Early childhood development in Kenya: empowering young mothers, mobilizing a community.
This article explores recent early childhood and community development work in rural Kenyan communities. We begin with a brief history and contemporary overview of early childhood care and education in Kenya Education in Kenya has been based on an 8-4-4 system since the late 1980s, with eight years of primary education followed by four years of secondary school and four years of college or university. , and then use examples from the Mwana Mwende (Treasured Child) community development project to illustrate some of the roles played by early childhood programs and community development centers in Kenya. In particular, we focus on how early childhood development (ECD ECD Early Childhood Development
ECD Electron Capture Detector
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ECD Electronic Civil Disobedience ) has mobilized the community on a range of issues affecting children and families, and then briefly describe Mwana Mwende's work with young mothers, youth, community health workers, teachers, parents, and community leaders. Finally, we link these examples to the broader theme of increasing democratic participation of communities on behalf of their children.
Contexts of Early Childhood Care and Education in Kenya
Kenya is a primarily rural, agrarian, neocolonial society consisting of numerous ethnic and racial groups, with over 40 distinctive language groups and diverse religious communities. Until recently, child care and early socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. of preschool-age children were governed by "powerful family/community structures and traditions" (Woodhead, 1996). Although these indigenous, precolonial pre·co·lo·ni·al or pre-co·lo·ni·al
Of, relating to, or being the period of time before colonization of a region or territory. traditions remain deeply entrenched en·trench also in·trench
v. en·trenched, en·trench·ing, en·trench·es
1. To provide with a trench, especially for the purpose of fortifying or defending.
2. in the values of many Kenyan families, few communities have been unaffected by the rapid social, economic, and cultural changes brought on by urbanization, dislocation dislocation, displacement of a body part, usually a bone. When a bone is dislocated, the ends of opposing bones are usually forced out of connection with one another. In the process, bruising of tissues and tearing of ligaments may occur. , globalization globalization
Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation , and austerity Austerity
See also Asceticism, Discipline.
conservative Christian group in North America noted for its simple, orderly life and nonconformist dress. [Am. Hist. measures associated with structural adjustments, increasing poverty, and the impact of HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Swadener, Kabiru, & Njenga, 2000). The demand for early childhood development (ECD) services has increased considerably in Kenya as a result of changing family structures and lifestyles. The number of extended families continues to decrease, and more parents are working outside the home. Many households are headed by single parents, primarily mothers or grandmothers; one third of rural households are headed by women (1) (Adams & Mburugu, 1994). These rural households, as well as those on agricultural plantations PLANTATIONS. Colonies, (q.v.) dependencies. (q.v.) 1 Bl. Com. 107. In England, this word, as it is used in St. 12, II. c. 18, is never applied to, any of the British dominions in Europe, but only to the colonies in the West Indies and America. 1 Marsh. Ins, B. 1, c. 3, Sec. 2, page 64. and in some urban areas, have the greatest need for alternative child care. Mothers are away from home most of the day, often having no choice but to leave their children without adequate care (Njenga & Kabiru, 2001).
Most parents in Kenya are interested in ECD services not only for the custodial aspects of child care, but also as preparation for their children in advance of primary education and for socialization. Having a "head start" for formal education is extremely important in Kenya, where the education system is highly competitive and examination-oriented. Hence, preschool curricula in Kenya have become increasingly skills-based and academic, in order to prepare children for the high-stakes Standard One interview (the 1st-grade entrance screening test). Also, although primary education in Kenya is public, it is no longer free; getting a "good" primary school has influence on later educational opportunities/outcomes.
A Brief History of ECD in Kenya
One of the things that distinguishes Kenya from other sub-Saharan African nations is its well-established system of early childhood education and care, which continues to thrive. Prior to British colonization colonization, extension of political and economic control over an area by a state whose nationals have occupied the area and usually possess organizational or technological superiority over the native population. , traditional forms of education often were associated with rites of passage and transmission of cultural values. Raising children was typically a collective, community responsibility, with grandmothers playing a critical role. Formal preschools were introduced as early as the 1940s, mainly on the large plantations and in several larger towns. During colonial rule, lasting from 1895 through 1963, schools were segregated; different types of preschools existed--some served children of British and Asian families, mission programs often included feeding programs for children in some rural areas, and early custodial child care centers could be found on the plantations. Many more child care centers opened during the Mau Mau Mau Mau (mou` mou'), secret insurgent organization in Kenya, comprising mainly Kikuyu tribespeople. They were bound by oath to force the expulsion of white settlers from Kenya. wars of independence (19531960); these centers included more traditional activities (e.g., singing, dancing, and stories) for children.
The greatest expansion in early childhood programs came shortly after Kenya's independence in 1963, in response to the late President Jomo Kenyatta's call for Harambee Harambee is a Kenyan tradition of community self-help events, eg. fundraising or community development activities. Harambee is also the official motto of Kenya and appears on its coat of arms. ("pulling together"), which promoted community participation for accelerated education development (Kabiru, 1993). The motto of Harambee has been evident ever since in the development of many self-help projects, including community-funded, community-built preschools and other services (Swadener, Kabiru, & Njenga, 2000). Such community-supported preschools still far outnumber out·num·ber
tr.v. out·num·bered, out·num·ber·ing, out·num·bers
To exceed the number of; be more numerous than.
to exceed in number: those built by the government or donors; approximately 80 percent of Kenyan preschools are run by local communities. There are now 26,463 preschools enrolling 1,107,276 children. About one third of the children under 6 years old are enrolled in preschool; there are 42,609 preschool teachers A Preschool Teacher is a type of early childhood educator who instructs children from infancy to age 5, which stands as the youngest stretch of early childhood education. Early Childhood Education teachers need to span the continum of children from birth to age 8. , just under half of whom are formally trained.
Preschool teachers are not hired through the Kenyan government, as are primary school teachers, although their training is facilitated by the DICECE DICECE District Centres for Early Childhood Education (Kenya) (District Centers for Early Childhood Education), which are government-supported centers. Most rural preschools, for example, function on a Harambee basis, with a local community taking responsibility for hiring the teacher, constructing the building, and providing other needed resources. One of the major constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.
["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)]. in the program is that the government spends only a small proportion of the education budget on preschool education preschool education: see kindergarten; nursery school.
Childhood education during the period from infancy to age five or six. Institutions for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do their names (e.g. .
Initiating the Mwana Mwende Child Development Project
The Mwana Mwende Project was started in the Machakos District Machakos District is an administrative district in the Eastern Province of Kenya. Its capital town is Machakos. The district has a population of 906,644 .
The local climate is semi arid. in 1997 by the Mwana Mwende Child Development Center, a local nongovernmental organization nongovernmental organization (NGO)
Organization that is not part of any government. A key distinction is between not-for-profit groups and for-profit corporations; the vast majority of NGOs are not-for-profit. (NGO NGO
Noun 1. NGO - an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
nongovernmental organization ), in response to concern about the care of children under 3 years and the welfare of teenage mothers, its primary funders have been the Bernard van Leer Foundation The Bernard van Leer Foundation is a private grantmaking foundation that funds and shares knowledge internationally about work in early childhood development and child rights. It was established in 1949 and is based in the Netherlands. (of the Netherlands) and the International Child Resource Center. Several studies carried out in this district in the early 1990s found that the family structure was changing considerably, with fewer extended families and more teenage parents (Gachukia, Kabiru, & Beauttah, 1992). The studies also noted that most children under the age of 3 were not admitted to preschools. When parents went to work, therefore, they sometimes left young children at home without adult supervision, due to the lack of care options. Parents in this district, as in other parts of Kenya, tend to spend long hours away from home in informal or formal employment, including casual labor. (2) They also engage in petty trade (3) in order to supplement family income and meet basic needs for food, medical care, clothing, housing, and school levies (Bali & Kabiru, 1996; Gakuru & Koech, 1995; Swadener, Kabiru, & Njenga, 2000).
The Mwana Mwende project initiators were particularly interested in teen mothers, whose numbers have been rising steadily (Gachukia, Kabiru, & Beauttah, 1992). In earlier research (Bali & Kabiru, 1996), it was found that many teen mothers were shy and lacked self-esteem. This study also noted that many teen mothers did not interact closely with their babies, even when breastfeeding, and they did not talk to their children or actively try to elicit e·lic·it
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.
b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.
2. any responses from them. This observation gave rise to the interest in starting a project to establish a support system for teen mothers, addressing their living conditions living conditions npl → condiciones fpl de vida
living conditions npl → conditions fpl de vie
living conditions living and childrearing issues. The project initiators also believed that they could build the self-esteem of teen mothers through various training programs.
The project team proposed to develop a parent support and education program that could be replicated in other areas of the district and nation. Such a program could help improve the care of young children, particularly the under-3s. Many other older preschool children (3-6 years) also would benefit, since only about 35 percent of children of this age group overall attend preschools in Kenya. In the project area, however, about 60 percent of 4- to 6-year-olds attend preschools.
Setting and Participants
The project began in the Mung'ala sub-location and now covers the whole of Mumbuni Location, which has five sub-locations. Part of the location is a low-lying plain, with most of the land cultivated cultivated,
n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild. by small farm holdings. The hilly hill·y
adj. hill·i·er, hill·i·est
1. Having many hills.
2. Similar to a hill; steep.
hill eastern side of the location is intensively cultivated, with only a small portion of indigenous forest remaining. The densely populated pop·u·late
tr.v. pop·u·lat·ed, pop·u·lat·ing, pop·u·lates
1. To supply with inhabitants, as by colonization; people.
2. area extends in about a 10-kilometer radius from Machakos town, the administrative and commercial center in the District.
The majority of the population (total population: over 40,000) is Akamba, a Bantu-speaking group. Many other ethnic groups reside in the area. Machakos town is a busy administrative and commercial center located on the high traffic road between Nairobi (the capital city) and Mombasa (the second largest city and a major seaport). Many small market centers contain shops selling groceries, fruits and vegetables, and clothing. Carpenters, dressmakers, and basket makers Basket Makers, name given to the members of an early Native North American culture in the Southwest, predecessors of the Pueblo. Because of the cultural continuity from the Basket Makers to the Pueblos, they are jointly referred to by archaeologists as the Anasazi sell their wares We love "wares" in this industry as noted below. See also warez.
abandonware adware annoyware badware beltware betaware bloatware boardware brochureware bridgeware censorware cloudware courseware crapware crimeware crippleware crossware crudware demoware donateware dribbleware . The majority of residents, however, earn their living by subsistence farming subsistence farming
Form of farming in which nearly all the crops or livestock raised are used to maintain the farmer and his family, leaving little surplus for sale or trade. Preindustrial agricultural peoples throughout the world practiced subsistence farming. .
Poverty is high in the area, and most people over 35 years old have families with at least four children. The younger generation of parents, however, have been having smaller families, as they say that the cost of meeting a child's education, health, clothing, and housing needs is too high (Swadener, Kabiru, & Njenga, 2000). Unemployment also is high up to 80 percent nationally, particularly among school drop-outs and many other young people in the community. Communities are concerned about this issue, as they see many unemployed youth turning to idleness, drinking, and drugs. There is also a high incidence of HIV/AIDS and a growing number of AIDS orphans, greatly stressing families' ability to care for and educate children. A preliminary survey conducted by the Mwana Mwende project has identified nearly 1,000 orphans in the area; this estimate is likely low, as data collection is still underway.
Initial Project Objectives (1997-1999)
One of the goals of the project was to improve young children's cognitive, psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. , and physical development. The other goal was to build the self-esteem of teen mothers and help them develop self-reliance. The initial objectives were to:
* Explore the ways of using family attitudes, knowledge, and intergenerational in·ter·gen·er·a·tion·al
Being or occurring between generations: "These social-insurance programs are intergenerational and all support to build the self-esteem and self-confidence of young mothers and their children
* Investigate existing community resources that could be better used to improve care for the under-3s
* Develop the outreach Outreach is an effort by an organization or group to connect its ideas or practices to the efforts of other organizations, groups, specific audiences or the general public. potential of existing services to mothers and children
* Support and promote the development of small-scale business enterprises for young mothers
* Develop strategies for reducing the incidence of teenage pregnancies teenage pregnancy Adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy Social medicine Pregnancy by a ♀, age 13 to 19; TP is usually understood to occur in a ♀ who has not completed her core education–secondary school, has few or no marketable skills, is
* Influence policies and advocate for integrated services In computer networking, IntServ or integrated services is an architecture that specifies the elements to guarantee quality of service (QoS) on networks. IntServ can for example be used to allow video and sound to reach the receiver without interruption. for children.
Self-Help Groups self-help group, nonprofessional organization formed by people with a common problem or situation, for the purpose of pooling resources, gathering information, and offering mutual support, services, or care. for Young Mothers
When the project started, there were no self-help groups for young mothers or youth. Members of both groups were isolated and had few, if any, opportunities for coming together to share ideas and experiences, or to support one another. The project identified self-help groups as a way to support young mothers, and so the first of three such groups started in 1998. Since 1999, the project team has mobilized the community to form Child and Youth Development Committees (CYDCs), which are responsible for encouraging young mothers to form self-help groups in their villages. To date, the groups have a membership of over 300 young mothers, ages 15 to 26, who are recruited by members and project staff (mainly young local women, working with a Community Motivator). Some of the young mothers are married, while many are single.
Project planners anticipated that empowering young mothers and providing support and skill development would enhance children's healthy development. Self-help peer groups of mothers have been very popular with older women in Kenya since the country gained its independence. The mothers were trained through participatory approaches, which engaged them in sharing experiences, dancing, reciting poems, demonstrating cooking techniques (e.g., using locally available, traditional weaning weaning,
n the period of transition from breast feeding to eating solid foods.
the act of separating the young from the dam that it has been sucking, or receiving a milk diet provided by the dam or from artificial sources. foods and high nutrition foods), and role playing role playing,
n in behavioral medicine, learning exercise in which individuals assume characters different from their own. The individual may also be asked to simulate a particularly difficult situation and apply the characteristics that are common to his to help them reflect on their lives, identify their potential, and recognize possibilities and opportunities available in the community and beyond. All these activities have the ultimate goal of enhancing the participants' lives.
Over 150 of these young mothers report that their lives had changed as a result of their participation in the Mwana Mwende-initiated groups and workshops. Based on annual project evaluations (which used self-reports, observation, and life history interviews), it is evident that most of these mothers are now relatively confident and self-reliant, with some running small business enterprises. Some have pursued further training in computers, dressmaking, or tie and dye making, and a few are now trained as preschool teachers. All of the children of these mothers have attended preschool, and some are now in primary school and are doing well. The young mothers report that they have been able to guide their children well and then follow up with the teachers as a result of their participation in project activities. They are aware of the great impact parents can have on children and are proud of their achievements. To quote one mother, Mwikali, "I found an identity ... with other young mothers who had experiences like me.... I am now happy as a mother and I am convinced that I have done my best" (Mwana Mwende Child Development Project, 2000, p. 30).
Several young single mothers described how they had been made to feel ashamed and abandoned by friends and family when they became pregnant; now, they were no longer shy and had regained confidence and were appreciated by their family and community. As Kamene, another single mother, stated, "I am not shy; I can talk in front of people.... I am more confident in whatever I do.... I do not hide that I have a child. I understand my daughter's needs as she is growing up" (Mwana Mwende Child Development Project, 2000, p. 32). Several mothers also expressed a vision for the future and have a far more engaged and participatory membership in the larger community. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , the mothers' support groups contributed, at least indirectly, to the democratization de·moc·ra·tize
tr.v. de·moc·ra·tized, de·moc·ra·tiz·ing, de·moc·ra·tiz·es
To make democratic.
de·moc of community life by empowering them and strengthening both their maternal MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line. and civic voices.
The Project Evolves: Phase Two Activities (2000-2003)
The project worked with teenage mothers during its first phase, then began to shift some of its objectives, based on community needs, to include the following:
* Many young mothers in their 20s expressed interest in the training programs and wanted to join support groups that had been formed for the teen mothers
* The community requested that the program provide outreach to younger children in the primary schools to prevent teenage pregnancy
* There was great demand to expand from the initial sub-location to the larger location
* The growing prevalence of HIV/AIDS required that the project initiate programs to encourage non-risky behavior, particularly among pre-adolescents and youth
* The need arose to train community leaders, health workers, and committees so that the project activities could be sustainable, and to encourage community planning and ownership of programs
* The community expressed the need to train youth in self-reliance.
This current phase of the Mwana Mwende project emphasizes community empowerment em·pow·er
tr.v. em·pow·ered, em·pow·er·ing, em·pow·ers
1. To invest with power, especially legal power or official authority. See Synonyms at authorize.
2. and capacity-building (strengthening infrastructure, including local governance structures and community resources that focus on assisting children and youth, providing training, and encouraging local leadership of project-initiated programs). The particular emphasis is on the involvement of the entire community in efforts to better the lives of children and youth. The project employs a number of strategies to achieve these objectives, which have been influenced by the needs and characteristics of the target groups and the social environment. While the brief format of this article does not permit a full description of all the project's current activities, an overview of the activities of the Child and Youth Development Committees will illustrate how a community can mobilize mo·bi·lize
1. To make mobile or capable of movement.
2. To restore the power of motion to a joint.
3. To release into the body, as glycogen from the liver. for the empowerment of youth and young mothers.
Child and Youth Development Committees and Self-Help Groups for Youth
Important considerations of any community-based project are sustainability and local ownership of and identification with project activities. In an attempt to ensure sustainability, Mwana Mwende, with the assistance of local leaders, mobilized the communities in all the villages of the Mumbuni location to form Child and Youth Development Committees (CYDCs), including the Self-Help Groups for Youth. These committees were formed at the village and sub-location levels. The main objective of forming these committees is to strengthen the management capacities of the communities, in order to enhance ownership and sustainability of project activities and, in doing so, strengthen the democratic/civic participation of youth in the area.
The respective communities elect members of CYDCs. Elected community representatives organize a community meeting, and local elections are carried out. All members of the community who are present are allowed to participate. Often, a pre-election meeting is held to explain the roles and responsibilities of the committee and give people time to consider the candidates. The members of the committee typically are representative of the different segments of the society, including youth, young mothers, preschool teachers, primary teachers, community health workers, village elders, and religious leaders.
In order to help the CYDCs carry out their community work effectively, the project staff organizes a series of training workshops for members. The topics covered in these workshops include review of project goals and objectives; the needs and characteristics of young children, youth, and teenage mothers; and leadership training in community mobilization mobilization
Organization of a nation's armed forces for active military service in time of war or other national emergency. It includes recruiting and training, building military bases and training camps, and procuring and distributing weapons, ammunition, uniforms, , management of community groups, and life values. Following this participatory training, CYDCs organize similar workshops for community members and are also responsible for translating project objectives to the communities. They raise awareness of the needs and rights of children, youth, and young mothers, and educate community members about HIV/AIDS. Project staff also regularly present workshops for the young mothers and youth groups, and they monitor and provide constant support to the CYDC.
In addition, the CYDCs mobilize youth and young mothers to form self-help groups. CYDCs also have been coordinating a survey in all the villages to determine the number of orphans in the community, and to learn more about who cares for them and the problems they face. In some areas, these committees have started organizing meetings for the guardians who care for the orphans. These meetings provide opportunities for the guardians to share their experiences on such issues as child care and discipline, and to describe the challenges they face in fostering children. Recently, the CYDCs have been instrumental in starting two Community Resource Centers, located on the grounds of primary schools in rural communities. These centers serve as a meeting place for all community groups, including youth and young mothers. It is also a health site (e.g., for child and maternal health Maternal health care is a concept that encompasses preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care. Goals of preconception care can include providing health promotion, screening and interventions for women of reproductive age to reduce risk factors that might affect future pregnancies. screenings). The communities have collected or bought books, games, and learning materials, and libraries have now opened. Plans also are being made to open community pharmacies This article is a list of major pharmacies (also known as chemists and drugstores) by country. Australia
Pharmacies in Australia are mostly independently-owned by pharmacists, often operated as franchises of retail brands offered by the three major .
Finally, the Self-Help Groups for Youth have been extremely important in finding adult guidance for youth in need and in analyzing and forming strategies for improving their lives. Prior to Mwana Mwende's involvement in the area, there were no youth groups--now, there are seven. Most communities had not addressed issues such as smoking, substance abuse, and idleness, particularly among out-of-school youth. To date, the youth groups started by the CYDCs have been instrumental in challenging members to lead more responsible and productive lives; some of the youth are emerging as future community leaders. Topics covered in youth group workshops include self-awareness and self-esteem, conflict resolution, active listening Active listening is an intent to "listen for meaning", in which the listener checks with the speaker to see that a statement has been correctly heard and understood. The goal of active listening is to improve mutual understanding. , stages of group formation, HIV/AIDS prevention, and adolescent growth and development. The groups are also engaged in income generation initiatives such as merry-go-rounds (4), planting seedlings for sale, and supporting the new Community Resource Centers. The groups also organize seminars to give members opportunities to share ideas and experiences, and they also organize games and dances.
Conclusions and Lessons Learned
Among the many lessons learned through the diverse activities of the Mwana Mwende Project, a central one relates to the importance of training and youth development. Training is one of the most important ingredients in initiating community development and for building self-esteem and confidence, creating group cohesion cohesion: see adhesion and cohesion.
The tendency of atoms or molecules to coalesce into extended condensed states. This tendency is practically universal. , and encouraging positive behavior and attitude change in participants. When youth and young mothers are empowered and equipped with relevant skills and knowledge, they are more willing to take on new initiatives that can provide them a better income and quality of life. When youth and young mothers are valued as critical resources, they can change their attitudes and behavior and influence others, thereby contributing to the well-being of the entire community. Mwana Mwende staff and project participants also have noted that the community has a very important role to play in supporting the welfare of its children. When community members understand the benefits of a project and what constitutes community development, they share their time and resources willingly. They also work well among themselves and with the project when they are kept informed about how the resources are being utilized. Training a core group of people within the community and encouraging them to share their knowledge and skills with other community members can result in significant positive changes, within both families and communities.
Many collaborative partners are needed in order for such initiatives to succeed. For example, in the project described here, we have worked with a cross-section of community groups, including different age groups, and with departments of agriculture, health, education, and social welfare. Community participants have included children, youth, teen parents, elders, preschool and primary teachers, village health workers, and local officials. Everyone has something to contribute, and we all have learned from each other.
Our experiences with ECD projects, such as this one in the Machakos District, cause us to reaffirm re·af·firm
tr.v. re·af·firmed, re·af·firm·ing, re·af·firms
To affirm or assert again.
re that yes, the African village still does raise the child--if it has sufficient support, resources, and partnerships. In Kenya, the role of early childhood development has moved far beyond providing child care and preschool education to expanding community contexts and strengthening the practice of direct democracy and civic participation.
(1) The growing number of single parent-headed households is associated with a number of factors, including husbands taking a new wife or mistress Mistress, the feminine counterpart of master, may mean:
(2) Casual labor in this region includes clearing the bush for small farmers, cultivation cultivation, tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or and planting, digging pit latrines, construction work or picking coffee.
(3) Petty trade refers to microenterprise (e.g., selling secondhand clothes and shoes, vegetables and fruit, paraffin oil Noun 1. paraffin oil - (British usage) kerosine
coal oil, kerosene, kerosine, lamp oil - a flammable hydrocarbon oil used as fuel in lamps and heaters , or firewood in local markets).
(4) A merry-go-round is a system through which members of the group support one another. At the end of a given period (e.g., week or month), each member pays an agreed-upon amount of money. All the money is given to one member. This process continues until all members have received the money due them, and the rotation starts over.
Adams, B., & Mburugu, E. (1994, June). Women, work and child care. Paper presented at the Second Collaborative Early Childhood Seminar, Nairobi, Kenya.
Bali, S., & Kabiru, M. (1996). The influence of maternal age maternal age,
n the age of the mother at the period of conception. and employment status on mother-infant interactions. In collaboration with Marc Bornstein. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.
Gachukia, E., Kabiru, M., & Beauttah, P. (1992). A proposal for the development of a curriculum and support materials for meeting the basic learning needs of adolescent girls. Nairobi, Kenya: Unpublished proposal to UNICEF UNICEF (y`nĭsĕf'), the United Nations Children's Fund, an affiliated agency of the United Nations. , Innocenti.
Gakuru, O. N., & Koech, B. (1995). The experiences of young children: A contextualized case study of early childhood care and education in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Institute of Education/NACECE.
Kabiru, M. (1993). Early childhood care and development: A Kenyan experience. Nairobi, Kenya: UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa
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Njenga, A., & Kabiru, M. (2001). In the web of cultural transition: A tracer study of children in Embu district Embu District is an administrative district in the Eastern Province of Kenya. Its capital town is Embu. The district has a population of 278,196 
The district has two constituencies: Manyatta and Runyenjes. , Kenya. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Foundation.
Swadener, B. B., Kabiru, M., & Njenga, A. (2000). Does the village still raise the child?: A collaborative study of changing childrearing and early education in Kenya. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), founded in 1966, is a university press that is part of State University of New York system. External link
Weisner, T. S., Bradley, C., & Kilbride, L. (Eds.). (1997). African families and the crisis of social change. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Woodhead, M. (1996). In search of the rainbow. The Hague, Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation.
Margaret Kabiru, Anne Njenga, and Beth Blue Swadener
The first two authors served as the past Coordinator and Deputy Coordinator, respectively, of the National Centre for Early Childhood Education (NACECE NACECE National Centre for Early Childhood Education (Kenya) ) in Kenya and now conduct action research, offer preschool teacher diploma DIPLOMA. An instrument of writing, executed by, a corporation or society, certifying that a certain person therein named is entitled to a certain distinction therein mentioned.
2. courses, and do community mobilization through the Mwana Mwende Child Development Centre. The third author has done research in Kenya for the past decade, including collaborative work with the other authors, and she works with nonformal schools for street children and mothers' self-help groups in Nairobi.