Dual use libraries: guidelines for success.ABSTRACT
Combined school Combined School is a term used in the United Kingdom which has begun to lose its original meaning.
When, in 1967, the Plowden Report recommended a change in the structure of primary education in England, it proposed an arrangement of first and middle schools, catering for and public libraries have been studied extensively for more than thirty years. Common advantages and disadvantages, together with typical problems, have been identified. From the work of researchers in three countries, predictors of success can be articulated: the population served is less than 10,000; a formal planning process involving the stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. was undertaken; a written legal agreement for governance, administration, finances, and operations includes guidelines for evaluation and dissolution; a decision-making board or management committee develops policies and procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental and engages and evaluates the director; an integrated facility is conveniently and visibly located, accommodating a variety of groups and resources with a separate area for adults and designated parking; the library is connected with a larger network, regional system, or consortium; the principal has a strong desire for success and teachers support the concept; one highly motivated professional librarian is in charge; there is regular communication and planned cooperation between public library and school staffs; and there are no restrictions on access to resources or on the circulation of materials.
Dual use libraries (note: dual not duel duel, prearranged armed fight with deadly weapons, usually swords or pistols, between two persons concerned with a point of honor. The duel may have originated in the wager of battle, an early mode of trial in which an accused person fought with his accuser under !) are not new. The language changes over time but the essential elements remain the same. Whether discussing dual use libraries, the school-housed public library, the joint-use, combined, or community library, or co-located libraries, the basic principle is consistent: a common physical facility from which library services are provided to two ostensibly os·ten·si·ble
Represented or appearing as such; ostensive: His ostensible purpose was charity, but his real goal was popularity. different communities of users.
It is important to distinguish dual use libraries from other levels of cooperation. Generally, libraries and systems may cooperate at least informally in sharing resources, services, and expertise. These levels of cooperation may range from simple courtesy (class visits), to specific services for a related group (homework centers), to more formal cooperation (joint programs for promotion of reading); much less common is collaboration, in which two equal partners solve common community problems together (for example, an outcomes-based joint family literacy This article
* Its factual accuracy is disputed.
* It needs additional references or sources for verification.
* Very few or no other articles link to this one. initiative). has multiple issues:
Although terms are often used interchangeably INTERCHANGEABLY. Formerly when deeds of land were made, where there Were covenants to be performed on both sides, it was usual to make two deeds exactly similar to each other, and to exchange them; in the attesting clause, the words, In witness whereof the parties have hereunto , this article distinguishes between cooperation between two agencies and actual co-location of staff, collections, and services. There are many examples of successful cooperation (see, for example, Haycock, 1989, for a succinct suc·cinct
adj. suc·cinct·er, suc·cinct·est
1. Characterized by clear, precise expression in few words; concise and terse: a succinct reply; a succinct style.
2. summary of possibilities). There are fewer examples of successful co-location viewed through the lens of rigorous assessment.
The most common dual libraries are combined public (that is, secular, fully tax-supported) school (more commonly high school than elementary school elementary school: see school. ) libraries and public libraries, usually in smaller communities. Less common are dual academic and public libraries; where these occur they are typically college and public libraries, less commonly large universities. The most recent notable exception is the San Jose San Jose, city, United States
San Jose (sănəzā`, săn hōzā`), city (1990 pop. 782,248), seat of Santa Clara co., W central Calif.; founded 1777, inc. 1850. State University Library and the San Jose Public Library in California. This has been variously described as a consummated courtship courtship
paying attention to a member of the opposite sex with a view to mating; occurs in farm animals but is not highly developed other than estral display by the female and seeking by the male, activities that are rather more pragmatic than implied in the definition. , a mutually beneficial Adj. 1. mutually beneficial - mutually dependent
dependent - relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed; "dependent children"; "dependent on moisture" relationship, a marriage of convenience, a planned or arranged marriage The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. As suggested by the term, an arranged marriage is typically arranged by someone other than the persons getting married, curtailing or avoiding the , and a shotgun marriage shotgun marriage
A marriage that is forced or necessitated because of pregnancy. Also called shotgun wedding. , no doubt depending on one's philosophical position and perspective rather than a particular set of key success factors.
Regrettably, the possibility of dual use libraries not only inflames passion but also seems to release all reason. One need only peruse pe·ruse
tr.v. pe·rused, pe·rus·ing, pe·rus·es
To read or examine, typically with great care.
[Middle English perusen, to use up : Latin per-, per- the professional literature to realize that research is less commonly reported, where it even exists, than the experiences of both zealots Zealots (zĕl`əts), Jewish faction traced back to the revolt of the Maccabees (2d cent. B.C.). The name was first recorded by the Jewish historian Josephus as a designation for the Jewish resistance fighters of the war of A.D. 66–73. and nonbelievers. Titles and subtitles sub·ti·tle
1. A secondary, usually explanatory title, as of a literary work.
2. A printed translation of the dialogue of a foreign-language film shown at the bottom of the screen.
tr.v. include "A success story!" "Together at last," "The long over due partnership," "A call to action!" as well as "A case against combination," "Don't do it!" and "A blueprint for disaster Blueprint for Disaster may refer to:
1. Not diminished or moderated in intensity or severity; unrelieved: unmitigated suffering.
2. catastrophe. The focus of this article is specifically on school and public library combinations and the research that informs predictors of success.
Given certain conditions, mergers of school and public libraries may benefit both the community and the school. Where at least minimum separate service is not provided, combined facilities might be better, but they have not proven to be more economical when compared to an equivalent level of independent service; and they are usually initiated by school administrators and school boards due to their own lack of staff or funds. Indeed, one criterion for determining whether to proceed is whether the level of service will be at least equal to, or better than, two separate entities.
In phonetics, the shaping of the vocal tract (larynx, pharynx, and oral and nasal cavities) by positioning mobile organs (such as the tongue) relative to other parts that may be rigid (such as the hard palate) and thus modifying the airstream to produce speech of general advantages and disadvantages, positive aspects and negative aspects, have developed from early reports of public librarians' unease with the "school-housed public library" (White, 1963). These have been extended by more recent examples reported in the literature.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
To start with the upside Upside
The potential dollar amount by which the market or a stock could rise.
This is basically an educated guess on how high a stock could go in the near future.
See also: Bull, Downside , possible advantages or positive aspects of integrated services In computer networking, IntServ or integrated services is an architecture that specifies the elements to guarantee quality of service (QoS) on networks. IntServ can for example be used to allow video and sound to reach the receiver without interruption. can include an improved collection, extended or better service, less duplication of effort and resources, more electronic and media services, and better use of funds. This can translate into professional staff where none existed previously, longer hours, and a broader range of information sources and literacy programs for the community. The bottom line is that there may be no viable alternative for a reasonable level of school or public library service in a small community. A joint library can become a community focal point focal point
See focus. .
Possible disadvantages or negative components include the possibility that fewer adults are willing to use the school library, especially during school hours, rather than a separate facility, sometimes due to a location that is not central and sometimes due to a perceived intimidation by an overwhelming student/teen population and presence. Similarly, some out-of-area students may choose not to use an alternative or rival school's library. Other reluctant users have been young mothers and school dropouts.
Occasionally, school staff experience a frustrating frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: disturbance of school activities, for example, through the unexpected arrival of a group of preschoolers or use by surrounding small independent and parochial schools parochial school (pərō`kēəl), school supported by a religious body. In the United States such schools are maintained by a number of religious groups, including Lutherans, Seventh-day Adventists, Orthodox Jews, Muslims, and with no library facilities. More limited facilities can then become problematic due to increased crowding. The overwhelming school context may result in competition for attention between children and adults, to the neglect of the public library component. An inability of limited staff to deal with a range of students and adults or a single program of limited service can result. There is also the perennial concern about restricted circulation of materials and possible censorship of material, even prior to purchase, due to the school's role of acting legally in locus parentis.
In addition to common advantages and disadvantages, there are several problems inherent in many dual use facilities. There are often, for example, basic differences in purpose, resulting in role conflict (see Jeffus, 1996, for a useful comparison in chart form). Thus, there is the possibility of undue stress being placed on the one librarian who now serves two supervising bodies, each with its own values, mission, vision, goals, and priorities.
The school exists to educate children. The focus of the school librarian, therefore, is on formal instruction. Research suggests that impact on student achievement is greatest when the school librarian and teachers collaborate to plan units of study that integrate information literacy Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. For example, one conception defines information literacy in terms of a set of competencies that an informed citizen of an information society ought to possess to participate intelligently and strategies and skills in the curriculum. It follows, then, that the school librarian will be all experienced teacher (the norm in Australia, Canada, and the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. ) with additional qualifications as a teacher-librarian. From this starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo
commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the , the role of the teacher-librarian, the nature of the collection, and policies and procedures regarding access and use all support the mission of the school's program. Even when a public library adopts a role of support for formal education, as distinct from informal lifelong learning Lifelong learning is the concept that "It's never too soon or too late for learning", a philosophy that has taken root in a whole host of different organisations. Lifelong learning is attitudinal; that one can and should be open to new ideas, decisions, skills or behaviors. , the structure and systems are not so closely aligned with the school. The public library, on the other hand, as the marketplace of information and ideas--the people's university--focuses on the individual and his or her self-defined pursuit of knowledge.
Due to location (the school is rarely in high traffic areas such as business and retail centers and shopping centers shopping center, a concentration of retail, service, and entertainment enterprises designed to serve the surrounding region. The modern shopping center differs from its antecedents—bazaars and marketplaces—in that the shops are usually amalgamated into ), school context (all those kids and programs), and crowded daytime facilities, public usage can be projected to be lower than similar independent facilities. There are also several problems cited around governance and management issues. The school district boundaries and city or village boundaries are often not contiguous, raising questions about who are acceptable clients and funding sources. Ill-defined areas of responsibility make performance assessment difficult. With different boards and employers, salary and work schedule expectations can vary significantly for what appear to be similar roles and responsibilities. Security problems concern parents and teachers when adults and children intermingle in·ter·min·gle
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·min·gled, in·ter·min·gling, in·ter·min·gles
To mix or become mixed together.
[-gling, in school facilities.
Predictors of success have been identified in the work of the primary researchers and writers in this area. These have not been limited to a single site or a single set of circumstances. The criteria provided here represent a synthesis, and in some cases an expansion, of the work of national researchers and assessors: Shirley Aaron (1978a, 1978b, 1978c, 1980, 1981; Aaron & Smith, 1977), who studied combined services in Canada and the United States The United States and Canada share a unique legal relationship. U.S. law looks northward with a mixture of optimism and cooperation, viewing Canada as an integral part of U.S. economic and environmental policy. ; Larry Amey (1974, 1976, 1979, 1987, 1989; Amey & Smith, 1976), who has evaluated school-housed public libraries in Canada and Australia; Alan Bundy Alan Bundy, FRSE, FBCS, FAAAI, FECCAI, FAISB, is a professor at the School of Informatics at the University of Edinburgh, known for his contributions to automated reasoning, especially to proof-planning, the use of meta-level reasoning to guide proof search. (1998, 1999, 2002a, 2002b, 2003), who has assessed joint use facilities in Australia and New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. ; and Wilma Woolard (1977, 1978, 1980a, 1980b), who examined combined school-public libraries in the United States. In addition, the following writers reviewed developments in individual states: Jim Dwyer For other uses, see Jim Dwyer (disambiguation).
Jim Dwyer (born March 4, 1957 in New York City) is an American journalist who is a reporter and columnist with The New York Times. (1987, 1989a, 1989b) in South Australia South Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. ; Allen Grunau (1965) in Kansas; and Lawrence Jaffe (1982) in Pennsylvania. There have also been many studies of single operations, including those by Patricia Bauer (1995), Daniel Heinold (1993), Sally Kinsey and Sharon Honig-Bear (1994), and James Kitchens (1974). Many researchers and writers have summarized and synthesized syn·the·sized
1. Relating to or being an instrument whose sound is modified or augmented by a synthesizer.
2. Relating to or being compositions or a composition performed on synthesizers or synthesized instruments. the literature, leading to predictors of success, including George Burns Noun 1. George Burns - United States comedian and film actor (1896-1996)
Burns, Nathan Birnbaum (1988), Marianne K. Cassell (1985), Shirley Fitzgibbons (1999, 2000, 2001), Ken Haycock (1974, 1975, 1979, 1989, 1990a, 1990b, 1990c, 1994), Jay Heath (1997), Don Sager (1999), and Jack Stack Jack Stack is the founder and CEO of SRC Holdings, a company comprised of more than 35 separate companies. SRC's companies do everything from consulting to packaging to building high-performance engines. (1997).
Specific factors have been identified as important for potential success. These might be considered predictors, based on research and evaluation studies involving hundreds of combined school and public libraries. Could there be exceptions? Of course. However, any agency would be foolish not to consider these criteria and systematically address each one, whether that means implementing it or planning to overcome it.
Criteria for Potential Success
The following ten criteria appear consistently and continually in studies that investigate and assess the quality of services in dual use libraries. As stated earlier, given the many problems and possible disadvantages inherent in combined school and public libraries, the joint use community library needs to provide demonstrably de·mon·stra·ble
1. Capable of being demonstrated or proved: demonstrable truths.
2. Obvious or apparent: demonstrable lies. equal or better than equal service than two independent services operating in the same budgetary framework.
In order to provide a solid basis for success, a community will need to commit to the principles listed below. These are unique to dual use libraries. They do not include the necessary professional elements also common to separate facilities and services, such as form-follows-function design principles; effective management of people, resources, and services; customer service factors; and outreach. The ten criteria are as follows:
1. The population of the community to be served is less than 10,000.
2. A formal planning process involving the significant stakeholders will be undertaken. Community involvement and support will be evident.
3. There will be a written legal agreement for governance, administration, finances, and operations. Guidelines for evaluation and dissolution will be included.
4. A single, independent, representative decision-making board or management committee will develop policies and procedures and engage and evaluate the director.
5. An integrated facility (not two libraries sharing one facility) is preferred; the facility will be conveniently and visibly located and large enough to accommodate a variety of groups and resources. A separate area for adults and designated parking will be provided.
6. The library will be connected with a larger network, regional system, or consortium.
7. The principal of the school should have a strong desire for success, and teachers should support the concept; support for the integrated service will be a specific factor in hiring and transfer decisions.
8. One highly motivated professional librarian will be in charge and report to a single governance board.
9. There will be regular discussion of effective communication at all levels and planned cooperation between public library staff and school staff.
10. There will be no restrictions on access to print, audio/video, or electronic resources or on the circulation of materials.
Predictors of Success
The population of the community to be served is less than 10,000 While the numbers vary, most researchers find that successful operations exist in smaller communities. Woolard, for example, suggests communities under 10,000. Heath found most successful dual libraries in communities under 5,000. Bundy suggested 3,500, while Dwyer found success in communities of fewer than 3,000. Aaron, in testing Woolard's findings, located a few combinations that appeared successful in serving a catchment area catchment area or drainage basin, area drained by a stream or other body of water. The limits of a given catchment area are the heights of land—often called drainage divides, or watersheds—separating it from neighboring drainage beyond 10,000, but the other criteria noted here still applied.
In isolated rural areas where finances are a problem, combined facilities may be the only alternative for any type of library service. Indeed, the work of Amey, Bundy, and Dwyer, focusing on the state of South Australia, not only identifies benefits but also criteria for assessment. Further, in recognition of both the challenges and opportunities, the state has provided consultative assistance specifically for communities engaging in planning and developing these "community-based" libraries.
A formal planning process involving the significant stakeholders will be undertaken. Community involvement and support will be evident Successful ventures begin with an inclusive planning process that places library services formally in a comprehensive community services context. Needs assessments will be undertaken and profiles developed. Joint planning and role setting is complex and complicated work. So, who is in charge? What are the responsibilities of the committee? Who will fund planning activities? Who will contribute what? Who will plan and oversee facility design? Issues need to be identified and roles and responsibilities articulated. Ground rules should ensure that adequate time and funds are provided for planning, that all issues are placed on the table, that all choices and options are pursued. Many communities have found that initial enthusiasm for a combined library waned when faced with both insurmountable challenges and reasonable alternatives.
The process of formal planning should result in a shared vision for the service with common goals, recognizing the duality Duality (physics)
The state of having two natures, which is often applied in physics. The classic example is wave-particle duality. The elementary constituents of nature—electrons, quarks, photons, gravitons, and so on—behave in some respects of function, and the adoption of preliminary policies and procedures. Given that there is little evidence of savings in operational costs, the planning team will want to consider key success factors for the combined library. Everyone should be clear about why they are pursuing this avenue and what will be required to make it work. As with any strategic planning Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. process, an environmental scan will be useful, including the strengths and weaknesses of the current system and the opportunities and threats in the community at large. Strategic directions and comprehensive planning "Comprehensive Plan" is a term used by land use planners to describe a set of goals and policies developed by a municipality to accommodate future growth. Typically the comprehensive plan will look at estimated growth within a specific time period, for example, 20 years. must ensure community involvement and support as a foundation for a successful venture.
There will be a written legal agreement for governance, administration, finances, and operations. Guidelines for evaluation and dissolution will be included Contractual arrangements will cover roles and responsibilities of each party; management; security issues; hours of operation; ownership of the site, facility, furnishings furnishings
the extra type or quantity of hair on the head, tail, ears or legs, specified for a particular breed. For example, the feathers in setters, the beard in Bearded collies, the eyebrows in Schnauzers. , equipment, and materials; staffing; collection development and management (policies on selection of materials, appropriate use of technology, access to the collection, multiple copies for the curriculum vs. a balanced collection); library technical services Library technical services is a term used to describe, in general, the processing and maintenance of a library's physical collection. Tech services may handle maintenance of an online catalog, creation and maintenance of MARC records in the catalog, labeling, covering, security (combined ordering and common organizational principles); user rights and responsibilities; circulation periods and extended use fees (fines); how services will be provided; responsibility for facility operations; financial responsibilities and obligations; sources and uses of funding; objective criteria for expected performance levels; procedures for evaluation, with regular monitoring and assessment, including benchmarking against standards; and reports for specified audiences on a regularly scheduled basis.
Clearly the school superintendent Noun 1. school superintendent - the superintendent of a school system
overseer, superintendent - a person who directs and manages an organization or designate and library director or designate as well as the board chairs will need to be involved in the development of such an agreement. This legal contract will include provisions for termination with criteria for dissolution and the distribution of assets.
A single, independent, representative decision-making board or management committee will develop policies and procedures and engage and evaluate the director Roles and responsibilities, and reporting structures, are essential to a successful operation. To whom does the director report? For effective public library services it will not be to the school principal. Neither can it be to a remote board dealing with all libraries or schools; the demands and issues are unique. The director will have different responsibilities and expectations and should work with a separate board, or committee with authority, that will, nevertheless, still operate within the overall framework of state legislation and larger systems. The exact form of administration, the nature of the governing board Noun 1. governing board - a board that manages the affairs of an institution
board - a committee having supervisory powers; "the board has seven members" , and the need for a citizen advisory committee are less clear from the research.
An integrated facility (not two libraries sharing one facility) is preferred; the facility will be conveniently and visibly located and large enough to accommodate a variety of groups and resources. A separate area for adults and designated parking will be provided An integrated facility in this context means that the service does not simply comprise two libraries sharing one facility. It will be open to all during all open hours, with separate entrances for the community and the school, comprising exterior public access and interior school access. There will be a street presence.
There are many different models of two libraries sharing one facility. Target groups might be by level (elementary or secondary school) or by focus (children only, teens only, entire community). Models for facilities include a secondary school library on one level and the public library on another, separated by a flight of stairs Noun 1. flight of stairs - a stairway (set of steps) between one floor or landing and the next
flight of steps, flight
staircase, stairway - a way of access (upward and downward) consisting of a set of steps (used primarily by staff) ; a single facility with a shared collection but different entrances, user space, and administrative services; completely separate hours with, for example, school use from 8 to 3 and public access from 3 to 9 and weekends; in the school; connected to the school; independently sited on the school grounds. These issues will be determined by local interests and conditions.
Access at grade level for the community, proximity to classrooms, and external access to a meeting room have all proven useful. However, when one increases access for adults to schools, security concerns for children increase and must be addressed.
Secure and restricted parking for adults will be necessary. Few schools, especially secondary schools, have sufficient parking for teachers and students. Customers unable to find parking near the entrance will not return.
A public library located in a school, by whatever name, will have more young people in it, whether engaged in productive use or not, than one that is not. Some adults find this intimidating in·tim·i·date
tr.v. in·tim·i·dat·ed, in·tim·i·dat·ing, in·tim·i·dates
1. To make timid; fill with fear.
2. To coerce or inhibit by or as if by threats. or at least overwhelming. A separate area for adults, with comfortable furniture and current newspapers and magazines, can re-create the oasis that the public library represents for many community members. A well-planned and well-designed marketing plan and public awareness strategy will be necessary to encourage public use of the building.
The library will be connected with a larger network, regional system, or consortium No library can operate on its own any longer. Regional systems, federations, networks, and multitype consortia are all more common as resources and systems become more sophisticated. A larger system can provide professional advice and support, professional development and training, access to programs and resources, and improved electronic capacity. A combined library board and staff should view connections with systems as an important investment of time and money.
The school principal should have a strong desire for success, and teachers should support the concept; support for the integrated service will be a specific factor in hiring and transfer decisions The principal's commitment is a critical factor. It is often present at the beginning but not considered in administrative transfers and assignments. The initial level of commitment needs to be maintained as personnel changes. Similarly, the principal will encourage teacher support and use over time.
One highly motivated professional librarian will be in charge and report to a single governance board A significant advantage to combined services in smaller communities is the ability to engage a professional librarian. Working with both the school and the public library components, however, will challenge even the best trained and experienced director. The challenges and disadvantages are well-known, the common problems readily identifiable, and barriers to success well documented. The single professional, or director of staff, will ideally be certified See certification. as both a school and public librarian; will be flexible, adaptable, and committed to the success of the operation; and will be able to translate that enthusiasm and commitment as a skilled networker into effective advocacy and marketing programs.
There will be regular discussion of effective communication at all levels and planned cooperation between public library staff and school staff Communication through meetings needs to be frequent and regularly scheduled. Site staff need both pressure and support to collaborate, or it will not happen in a busy work environment.
Consistent with the operating agreement An operating agreement is an agreement among limited liability company ("LLC") members governing the LLC's business, and Member's financial and management rights and duties. No state requires an LLC to have an Operating agreement. , annual evaluations will be conducted against identified key success factors and benchmarked libraries. Annual reports will include connections between strategic plans, goals and measurable results, statistics on users and use, and recommendations for improvement.
There will be no restrictions on access to print, audio/video, or electronic resources or the circulation of materials The management board will have policies on the selection of materials and the appropriate use of technology, recognizing the library's commitment to intellectual freedom as a marketplace of information and ideas. In order to leverage the expanded collection it is preferable that all materials be shelved together, with no restrictions on borrowing. Reading guidance and student assistance will be more important than restrictions on rights to read, listen, and view materials. Clearly specified and well-understood options to Internet filtering See Web filtering and firewall. will also be required, at worst providing opportunities for disabling dis·a·ble
tr.v. dis·a·bled, dis·a·bling, dis·a·bles
1. To deprive of capability or effectiveness, especially to impair the physical abilities of.
2. Law To render legally disqualified. filters when necessary for students.
Most single "success" stories, even as descriptive reports, appear to meet these research-based criteria.
TRENDS AND ISSUES
In spite of the rhetoric around dual use libraries, including some professional association policy statements, there is a sufficient research base to enable considered and effective analysis and planning. Researchers have developed checklists for feasibility studies The analysis of a problem to determine if it can be solved effectively. The operational (will it work?), economical (costs and benefits) and technical (can it be built?) aspects are part of the study. Results of the study determine whether the solution should be implemented. (see, for example, Aaron, 1980) as have state agencies. Readers would do well to consult those of the California State Library The California State Library collects, preserves, generates and disseminates a wide array of information. It was founded in 1850 by the California State Legislature. Today, it is the central reference and research library for state government and the Legislature. (2000), the Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning (2000), the Ohio State Library (1996), and the Wisconsin State Department of Public Instruction (1998), among others.
These guidelines and checklists need to be adapted to focus on community development roles for school and public libraries and options for co-location of public and academic libraries and school and community college libraries. There is an increasing number of examples of opportunities for public and private agencies to work together for better library and information service provision, and the research into combined school and public library facilities and services can inform this development.
There are also ample studies and resource lists of cooperative endeavors (Haycock, 1989) but fewer studies exist on true collaborative efforts between school districts and public libraries. Douglas (1990) provides the elements of one of the few formal policy statements of mutual expectations between a public library system and a school system. Within this framework greater collaboration can occur. One might look to current areas of service that could be enhanced by interagency in·ter·a·gen·cy
Involving or representing two or more agencies, especially government agencies. collaboration between two equal partners. An increasing number of public library systems are providing homework centers, for example, as an identifiable service to clients. Few have constructed these services through joint problem identification, analysis, and solving with the school district, however. The difference could be striking, moving from a drop-in service operated by well-meaning laypeople lay·peo·ple or lay people
Laymen and laywomen. , to the same space and staffing as the public library but appropriate resources and training provided by the school system, with referral of students in need and tracking of results.
This same level of collaboration might be applied to early and family literacy programs, too often operated with "mindful mind·ful
Attentive; heedful: always mindful of family responsibilities. See Synonyms at careful.
mind ignorance" of the work of other agencies. Other recent examples include career counseling Noun 1. career counseling - counseling on career opportunities
counseling, counselling, guidance, counsel, direction - something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action and job information and reference services, intergenerational in·ter·gen·er·a·tion·al
Being or occurring between generations: "These social-insurance programs are intergenerational and all programs, support for immigrant families, and information technology training. Common Web sites and efforts for young people could have greater effect.
Libraries of all types have moved beyond four walls in providing access to resources, and some are now looking more at formal partnerships that enable programming by other agencies on a regular basis in their physical space. Early literacy programs by community agencies might be regularly scheduled in public library space as a co-sponsored program.
Electronic and technological advances, together with increased focus on community development and outcome-based assessment, have led to more statewide licenses for access to specialized databases for all residents, including schools. This has led to school representatives at the tables of consortia. It would be unfortunate if the opportunities presented by conversations among a wider variety of information professionals did not lead to improved collaboration for the benefit of our communities, whether dual use physical space was a component or not.
The research on dual use school/public community libraries points to critical factors that can predict success. The supporting documentation, checklists, and guidelines can also inform dual purpose library projects based on collaboration between public and private agencies. If one were to view cooperative efforts on a continuum from courtesy to cooperation to collaboration to co-location, our efforts are more commonly providing services through informal cooperation and courtesy or full co-location. The potential exists through collaboration for improved community services with a focus on outcomes and impact. Collaborative efforts enable us to leverage our resources for greater effect and see possibilities that may include co-location after full exploration of all of the alternatives and options.
Aaron, S. L. (1978a). A study of the combined school public library: Phase II. Tallahassee: Florida State University School Florida State University School, or "Florida High", is located within the Southwood community in the southeast part of Tallahassee, Florida, USA. A charter school that serves kindergarten and grades one through twelve, Florida High is sponsored by Florida State University's of Library Science.
Aaron, S. L. (1978b). A study of the combined school public library: Phase III Noun 1. phase III - a large clinical trial of a treatment or drug that in phase I and phase II has been shown to be efficacious with tolerable side effects; after successful conclusion of these clinical trials it will receive formal approval from the FDA . Tallahassee: Florida State University School of Library Science.
Aaron, S. L. (1978c). Combined school public library programs: An abstract of a national study. School Media Quarterly, 7(1), 31-32, 49-53.
Aaron, S. L. (1980). A study of combined school public libraries. Chicago: American Association American Association refers to one of the following professional baseball leagues:
Aaron, S. L. (1981). School/public library cooperation: The way it is. Catholic Library World, 52, 280-285.
Aaron, S. L., & Smith, S. O. (1977). A study of the combined school public library: Phase I. Tallahassee: Florida State University School of Library Science.
Amey, L. J. (1974). The importance of role definition in combining school and public libraries. Halifax, NS: Dalhousie University Dalhousie University (dălhou`zē), at Halifax, N.S., Canada; nonsectarian; coeducational; founded 1818 by the 9th earl of Dalhousie. Except for a few years between 1838 and 1845, Dalhousie did not function as a university until 1863. School of Library Service.
Amey, L. J. (1976). The combination school and public library: A bibliography with special emphasis on the Canadian experience. Canadian Library Journal, 33(3), 263-265, 267.
Amey, L. J. (1979). The Canadian school-housed public library. Halifax, NS: Dalhousie University School of Library Service.
Amey, L. J. (1987). Combining libraries: The Canadian and Australian experience. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Scarecrow
goes to Wizard of Oz to get brains. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz]
See : Ignorance
can’t live up to his name. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; Am. Press.
Amey, L. J. (1989). Success in the outback: The case of school-housed public libraries. School Library Journal, 35(7), 109-114.
Amey, L. J., & Smith, R. J. (1976). Combination school and public libraries: An attitudinal study. Canadian Library Journal, 33(13), 251-261.
Bauer, P. T. (1995). Factors affecting the operation of a combined school/public library: A qualitative study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University Florida State University, at Tallahassee; coeducational; chartered 1851, opened 1857. Present name was adopted in 1947. Special research facilities include those in nuclear science and oceanography. , Tallahassee.
Bundy, A. L. (1998). Widening client horizons: Joint use public libraries in the 1990s. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services See Information Systems. , 11(1), 4-16.
Bundy, A. L. (1999). For the public good: Joint use libraries in Australia and New Zealand. Retrieved May 8, 2005, from http://www.library.unisa.edu.au/about/papers/public.htm.
Bundy, A. L. (2002a). Essential connections: School and public libraries for lifelong learning. Australian Library Journal, 51(1), 47-70.
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Bundy, A. L. (2003). Joint-use libraries--The ultimate form of cooperation. In G. McCabe & J. Kennedy (Eds.), Planning the modern public library building (pp. 129-148). Westport, CN: Libraries Unlimited.
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Cassell, M. K. (1985). Combined school/public (community) libraries: A brief overview. Montpelier: Vermont State Department of Libraries.
Douglas, J. (1990). The public library and school system: Partners in lifelong education. Emergency Librarian, 18(2), 9-12.
Dwyer, J. (1987). Combined attitudes: Cooperative service, positive outcomes. In L. J. Amey (Ed.), Combining libraries: The Canadian and Australian experience (pp. 94-111). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.
Dwyer, J. (1989a). The joint-use phenomenon: A positive approach. In P. Hauck (Ed.), Voices from around the world (pp. 166-180). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.
Dwyer, J. (1989b). South Australia's school-housed public libraries: An alternative in the rural area. Emergency Librarian, 16(3), 19-26.
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Fitzgibbons, S. (2000). School and public library relationships: Essential ingredients in implementing educational reforms and improving student learning. School Library Media Research, 3. Retrieved May 14, 2005, from http://www.ala.org/ala/aasl/ aaslpubsandjournals/slmrb/slmrcontents/volume32000/relationships.htm.
Fitzgibbons, S. (2001). School and public library relationships: Deja vu See DjVu. or new beginnings? Journal of Youth Services, 14(3), 3-7.
Grunau, A. R. (1965). An investigation of existing approaches to the problem of providing library service in the rural Kansas community: A study of the interrelationships of the public library and the public school library in selected rural communities of Kansas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU or just Kansas) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. The main campus resides atop Mount Oread. , Lawrence.
Haycock, K. (1974). The school media centre and the public library: Combination or cooperation? Toronto: Ontario Library Association For other uses, see Ola.
Ontario Library Association (OLA), established in 1900, is the oldest continually operating library association in Canada. With 5,265 members as of January 1, 2006, the OLA is the largest library association in Canada. .
Haycock, K. (1975). To combine or not to combine: The school media centre and the public library. NASSP NASSP National Association of Secondary School Principals
NASSP North American Society of Social Philosophy Bulletin, 59, 67-73.
Haycock, K. (1979). Combined school/public libraries: Some basic considerations. In L. J. Amey (Ed.), The Canadian school-housed public library (pp. 7-10). Dalhousie University School of Library Service Occasional Paper 24.
Haycock, K. (1989). Beyond courtesy: School and public library relationships. Emergency Librarian, 16(5), 27-30.
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Haycock, K. (1990b). The school-housed public library. Emergency Librarian, 17(4), 33-34. Haycock, K. (1990c). What works: School and public library cooperation. Emergency Librarian, 18(2), 33.
Haycock, K. (1994). What works: Combined school/public libraries--sometimes. Emergency Librarian, 22(2), 33.
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n.pr See extended rotated side-bent. Spectrum, 15(2), 28-34.
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Jaffe, L. L. (1982). The combined school/public library in Pennsylvania. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania “Pittsburgh” redirects here. For the region, see Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area.
Pittsburgh (pronounced IPA: /ˈpɪtsbɚg/) is the second largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. .
Jeffus, B. (1996). Who does what? School and public library cooperation. CSLA CSLA California School Library Association
CSLA Canadian Society of Landscape Architects
CSLA California State University, Los Angeles
CSLA Component-based Scalable Logical Architecture (Rockford Lhotka) Journal, 19, 36-39.
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Kitchens, J. A. (1974). A community cultural arts center merging public and school library services in Olney, Texas Olney is a city in Young County, Texas, United States. The population was 3,396 at the 2000 census. Geography
Olney is located at (33.368181, -98.758012)GR1. : A research and demonstration project, final report. Denton: North Texas State University. ED 093 292.
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Ken Haycock is professor and director of the graduate School of Library and Information Sciences A School of Library and Information Science (SLIS) is a university-based institution that provides a Master's degree or other advanced degrees associated with Library science, Information Science, or a combination of the two. at San Jose State University, California. Prior to moving to San Jose in 2005, he was professor and director at the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies at the University of British Columbia Locations
The Vancouver campus is located at Point Grey, a twenty-minute drive from downtown Vancouver. It is near several beaches and has views of the North Shore mountains. The 7. . He holds graduate degrees in Business Administration, in Education and in Library and Information Studies. Dr. Haycock has been a school teacher and librarian, a school district consultant and supervisor, principal and senior education official, with joint responsibilities for four very different school and public library combinations; he has also been a public library trustee in two jurisdictions. A prolific writer and speaker, Dr. Haycock recently received the Helen Gordon Stewart Award from the British Columbia British Columbia, province (2001 pop. 3,907,738), 366,255 sq mi (948,600 sq km), including 6,976 sq mi (18,068 sq km) of water surface, W Canada. Geography
Library Association for contributions "so significant over the course of a career as to bring honor to the entire profession". He first wrote on success factors for school and public library combinations in 1974.