EFFECT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKFORCE IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA. AUTHORS OWOJORI, A. ADEKUNLE, (B.Sc. (Hons), MA, PhD, FCA, ACTI & POPOOLA, J., (B.Sc, (Hons), M.Ed, PhD
ABSTRACT The research titled "Effects of Human Resource Management on Productivity of Workforce in the Banking Industry in Nigeria was conducted to determine those factors affecting workers' productivity, evaluate the effects of certain motivating factors affecting job satisfaction as well as determining the effects of certain motivating elements on workers' productivity. Five hypotheses were formulated. The population of the study was 1,852 consisting of 511 Senior Staff and 1,341 Junior Staff of Wema Bank out of which 100 senior staff and 500 junior staff was picked randomly, as sample. The data was collected through the use of questionnaire and Chi-square method was used for the analysis. Findings were made on the factors that encourage job satisfaction and those motivating elements that can ensure increased productivity of workforce. It was however recommended that essential conditions of service such as good pay, motivation, incentives, regular promotions, training and development should be provided for the workforce so as to enable them put in their best in order to increase the level of their productivity in the organization.INTRODUCTION
It is a well known fact that, the primary concern of an organization is its viability and hence its efficiency. For effective functioning of any organization employees must learn to perform their jobs at a satisfactory level of proficiency and also the organization must provide opportunities for the continued development and training of employees not only on their jobs, but as well develop them for other jobs for which they might later be considered. According to Obikoya (1996) training is a systematic process of altering the behaviour, knowledge and or motivation of employees in a direction to increase the trainees' effectiveness and organization goal achievement. Koontz et al. (1983) opined that people are unique- they have different needs, different ambition, different attitudes, and different desires for responsibility, different levels of knowledge and skills and different potentials.
However, Obikoya (2003) believed that both private and public sectors in Nigeria are guilty of wrong utilization of available human resources. This is especially in the banking industry where graduates are employed in the area which they lack expertise. It is in this direction that Bulama (1999) opined that banks must engage in intensive staff training and research.
Moreover, Agbato (1982) said that objectives of a bank is to maximize the long term return on the resources it employed, therefore management by objectives approach is suggested to focus attention on the right priorities and of securing performance standard and appraisal. According to Stoner et al. (2002) performance appraisal compares individuals job performance to standards developed for the individual's position. How performance may prompt corrective action like additional training, a demotion or separation while high performance may merit reward, such as bonus or promotion.
The business environment is ever dynamic and changes create problem for the managers in terms of human resources. It is of important for employers in order to get the best of his employees, should improve very often upon the factors that persistently motivates employees, since they are bound to be affected by time.
David et al. (1986) said pay systems have always responded to change, so do day pattern and practices. Employers move through different stages of accepting the fact that their pay systems are going to change and understanding the process of change makes it easier to accept the changes. Also Banjoko (1996) sees compensation of employee as the totality of the financial and other non-financial rewards that an employee receives in return for his or services. It includes his basic pay and other numerous financial benefits and incentives the totality of which determines how well he/she lives in the society. Aggarwal (1986) observed that companies have long sought management reward systems designed to ensure long and short term productivity and corporate loyalty. He observed further that top talent is easily woven to a competitor by more challenge and better rewards. Consequently, corporations have devised many ways to appropriately reward key staff members while hoping to instill a sense of company loyalty. Therefore most companies tie their mangers' raises and bonuses to the annual profit level. He argued that wages are established by ostensibly neutral process of supply and demand.
Yesufu (1965) stated that the condition under which work is performed should be such as to make workers not only economically highly productive and efficient, but happy human beings and properly developed citizens. He also states that workers have only tended to pay more attention to what they can derive from themselves in the nature of higher pay packets, sick benefits, generous leave and good working conditions.
Whyte (1955) while agreeing that there is no doubt that money has an important effect on the thinking and behaviour of productive workers, explained that monetary incentive become quickly entangled with a lot of other motives that have little or nothing to do with money, so that the ultimate effect of money itself is not easily identified. He however, confirmed that one reason why money with has proved to be handy is the fact that it is partly true.
Shubin (1957) viewed services such as rest room, lunch stand, cooperative purchasing, medical attention in premises, hospitalization, pension plan, sports designed by an organization for providing an occupational environment that would enhance physical, mental and emotional fitness of employees as well as being a special incentive for better performance.
From all the above discussion, one can easily deduce that it is advantageous for every organization to give room for good human resources management. This involves setting up of programmes of various types, good pay packages, good welfare packages, adequate training and development and to crate enabling satisfaction which will eventually result to the realization of the expected productivity level.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Both public and private organization in Nigeria contributes to the wrong utilization of available human resources. This is because graduates are employed in the area where they lack expertise. The management of some organization does not seem to know the importance of training and development on workers productivity. Some management believes that if workers have acquired university education, there is no need to train again. Provisions of welfare facilities are not given adequate attention in some organization.
Despite many policies being put in place to ensure workers productivity and efficiency and to possibly stamp out unethical practices in the banking sector especially, however, job satisfaction and workers productivity could only be achieved in few establishment.
In carrying out this research work, the following questions were asked:
1. How can the productivity of the workers be measured to determine the unproductive ones?
2. What could be responsible for workers not being productive?
3. To what extent has salary increase, reward and other welfare packages improved productivity of workforce?
4. What are the factors responsible for job satisfaction?
5. How can training programmes help to evaluate performance on the job?
H01: There is no relationship between job satisfaction and productivity
H02: There is no positive correlation between age and experience of workers
and their productivity.
H03: There is no significant relationship between remuneration and welfare package for
workers and their productivity
H04: There is no positive relationship between promotion and motivation of workers
and their productivity.
H05: Education, training and development of workers are not positively correlated with
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to examine the productivity of workers in banking industry viz a-viz the kinds of human resource management existing in the industry
Specifically, the purposes of the study are:
(a) To determine factors affecting workers' productivity in the study area.
(b) To evaluate the effects of certain motivating elements on workers' productivity.
(c) To determine factors affecting job satisfaction in the industry.
THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM)
The context of "Human Resources" implies that people in a work organization are endowed with a range of abilities, talents and attitude necessary to influence productivity, quality and profitability. Human resources as viewed by Giant (1978) as the supply of physical labour, technical and professional skills which are germane to the development policies, programmes, projects and daily activities. Ndiomu (1992) contended that the human resources of a nation comprise men and women, young and old who engage in the production of goods and services and who are the greatest and indeed the most precious assets of the nation.
Udo-Udo Aka (1992) asserted that the concept of human resources refers to the management, scientific, engineering, technical, craft and other skills which are developed and employed in creating, designing and developing organizations and in managing and operating productive and service enterprises and economic institutions. Human resources are composed of individuals working for an organization, employed these days on a variety of contracts; some as "core" long-term staff, some as temporary staff, some as contracted staff but collectively making up the most important of an organization's resources as opined by Cowling (1998).
In general, regardless of the job, the most effective employees are those who provide the highest possible quality and quantity of a product or service at the lowest possible cost and in the timeliest fashion with a maximum of positive impact on co-workers, organizational units and the client/ customer population. However, HRM is that part of the management process that specializes in the management of people in the work place from recruitment to training to salary to the point of Exit. HRM emphasizes that employees are the primary resource for gaining sustainable competitive advantage that human resources activities need to be integrated with corporate strategy and that human resource specialists help organizational controllers to meet both efficiency and equity objectives.
According to Glueck (1982) HRM is the function of all enterprises which provides for effective use of human resources to achieve both the objectives of the enterprises and that of the employees. HRM consists of activities that relate to people within the firm, rather than activities that deal with finance, engineering, marketing accounting. HRM deals with recruiting, selection, appraising rewarding and developing of employees as well as negotiating with labour unions. Obikoya (2002) quoted Yoder, Heinemann, Turnbull and Stone (1984) as saying that human resource management involves procedure through which human resources are organized and directed towards the attainment of organizational, individual and social goals. It makes the best possible utilization of the rank and the employees. Summarizing what Human resource management is, Cole (1990) write: "It is that specialist function of management which has prime responsibility for the following.
(a) Formulating, proposing and gaining acceptance for the human resource management policies and strategies of the organization.
(b) Providing adequate human resource management services for the organization to enable it to recruit, motivate, and develop sufficient and sustainable employees at all levels.
(c) Advising the organization management of the human consequences of change"
It has been argued in the past and up till now that productive workforce determines the placement and importance of an organization in the society. Then the question comes to mind, what makes people or personnel in an organization to be productive or unproductive as the case may be?
Therefore, personnel management in the context of productivity of workforce and sustenance of such organization is a condition that guarantees optimally, the interests of workers viz their welfare, education, training, health, job security the need to be important and motivation of such workers either materially or through other rewards. Thus, it could be assumed that most organizations with industrial harmony have well designed articulated and observed policies that ensure the job satisfaction which in turn positively affects the productivity of the workforce.
In line with the above, most human resource managers always play active role in the outcome of the performance of their organizations. The advent of staff competition in the banking industry coupled with the fact that customers now have full knowledge of their importance to the industry have made most banks to place very high premium on the quality and quantity of their personnel with a view to getting the best that will guarantee optimum returns on investment. This in consequence has given rise to very robust profit reported yearly by these banks.
PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKFORCE
An understanding of the concept of productivity improvement programmes requires clear definition of the following concept issues, productivity, quality improvement and programmes.
According to Ulrich (1997), productivity refers to a ratio of output to input. Input may include labour hours or costs, production costs and equipment costs. Output may consist of sales, earnings, and market share. Many firms now assume or have shown that productivity is affected by employee's knowledge, skills, abilities, attitude, motivation and behaviours. The improvement programme starts with this assumption and proceeds with different intervention strategies. Prokopenko (1996) defined productivity as the relationship between the output generated by a production or service system and the input provided to create this output.
According to Obikoya (2002), quality can be assessed by looking at performance, reliability, conformance to standards, durability, serviceability, aesthetics and complying with customer requirements. Crosby defined quality as "conformance to the requirements".
Improvement refers to the deliberate efforts of an organization to increase in value or excellence. In other words, the enhancement or betterment of a company's performance, for example, increase in a company's share turnover from year to year gaining the company's share of the market or a continuous research and development activities of a company.
Programme means a schedule of plan to be followed. It is an intended plan of action to guide the activities of a business organization. By productivity improvement programmes, it means the various schedules or plan put forward by an organization to enhance its effectiveness and efficiency. In other words, it is all the concerned efforts of an organization to gain competitive advantage over its competitors to accomplish the organization's mission at a low enough cost. Better training and development programmes have been shown to improve the performance of current employees, while certain incentive and compensation systems translate into higher productivity and performance as opined by Benker, Lee and Porter (1996).
Objectives of Performance Appraisal
The main purpose of any performance in appraisal system according to Killen (1977) is to:
1. evaluate an employee's works to the organization
2. provide basis for wages, salary, increases, promotion, demotion and transfer.
3. point out employee's specific needs for additional education, training and
development which will lead to their improved performance and the overall organizational performance.
4. acknowledge high performance and motivate high performances.
5. enable workers know how their superiors view their performance
6. provide appraisal reports which will serve as the basis determine training and
7. provide appraisal reports which will serve as the basis for job redesigning.
8. help determine training and development need.
9. provide the employer with the data that could be used for staff development to serve in greater capacity.
10. improve communication line between the supervisors and their subordinates in
However, employees should receive regular indications from their supervisors on how they are doing. That is to say there should be no surprise at annual review time. The performance appraisal should be a summary of what the superior and the employee have been taking about all the year along.
Report by William (1977) indicates that human resource manger is responsible for designing and overseeing the appraisal programmes. The person who conducts performance appraisal varies from company to company. However, direct participation by line manager in the operation of the programme is necessary, for success.
The Performance Appraisal Process
Establish job Expectations
Examine work Performed
Discuss Appraisal with Employee
Promotions, Transfers, Demotions and Separation
According to Stoner et al. (2002) movement of personnel within an organization their promotion, transfer, demotion and separation-is a major aspect of human resource management. The actual decisions about whom to promote and whom to fine can also be among the most difficult and important aspect of human resource management a manager has to make.
The possibility of advancement often serves as a major incentive for superior management performance. Therefore, it is extremely important that promotions be fair-based on merit and untainted by favouritism still, even fair and appropriate promotions can create a number of problems. One major problem is that frequently organizations members who are bye- passed for promotion feel resentful which may affect their morale and productivity.
Transfers serve a number of purposes: They are used to give people broader. Job experience as part of their development and to fill vacancies as they occur. Transfers are also used to keep promotion ladders open and to keep individuals interested in the work. For example, many middle managers reach plateau simply because there is no room for all of them at the top. Such managers may be shifted to other positions to keep their job motivation and interest high. Finally, inadequately performing employees may be transferred to other jobs simply because a higher-level manager is reluctant to demote or fire them. Increasingly however, some employees are refusing transfers because they do not want to move their families or jeopardize a spouse's course.
Discipline, Demotions and Separations
Discipline is generally administered when an employee violates company policy of fall short of work expectations and mangers must act to remedy the situation. Discipline usually progresses through a series of step-warning, reprimand, probation, suspension, disciplinary transfer, demotion and discharge until the problem is solved or eliminated.
If demotion or transfer is not feasible, separation is usually better than letting a poor performer stay on the job. No matter how agonizing the separation decision may be, the logic of human resource planning frequently requires that it be made.
Salary and Wages (Compensation) Administration
Employee compensation administration has given much and careful thought to build job effort firm employees so that both they and the employers will be limited together in a bargain based upon a fair days' work for a fair day's pay. Rachel (1971) said equal pay for equal work is an acceptable principle for achieving equity of compensation. This is an important criterion. Employees expect what their members are paid to be at least comparable to that of other reference groups. Consistent with this principle, and with the concept of an employment exchange, people expect to be paid differently for work in different jobs. A major task in reward systems management is the determination of a structure of compensation differentials that both employer and employees can accept as being reflective of differences in the work associated with these jobs.
Functions of Wages and Salaries
Rachel further said that the issue of what constitutes a fair pay has plaque managers for decade employees must be provided with adequate and equitable rewards for their contributions to organizational goals. This is valid because the compensation employees are paid is the most tangible measure of their worth to the firm.
Typically, wages and salaries perform a number of functions.
(1) Attraction of persons to seek and accept employment in the organization.
(2) Retention of employees as members of the organization
(3) Motivation of employees' behaviour for improved performance.
The Role of Money as a Motivator
According to Obikoya (2003) some behaviour scientists have been interpreted as implying that money is not a motivator of behaviour. Herzberg, categorized pay as hygienic factor. However, in considering the role of hygiene factors, we must remember that if they are not adequately supplied, employees will become dissatisfied and restrict their productivity. Therefore it seems that money plays an important role in employee behaviour and motivation.
The role of money as a motivator is not deniable. The question is "To what extent does money motivate?" For individuals with strong physiological needs, pay would likely serve as a most important of the basic necessities.
The organization must however reward employees according to their productivity. A clear relationship must exist between performances and pay if money is to serve as an effective motivator.
Retirement, Pension and Gratuity
Cole (2000) defined retirement as voluntary or forced cessation of work or employment because of age, disability, illness or other causes approved by the organization. He defined pensions as the amount paid by government or company to somebody who is considered to be too old or too ill to work on reaching statutory age of retirement and gratuity as a lump sum; it is an amount payable under some pension schemes at the time when the pension is due to commence.
Okwor (2003) informed that the private sector does not have a unitary approach to providing leaving service benefits to the employees as it is not compulsory for private sector to do so. Nevertheless, he confirmed that most organizations provide their staff with gratuity arrangement, together with either an insured pension scheme by insurance companies or self administered fund schemes. Most gratuity arrangements are funded on a pay-as-you go basis. The Joint Tax Board in Nigeria has statutory responsibility of approving and monitoring the affairs of schemes set up to provide leaving (withdrawal, death or retirement) service benefits by private sector organization.
The Banking organization establishes a "Pension Fund" for the provision of gratuity and pension at specified age for those persons senior and junior being employees of the company who become eligible for membership of the "Fund" in accordance with the provision of the Company Pension Scheme Rules. Usually the Fund consists of the contributions by the company and members of the fund.
Problems of Human Resource Manager
The work of human resource manager is not in any way smooth sailing. A number of problems confront the human resource manager. Some of these problems are easily managed, while for some, he will have to consult the management. Some of these problems as identified by Glueck (1987) are:
a. The resentment of the position and authority of a human resource manager by
heads of department.
b. The difficulty of solving personnel problems because of the great deal of
investigating time involved.
c. The difficulty of finding in one person the required knowledge of sociology and
psychology as well as the knowledge of human resource principles and practices.
d. The implementation of human resource policy which he is averse to and the
process of formulation which he is not at all involved.
e. The position of being a middleman between the top management and staff in which
case he has to support both the employees and management.
f. Lack of clarity and specifications of the authority and responsibilities of a human resource manager by management.
Summary of Related Literature
It is now evident that Human Resource Management has to do with the inception of personnel in the organization till the exit period. That is why today, the management of human resource is generally accepted to be the primary responsibility of all managers, line or staff, facilitated and supported by a lean and competent human resource department. Druker (1977) charged management with three functions: economic performance, managing managers and managing workers and work. According to him "man alone of all the resources available to man can grow and develop and the added".
Management of human resources is therefore very important business function. An organization must have the right numbers and types of employees who must be managed in such a way that they will be able to achieve their personnel and organizational objective simultaneously.
Furthermore, people in work organizations endowed with a range of abilities, talents and attitudes influenced productivity, quality and profitability. Individuals therefore become human resources by virtue of the roles they assume in the work organization.
Research Design and Methodology
The research is a survey type which collected the opinions of staff through twenty-five opinionated questionnaire. The opinions were analyzed with chi-square test statistic at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 1,852 consisting of 511 Senior Staff and 1,341 Junior Staff of Wema Bank out of which 100 senior staff and 500 junior staff was picked randomly, as sample.
Findings And Discussion
The following findings were discovered as a result of the analyses:
1. Good pay in a job gives commitment to that job. The whole lot of the respondents agreed with this and this was equally the opinion of Lawyer (1968) who believed that higher pay always reflect in the employees feeling of satisfaction on his job.
2. High productivity from worker s is a result of job satisfaction. Schweb (1970) agreed that satisfaction causes performance.
3. Fear of punishment will spur workers to work harder. Ani (1977) was of the opinion that if workers are punished through denial of promotion they will try to work harder towards greater performance.
4. Job security has effect on job satisfaction, as it is the belief of Agbato (1982) that security of job can reduce labour turnover.
5. Management of an organization can encourage job satisfaction. It is also the opinion of Obikoya (2002) that management of an organization must be ready to meet the demands of its employees so as to enhance commitment.
6. Workers acquire knowledge and experience every year was supported by
respondents and according to Okwor (2003) he was of the opinion that as workers spend more time in performing a particular duty, there is tendency to increase his level of performance.
7. Workers' productivity increase every year with experience and that is why Bulama (1999) said that experience cannot be bought but are gotten through daily routine.
8. Experienced workforce is an asset to the organization as it is being asserted by
respondents. Equally, Obikoya (2003) wrote that the role of experienced worker is very important to the organization.
9. Workers input reduce with their age. Lawal (1980) supported the fact that an
appointee who is aged over 45 years is no longer entitled to permanent appointment.
10. Old age can reduce productivity. This is also the view of the respondents and
can also be seen from Lawal (1980) he wrote that if on has not attained the retirement age and is not productive, such a person should be paid off the job.
11. Money has the power to attract, retain and motivate individuals towards
higher performance. It is also the opinion of Katz (1973) that money has the power to attract, retain and motivate individuals towards higher performance. This is also the opinion of the respondents as they responded positively to the fact that review of salary result in higher and better performance of staff.
12. Well structured and articulated welfare package result in higher
productivity. Yesufu (1965) states that the conditions under which work is performed should be such as to make workers highly productive through the provision of higher pay package, sick benefits, generous leave and good working conditions.
13. Increased pay enhances commitment and productivity. Robert (1987) asserted
that empirically pay rise above the inflationary level have aided obtaining the implementation of important agreement on workforce through flexibility and increased productivity. That is why respondents were of the opinion that they are more committed and productive now that their pay has been increased than before.
14. Cole (2000) was of the opinion that companies which cater for their workers
through the provision of welfare facilities are likely to reduce the incidence of labour turnover as it is the belief of the respondents too.
15. Increase in workers' pay has helped curb sharp and unethical practices. The
respondents opined that this is true and to buttress this point Akinwande (1999) asserted that the reduced level of mismanagement was as a result of good pay.
16. Promotions bring better performance. The respondents agreed to the fact and
Davar (1988) asserted that the purpose of promotion is to improve both utilization and motivation of employees.
17. There is equity between effort put into a job and promotions. Majority of the
respondents were against it and Adams (1972) observed that equity theories are not being practiced in some organizations and that is one of the factors responsible for their poor performance.
18. According to William (1977) appraisal form indicates that human resource
manager is responsible for designing the appraisal programmes but the person who conducts it varies from one company to the other and that is why even respondents feel that appraisal form alone is not enough for promotion.
19. Regular promotion brings about job satisfaction. this is supported by Koontz et
al. (1988) when they see promotion as a drive towards an outcome which is satisfaction.
20. Promotion and motivation will serve as challenge to other workers to improve
their performance. In supporting this assertion, Hackett (1963) sees motivation as something which impels a person to act.
21. Training and development encourage better performance. Banjo (1955) asserted
that the goal of training and education is the provision of better Africans, who are efficient and who will improve their overall competence.
22. Constant training should be organized for workers. This is supported by Bulama
(1999) when he opined that banks must engage in intensive staff training and research.
23. Training courses provide necessary skill, knowledge and attitude needed on the
job. According to Ubeku (1975) he said an employee should be helped to grow into more responsibility by systematic training and development. It is only then that he will feel confident to carry out responsibilities on the job.
24. External training should be introduced along with internal training. George
(1971) opined that training directors must move more towards economic evaluation of their training efforts because numerous external factors continuously affect training requirements.
25. Training is necessary, no matter the level of academic qualification. According
to Akinwale (2000) the emphasis on staff training and development is based on the premise that staff skills needed to be improved for the organization to grow.
The following conclusions were drawn from the findings:
1. Human Resource management is a very sensitive function of an organization
2. Human resource management affects the employee right from the point of entry till
the time of exit from the organization.
3. Workforce is the bedrock of an organization on which the coordination of all other factors of production depends.
4. It is when there is job satisfaction that employee will work towards increasing their productivity level
5. Adequate compensation of employees will invariably enhance performance
6. The role of training and development on an organization and individuals' productivity are immeasurable.
7. Proper implementation of training enhances individual performance and productivity.
1. Wages and other financial benefits of employees should be structured and upwardly reviewed by management for employees to improve on their level of performance.
2. Working environment and condition of the employees should be adequately
enhanced by management. Incentives such as medical cares, housing allowances, etc., should be adequately provided to bring about job satisfaction.
3. The growth and advancement of the employees on the job through training and
development should be efficiently implemented and indiscriminately carried out by the management to avoid dissatisfaction.
4. For higher performance as well as for employees to have sense of belonging,
Management must introduce Management By Objective (MBO) approach so that all staff will take part and be able to contribute meaningfully to the development of the organization.
5. Employment of staff must be based on merit by Human Resource Department in
order to give room for best hands to work in the organization.
6. Management must encourage equity between effort put into the job and
promotion to encourage hard work.
7. Management must encourage job satisfaction through the provision of enabling
environment to enhance employees' commitment to duty.
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OWOJORI, A. ADEKUNLE