Does pregnancy speed HIV progression?Whether pregnancy affects the course of HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. infection is an important question for HIV-infected women interested in using hormonal contraception Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system.
Currently, all hormonal contraceptives are designed for use by women rather than men, though research on a male hormonal contraceptive (“the male Pill”) has been underway for . Such women need to weigh the potential--but still unproven--risk of accelerated progression to AIDS among hormonal contraceptive users (see article, page 15) against the risk of an unintended pregnancy resulting from reliance on a less effective contraceptive method.
Because pregnancy itself is thought to suppress immunity, concerns have been raised that pregnancy in HIV-infected women could hasten HIV-related deterioration of the immune system immune system
Cells, cell products, organs, and structures of the body involved in the detection and destruction of foreign invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. Immunity is based on the system's ability to launch a defense against such invaders. . (1) But the evidence to date suggests that pregnancy does not have such an effect, at least in the short term. (2)
Early reports of pregnancy in HIV-infected women seemed to support the hypothesis that pregnancy accelerates HIV disease progression. However, these studies involved small numbers of women and lacked control groups or the ability to adjust for other factors known to influence disease progression, such as disease stage or time of HIV exposure. (3) A systematic review of studies published from 1983 to 1996 on pregnancy's effect on HIV progression and survival found a weak association between HIV disease progression and pregnancy in HIV-infected women, but it concluded that the potential for study bias was too great to draw definitive conclusions. (4)
A study published in 2000 was able to control for many potential confounding confounding
when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.
confounding factor factors, including time since seroconversion seroconversion /se·ro·con·ver·sion/ (-con-ver´zhun) the change of a seronegative test from negative to positive, indicating the development of antibodies in response to immunization or infection. (when virus can be detected in the blood), which occurs about three months after HIV infection. This study, which followed 365 HIV-infected French women--241 of whom were pregnant--detected no increased risk of HIV progression during pregnancy. (5) Like other prospective studies with similar findings, (6) the French study involved mostly women who had not yet developed symptoms of HIV disease. Therefore, the possibility of increased risk of disease progression among pregnant women with more advanced HIV infection could not be ruled out.
Several studies from developing countries also suggest that pregnancy does not increase the risk of disease progression. In a study among HIV-infected women in Haiti, no statistically significant difference was observed in the rate of progression to AIDS or death between 44 pregnant women and 96 nonpregnant women. (7) And two studies in sub-Saharan Africa--one among 823 pregnant Kenyan women and another that included 229 pregnant women in Malawi--detected no statistically significant differences in immune status between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women during pregnancy. (8)
"Of course, more rigorous studies are needed," says Dr. Marleen Temmerman, principal investigator of the Kenya study and professor of obstetrics and gynecology obstetrics and gynecology
Medical and surgical specialty concerned with the management of pregnancy and childbirth and with the health of the female reproductive system. at the University of Ghent in Belgium. "But most studies in Europe, the United States, and Africa did not show an impact on disease progression, so if there is any impact at all, it will be a very minimal one."
(1) Vimercati A, Greco P, Lopalco PL, et al. Immunological markers in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2000;90(1):37-41.
(2) Watts H. Effect of pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;38(Suppl 1):36-37.
(3) Scott GB, Fischl MA, Klimas N, et al. Mothers of infants with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, see AIDS. . JAMA JAMA
Journal of the American Medical Association 1985;253(3):363-66; Minkoff H, Ragt RH, Landesman S, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
A lung infection that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as people with AIDS or people taking medicines that weaken the immune system.
Mentioned in: AIDS, Antiprotozoal Drugs, Sulfonamides associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pregnancy: a report of three maternal deaths. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67(2):284; Minkoff H, Nanda D, Menez R, et al. Pregnancies resulting in infants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex AIDS-related complex
n. Abbr. ARC
A combination of symptoms, including fever, lymphadenopathy, blood abnormalities, and susceptibility to opportunistic infections that is a precursor to AIDS in some individuals infected with HIV. : follow-up of mothers, children, and subsequently born siblings. Obstet Gynecol 1987;69(3 Part 1):288-91; Koonin LM, Ellerbrock RV, Atrash HK, et al. Pregnancy-associated deaths due to AIDS in the United States. JAMA 1989;261(10):1306-9; Lindgren A, Anzen B, Bohlin AB, et al. HIV and childbearing: clinical outcome and aspects of mother to infant transmission. AIDS 1991;5(9):1111-16.
(4) French R, Brocklehurst P. The effect of pregnancy on survival in women infected with HIV: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;105(8):827-35.
(5) Saada M, Le Chenadec J, Berrebi A, et al. Pregnancy and progression to AIDS: results of the French prospective cohorts. AIDS 2000;14(15):2355-60.
(6) Hocke C, Morlat P, Chene G, et al. Prospective cohort study of the effect of pregnancy on the progression of human immunodeficiency virus human immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A transmissible retrovirus that causes AIDS in humans. infection. The Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine. Obstet Gynecol 1995;86(6):886-91; Weisser M, Rudin C, Battlegay M, et al. Does pregnancy influence the course of HIV infection? Evidence from two large Swiss cohort studies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1998;17(5):404-10; Burns DN, Landesman S, Minkoff H, et al. The influence of pregnancy on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: antepartum antepartum /an·te·par·tum/ (-pahr´tum) occurring before parturition, or childbirth, with reference to the mother.
Of or occurring in the period before childbirth. and postpartum changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load viral load
The concentration of a virus, such as HIV, in the blood.
n a measure of the number of virus particles present in the bloodstream, expressed as copies per milliliter. . Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 178(2):355-59; Brettle RP, Raab GM, Ross A, et al. HIV infection in women: immunological markers and the influence of pregnancy. AIDS 1995;9(10):1177-84.
(7) Deschamps M, Pape J, Desvarieux M, et al. A prospective study of HIV-seropositive asymptomatic women of childbearing age in a developing country. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993;6(5):446-51.
(8) Temmerman M, Nagelkerke N, Bwayo J, et al. HIV-1 and immunological changes during pregnancy: a comparison between HIV-1 seropositive seropositive /se·ro·pos·i·tive/ (-poz´i-tiv) showing positive results on serological examination; showing a high level of antibody.
adj. and HIV-1 seronegative seronegative /se·ro·neg·a·tive/ (-neg´ah-tiv) showing negative results on serological examination; showing a lack of antibody.
adj. women in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS 1995;9(9):1057-60; Miotti P, Liomba G, Dallabetta GA, et al. T-lymphocyte subsets during and after pregnancy: analysis in human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected and uninfected Malawian mothers. J Infect Dis 1992;165(6):1116-19.