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Domestic violence.

Wong, F. Y., Huang, Z. J., DiGangi, J. A., Thompson, E. E., & Smith, B. D. (2008). Gender differences in intimate partner violence on substance abuse, sexual risks, and depression among a sample of South Africans in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Education & Prevention, 20(1), 56-64.

According to the United Nations, domestic violence is defined as "violence that occurs within the private sphere, generally between individuals who are related through intimacy, blood, or law" (United Nations Special Rapporteur
This article is about United Nations Special Rapporteurs. For a general list of special rapporteurs, see Special Rapporteur.
Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations who bear a specific mandate from the
 on Violence Against Women, 1996, p.7). Specifically, South Africa struggles with intimate partner violence (IPV IPV poliovirus vaccine inactivated.

IPV
abbr.
inactivated poliovirus vaccine



IPV

see infectious pustular vulvovaginitis.
), a subcategory sub·cat·e·go·ry  
n. pl. sub·cat·e·go·ries
A subdivision that has common differentiating characteristics within a larger category.
 of domestic violence, common among South African women as they are found to have the highest rates of intimate femicide. IPV in South Africa has also been found as a direct link to substance abuse, depression, and multiple sexual partners. Past research has focused primarily on female IPV victims, failing to analyze male IPV victim statistics. Conducted in Cape Town, South Africa, the purpose of the study was to explore a complex relationship correlating gender differences within IPV as they relate to depression, substance abuse, and dangerous sexual behaviors.

From February 2005 through April 2005, 395 respondents of two South African townships took part in a cross-sectional study. Respondents age 18 years and older answered audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI ACASI Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews ) questionnaires concerning mental health, substance abuse and use, exposure to violence, sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life.  risk, and IPV and demographic information. Chi square analysis correlated IPV exposure with depression, drug use, problem drinking, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior index, which revealed gender-specific results among 200 males and 195 female participants.

Data indicates 99.4% of men and 99% of women revealed lifetime exposure to IPV with nearly half disclosing all 10 types of IPV, such as incidents of abuse during alcohol consumption, choking, gun/knife threats, or forced sexual situations. Results concluded men are much more likely to turn to drug use after experiencing recent IPV (p<.0001), while women experienced higher rates of depression (p<.005) and problem drinking (p<.0005). The recognition of gender influence on coping mechanisms for IPV generates an increased urgency to create public education and support programs that will meet male as well as female needs. Breakthrough findings from this research investigation emphasize the equivalent incidence of male-to-female IPV. The results also open the field to study the influence of gender bias as well as the need for further analysis of measures to improve care for IPV victims.

Reference

United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence Against women. (1996). Report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. It was a subsidiary body of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and was also assisted in its work by the Office of the United .

Elizabeth Sauerbier, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY

Peggy Jenkins, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY
COPYRIGHT 2008 New York State Nurses Association
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Title Annotation:WHAT'S NEW IN THE HEALTHCARE LITERATURE
Author:Sauerbier, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Peggy
Publication:Journal of the New York State Nurses Association
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2008
Words:438
Previous Article:Human simulators in nursing education.
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