Doing their part: the services of the San Diego Public Library during World War II.
As the United States was gearing up for war in 1940, San Diego, California, was one of the cities most affected by the increase in both military personnel and civilian defense workers. Confronted with a rapidly increasing population and a growing demand for information to support the aircraft and shipbuilding industries, the staff of the San Diego Public Library exemplified the important role that libraries played in educating citizens, building morale, and maintaining a sense of normalcy in a very uncertain world.
In 1940 San Diego already was gearing up for war. Home to a number of significant military installations, including the Eleventh Naval District Headquarters, the United States Naval Training Center, Naval Air Station San Diego, Miramar Naval Air Station, the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, and Camp Pendleton, and numerous defense-related industries, San Diego was experiencing a population explosion that put a tremendous strain on city services and infrastructure (Brandes, 1981, p. 181). With new recruits, defense industry workers, and their families pouring in at the rate of 1,500 a week, San Diego's population went from 203,341 to over 300,000 in just one year (Taschner, 1982, pp. 1-2). San Diego was America's fastest growing city.
Housing, highways, water and sewer systems, schools, and hospitals were all feeling the crunch, and so, too, were the libraries. The San Diego Public Library had been waging a campaign for a new main library or substantial expansion of the existing one since 1916, when the population stood at 92,000. Repeated bond measures failed and desperate pleas to the Carnegie Corporation were rejected. Some relief from overcrowding came from renting annexes near the main library to house departments such as Cataloging, the Children's Room, and the Newspaper and Periodicals Reading Room, but these were meant to be temporary measures. By 1941, however, little progress had been made in securing new facilities, and the library collection was still trying to recover from the lean years of the Great Depression. Despite the enormous challenges facing the librarians, when the war came calling they answered with every resource at their disposal (Breed, 1983, pp. 49, 52, 54).
THE LIBRARY AS A WAR INFORMATION CENTER
Within days of the attack on Pearl Harbor and America's entry into the war, the call went out for every public library to become a War Information Center. (1) Ideally, these centers would be set up in visible areas of libraries and would work closely with the Office of Civilian Defense to disseminate much-needed information to civilians, members of the military, and defense workers. The Office of Civilian Defense requested that the United States Information Service in the Office of Government Reports be responsible for distributing all of its publications to libraries. Archibald MacLeish, the Librarian of Congress, requested that all government agencies send copies of all of their publications relating to the war to the Office of Government Reports for distribution to libraries. In response to these requests, the United States Information Service in the Office of Government Reports began a program called War Information Service to Libraries. This service was planned "solely to assist libraries in bringing before the public information that should help them adjust their lives to this time of crisis, confusion, and bewilderment" (Vormelker, 1942, p. 27). The service started in February 1942 with a series of monthly exhibit packets. Each packet consisted of publications relating to a specific subject from a number of different agencies. With each exhibit was included at least one poster, to "add verve and color to the exhibit," and an annotated list of the publications included in the packet. The first exhibit packet, entitled "National Defense," included material about the armed services and the War and Civilian Defense Agencies, booklets on buying defense bonds and stamps, and other information about the war in general. The second exhibit was on nutrition, and the third contained publications on training plans, including such things as data on jobs suitable for women, reports on converting use of industrial equipment from making goods for civilian needs to manufacturing war goods, and suggestions for volunteer work. It also included copies of the president's fireside chat, "memorable for its announcement of ceilings on income and prices." With War Information Centers in libraries, the public would have a single place to turn to have their war-related information needs met, and valuable resources, such as paper and ink, could be conserved by placing publications in a place where they could be used by as many people as possible (Vormelker, 1942, pp. 26-28).
The main branch of the San Diego Public Library was officially designated by the American Library Association as a War Information Center (Breed, 1983, p. 73). Originally the center was set up on the lawn of the library, but it was soon moved into the lobby. While many libraries had to rotate staff from the various library departments to serve at the information desk, San Diego was fortunate to be able to have one person, Mrs. Leona Manley, in charge of the project and two Works Progress Administration (WPA) assistants to help her. In addition to displaying the government pamphlets, the staff clipped articles from newspapers and magazines and filed them by subject. The types of questions asked at the center ranged from where a man would go to register for the draft to how one might obtain a sugar ration card or where one might get training for work in a war industry. A popular question among young people was "Can a fire be built on the beaches at night?" (2) Having one desk to handle such routine questions as these spared many other library and city departments from countless interruptions. Emily Miller Danton, a publicity expert from the American Library Association (ALA), traveled the country in 1942 gathering data on war-time activities of public libraries. During her visit, "she complimented San Diego for doing 'much with little' in serving San Diego library patrons." (3) In an article written about the War Information Centers she visited, Danton noted that "San Diego, California, hangs ephemeral war maps on newspaper sticks and has two or three racks full all the time. They are easily seen and handled, easily changed when supplanted" (Danton, 1942, p. 505).
Of course the War Information Centers would be useful only insofar as the public knew about them. In conferences the U.S. Information Service had with various agencies,
the statement was made over and over again that libraries wouldn't know how to use this current information material and that the public would certainly not expect to find it there. One man said, "What would libraries do with this air raid warden material? You know perfectly well they will just catalog it and put it on the shelf." No, no! We shall have to see to it that the air raid wardens get it, and of course, if we have a lot left over, maybe we could send you some for the libraries. (Vormelker, 1942, p. 28)
In the face of such sentiments as these, librarians certainly had their work cut out for them.
Under the leadership of city librarian Cornelia Plaister, San Diego Public Library already had a strong publicity program in place. When Miss Plaister arrived in July 1926, she determined that a bond issue for a new library would never pass unless the voting public had a greater understanding of the library's needs. "Consequently she took immediate steps to increase publicity about the Library, bombarding local newspapers and radio stations with frequent news releases about library services, accepting speaking engagements anywhere and everywhere, and encouraging the staff to become more visible as speakers and book reviewers" (Breed, 1983, p. 59). These publicity efforts intensified as U.S. involvement in the war increased and any information pertinent to the war effort was especially appreciated. In September 1940 Mrs. Follick of the Public Relations Department of the library reported that
in a conference with Mr. S. W. Fuller, Manager of KGB broadcasting studio, he agreed to make spot announcements daily on the San Diego Public Library and its service to the community. The Public Relations Department was to supply him with short notices of two or three sentences on any library service or activity. Whenever a program fell short of the time schedule a library spot announcement would be made. Mr. Fuller said he thought he would average one a day.
The library had a similar agreement with the San Diego Union. One of the more popular news items was a feature called "Answers by the Public Library." During the war years it focused primarily on news of war interest such as facts about the navy, army, and air force and details about the theater of war. Some of the featured topics were facts about outlying outposts such as Wake Island and Guam, navy slang, and facts about ships. Articles related to the war tended to be welcomed by the San Diego Union and other papers and printed immediately upon receipt. (4) Library news on other topics did not always fare so well. Mrs. Follick writes in her March 1943 report on the Public Relations Department:
It is interesting to compare the difference in editorial attitude toward news now and in pre-war days. A long article sent to the paper about paintings by the local artist, C. A. Fries, being on display at the Library was reduced to a few inconsequential lines. A talk given by Miss Owen on "Tolstoy's Russia Surges On" was given much space and reported in detail. Before the war it was Russia that would have been in a short note and the local artist in a long article.
In addition to the San Diego Union and the San Diego Tribune-Sun, the library ran articles in several special interest publications such as the Consolidator, Consolidated Aircraft's company newspaper, a local union organ, and a new publication called "The Jewish Press," which was contacted and printed copy on new books on Germany and short articles on the racial and European situation. (5)
Apart from publicizing its services in the media, the San Diego Public Library appealed more directly to the public in several ways. Displays of new book jackets were posted in store windows near some branch libraries; other branches that were housed on school grounds maintained bulletin boards in the schools' corridors promoting new books and vacation reading programs. In October 1941 library personnel undertook an ambitious effort to reach out to all newcomers to the city. They enlisted the aid of the Boy Scouts to distribute door to door "thousand of leaflets inviting new residents to enjoy the services the Library offered. 15,000 dodgers were handed out in this way and another 7,000 given out through stores and other community agencies." (6) All of the library's publicity efforts attracted the attention not only of San Diego residents but of national library organizations as well. In 1940 and 1941 the San Diego Public Library was placed on the national library publicity honor roll, which was established by the H. W. Wilson Company and the American Library Association. Samples of their newspaper publicity, the annual report, and a special folder explaining library rules were displayed at ALA's 63rd Annual Conference in Boston. The library was one of seventy-two libraries chosen for that honor. (7)
Besides publicity outside the library, another effective means for drawing patrons to the library was displays, particularly those that highlighted some aspect of the world situation. In late 1942 the library sponsored several displays that proved to be popular with the public. In December the Circulation Department had a display of army insignia in the display case in the lobby. This exhibit aroused a great deal of interest, especially among the men and boys. One teacher was also interested and sent her Latin class to copy the Latin mottoes. A display of the flags of the United Nations had a number of patrons sending away for their own sets from the Bowker Company. Yet another display featured objects collected from the battlefield at Tarawa. So as not to neglect contributions made in the local community, one year the library decorated the Christmas tree entirely with items produced in San Diego. Included were popcorn, milk, coffee, spaghetti, cheese, butter, noodles, canned fish and soups, bread, ice cream, aluminum castings, and bottles of San Diego water. Names of the firms donating the articles were hung on the tree in the form of greeting cards. Of particular interest to the public were the miniature books by San Diego authors. (8)
Serving the Public
The San Diego Public Library was a microcosm of the tremendous impact of the war on almost every aspect of daily life. Working for the war effort, which it seems almost everyone did in one way or another, determined where people lived, worked, and ate and how they spent their leisure time. All of these considerations in turn helped determine the types of materials and services offered by the library and the hours and locations in which they would be offered. One of the most readily apparent changes was the decrease in circulation throughout the war years. This did not necessarily signal a decrease in the use of the library, just that with less leisure time available for reading owing to defense work or related volunteer activities, people were only checking out one or two books at a time rather than five. Besides the lack of time for reading, some people were checking out fewer books because gas rationing induced them to use public transportation and it was simply too difficult to carry more books on the street cars and buses. Other people who planned to use their cars only once in two or three weeks for errands asked to be allowed to borrow more than the five books allowed and keep them for four weeks instead of the usual three. Shift work at the war plants and weekend liberty for servicemen led to Sunday hours at the Main Library from 2 to 5:30 PM beginning November 2, 1941 (Breed, 1983, p. 73). In 1942 the Library Commission recommended that an hour a day be added to the schedules of the Main Library; branches provided that the hours of employees were lengthened and that they were properly compensated for those longer hours?
With so many new people moving into town, the library became something of a welcome center. Miss Dysart of the Circulation Department wrote in April 1942: "Many times a day the librarian on duty at the information or readers aid desk pulls out the city map and directs a patron to a given destination. Since more and more strangers are coming into the city and are using street cars and buses the staff is becoming very familiar with the layout of the city." Men in the armed forces frequently asked, "What is there to do in San Diego?" so a schedule of events was posted on the adult education bulletin board. The severe shortage of housing led many families to live in downtown hotels when they first arrived. A great many of them ended up at the library asking, "Where shall I look for a house to rent?" One young man who was visiting the library for the first time said, "I've never been in a public library before but a guy down the street told me that was where you went to find out things in this town." (10) Apparently the publicity was working.
In addition to being a source of information, the library was becoming known as a place where service was offered. In March 1941 Miss Dysart of the Circulation Department wrote: "During the time of filing the income tax, numerous people came in saying that they had been told the 'girls at the library would help fill out the returns.'" A few months later a young Scandinavian man who worked at Consolidated Aircraft Company appeared at the City Librarian's office and asked her if she would like to give him an examination. As Miss Plaister explained, "This was a bit startling at first, but it turned out to be a case of a student who had left his university to come here to work, on condition that he would go on studying and take his final examinations under adequate supervision. The City Librarian was happy to help him." (11)
Serving Community Organizations
While striving to meet the needs of individual patrons, the librarians worked tirelessly and made sacrifices of time, equipment, and space to serve the needs of the community as a whole. In September 1940 the Business Department participated in the Convention of the League of California Cities by contributing a display of books on national defense. The display included a collection of model airplanes, tanks, searchlights, boats, and other military objects loaned to the library by Kenneth Johnson, "a young colored boy." The collection attracted a great deal of attention. The library cooperated with other agencies to provide textbooks and supplementary materials to support their coursework. For classes in nutrition and canteen cookery being offered by some community agencies, the library borrowed books from Miss Anderson, the dietitian of the Scripps Metabolic Clinic. These were kept for reference at the library and were in almost constant use for many weeks. The library also purchased new material and circulated available books and magazines on these subjects. The Red Cross gave the library twenty copies of their textbook on first aid to be used for reference by students. The Circulation and Business Departments worked together on a comprehensive bibliography on "marriage and family relations," which was to be used by the San Diego Association for Family Living in a series of lectures to be given in the city and county. Members of the staff also served on local committees engaged in defense and war work, including the Nutrition Committee of the Civilian Defense Council, the Civilian Morale Committee of the Civilian Defense Council, the U.S.O. Executive Committee, the War Bond Committee, the Inter-Church Spiritual Defense Committee, the War Recreation Coordinating Council, and the Youth Defense Council. Participation on these committees, although it often involved a sacrifice of the staff's personal time, allowed the library to better serve the needs of the organizations and acquire information in advance of city-wide demand. (12)
Serving Special Libraries
Although many of the local bases and defense industries had their own libraries, their librarians had no bibliographic tools, so a steady stream of questions was directed to the Order Department of the Public Library. Miss Gordon of the Order Department wrote: "We take great pride in the fact that we have many 'satisfied customers,' and have built up a friendly and efficient service to those librarians who are trying to build up useful collections in their specialized fields." The library also provided bibliographies for lectures being given by the Offices of the Army, Navy, and Marines and fielded numerous ready reference questions for the local newspapers. The Publicity Department at Consolidated called for advance material on their many distinguished visitors and asked the librarian to verify their greetings in Spanish to Mexican and South American delegations. The library contributed three typewriters to the U.S. government even though they really did not have three to spare, and they donated space in their annexes to the galleries and museums that were forced out of Balboa Park to make more room for the Naval Hospital. (13)
Establishing New Branches
Of all the ways the library served the community, perhaps what reached the largest number of people was the creation of new branches and stations wherever the library saw a pressing need. No matter how stretched they were for resources and manpower, if the librarians knew of a population group that could not easily get to an existing branch, they somehow found a room, some extra books, and one or two people to take charge of it. Stations were fairly easy to set up since they relied mostly on gift books. They were intended primarily for pleasure reading; because they were typically only open for a few hours two or three times a week, they could be staffed by responsible community residents with minimal supervision from the library. A station was established, for example, at the Riverlawn Dormitory for women, located about two blocks north of Consolidated Plant Number 2: "300 books, 50 scrapbooks, 75 gift copies of paper bound mystery stories and a few magazines were sent over from the library for the 800 women living in the dormitory. The station would be staffed by volunteers from the dorm." A similar arrangement was made for young men living in the National Youth Administration barracks elsewhere in the city. A new station was even set up in the Harbor View Hospital, the new venereal disease treatment center in the women's section of the jail. The books sent were from the Victory Book Drive or volumes about to be discarded from the library. The Victory Book Drive was a national effort by the American Library Association, the American Red Cross, and the United Service Organizations, Inc., to encourage citizens to donate books in usable condition that could be sent to the troops to supplement the library materials provided by the government (Warren, 1942, pp. 34-35). Books that were not sent to the military were added to other collections where needed. The women had to stay in the hospital six weeks, so the books were a welcome addition. (14)
One of the most newsworthy branches to be opened during the war was the Linda Vista branch. Many national publications carried news of the largest government housing project in the United States, which was built on the mesa in Linda Vista (see, for instance, Elgin, 1942, pp. 705-10). The goal was to build 3,000 houses in 300 days. With over 6,000 adult residents and 5,000 children, by November 1941 Linda Vistans were pleading for library services. City manager Walter Cooper reluctantly agreed to a new branch library--provided it did not cost any money. The Housing Authority was willing to move the little gardener's cottage to a more central location and to remodel it. It was affectionately dubbed "And One" because the government's official count of buildings was three thousand and one. Books were scrounged from other branch libraries, from the Victory Book Campaign, and from collection centers in other states (Breed, 1983, p. 75). Three high school librarians, three teachers (including the principal of Kit Carson School), and two residents with some previous library experience each worked at least one afternoon or evening each week to staff the library, and seventh grader Bonnie Riddle shelved books for an hour or two every afternoon. The library opened June 30, 1942. During its first month of operation, 3,420 books were circulated in 54 hours of open time, an average of 63 books per hour. The library only had 1,500 books! They were being checked out almost as soon as they were returned. The next month, circulation increased to 91.9 books per hour. (15)
Serving the Military
Although the armed forces were supposed to have their own library service, the needs of the troops stationed in San Diego were increasing faster than the government could provide for them, so the Public Library stepped in to fill the gap. San Diego Public Library helped establish a branch library at Fort Rosecrans in February 1941. It was organized by Mrs. Fiet of the Circulation Department and staffed by two WPA workers under her supervision until the army was prepared to take it over in May 1942 (Breed, 1983, p. 72). (16) Also in February 1941, San Diego launched a "Books to Barracks" campaign almost six months before the national Victory Book Campaign was under way (Breed, 1983, p. 72). The tens of thousands of books from this and subsequent book drives were distributed to Fort Rosecrans, Camp Callan, the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, and an outpost in Alaska, and, after the 1943 book drive, a distribution point was finally secured on the pier for books to service transport ships. When the book drives failed to provide enough technical books to meet the needs of the military, special letters were sent out asking for funds to buy them. Over $300 dollars was received, which meant that, taking publishers' discounts into allowance, over $600 worth of technical books could be purchased. (17)
The bases eventually had their own libraries, but the Public Library continued to be a source of help and information to them. San Diego Public Library assisted Miss Dent, in charge of the library at Camp Callan, for example, in preparing a rush order of 5,000 books. The librarians also answered Miss Dent's many questions, providing her with such information as directions to Russia and the locations of Apache reservations. When a group of navy men needed a good article on the theory of aerial warfare advanced by the Italian General Dounet but no adequate English publication could be found, the library sent away to the California State Library for a French text, which librarians then translated into English for them. (18)
BUILDING THE LIBRARY COLLECTION
Expansion of the aircraft, shipbuilding, and related industries in San Diego changed the direction of the library's book selection. The library had been developing an aviation collection since 1931, but now quantities of technical books, trade catalogs, and house organs were needed (Breed, 1983, pp. 72-73). In an effort to cooperate with vocational schools of the city in meeting the demands for books of special interest to students preparing for national defense jobs, the Business Department ordered duplicate copies of many titles. Noted Miss Leech in her monthly report of the Business Department: "The circulation would have more than doubled if the supply could have been met." Medical personnel frequently asked for materials more advanced than what was in the library's collection, which had been planned principally for use by lay readers. Since there were no other medical libraries in the city open to the public, the library gradually began building up its medical section. Patrons concerned with issues on the homefront sought books on nutrition, home canning and preserving, backyard farming, and consumer buying. Leisure reading tended toward books about the war, the most popular being personal accounts of war correspondents. Russia was a popular topic, more so than any of the other countries in the United Nations. And interest in spiritualism was growing, much as it had during the First World War. (19)
With all of the services the librarians were offering to meet war-time demands, their jobs were being made ever more difficult by circumstances brought on by the war. The money available for purchasing new materials was often difficult to spend because of problems in the publishing industry. A shortage of paper meant that fewer books were being published, so new titles were often out of stock soon after publication and standard titles rapidly went out of print. Nationwide transportation difficulties resulted in erratic delivery of books. The books that finally did arrive showed a marked increase in imperfections because paper and ink qualities were poor and publishers were no longer able to secure skilled workmen in their printing and binding departments (see Brandt, 1945; "Scarcity problems," 1942). Clearing orders that could not be filled, creating new orders for substitutions, and correcting error-filled bills required much time and effort in the Order Department. The rapidly shifting population of the city meant that much time had to be spent registering new borrowers and filing changes of address for those who moved. There was a considerable increase in overdue books, possibly due to more demands on people's time and higher wages, which made paying fines less burdensome. This entailed more work in sending notices and, in some instances, sending a staff member as personal messenger to procure books from delinquent patrons. Considerable time was spent attending meetings of defense committees, preparing the library buildings against disaster, and preparing Civilian Defense Bibliographies. In the fall of 1942 the War Department, through the American Library Association, asked for the removal from library shelves all material on secret inks, ciphers, and explosives. Miss Plaister, the city librarian, noted that this was not a simple task: "As this involved books of formulas which were used constantly, it created quite a problem. Each user of the books had to sign a card as to the information desired and the reason for his need of it. He had to prove his identity and sign his name and address. Those cards were then turned over to the F. B. I. (20)
All of the stress brought on by the extra work due to the war was compounded by one of the most disturbing problems of all: the high turnover of staff members. Although the professional librarians were devoted to their jobs, there were relatively few of them. Much of the routine library work was done by staff members, almost all of whom were women. For the first time women were being offered jobs in the defense industry with pay equal to that of men, so they were leaving traditional, lower-paid women's work in droves. No sooner would the library hire and train replacements than they, too, would leave, either for higher-paying jobs or because fulltime work did not suit them after all. (21)
The Difference They Made
With all of the services they were offering and with every effort made to meet every need, librarians still occasionally asked themselves if they were doing their part to help win the war. One librarian wrote: "There's lots going on these days in this town. First aid, plane production, house construction, victory gardens, etc., etc. Sometimes it seems that just about everyone, with the exception of myself, is frantically engaged in an activity they call 'doing something about this war' which engulfs us all. Yet at other times these occasional misgivings vanish, and we see our work as something alive and vital and of lasting worth." When men stationed overseas wrote back and said how much they would enjoy going into a library where there were books in English to read, they knew they were giving people far away something to look forward to upon their return. (22) Branch librarian Miss Allsebrook expressed her feelings about the contributions the librarians were making to the war effort as follows:
As we register young service wives, one after another, we feel that we are helping to maintain civilian morale; as we cheerfully help the children with their reading, we feel that we are helping to maintain their serenity and feeling of security; as we purchase and circulate books either specifically technical or generally informative about the war we know we are rendering a definite service. One might expand this theme further, but it is summed up in our hope that our freedom to give the services of a free public library to a free people may never be seriously curtailed or hindered. (23)
Perhaps the profound and lasting impact the librarians had on their patrons and in their community can be illustrated best by their devotion to the San Diegans of Japanese descent interred in war relocation centers. Most of the Japanese-American children had been long-time patrons of the library and were well-known to children's librarian Miss Clara Breed. When the children came to the library to return their books one last time and surrender their library cards before reporting for deportation, they were given stamped postal cards and told to write and let the librarians know how they were doing. Miss Breed and other library staff members went to the Santa Fe depot the day the Japanese left San Diego to say goodbye and to hand out more postal cards to the children they had missed (Breed, 1943b, p. 257). Deeply moved by the unjust treatment they were receiving and missing their steadfast presence in her library, Miss Breed visited the children in the camps (Breed, 1943a, pp. 120-21), sent books and presents throughout their internment, and spoke out publicly against their treatment. (24) Just as important for the children as the books and presents, however, was the contact with the outside world. The faithfulness of the librarians in corresponding with their Japanese friends let them know that someone remembered them, cared about them, and believed in them. Distance did not end their service to their patrons, and public opinion did not deter it. This same unswerving commitment to everyone who entered the library was their way of doing their part to win the war and to make a more peaceful world in the process.
Annual Report of the San Diego Public Library, 1941-1942.
Monthly Report of City Librarian and Department Heads [and] Minutes of Commission Meetings, San Diego Public Library, vol. 9, July 1940 to June 1945 (cited as Monthly Report).
Brandes, R. (1981). San Diego: An illustrated history. Los Angeles: Rosebud Books.
Brandt, J. A. (1945). War and the book trade. In P. Butler (Ed.), Books and libraries in wartime (pp. 88-104). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Breed, C. (1943a). All but blind. Library Journal, 68(3), 119-21.
Breed, C. (1943b). Americans with the wrong ancestors. The Horn Book, 19(4), 253-61.
Breed, C. (1983). Turning the pages: San Diego Public Library history 1882-1982. San Diego: Friends of the San Diego Public Library.
Danton, E. M. (1942). Public library war information centers. American Library Association Bulletin, 36(8), 500-507.
Elgin, E. (1942). Boom town library. Wilson Library Bulletin, 16(9), 705-10.
Scarcity problems in wartime. (1942). American Library Association Bulletin, 36(5), 315-19.
Taschner, M. (1982). Boomerang boom: San Diego 1941-1942. Journal of San Diego History, 28(1),1-10.
Vormelker, R. L. (1942). The United States Information Service: Its War Information Service to Libraries. Wilson Library Bulletin, 17(1), 25-28.
Warren, A. H. (1942). Victory Book Campaign begins January 12. American Library Association Bulletin, 36(1), 34-35.
(1.) "Suggested Activities for Wartime Library Service," American Library Association Bulletin 36, no. 1 (1942): 6-10.
(2.) Monthly Report, March 13, 1942; April 1942, p. 1618; July 1942, p. 1638.
(3.) Monthly Report, June 12, 1942, p. 1624.
(4.) Monthly Report, September 1940, p. 1468; March 1942, pp. 1611-12; December 1941, pp. 1587-88.
(5.) Monthly Report, March 1943, p. 1700; September 1940, p. 1468.
(6.) Monthly Report, December 1941, p. 1587.
(7.) Monthly Report, June 1941, p. 1540.
(8.) Monthly Report, January 1943, p. 1682; December 1940, pp. 1490-92.
(9.) Monthly Report, November 1940, p. 1482; October 1943, p. 1756; March 27, 1942, p. 1605.
(10.) Monthly Report, April 1942, p. 1618; January 1941, p. 1501; March 1941, p. 1515.
(11.) Monthly Report, March 1941, p. 1514; May 1941, p. 1528.
(12.) Monthly Report, September 1940, pp. 1465-66; July 1942, p. 1637; January 1942, p. 1592; October 1944, p. 1855; Annual Report, 1941-42, n.p.
(13.) Monthly Report, September 1944, p. 1842; January 1942, p. 1592; September 1941, p. 1561; October 1942, p. 1648; May 14, 1943, p. 1705.
(14.) Monthly Report, March 1944, p. 1796; October 1941, p. 1571; July 1944, p. 1824.
(15.) Monthly Report, July 1942, p. 1637; August 14, 1942, p. 1636.
(16.) Monthly Report, February 1941, p. 1507.
(17.) Monthly Report, May 14, 1943, p. 1704; March 1942, p. 1611; Annual Report, 1941-42, n.p.
(18.) Monthly Report, April 1941, p. 1524; September 1941, p. 1561; September 1940, p. 1467.
(19.) Monthly Report, January 1941, p. 1500; February 1945, p. 1886; February 1942, p. 1600; May 1943, p. 1716; July 1943, p. 1732; July 1942, p. 1638; January 1943, p. 1682.
(20.) Monthly Report, March 1944, p. 1796; November 1944, p. 1859; May 1944, p. 1809; January, 1942, p. 1592; October 9, 1942, p. 1648.
(21.) Monthly Report, June 12, 1942, p. 1624.
(22.) Monthly Report, March 1942, p. 1606; April 1943, p. 1709.
(23.) Monthly Report, November 1942, p. 1663.
(24.) For more information about Clara Breed's work on behalf of the Japanese internees, see Breed (1943a, 1943b) and the tribute to her on the Web site of the Japanese American National Museum (http://www.janm.org/exhibits/breed/title.htm).
Tamara Shaw is a reference librarian in the Copley Library at the University of San Diego. She holds a B.A. from Mount Holyoke College, an M.A. in linguistics from San Diego State University, and an M.L.S. from San Jose State University. Her areas of librarianship include English, communication studies, children's literature, and mission and ministry. She also coordinates the library's leisure reading collection. Her current research is in library history and popular culture collections in academic libraries.