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Doctrine for the Initial Brigade Combat Team.



The Doctrine Division at the U.S. Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca Fort Huachuca is an United States Army installation. It is located in Cochise County, in the Southeastern part of the state of Arizona, approximately 15 miles north of the border with Mexico.  (USAIC&FH) is currently coordinating with Fort Lewis, Washington, to develop draft doctrine for the Initial Brigade Combat Team The brigade combat team (BCT) is the basic deployable unit of maneuver in the US Army. A brigade combat team consists of one combat arms branched maneuver brigade, and its attached support and fire units.  (IBCT IBCT Infantry Brigade Combat Team
IBCT Interim Brigade Combat Team (US Army)
IBCT Initial Brigade Combat Team
IBCT Institute for Business Continuity Training
IBCT Ingénierie et Biologie Cellulaire et Tisulaire
). The latest draft doctrine is in the Doctrine Division's website at http://USAIC.hua.army.mil/doctiine.htm. The coordinating draft is due in March 2001 and the final draft is due one year later. With this article, we seek to stimulate your input for the revision of the IBCT intelligence doctrine.

Introduction to the IBCT

A flexible force of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance An activity that synchronizes and integrates the planning and operation of sensors, assets, and processing, exploitation, and dissemination systems in direct support of current and future operations. This is an integrated intelligence and operations function. Also called ISR.  (ISR (Interrupt Service Routine) Software routine that is executed in response to an interrupt. ) personnel, organizations, and equipment comprises the Initial Brigades' intelligence systems. Individually and collectively, the components of this system provide the brigade with the capability to--

* Plan and direct ISR operations.

* Collect and process information.

* Produce relevant intelligence.

* Disseminate combat information and intelligence to those who need it, when they need it.

The brigade and its subordinate battalions possess organic ISR assets that enable each unit to meet the commander's requirements. Based on mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, and time available and civilian considerations (METT-TC METT-TC mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil considerations (US DoD) ), the brigade will task-organize its organic ISR assets for the operation. The brigade may receive additional ISR assets from corps, joint, and national organizations.

Intelligence Organizations

An intelligence staff is organic to the brigade and its subordinate battalions and squadron. ISR analysis and ISR integration elements from the Military Intelligence (MI) Company and the Surveillance Troop, respectively, augment the brigade and RSTA RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (US DoD)
RSTA Rindge School of Technical Arts
RSTA Recinto Santo Tomás de Aquino
RSTA Reston Swim Team Association
RSTA Rockford Science and Technology Academy
 (Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition For the RSTA/ISTAR/STA doctrine, see .

For the RSTA in the U.S. Army, see .

This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title.
) Squadron staffs. The intelligence staff in the brigade's non-maneuver battalions possesses varying numbers of assigned MI personnel, and normally does not receive additional intelligence augmentation. Combat support (CS) and combat service support (CSS (1) See Cascading Style Sheets.

(2) (Content Scrambling System) The copy protection system applied to DVDs, which uses a 40-bit key to encrypt the movie.
) units may not have any MI personnel. Those personnel designated as an "S2 section" often combine with the battalion's operations staff.

The MI company consists of one ISR analysis platoon, one SR integration platoon, and a human intelligence (HUMINT HUMINT Human Intelligence ) platoon. The brigade S2 is the manager of ISR operations; however, the MI company's support is critical in the management of ISR requirements and planning, and in the analysis, production, and dissemination of intelligence. The ISR analysis platoon provides analytic support to the development of the brigade common operational picture (COP), support to targeting and effects, and refinement of the intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB IPB Invision Power Board (forum)
IPB International Peace Bureau
IPB Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
IPB International Personal Banking
IPB Illustrated Parts Breakdown
IPB Institute of Plant Breeding
). The ISR integration platoon serves as an extension of the brigade S2 staff for the internal and external management of ISR assets. The HUMINT platoon conducts the brigade's tactical HUMINT collection operations. The company has the organic systems necessary to interface with ISR systems resident at the U.S. Army Forces (ARFOR ARFOR Army Forces ), joint, theater, and national levels.

Reconnaissance and Surveillance Organizations

Reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S) assets vary by echelon and unit type. The IBCTs have organic assets such as the RSTA squadron, the HUMINT platoon of the MI company, and infantry battalion scouts to perform R&S. In contrast, CSS units do not possess dedicated R&S assets but rely upon ad hocorganizations and standing operating procedures to perform such missions as route reconnaissance Reconnaissance along a specific line of communications, such as road, railway or waterway, to provide new or updated information on route conditions and activities along the route.  and occupation of observation posts.

The RSTA squadron is the brigade's primary source of combat information and targeting data. The squadron also provides the brigade with many R&S soldiers on the ground to help the brigade understand the operational environment in detail. This differs from the traditional scout focus primarily on threat forces. The brigade S2 integrates the ISR effort through the S3 (to include providing tasks to the RSTA squadron) and is supported by the ARFOR analysis and control element (ACE) or intelligence element in order to provide situational awareness Situation awareness or situational awareness [1] (SA) is the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in  and understanding in the AO.

The surveillance troop possesses an Air Reconnaissance Noun 1. air reconnaissance - reconnaissance either by visual observation from the air or through the use of airborne sensors
reconnaissance, reconnaissance mission - the act of reconnoitring (especially to gain information about an enemy or potential enemy); "an
 Platoon, a Ground Sensor Platoon, and a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC NBC
 in full National Broadcasting Co.

Major U.S. commercial broadcasting company. It was formed in 1926 by RCA Corp., General Electric Co. (GE), and Westinghouse and was the first U.S. company to operate a broadcast network.
) Reconnaissance Platoon. The unmanned aerial vehicles

Main article: Unmanned aerial vehicle
The following is a list of Unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated by various countries around the world. Listed with primary mission(s) and year of first flight.
 (UAVs) enable the squadron to expand its reconnaissance capability considerably while mitigating risk in the absence of rotary-based reconnaissance. The NBC reconnaissance platoon provides the brigade's core capability for detection and early warning of chemical and radiological contaminants, plus some forms of biological agents.

The RSTA squadron closely integrates its operations with the activities of the infantry battalion's reconnaissance platoons and other ISR assets managed at brigade level. The squadron operates by stealth throughout the brigade footprint, and employs HUMINT collection personnel (who perform very limited HUMINT collection) extensively throughout the AO to compensate for shortfalls in the existing sensor capabilities, which are more suited for open terrain and unit- or force-based threats.

Task Organization

Task organization allows the brigade to optimize the allocation and capabilities of its finite ISR assets based on METT-TC. For example, in a movement to contact, the brigade may direct the HUMINT platoon to reinforce the RSTA squadron with additional HUMINT collection teams to enhance its interrogation interrogation

In criminal law, process of formally and systematically questioning a suspect in order to elicit incriminating responses. The process is largely outside the governance of law, though in the U.S.
 and document exploitation (DOCEX DOCEX Document Exploitation ) capabilities. The brigade may also receive divisional or higher echelon ISR assets such as a UAV UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UAV Unmanned Air Vehicle
UAV Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle
UAV Unmanned Airborne Vehicle
UAV Uninhabited Air Vehicle
UAV Urban Assault Vehicle
UAV Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle (less common) 
 platoon from the division, an air cavalry troop from corps, and counterintelligence coun·ter·in·tel·li·gence  
n.
The branch of an intelligence service charged with keeping sensitive information from an enemy, deceiving that enemy, preventing subversion and sabotage, and collecting political and military information.
 (CI) teams from corps or higher echelons when the scope of the mission exceeds the brigade's organic capability.

Operations

The brigade conducts centralized planning and decentralized execution Delegation of execution authority to subordinate commanders.  of operations characterized by rapid mobility precision fires, maneuver, and decisive actions over extended, noncontiguous AOs dominated by complex terrain and urban settings. The planning and decentralized execution of these operations demands continuous tactical- and operational-level IPB to help commanders understand the context of emerging information and its relationship (cause and effect) within the overall framework of the mission and operations. The nature of the operational environment requires the brigade to have enhanced situational awareness in order to anticipate threat actions and identify opportunities for decisive employment of the brigade's combat power. To enable precision maneuver and fires, the brigade's targeting capability requires timely, relevant, accurate, and predictive targeting data, and intelligence on conventional and asymmetric threats to the brigade's systems and organizations. In addition, entry operations ( forced or permissive--based on the enemy's reaction to the operation) require rapid and detailed IPB products, the ability to locate and engage mobile reserves as well as fire support systems, and situational awareness well beyond the close combat area.

MI support for the operations described above includes--

* Planning and executing ISR operations.

* Analyzing and presenting intelligence to support timely situational understanding and force protection.

* Supporting the decide, detect, deliver, and assess functions of the targeting methodology.

The brigade's MI elements accomplish much as part of the brigade's ISR and security efforts. Using the intelligence process as a framework, Figure 1 discusses some of the IBCT's specific intelligence capabilities.

Capabilities and Limitations

Inherent in any system are capabilities and limitations. The capabilities of the Initial Brigades will continue to improve as more technologically advanced sensors, processors, communications systems, and better-trained soldiers enter the force structure. Its limitations reflect the impact of force structure limitations, advances in adversaries' technologies, and diverse operational environments in which the division must operate.

The IBCTs intelligence system provides some significant enhancements. These improved brigade capabilities include the following:

* The organic RSTA squadron improves the reconnaissance and security capability of the brigade.

* The MI elements supporting the brigade and the RSTA squadron improve the intelligence staff's synchronization of ISR actions and access to intelligence organizations, products, and databases.

* All-Source Analysis System (ASAS ASAS All Source Analysis System
ASAS Australian Special Air Service
ASAS American Society of Animal Science
ASAS Airborne Separation Assurance System
ASAS All Saints Anglican School (Gold Coast, Australia)
ASAS Advanced Solid Axial Stage
) workstations at the brigade, battalions, and squadron facilitate the collaborative preparation and presentation of a common threat picture.

* UAVs in the RSTA squadron extend the brigade commander's view beyond the next hill, and optimize the employment of maneuver, aviation, and fire support assets to shape the battlefield in depth, day or night.

Dependence on non-organic elements results in some of the IBCTs' limitations. Some of their specific limitations are--

* Distribution of ISR reports and products (imagery, overlays, webpages, etc.) requires a robust, high-capacity communications area network.

* Reliance on a higher headquarters for the development of IPB products that are full-dimensional, continuous, and in near-real time. It has the organic ability to tailor products to provide greater fidelity to meet the commander's intent A concise expression of the purpose of the operation and the desired end state that serves as the initial impetus for the planning process. It may also include the commander's assessmentof the adversary commander's intent and an assessment of where and how much risk is acceptable during  and the command's information requirements The information needed to support a business or other activity. Systems analysts turn information requirements (the what and when) into functional specifications (the how) of an information system. .

* Reliance on a force pool of linguists to support requirements based on the operational environment. The Army must identify, train, and track these linguists; it will then place them on call for a period within 24-48 hours as the situation dictates. Linguistic requirements will include translation, as well as tactical HUMINT and signals intelligence (SIGINT Noun 1. SIGINT - intelligence information gathered from communications intelligence or electronics intelligence or telemetry intelligence
signals intelligence
) support.

* Reliance on the ARFOR ACE to provide situational updates, technical databases, and predictive analysis of the situation to support the force, from enroute mission planning and rehearsal to successful completion of the mission.

* Inability to operate two UAV systems simultaneously, and a requirement that the brigade command post (CP) locate within 40 kilometers of the UAV flight track in order to receive the video downlink.

FM 34-80-21ST, Brigade Combat Team Intelligence Operations The variety of intelligence and counterintelligence tasks that are carried out by various intelligence organizations and activities within the intelligence process. Intelligence operations include planning and direction, collection, processing and exploitation, analysis and production, , is due in March 2001. The Doctrine Division intends this publication for use exclusively by the IBCTs that are "standing up" at Fort Lewis. Throughout the process of standing up the IBCTs, we will update the doctrine to reflect the lessons learned from the units' initial training and combat training center (CTC CTC - Cornell Theory Center ) rotations. To keep up with the changes, visit the Doctrine Division homepage at the top of page 49. We ask the IBCTs to review and comment on the published IBCT doctrine by contacting Captain Lee Goodman via E-mail at edd. goodman@hua.army.mil. [*] Captain Lee Goodman is currently a Doctrine Writer in the Ml Doctrine Division, Operational Branch, Directorate of Combat Developments at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. He is the point of contact for IBCT, information operations, and tactical and Cavalry intelligence issues. He has served in 3d Squadron, 4th Armored Cavalry Regiment An armored cavalry regiment (ACR) is a regiment of the United States Army or United States National Guard organized for the specific purposes of reconnaissance, surveillance, and security. , and 3d Squadron, 2d ACR See riser card.  before his assignment to USA IC&FH. CPT CPT

See: Carriage Paid To
 Goodman is a graduate of the Armor Officers Basic Course, the Ml Officers Transition Course, and the Ml Officers Advanced Course. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in History from Mississippi State University Mississippi State University, at Mississippi State, near Starkville; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1878 as an agricultural and mechanical college, opened 1880. From 1932 to 1958 it was known as Mississippi State College.  Readers may contact the author via the E-mail address above and by telephone at (520) 538-0971 or DSN DSN - Digital Switched Network  879-0971.

Figure 1. Some Specific IBCT Intelligence Capabilities.

Plan and Direct

* Develop ISR tasks in accordance with the brigade's priority intelligence requirements Those intelligence requirements for which a commander has an anticipated and stated priority in the task of planning and decision making. Also called PIRs. See also information requirements; intelligence; intelligence process; intelligence requirement.  (PIR "Parent in room." See digispeak. ), essential elements of friendly information Key questions likely to be asked by adversary officials and intelligence systems about specific friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities, so they can obtain answers critical to their operational effectiveness. Also called EEFI.  (EEFI EEFI Essential Elements of Friendly Information
EEFI Elements of Essential Financial Information
), and intent.

* Accept and integrate external ISR planning and execution elements to improve support to situational awareness and targeting.

* Synchronize and provide technical steerage steer·age  
n.
1. The act or practice of steering.

2. Nautical
a. The effect of the helm on a ship.

b. The steering apparatus of a ship.

c.
 to organic, supporting, and augmenting ISR assets into the brigade's ISR effort.

* Conduct parallel planning while dynamically tracking and adjusting the overall collection effort for organic and supporting ISR resources.

* Provide near-real-time visibility on external collection resources and capabilities, and request support through the use of organic communications and processing systems.

* Maintain an intelligence communications and processing architecture with multi-level security that enables operations in joint and multinational environments using digital and analog communications systems.

* Conduct dynamic sensor steerage.

* Conduct effective requirements management.

Collect

* Provide an organic day and night, all weather, and terrain-independent capability to conduct and integrate multidiscipline reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S).

* Leverage time-sensitive information and reporting from joint, interagency, multinational, and commercial collection resources.

* Direct the sensor payloads of organic and non-organic collection platforms.

* Collect weather information from military and commercial sources.

* Fuse vertical and horizontal combat information, targeting data, and intelligence from organic, supporting, joint, multinational, and interagency organizations.

* Receive and process broadcast downlinks from organic and theater assets.

* Maintain intelligence databases with multi-level security that safeguards the intelligence sources and permits authorized access to unprocessed data.

* Provide a capability to develop, transmit, and store graphic products with supporting data.

Process and Produce

* Develop the threat portion of the COP of the brigade AO and area of interest through the distributed analysis and fusion of combat information and multidiscipline intelligence using collaborative analytic, development, and visualization tools.

* Exchange the results of analysis, discuss issues with external regional experts, and develop a common understanding of the situation by fusing external collection and analysis products using collaborative tools like desktop video teleconferencing and electronic "white boards" resident on analyst workstations.

* Access, focus, and tailor the broader technical and analytic products from national and theater analytic centers to meet the brigade's intelligence needs.

* Conduct continuous IPB and near-real-time all-source analysis of threat information. Access the information in order to support situational understanding, targeting, and force protection.

* Conduct trend and pattern analysis during IPB and target development, and also as a means of providing predictive intelligence support for future operations.

* Access--using organic communications and processing systems--existing databases, products, and analytic expertise resident in Service, joint, and national R&S resources. These split-based operations and "reach back" capabilities facilitate collaboration, task sharing, and access to higher echelon databases, as well as IPB products and focused analysis. Split-based operations provide the capability to have a portion of the ISR analytic element remain outside the operational area to support a command post or a command and control ([C.sup.2]) node.

* Leverage local and national weather analysis to produce tailored weather effects products in support of current and future operations.

* Provide dynamic targeting support through integration of organic, theater, joint, and national sensors.

Disseminate

* Possess secure, redundant, dedicated broad-bandwidth communications with a multi-level security capability that enable the exchange of analytic findings and meta-data (web information that facilitates web searches).

* Disseminate and collaborate between ISR elements internal and external to the brigade, in real time, over an expanded battlespace.

* Receive broadcast intelligence that provides indications, warning, and locational information.

* Receive near-real-time updates on the weather, terrain, and threat activities from a supporting ACE during the deployment and entry operations. This includes the ability to receive threat situation displays, written updates, video, and imagery to support enroute mission planning and adjustments to the plan.

* Dynamically update the situation from sensors, collectors, and processors organic to the brigade that provide a higher degree of fidelity of the battlespace.

* Present the current threat situation and threat intent to facilitate situational understanding and support the presentation of the COP. The presentation uses the best mix of supporting information including imagery, video from UAV, or screen captures (meta-data) to reinforce the presented analysis.

* Provide near-real-time tools and products to support visualization of the brigade commander's battlespace across all ISR capabilities from alert through deployment and execution to redeployment re·de·ploy  
tr.v. re·de·ployed, re·de·ploy·ing, re·de·ploys
1. To move (military forces) from one combat zone to another.

2.
.
COPYRIGHT 2000 U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Author:Goodman Jr., E. Lee
Publication:Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Oct 1, 2000
Words:2367
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