.

Non Library Related Courses

Necessity of non library related courses are important for subject background and crucial for the knowledge development of any discipline. In all the syllabuses, more emphasis has been laid on it. However, the inclusions of Bengali and English languages in third and fourth syllabuses are not appropriate in bachelor level where the course contents cover only grammar of the respective language. This is eventually overlapping of education as the students have already learned grammar for 7 to 8 years before entering in university level. Writing, editing and publishing course contents are good enough if the whole course contents cover in that semester. The rising issue 'web publishing' and/or 'digital documentation' has been ignored in the syllabus.

In the first, and third syllabuses 32.31% and 28.75% of total marks were allotted for non library related courses, while 20% and 16.67% for the second and fourth syllabuses respectively. The highest numbers of non library related courses were offered in the third syllabus and the lowest numbers were in the fourth syllabus.

Practical Courses

The library education require practical courses on classification and cataloguing at the bachelor level. The first syllabus did not include these.

The second and third syllabuses tried to cover the laps in case of practical courses. Only 50 marks were allotted and that was divided in two courses e.g. classification practical and cataloguing practical equally. The fourth syllabus has, however, incorporated two full-fledged courses bearing 100 marks each, named practical classification, and practical cataloguing.

Comprehensive Test

The comprehensive test helps the students to revise their courses before entering their professional career. The comprehensive test was assigned only in the first syllabus bearing 50 marks. After that in all the syllabuses, this specification was never included. The bachelor level consumes four years, which is the major duration in education process. In the last year, or before entering the professional career, none can apply his/her expertise in the courses that they have learned during first to third year. Students give more importance on their last year or last semester courses only. Therefore, incorporating comprehensive test helps the students to look back of their previous courses studied by themselves.

Internship internship /in·tern·ship/ (in´tern-ship) the position or term of service of an intern in a hospital.
internship,
n the course work or practicum conducted in a professional dental clinic.
 

The internship may be one of the few opportunities, students have to test their skills, attitudes being developed and discussed in their academic program. An internship that integrates the student as an operating member of a management staff is a critical component of library education. The internship provides students with work experiences to give them a realistic exposure to an organizational or bureaucratic bu·reau·crat  
n.
1. An official of a bureaucracy.

2. An official who is rigidly devoted to the details of administrative procedure.



bu
 environment of a library. These experiences enhance the students' awareness of the internal dynamics of a library and the values and attitudes of employees toward both their clientele and their administrative superiors.

Twenty-five marks were allotted for internship during 1987-88 to 1996-97 sessions. Nevertheless, from 1997-98 to 2005-06 sessions, the provision of internship was ignored in the syllabus. In this long period of eight years, it was a total loss for the students of that time who missed to be trained practically within their own syllabus from different libraries. However, the Department understood the loss and incorporated a full course of internship bearing 100 marks from the session 2006-07. The Incorporation of internship in the last syllabus will give students the opportunity to be aware of their obligations as professionals to the public.

Viva voce [Latin, With the living voice; by word of mouth.] Verbally; orally.

When applied to the examination of witnesses, the term viva voce means oral testimony as opposed to testimony contained in depositions or affidavits.
 

The process of finishing a year or a semester involves final examination followed by an oral examination called viva voce (the literal In programming, any data typed in by the programmer that remains unchanged when translated into machine language. Examples are a constant value used for calculation purposes as well as text messages displayed on screen. In the following lines of code, the literals are 1 and VALUE IS ONE.  Latin translation is "live voice"). The "viva", as it is commonly known, is an in-depth discussion into all aspects of the courses taught in that year/semester which typically lasts between 05 -15 minutes for each candidate. A specially convened examination committee, with both internal and external examiners conduct it.

In the first syllabus, there was a provision to face viva-voce of 25 marks only in third year. Both in second and third syllabuses, 50 marks were assigned for viva-voce, which were split in more or less equally in all the years. The viva-voce was followed by each year's final examinations and accumulated ac·cu·mu·late  
v. ac·cu·mu·lat·ed, ac·cu·mu·lat·ing, ac·cu·mu·lates

v.tr.
To gather or pile up; amass. See Synonyms at gather.

v.intr.
To mount up; increase.
 with total marks. From the new syllabus of 2006-07, twenty marks in each semester, in total 160 marks in eight semesters were assigned for viva-voce/presentation. In the fourth syllabus, incorporation of more marks in viva-voce is definitely a positive step for the students.

Tutorial An instructional book or program that takes the user through a prescribed sequence of steps in order to learn a product. Contrast with documentation, which, although instructional, tends to group features and functions by category. See tutorials in this publication.  

Twenty marks for tutorial and ten marks for in-course examinations were incorporated within the 100 marks in each course of the first syllabus. In the second and third syllabus the tutorial marks were not integrated with each course. In both the syllabuses, total marks for tutorial were 50, and that were split in more or less equally in all the years. The tutorial marks were specified in each year in addition to course marks. All the students of that session were divided in small groups like 10-15 students under a supervisor and they have to sit in regular classes at least once a week. These students were allowed to discuss all of their course problems, and sometimes go for group assignments. The supervisor closely monitors and evaluates the individual performance and gives marks against their performances. This tutorial has been transformed in the new shape as class attendance and participation in the fourth syllabus, where 5 marks are assigned for each semester. Respective course teachers provide marks out of 5; averages of the marks are added. The fourth syllabus has short falls for tutorial marks regarding both in marks allotted and the way of evaluation against that marks. Actually, this is not a fruitful fruit·ful  
adj.
1.
a. Producing fruit.

b. Conducive to productivity; causing to bear in abundance: fruitful soil.

2.
 modification.

Evaluation Methods

The students are usually not given weekly/fortnightly/monthly/bi-monthly assignments to write which can be incorporated with their grand total marks. In the first three syllabuses, the evaluation of students was done by formal final examinations. Sometimes there was viva-voce after the final examinations also. The fourth syllabus introduced two-class tests of 10 marks each, 5 marks for class attendance and participation, and the semester final examinations of 75 marks for each 100 marks course.

Duration of Classes and Examinations

All the classes irrespective of irrespective of
prep.
Without consideration of; regardless of.

irrespective of
preposition despite 
 core courses, IT related courses, non library related courses, practical and tutorial classes duration is fifty minutes only. This duration is never enough at bachelor level. As per rules, all the 100 marks syllabus of a course has to be covered with at least 60 class lectures where 24 lectures are for 50 marks courses in a year. In semester system, 60 classes are to be taken for each 100 marks within 15 weeks. Examination duration for 50 marks is 2 hours, and 4 hours for more than 50 marks. Only practical examinations were one and half-hours in second and third syllabuses. The last syllabus has increased marks of each practical examination to 100 and time to two hours.

Grading/Result System

From the first to third syllabuses, the grading system was in numerical numerical

expressed in numbers, i.e. Arabic numerals of 0 to 9 inclusive.


numerical nomenclature
a numerical code is used to indicate the words, or other alphabetical signals, intended.
 form only. There was a provision of obtaining results by class category. First class was determined by 60% of total marks, while 45%, 36% and 33% for second class, third class and pass degree respectively. Less than 25% marks in any course were not added with total marks obtained. New grading system has been introduced with the new syllabus as illustrated below:

List of Recommended Works

In all the syllabuses, the list of recommended works prescribed pre·scribe  
v. pre·scribed, pre·scrib·ing, pre·scribes

v.tr.
1. To set down as a rule or guide; enjoin. See Synonyms at dictate.

2. To order the use of (a medicine or other treatment).
 for each course has not included adequate bibliographical bibliographical

pertaining to the literature of a subject.


bibliographical tools
the ways in which a bibliography can be approached or managed.
 details. In some cases, therefore, only the author and title are available but the edition, place, publisher, year of publication and necessary pagination (1) Page numbering.

(2) Laying out printed pages, which includes setting up and printing columns, rules and borders. Although pagination is used synonymously with page makeup, the term often refers to the printing of long manuscripts rather than ads and brochures.
 are not given. Full bibliographical citations like title, subtitle sub·ti·tle  
n.
1. A secondary, usually explanatory title, as of a literary work.

2. A printed translation of the dialogue of a foreign-language film shown at the bottom of the screen.

tr.v.
, author/editor, edition, place, publisher, year of publication, pagination should be mentioned for each text and reference book. Latest edition books should be prescribed. At the same time, it is very important to ensure the availability of the prescribed materials in the university library. The Department may take initiatives to scan (within copyright) rare and/or costly books' chapters or article from print journal or e-journals, and store those in the internal e-depository of the faculty or university. Students can get access through their individual ID and password in the e-depository.

Discussion

The second syllabus took 10 years time to appear but remained only three years. The third syllabus stayed for nine years. The fourth syllabus started with the 2006-07 session. Introducing or upgrading of the syllabuses has been done due to specific factors only. Like, the first syllabus was introduced due to adoption of honors course, the second one was designed for integrated honors course, the third one came out due to induction induction, in electricity and magnetism
induction, in electricity and magnetism, common name for three distinct phenomena.

Electromagnetic induction
 of four-year bachelor degree, and the last one was designed for introducing semester system. The Department has never conducted any study to determine the needs of the country's libraries and information centers for the qualification of personnel required to staff such institutions as well as development of the syllabuses as per true need. None of the syllabuses mentioned the mission and/or the purpose of library education programs. It was not indicated specific aims and objectives of any offered courses. Each course objectives, learning outcome of each unit or course has not been set in any syllabuses. Therefore, it is clear that none of the syllabus has appeared based on practical professional need of library and information centers of the country.

Analysis of course contents of the last twenty-three years reveals that these concentrate on training personnel to manage a library by providing in-depth knowledge of traditional library practices. Undergraduate students are provided with an introductory or basic level knowledge of traditional library practices. There is no option to be specialized spe·cial·ize  
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es

v.intr.
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.

2.
 of social science, natural science, medical, engineering, agriculture, literature and humanities. The syllabuses were strenuous stren·u·ous  
adj.
1. Requiring great effort, energy, or exertion: a strenuous task.

2. Vigorously active; energetic or zealous.
 in areas in the following order priority: history of books and libraries, bibliography and reference, abstracting and indexing, building library collection, cataloging and classification (theory & practice), documentation and information retrieval, archives management, library networking and resources sharing, etc. In most of the cases the course contents were remain same and only the course title got an aesthetic change. The reviews of the syllabus documents reveal that it is a mere cosmetic cosmetic /cos·met·ic/ (koz-met´ik)
1. pertaining to cosmesis.

2. a beautifying substance or preparation.


cos·met·ic
n.
 change. Nevertheless, what is being practiced in most libraries is not reflected in the course contents. The revolution in ICT has considerably changed both the education of information professionals and the information profession. The enrichment enrichment Food industry The addition of vitamins or minerals to a food–eg, wheat, which may have been lost during processing. See White flour; Cf Whole grains.  and growth of microcomputers and their decreasing prices have made them an attractive option for Bangladesh. However, these changes have not reflected in the syllabuses.

Day-by-day, services are differing from library to library though there are definitely some elements common to all types of libraries. Functions of national, academic, public or special libraries are being at variance. Nevertheless, no such provision has been made in the syllabuses to be specialized in any area rather all are trained in traditional librarianship. Insufficient library education programs create hindrance hin·drance  
n.
1.
a. The act of hindering.

b. The condition of being hindered.

2. One that hinders; an impediment. See Synonyms at obstacle.
 in the production of necessary professional manpower required for the development of libraries and librarianship in the country. Now a days, traditional courses are not that much effective in real life library management. Library education needs specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.

As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are
 in any system of library e.g.: academic, public, national or special. one student should specialize spe·cial·ize
v.
1. To limit one's profession to a particular specialty or subject area for study, research, or treatment.

2. To adapt to a particular function or environment.
 in one system, so he/she can utilize the specialized knowledge in his/her practical life and prove him/her worthy to that system rather being jack of all systems but master of none.

IT related courses were included from the first syllabus and the number of courses increased gradually. Yet the courses remain only in theory. Practical examinations on IT related courses have not yet been introduced. Syllabuses had to be reshaped in order to accommodate the rising needs of knowing and handling new technologies with practical experiences and applications. Several curricula in Europe and the USA added many courses in ICT and are gradually moving from 'pure' library science to the hybrid field of information management, which draws its philosophy from both library science and information systems. One of the main factors for this transition was the great development of ICT (Guy, 2007, Abrizah, et al. 2009). Eight Asian countries are offering independent digital library courses through their academic institutions, namely India, Indonesia, China, South Korea, Malaysia, Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov. , Taiwan and Thailand, and four other countries are offering integrated digital library courses namely Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Japan (Bakar, 2009). To cope up with the current trends of library education at least with other Asian countries, it is extremely important to introduce advance IT related and digital library courses for bachelor levels students in Bangladesh.

No library visit/tour has been integrated in any of the syllabuses. To gain practical knowledge about library activities, and report writing on observation through library visit/tour is very much essential. The knowledge era is characterized char·ac·ter·ize  
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.

2.
 not by the lack of information but the overload See information overload and overloading.  of information knowledge management provides an opportunity to position oneself. The knowledge challenge to librarians to use the profession's specialist information skills to leverage the intellectual capital and collective experience of our organizations to create value and a sustainable competitive advantage in knowledge based economy (Nicolson, 1998). New graduates need to be skilled in information technology, industry or subject knowledge, information management, human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees.  management, managerial finance Managerial finance is the branch of finance that concerns itself with the managerial significance of finance techniques. It is focused on assessment rather than technique. , information literacy Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. For example, one conception defines information literacy in terms of a set of competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and , interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al  
adj.
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.

2.
 relationship/communication, public relation, adding value to information by analysis and synthesis, teamwork (product, software, tool) Teamwork - A SASD tool from Sterling Software, formerly CADRE Technologies, which supports the Shlaer/Mellor Object-Oriented method and the Yourdon-DeMarco, Hatley-Pirbhai, Constantine and Buhr notations. , change management, sharing and collaborating. Reflection of the afforested skills has not been accommodated in the contents of all the syllabuses until now.

Recommendations

New library graduates are facing challenges in the real world of library activities where special libraries, private school, college and university libraries are demanding skills and efficiency in their respective fields. They need basic abilities - literacy and numeracy numeracy Mathematical literacy Neurology The ability to understand mathematical concepts, perform calculations and interpret and use statistical information. Cf Acalculia. , organizational qualities, including vision, a questioning approach, perspective, problem-solving and analytical skills, communication and social skills, political and economical skills, a sense of service and an ability to accept uncertainty; 'professional' knowledge relevant to librarianship; and practical library skills etc. To achieve these skills syllabus should be upgraded on regular intervals. For the forthcoming syllabuses, here are some suggestions:

(i.) A need-based survey should be conducted to determine the current and approaching needs of the country's libraries and information institutions and required type of personnel to administer such organizations. Findings of the survey can be helpful for library educators who might be interested in developing and designing skill upgrading courses, as well as to review and develop library education syllabus.

(ii.) The mission of library education programs should be clearly stated in the syllabus. It should address the purpose of the educational program in the larger political, social, economical and technical context and should be consistent with the non-discriminatory values of the profession.

(iii.) The programs should state its goals and identify specific objectives, derived from its goals, addressing philosophy, principles and methods of the program; areas of specialization, level of preparation provided, teaching, service and research values, and the perceived role of library services in the society.

(iv.) Each course offered in the syllabus should have specific aim and learning objectives that will be acquired by the student after successful completion of the course. There should be mentioned about the course structure like lectures, colloquiums, independent studies and thesis seminar etc, required course works, and assessment methods.

(v.) More emphasis should be given on practical application of computers and related technologies, digital libraries courses in forthcoming syllabus. At least 50% of the syllabus should be covered by the use and application of information technology to strengthen the program. Practical application of computers should be given more importance than theoretical discussion.

(vi.) There are many standards and protocols such as Z39.50 standard, interlibrary in·ter·li·brar·y  
adj.
Existing or occurring between or involving two or more libraries: an interlibrary loan; an interlibrary network. 
 loan standards, circulation interchange protocol, Dublin core A set of meta-data descriptions about resources on the Internet. Used for resource discovery, it contains data elements such as title, creator, subject, description, date, type, format and so on. Dublin Core descriptions are often included in HTML meta tags.  metadata standard etc, and the teaching of them within the syllabus is necessary.

(vii.) Provision should be made so that undergraduate students can learn at least one library packaged software to operate in full swing in their four-year time. At least 40% marks should be allotted for practical examinations in IT-related courses where applicable.

(viii.) Topics like information literacy, record management, research and analytical skills, digital library management, information and knowledge management, basic communication skills, organizing skills, Human resource management, preservation and conservation skills, service skills for special population, library planning should be incorporated in the syllabus.

(ix.) Much closer association with local libraries; more practical works by students, more teaching by local practicing librarians, and more experimentation by the local libraries are needed. Library visits should be effectively integrated with syllabus involving outside experts and agencies.

(x.) The library education is an interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y  
adj.
Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.


interdisciplinary
Adjective
 subject, finding applications in different fields like commerce, business, industries, health science, technology, social studies and so on. To meet the requirements of manpower in these field relevant specializations in the form of elective elective

non-urgent; at an elected time, e.g. of surgery.

elective adjective Referring to that which is planned or undertaken by choice and without urgency, as in elective surgery, see there noun Graduate education noun
 courses should be offered.

(xi.) There should be a provision to revise all the core courses with the comprehensive test in the last year or semester, where single question from each core course should be there. This test will help the outgoing students to rework re·work  
tr.v. re·worked, re·work·ing, re·works
1. To work over again; revise.

2. To subject to a repeated or new process.

n.
 their all core courses that they have learned other then the last semester.

(xii.) Methods of teaching and assessment should be designed to develop or enhance students' interpersonal relation skills, ability to work in teams, and time and task management skills. The students should also be encouraged in participating verbal discussion and presentation in the class to develop their communication skills, since much of the library professional work is done publicly and verbally.

(xiii.) Short writings, periodically written assignments, group assignments and substantive individual projects should be assigned on current topics to develop their writing skills as well as the understanding of the subject.

(xiv.) The evaluation should be done continuously through in-class tests, assignments, projects, viva-voce, class performance, class attendance and a formal final examination. To maintain quality of education and performances of faculty members, students should have the opportunity to apprise their course teachers in formal prescribed format at the end of each course.

(xv.) Apart from regular classroom lecture sessions, the Department should organize seminars, colloquia col·lo·qui·a  
n.
A plural of colloquium.
, and workshop for the students in a regular interval. This occasion will tighten the bond between professionals, faculty members and students. Everybody will be benefited from this and come to know about the recent developments of the subject beyond their daily works.

(xvi.) The lecture classes, and practical classes duration are only fifty minutes. This duration is never enough in bachelor level. Class hours should last from two to three hours, giving enough time to the students for preparing themselves in the class sessions.

(xvii.) Department should make sure that their graduates have some practical experience as full-time paid interns This article or section is written like an .
Please help [ rewrite this article] from a neutral point of view.
Mark blatant advertising for , using .
, like doctors, lawyers, business personnel and executives, before they accept professional positions of responsibility

(xviii.) The syllabuses should reflect the developments taking place in information technology, information resources (1) The data and information assets of an organization, department or unit. See data administration.

(2) Another name for the Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) department. See IT.
, information access and their impact on libraries and library profession. To keep track with the rapid development in the field and changes of library and information centre's need of the country, the syllabus should be updated both in course design and content at a regular interval of at best four years. That should be a fundamental change rather than cosmetic change.

(xix) Equal marks distribution to all types of courses should be avoided. Distribution of course marks for theory, IT-related courses and practical examination may be done in the following ways:

(xx.) Journal articles should be included in the recommended works list as those reflect the current developments of a specific area more than a book. Moreover, respective course teacher should update the recommended woks list for new semester to keep him/herself updated as well to aware the students about the current trends of that course too.

The above-mentioned suggestions are not at all imaginative, far-reaching or impracticable, though the current need to economize e·con·o·mize  
v. e·con·o·mized, e·con·o·miz·ing, e·con·o·miz·es

v.intr.
1. To practice economy, as by avoiding waste or reducing expenditures.

2.
 may make some of them difficult to implement but not impossible. Some have doubtless in use already here and there. All together their impact could be considerable. It needs to be emphasized that changes in attitude and practice on the part of library practitioners are at least as necessary as on the part of educators; practitioners have generally been keener on criticizing the department than on doing something positive to improve the quality of their resources and their own works.

Conclusion

The reality of the present library education indicates that the quality improvement is essential and unavoidable, not only for its survival but also for facing the major changes and challenges of today and tomorrow. Students have to compete with other professionals to survive in the information business; they have to be equipped with a syllabus, which can make them function as competent information professionals after their graduation Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. The event itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation. . Familiarity and education with IT-based resources and services, web- browsers, search engines, databases, system software, application software, extensible markup language See XML.

(language, text) Extensible Markup Language - (XML) An initiative from the W3C defining an "extremely simple" dialect of SGML suitable for use on the World-Wide Web.

http://w3.org/XML/.
 (XML XML
 in full Extensible Markup Language.

Markup language developed to be a simplified and more structural version of SGML. It incorporates features of HTML (e.g., hypertext linking), but is designed to overcome some of HTML's limitations.
), digital documentation, e-resources, scholarly discussion lists, mailing lists, Usenet newsgroups This is a list of newsgroups that are significant for their popularity or their position in Usenet history.

As of October 2002, there are about 100,000 Usenet newsgroups, of which approximately a fifth are active.
, websites, institutional repository An Institutional Repository is an online locus for collecting, preserving, and disseminating -- in digital form -- the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution. , digital library, etc. should be made during the undergraduate level. The new graduates should possess adequate management, marketing, technical and communication skills in order to be able to comply with the information needs of society. Information professional knowledge cannot be anything but dynamic because it is public service-oriented character and has human welfare being as its primary objective. Trained the students to use new information technology, local, national and international network services is a crying need of the hour. While there was a definite shift towards high-tech education, the parallel development of information management itself had already introduced a new dimension. Information science educators and practitioners should take a leading role, in identifying the problems, and deciding which activities at home and what support from abroad would help them.
Table 1: Pattern of library science education at different levels

Level of       Nomenclature       Name of
education                         degree

Certificate    Certificate in     CLIS
               Library and
               Information
               Science

Post Graduate  Post-Graduate      PGDLIS
Diploma        Diploma in
               Library and
               Information
               Science
Bachelor       Bachelor of        BA (Hons.)/
               Information        BSS (Hons.)
               Science and
               Library
               Management
               Bachelor of        BA (Hons.)
               Library and
               Information
               Science
               Bachelor of Arts   BA (Pass)
               (Pass) (Optional
               subject)

Master         Master of          MA/ MSS
               Information
               Science and
               Library
               Management
               Master of          MA (Evening)
               Information
               Science and
               Library
               Management
               Master of Library  MA
               and Information
               Science
               Master of Science  MSc
               in Library
               Management and
               Information
               Science

Research       Master of          MPhil
               Philosophy
               Doctor of          PhD
               Philosophy

Table 2: Chronological development of library education in University
of Dhaka

Year of     Remarkable changes
Inception

1952        Three-month certificate program in librarianship

1955 -59    Fulbright course in librarianship

1959-60     One year post-graduate diploma

1962        One year master program

1964-65     Establishment of the 'Department of Library Science'
            under the Faculty of Arts

1974-75     Start of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) program

1975-76     Introduced two-year Master of Arts program instead of
            one-year

1978 -79    Start of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) program

1987-88     Stop one year post-graduate diploma Introduced Bachelor
            of Arts (Honors) program, three-year duration. The
            department's name changed as 'Library and Information
            Science'

1990-91     Introduced one-year Master of Arts from the session
            instead of two-year program

1991-92     The University of Dhaka introduced library and
            information science as a subsidiary subject in degree
            (pass course) in its affiliated colleges

1997-98     Launched Bachelor of Arts (honors) program in
            information science and library management, four-
            year duration

1999-2000   The four-year bachelor program was declared as the
            professional degree with effect from the 1997-98 session

2001-02     The department's name changed as 'Information Science and
            Library Management'

2004-05     Launched two-year Master of Arts (evening) program

2006-07     Introduced semester system instead of year course system
            for Bachelor of Arts (honors) program

Course           Course title         Duration
No.                                    of Full
                                        exam     marks
First Year

BLIS101          History of books,   4 hours       70
                 libraries and
                 library
                 management

                 Subsidiary          4 hours       70
                 subject 1
                 (non-library
                 science courses)

                 Subsidiary          4 hours       70
                 subject 2
                 (non-library
                 science courses)

                 Incourse                          60

                 Tutorial                          30

                                         Sub      300
                                      total:

Second Year

BLIS202          Bibliography,       4 hours       70
                 reference and
                 preservation of
                 library
                 materials
                 and archive

                 management
BLIS203          Principles of       4 hours       70
                 management

                 Subsidiary          4 hours       70
                 subject 3
                 (non-library
                 science courses

                 Subsidiary          4 hours       70
                 subject 4
                 (non-library
                 science courses)

                 Incourse                          80

                 Tutorial                          40

                                         Sub      400
                                      total:

Third Year

BLIS304          Organization of     4 hours       70
                 library
                 materials

BLIS305          Computer            4 hours       70
                 application in
                 information
                 system
                 and
                 documentation

                 and information
                 retrieval
BLIS306          Indexing,           4 hours       70
                 abstracting and
                 building library
                 collections

BLIS307          Comparative         4 hours       70
                 librarianship and
                 access to records
                 Audio-visualaids
                 in libraries

BLIS308          History, culture    4 hours       70
                 and literature of
                 Bangladesh

                 Comprehensive       2 hours       50

                 Incourse                         100

                 Tutorial                          50

                 Internship in                     25
                 different types
                 of libraries

                 Viva - voce                       25

                                         Sub      600
                                      total:

                 Grand total:                    1300

Course No.         Course title       Duration
                                       of Full
                                        exam     marks
First Year

BLIS 101          History of books   4 hours       100
                  and libraries

BLIS 102          Basic              4 hours       100
                  cataloguing and
                  classification
                  (theory)

BLIS 103 (A)      Building library   2 hours        50
                  collection

BLIS 103 (B)      English            2 hours        50
                  language

BLIS 104          Archives and       4 hours       100
                  preservation of
                  library
                  materials

                  Tutorial                          15

                  Viva - voce                       15

                                         Sub       430
                                      total:

Second Year

BLIS 205          Bibliography and   4 hours       100
                  reference

BLIS 206 (A)      Principles of      2 hours        50
                  management

BLIS 206 (B)      Library            2 hours        50
                  management

BLIS 207          Indexing and       4 hours       100
                  abstracting

BLIS208 (A)       Audio-visual       2 hours        50
                  aids and current
                  trends in
                  library and
                  information
                  science

BLIS208 (B)       Social             2 hours        50
                  organizations

BLIS209 (A)       Library            2 hours        50
                  development in
                  Bangladesh

BLIS209 (B)       Bengali language   2 hours        50
                  and literature
                  of Bangladesh

                  Tutorial                          15

                  Viva - voce                       15

                                         Sub       530
                                      total:

Third Year

BLIS310 (A)       Organization of
                  library
                  materials
                  (Classification
                  theory)

BLIS310 (B)       Organization       2 hours        50
                  of library
                  materials
                  (Cataloguing
                  theory)

BLIS311 (A)       Computer           2 hours        50
                  application in
                  libraries and
                  information
                  systems

BLIS311 (B)       Public             2 hours        50
                  relations: its
                  methods and
                  applications

BLIS312           Documentation      4 hours       100
                  and information
                  retrieval

BLIS313 (A)       Comparative        4 hours        75
                  librarianship

BLIS313 (B)       Internship                        25

BLIS314 (A - 1)   Classification         1.5        25
                  (practical)          hours

BLIS314 (A - 2    Cataloguing            1.5        25
                  (practical)          hours

BLIS314 (B)       History and        2 hours        50
                  culture of
                  Bangladesh

                  Tutorial                          20

                  Viva - voce                       20

                                       Sub         540
                                    total:

                  Grand total:                    1500

Course no.       Course title     Duration
                                  of Full
                                    exam    marks

First Year

BISLM101     Foundation of         4 hours    100
             information and
             library studies

BISLM102     Organization of       4 hours    100
             information

BISLM103     English language      4 hours    100

BISLM 104    Bengali language      4 hours    100

             Tutorial                          10

             Viva voce                         10

             Sub total:                       420

Second Year

BISLM205     Information sources   4 hours    100
             and services New
             Technologies and
             current trends

BISLM206     in information        4 hours    100
             systems

BISLM207     (A)Social             2 hours     50
             organizations

BISLM207     (B)Records and        2 hours     50
             archives
             management

BISLM208     (A)Information        2 hours     50
             resources
             development

BISLM208     (B) Information       2 hours     50
             production,
             marketing and
             public relation

BISLM209     (A)Writing, editing   2 hours     50
             and publishing

BISLM209     (B)Socio-political    2 hours     50
             history of
             Bangladesh
             Tutorial                          10
             Viva voce                         10
             Sub total:                       520

Third Year

BISLM310     (A)Indexing and       2 hours     50
             abstracting
BISLM310     (B)Applied            2 hours     50
             statistics

BISLM311     Information           4 hours    100
             science,
             communication and
             documentation

BISLM312     Automation of         4 hours    100
             information
             institution

BISLM313     (A)Database design    2 hours     50
             and applications

BISLM313     (B)Hardware           2 hours     50
             maintenance and
             troubleshooting

BISLM314     Management theories   4 hours    100
             and systems

             Tutorial                          15

             Viva voce                         15

             Sub total:                       530

Fourth Year

BISLM415     (A)Organization of    2 hours     50
             knowledge:
             Cataloguing
             (theory)

BISLM415     (A-1)Organization      1 hour     25
             of knowledge:
             Cataloguing
             (practical)

BISLM415     (B)Organization of    2 hours     50
             knowledge:
             Classification
             (theory)

BISLM415     (B-1)Organization      1 hour     25
             of knowledge:
             Classification
             (theory)

BISLM416     System analysis and   4 hours     75
             design

BISLM417     Information           4 hours    100
             networking and
             resources sharing

BISLM418     Research              4 hours     75
             methodology

BISLM419     International and     4 hours    100
             comparative
             librarianship

             Tutorial                          15

             Viva voce                         15

             Sub total:                       530

             Grand total:                    2000

Course no.       Course title      Duration of   Full    Credits
                                        exam     marks

First Year:
First
Semester

BISLM101      Basics of                 4 hours    100        4
              information science
              and library
              management

BISLM102      English language          4 hours    100        4

BISLM103      Bengali language          4 hours    100        4

              Class attendance and                   5        1
              participation

              Viva                                  20
              voce/Presentation

                                     Sub total:    325       13

First Year:
Second

Semester
BISLM104      Organization of           4 hours    100        4
              information

BISLM105      Information sources       4 hours    100        4
              and services

BISLM106      Information               4 hours    100        4
              resources
              development

              Class attendance and                   5        1
              participation

              Viva                                  20
              voce/Presentation

                                     Sub total:    325       13

Second Year:
Third

Semester
BISLM207      New technologies and       4hours    100        4
              current trends in
              information systems

BISLM208      Information and           4 hours    100        4
              society

BISLM209      Socio-political           4 hours    100        4
              history of
              Bangladesh

              Class attendance and                   5        1
              participation

              Viva                                  20
              voce/Presentation

                                     Sub total:    325       13

Second Year:
Forth
Semester

BISLM210      Records and archives      4 hours    100        4
              management
BISLM211
              Computer hardware         4 hours    100        4
              maintenance and
              Trouble shooting

BISLM212      Writing, editing and      4 hours    100        4
              publishing

              Class attendance and                   5        1
              participation

              Viva                                  20
              voce/Presentation

                                     Sub total:    325       13

Third Year:
Fifth
Semester

BISLM313      Indexing and              4 hours    100        4
              abstracting

BISLM314      Automation of             4 hours    100        4
              information
              institutions

BISLM315      Management of             4 hours    100        4
              information
              institutions

BISLM316      Information               4 hours    100        4
              production marketing
              and public relation

              Class attendance and                   5        1
              participation

              Viva                                  20
              voce/Presentation

                                     Sub total:    425       17


Third Year:
Sixth
Semester

BISLM317.     Information science       4 hours    100        4
              documentation and
              communication

BISLM318      Database design and       4 hours    100        4
              applications in
              library and
              information systems

BISLM319      Organization of           4 hours    100        4
              knowledge
              (Classification
              theory)

BISLM320      Organization of           4 hours    100        4
              knowledge
              (Cataloguing
              theory)

              Class attendance and                   5        1
              participation

              Viva                                  20
              voce/Presentation

                                     Sub total:    425       17

Fourth Year:
Seventh
Semester

BISLM421      Research                  4 hours    100        4
              methodology

BISLM422      Comparative Study of      4 hours    100        4
              Information Systems

BISLM423      Practical                 2 hours    100        4
              classification

BISLM424      Practical                 2 hours    100        4
              cataloguing

              Class attendance and                   5        1
              participation

              Viva                                  20
              voce/Presentation

                                     Sub total:    425       17

Fourth Year:
Eighth
Semester

BISLM425      Applied statistics        4 hours    100        4

BISLM426      Information               4 hours    100        4
              networking and
              resources sharing

BISLM427      Analysis and design       4 hours    100        4
              of information
              systems

BISLM428      Internship in                        100        4
              libraries and
              information
              institutions

              Class attendance and                   5        1
              participation

              Viva                                  20
              voce/Presentation

                                     Sub total:    425       17


              Grand total:                        3000      120

Table 3: Chronological summary of all the syllabuses

                  First                  Second
                  syllabus               syllabus

Session           1987 - 88              1994 - 95

Board Areas       No. of     Full marks  No. of       Full
                  courses                courses      marks

Core courses            05          350       13    975 (65%)
                               (26.92%)

IT related              01   70 (5.38%)       01           50
courses                                               (3.33%)

Non LIS courses         06          420       06    300 (20%)
                               (32.31%)

Comprehensive            1   50 (3.85%)

Internship               1   25 (1.92%)        1           25
                                                      (1.67%)

Viva Voce                    25 (1.92%)                    50
                                                      (3.33%)

Practical                                      2           50
                                                      (3.33%)

Tutorial                          120 *                    50
                                (9.23%)               (3.33%)

In-course                         240 *
                               (18.46%)

Class attendance
and
presentation

Total marks             14         1300       23         1500



                  Third                  Fourth
                  syllabus               syllabus

Session           1997 - 98              2006 - 07

Board Areas       No. of     Full marks  No. of      Full
                  courses                courses     marks

Core courses           11     800 (40%)       15       1500
                                                      (50%)

IT related             06           475       05        500
courses                        (23.75%)             (16.67)

Non LIS courses        08           575       05        500
                               (28.75%)             (16.67)

Comprehensive

Internship                                    01        100
                                                    (3.33%)

Viva Voce                      50 (2.5)        -        160
                                                    (5.33%)

Practical               2     50 (2.5%)       02        200
                                                    (6.67%)

Tutorial                      50 (2.5%)

In-course

Class attendance                                         40
and                                                 (1.33%)
presentation

Total marks            27          2000       28       3000

* Considered as part of respective course. Percentages of total marks
are shown within bracket

Table 4: Core courses offered in different syllabuses

Syllabus   No. of   No. of  % of core       Full     Total     % of
             total     core    courses  marks for  marks in     core
           courses  courses                  core       the   course
                                          courses  syllabus    marks

First           14        5    35.71 %        500      1300  38.46 %
(1987-88)

Second          23       13     56.52%        975      1500     65 %
(1994-95)

Third           27       11    40.74 %        800      2000     40 %
(1997-98)

Fourth          28       15    53.57 %       1500      3000     50 %
(2006-07)
Table 5: Information technology related course offered in different
syllabuses

Syllabus   No. of   No. of IT  Percentage    Total       Full
            total    related     of IT     marks in  marks for
           courses   courses     related       the         IT
                                courses     syllabus   related
                                                       courses

First           14          1      7.14 %      1300        100
(198788)

Second          23          1      4.35 %      1500         50
(1994-95)

Third           27          6     22.22 %      2000        475
(199798)

Fourth          28          5     17.86 %      3000        500
(200607)

Syllabus   Percentage
             of IT
             related
             marks

First          7.69 %
(198788)

Second         3.33 %
(1994-95)

Third         23.75 %
(199798)

Fourth        16.67 %
(200607)
Table 6: Non library related courses offered in different syllabuses

Syllabus   No. of   No. of   % of non    Total       Full
            Total     non    library   marks in  marks for
           courses  library  related     the        non
                    related  courses   syllabus   library
                    courses                       related
                                                  courses

First           14        6   42.86 %      1300        420
(198788)

Second          23        6    26.09%      1500        300
(199495)

Third           27        8   29.63 %      2000        575
(199798)

Fourth          28        5   17.86 %      3000        500
(200607)

Syllabus   % of non
           library
           related
             marks

First       32.31 %
(198788)

Second         20 %
(199495)

Third       28.75 %
(199798)

Fourth      16.67 %
(200607)

Table 7: Practical courses offered in different syllabuses

Syllabus     Total     Full marks    % of
           marks in      for       practical
           bachelor  practical     marks
             level

First          1300
(1987-88)

Second         1500          50      3.33%
(199495)

Third          2000          50      2.50%
(1997-98)

Fourth         3000         200      6.67%
(2006-07)

Numerical    Letter              Grade     Remarks
grades       grades              point

                              (Full unit  (one-fourth
                               courses)       unit
                                            courses)

80 & above        =     A+        4.00         1.00

75 to below       =      A        3.75         0.94
80

70 to below       =     A-        3.50         0.88
75

65 to below       =     B+        3.25         0.81
70

60 to below       =      B        3.00         0.75
65

55 to below       =     B-        2.75         0.69
60

50 to below       =     C+        2.50         0.63
55

45 to below       =      C        2.25         0.56
50

40 to below       =      D        2.00         0.50
45

Less than         =      F        0.00         0.00
40

Incomplete        =      I        0.00         0.00
(Does not
take an
exam)

Withdrawn         =      W        0.00         0.00
(Does not
attend any
class and
take any
exam)

For theory       For          For
courses       IT-related  practical
                courses      courses

Midterm exam           =        20%     Midterm  =   10%    Midterm
1                                        exam 1               exam 1

Midterm exam           =        20%     Midterm  =   10%     Midterm
2                                        exam 2               exam 2

Class                  =        10%       Class  =   10%       Class
test/quiz                             test/quiz            test/quiz

Course                 =        10%   Practical  =   40%  Final exam
assignment                                 exam
Final exam             =        40%  Final exam  =   30%
                               100%                 100%

For theory
courses

Midterm exam   25%
1

Midterm exam   25%
2

Class          10%
test/quiz

Course         40%
assignment
Final exam
              100%


References

Abrizah, et al., (2009). What do the highly-rated and accredited accredited

recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.


accredited herds
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g.
 LIS LIS - Langage Implementation Systeme.

A predecessor of Ada developed by Ichbiah in 1973. It was influenced by Pascal's data structures and Sue's control structures. A type declaration can have a low-level implementation specification.
 programmes inform us about education in digital libraries? Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 14 (3), pp. 77-93

Ahmad, N. (1981). Education for librarianship Education for librarianship is the term for the educational preparation for professional librarians. This varies widely in different countries. In the United States and Canada, it generally consists of a one- or two-year Masters degree program in library science, called variously.  in Bangladesh. International Library Review 13 (1), pp. 103-115.

Ahmed, S. U. (1994). Librarianship and the state of libraries in Bangladesh. Dhaka: Luthfun Nessah Begum be·gum  
n.
1. A Muslim woman of rank.

2. Used as a form of address for such a woman.



[Urdu begam, from East Turkic begüm, first person sing.
.

Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) (2008). available:

http://www.banbeis.gov.bd/db_bb/teachers_education.htm, accessed on 2 February 2011.

Bakar, A. B. A. (2009). Education for digital libraries in Asian countries. Asia-Pacific Conference on Library & Information Education & Practice, pp. 458-463

Gorman, G. E. (1999). The future for library science education, Libri, 49, pp. 1-10.

Guy, F. (2007). Technological advances and information education 1982-2007: Some perspectives. Education for Information, 25, pp. 63-72

Islam, M. S., & Chowdhury, M. A. K. (2006). Library and information science education system in

Bangladesh: An overall situation. In Khoo, C., Singh, D., & Chaudhry, A.S. (Eds). Proceedings A-LIEP2006: Asia-Pacific Conference on Library & Information Education & Practice 2006, Singapore. pp. 358-363.

Karisiddappa, C. R. & Sangam, S. L. (1994). Library and information science curriculum: some basic considerations. In: A. Tejomurthy, Restructuring restructuring - The transformation from one representation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject system's external behaviour (functionality and semantics).  of Library and information science, New Delhi New Delhi (dĕl`ē), city (1991 pop. 294,149), capital of India and of Delhi state, N central India, on the right bank of the Yamuna River. : Concept, pp. 35 -42

Khorasani, S.S.M.A. (1986). Genesis of library education in Bangladesh. The Eastern Librarian 12 (1), pp. 55-60

Line, M. B. (2007). Requirements for library and information work and the role of library education. Education for Information, 25(1), pp. 27-39.

National University (2009). Syllabus of BEd, BEd (Hons) & MEd (session: 2008-2009) for teachers training colleges. Gazipur: National University.

Nicolson, M. (1988). The remaking re·make  
tr.v. re·made , re·mak·ing, re·makes
To make again or anew.

n.
1. The act of remaking.

2. Something in remade form, especially a new version of an earlier movie or song.
 of librarians in the knowledge era: skills to meet future requirements. Education for Library and Information Science: Australia, 15, pp. 33-35.

Ocholla, D. N. (2000). Training for Library and Information Studies: a comparative overview of LIS education in Africa This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.

Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007.
. Education for Information, 18, pp. 33-52.

University of Dhaka (1962). Syndicate Syndicate

organized crime unit throughout major cities of the United States. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 2018]

See : Gangsterism
 Minutes dated 6 October 1962. Dhaka: unpublished.

University of Dhaka (1965). Annual Report: 1964-65. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (1974). Syndicate Minutes dated 23 February, 1974. Dhaka: unpublished.

University of Dhaka (1976). Annual Report: 1975-76. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (1978). Syndicate Minutes dated 6 May, 1978. Dhaka: unpublished.

University of Dhaka (1988). Annual Report: 1987-88. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (1988). Syllabus of the department of library and information science for BA (subsidiary, honours) course for the session 1987-88. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (1990). Syndicate Minutes dated 29 December, 1990. Dhaka: unpublished.

University of Dhaka (1995). Annual Report: 1994-95. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (1995). Syllabus of the department of library and information science for BA (honours) integrated course for the session 1994-95, 1995-96 & 1996-97. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (1998). Syllabus of the department of information science and library management for BA (honours) course for the session 1997-98. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (1999). Annual Report: 1998-99. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (2000). Annual Report: 1999-2000. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

University of Dhaka (2001). Syndicate Minutes dated 6 December, 2001. Dhaka: unpublished.

University of Dhaka (2008). Syllabus of the department of information science and library management for BA (honours), academic session 2006-07. Dhaka: University of Dhaka.

Wagner, G. S. (2000). Future of education for library and information science: views from Australia. Education for Information, 18 (2-3), pp. 123-129.

A.I. M. Jakaria Rahman Research and Development Secretary Executive Committee 2010-2011 Bangladesh Association of Librarians, Information Scientists and Documentalists (BALID)

Momena Khatun Librarian International Jute jute (jt), name for any plant of the genus Corchorus, tropical annuals of the family Tiliaceae (linden family), and for its fiber.  Study Group 145 Monipuripara, Farmgate Dhaka, Bangladesh

Dr. Muhammad Mezbah-ul-Islam Associate Professor Department of Information Science and Library Management University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
COPYRIGHT 2011 University of Idaho Library
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Rahman, Jakaria A.I.M.; Khatun, Momena; Mezbah-ul-Islam, Muhammad
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Dec 1, 2011
Words:9234
Previous Article:Doctoral research in library and Information Science by Pakistani professionals: an analysis.
Next Article:Use of ICT by students: a survey of faculty of education at IUB.
Topics:

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters