Distribution of Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus on the Gaspe Coast in relation to spatial scale.ABSTRACT Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus are the two molluscan mol·lus·can also mol·lus·kan
Of or relating to the mollusks.
A mollusk. species co-occurring along the Gaspe coast, eastern Canada Eastern Canada (also the Eastern provinces) is the region of Canada generally considered to be east of Manitoba, consisting of the following provinces:
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Atlantic, Atlantic Ocean - the 2nd largest ocean; separates North and South America on the west from Europe and Africa on the east , Canada. Mussels were sampled on rocky shores according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. a factorial factorial
For any whole number, the product of all the counting numbers up to and including itself. It is indicated with an exclamation point: 4! (read “four factorial”) is 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24. design including six locations, 3 degrees of wave exposure (exposed, semi exposed and sheltered) and 2 intertidal in·ter·tid·al
Of or being the region between the high tide mark and the low tide mark.
in levels (mid and low). Species were distinguished with polymerase chain reaction polymerase chain reaction (pŏl`ĭmərās') (PCR), laboratory process in which a particular DNA segment from a mixture of DNA chains is rapidly replicated, producing a large, readily analyzed sample of a piece of DNA; the process is amplification using a diagnostic DNA DNA: see nucleic acid.
or deoxyribonucleic acid
One of two types of nucleic acid (the other is RNA); a complex organic compound found in all living cells and many viruses. It is the chemical substance of genes. marker (Glu-5). Relative frequencies of each species showed no clear patterns of distribution with wave exposure or tidal height. A pattern of distribution at the regional scale does occur, but this pattern could not be related to salinity or temperature gradients observed.
KEY WORDS: Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus, distribution, wave action, tidal height
Mussels in the genus Mytilus have been the subject of some controversy since the discovery of M. trossulus using genetic markers in the 1970s (Gosling 1992), in particular in relation to their taxonomic status at the specie SPECIE. Metallic money issued by public authority.
2. This term is used in contradistinction to paper money, which in some countries is emitted by the government, and is a mere engagement which represents specie. level. Initially, classification of individuals within the Mytilus complex was based on morphologic characters. Phenotypic plasticity The ability of an organism with a given genotype to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment is called phenotypic plasticity. Such plasticity in some cases expresses as several highly morphologically distinct results; in other cases, a continuous norm of leads to the classification of several species and subspecies subspecies, also called race, a genetically distinct geographical subunit of a species. See also classification. within the genus (Gosling 1992). Recently, the study of polymorphic polymorphic - polymorphism loci loci
[L.] plural of locus.
loci Plural of locus, see there by protein electrophoresis Protein Electrophoresis Definition
Electrophoresis is a technique used to separate different elements (fractions) of a blood sample into individual components. revealed the existence of three genetically distinct groups (Koehn et al. 1984, McDonald & Koehn 1988, McDonald et al. 1991). It was proposed that M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus should be considered as 3 distinct species (Koehn et al. 1984, McDonald & Koehn 1988, McDonald et al. 1991, Varvio et al. 1988). Thus, leading to the recognition of 4 species in the genus Mytilus complex: M. edulis, M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis and M. californianus (Gosling 1992).
M. edulis and M. trossulus are the 2 species occurring in the northwest Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean [Lat.,=of Atlas], second largest ocean (c.31,800,000 sq mi/82,362,000 sq km; c.36,000,000 sq mi/93,240,000 sq km with marginal seas). Physical Geography
Extent and Seas
(Gosling 1992). In Newfoundland, species identification by allozyme electrophoresis showed mixed populations at nearly all sites with an overall prevalence of M. edulis (Penney & Hart 1999). High frequencies of M. edulis were also found in the southern part of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia (nō`və skō`shə) [Lat.,=new Scotland], province (2001 pop. 908,007), 21,425 sq mi (55,491 sq km), E Canada. Geography
and in the Bay of Fundy Noun 1. Bay of Fundy - a bay of the North Atlantic between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; noted for rapid tides as great as 70 feet
Atlantic, Atlantic Ocean - the 2nd largest ocean; separates North and South America on the west from Europe and Africa on the east (Mallet mallet,
n a hammering instrument.
n a small hammer with a leather-, rubber-, fiber-, or metal-faced head; used to supply force or to supplement hand force for the compaction of foil or amalgam and to seat cast & Carver 1999). The coasts of Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island, province (2001 pop. 135,294), 2,184 sq mi (5,657 sq km), E Canada, off N.B. and N.S. Geography
One of the Maritime Provinces, Prince Edward Island lies in the Gulf of St. , Northumberland Strait Northumberland Strait, arm of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, c.200 mi (320 km) long and from 9 to 30 mi (14.5–48 km) wide, separating Prince Edward Island from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The strait is now crossed by the Confederation Bridge. and Magdalen Islands Magdalen Islands (măg`dələn) or Îles-de-la-Madeleine (ēl-də-lä-mädlĕn`), group of nine main islands and numerous islets (1991 pop. 13,991), Que., Canada, in the Gulf of St. were characterized by pure or almost pure M. edulis populations (Varvio et al. 1988). In contrast, pure populations of M. trossulus were observed in Bras d'Or Lakes (Cape Breton The term Cape Breton appears in several different things: Geographic locations
Previous sampling campaigns along the shores of the Gaspe Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula
A peninsula of eastern Quebec, Canada, between Chaleur Bay and the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. Mountainous and heavily wooded, the peninsula is known for its picturesque coastal villages as well as its hunting and fishing. showed higher relative frequencies of M. trossulus in Miguasha, Gaspe Bay and Riviere-au-Renard (see Fig. 1). Populations dominated by M. edulis were located in the New Richmond New Richmond can refer to:
v. hy·poth·e·sized, hy·poth·e·siz·ing, hy·poth·e·siz·es
To assert as a hypothesis.
To form a hypothesis. that the distribution of M. edulis and M. trossulus is influenced by temperature, salinity and wave action gradients observed at different spatial scales where higher frequencies of M. trossulus are expected in cold and low salinity waters.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Baie des Chaleurs is a partly mixed estuarine es·tu·a·rine
1. Of, relating to, or found in an estuary.
2. Geology Formed or deposited in an estuary.
Adj. 1. estuarine - of or relating to or found in estuaries
estuarial system opening into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Restigouche River The Restigouche River (fr. Rivière Restigouche) is a Canadian river located in the northwestern part of the province of New Brunswick and the southeastern part of Quebec. is the major tributary located at the head of the bay. Other less important rivers also flow in the Bay. The Gaspe current is also a strong hydrographic hy·drog·ra·phy
n. pl. hy·drog·ra·phies
1. The scientific description and analysis of the physical conditions, boundaries, flow, and related characteristics of the earth's surface waters.
2. feature influencing the study area. This current develops near Rimouski and flows seaward along the north shore of the Gaspe Peninsula until it reaches Cape Gaspe where it spreads southeasterly south·east·er·ly
1. Situated toward the southeast.
2. Coming or being from the southeast.
south·east offshore and becomes weaker (El-Sabh 1976). Thus, current direction inside the Baie des Chaleurs is oriented to the west on the north shore and oriented to the east on the south shore, creating a cyclonic circulation inside the bay (Legendre & Watt 1970, Tamigneaux 1996). Surface water temperature forms a positive gradient from north to south and from east to west ends of the bay (Habbane et al. 1997). At the head of the bay, surface water temperature can reach 18[degrees]C during summer. Salinity can fluctuate roughly from 27.5 [per thousand] to 30 [per thousand] (Habbane et al. 1997).
Species identification was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR PCR polymerase chain reaction.
polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ) using the diagnostic loci marker glu-5. This method allows distinguishing between the two species and hybrid individuals. It is a more accurate method than allozyme analysis and requires little biologic material. Thus, small juvenile individuals can be easily analyzed (Rawson et al. 1996). For mussel mussel, edible freshwater or marine bivalve mollusk. Mussels are able to move slowly by means of the muscular foot. They feed and breathe by filtering water through extensible tubes called siphons; a large mussel filters 10 gal (38 liters) of water per day. DNA isolation, we used QIAGEN DNeasy Tissue Kit and 50 ng of DNA served as PCR template.
In October 1999, a preliminary sampling program was carried out. Six stations (Riviere-au-Renard, Gaspe, Grande-Riviere, Port-Daniel, New Richmond, Escuminac) (Fig. 1) located along the Gaspe peninsula were chosen according to the following criteria: presence of an embayment, natural rocky shores and wave action gradient (exposed, semi exposed and sheltered sites) associated with the embayment.
Experiments followed a factorial design where mussel samples were collected at 2 tidal levels (lower and mid intertidal levels) of 3 levels of wave exposure (exposed, semi exposed and sheltered sites) at each station mentioned earlier. A total of 36 samples each containing 30 juvenile mussels were collected between October 19 to 25, 1999 and their species identified. The mussels measured between 2.10-18.63 mm in shell length (mean shell length = 7.65 [+ or -] 3.26 mm), as determined using a caliper caliper
Instrument that consists of two adjustable legs or jaws for measuring the dimensions of material parts. Spring calipers have an adjusting screw and nut; firm-joint calipers use friction at the joint to hold the legs unmoving. ([+ or -] 0.01 mm). Mussels were assumed to be from the same class age, but probably from different spawning events. Adjacent sites were separated by at least 200 m and stations by ~80 km. Mussels were haphazardly sampled within the mussel beds. A few samples (sheltered sites of New Richmond, Escuminac and Gaspe) had to be collected on soft substrata. The same sampling design was repeated from September 25 to 30, 2000, except for samples from soft bottom. In 2000, 50 juveniles per sample (0.80-14.48 mm; mean shell length = 3.37 [+ or -] 1.89 mm), were collected.
In 2000 only, water temperature, salinity and wave force were measured once a week, at each site, during low tide periods from June 28 to August 24. Each station was visited on the same day of the week. Water samples were collected at the same tidal phase (low tide) and brought to the laboratory for salinity measurements. Two dynamometers identical to those of Bell and Denny (1994) were attached to boulders near lower water level at each site. The dynamometers precalibrated allowed to estimate the strongest wave force, each week.
Statistical analyses were performed with SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System. v 8.0 (SAS Institute SAS Institute Inc., headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig. ) using Genmod. Preliminary analyses on hybrid individuals were performed, but the number of hybrid individuals was too low to calculate any model. Thus, data analysis was performed on frequencies of M. edulis using a binomial distribution binomial distribution
The frequency distribution of the probability of a specified number of successes in an arbitrary number of repeated independent Bernoulli trials. Also called Bernoulli distribution. . The Genmod model analyzed M. edulis frequencies using all possible interactions with spatial factors (station, site and tidal level) included in the factorial design. Environmental data (temperature, salinity and wave action) were used to establish a relation with the observed patterns and were used for the multiple regression Multiple regression
The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable. .
Species Distribution in 1999
In 1999, sample size varied from 24 to 41 mussels (n total = 1067). All samples from station of Escuminac were dominated by M. trossulus (Fig. 2) with relative frequencies of M. edulis varying between 35% and 42%. The population at station of New Richmond showed the highest relative frequencies of M. edulis (frequencies between 51% to 87%). Proportions of M. edulis were variable among sites and tidal level at stations of Port-Daniel and Grande-Riviere, where relative frequencies of M. edulis varied respectively from 25% to 70% and 16% to 60%. Finally, M. trossulus was the predominant species at stations Gasp6 and Riviere-au-Renard in 1999. Populations of M. edulis varied from 14% to 46% at station Gaspe and from 7% to 38% at station Riviere-au-Renard.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Statistical analysis on the frequencies of hybrids observed in 1999 failed to calculate estimates for the model due to low frequencies and high number of samples containing no hybrid individuals. Thus, statistical analyses were performed only on M. edulis and the patterns observed were considered complementary to those of M. trossulus. Genmod model on M. edulis frequencies showed a significant triple interaction (P = 0.0432; Table 1). Multiple comparisons using sequential Bonferroni correction In statistics, the Bonferroni correction states that if an experimenter is testing n independent hypotheses on a set of data, then the statistical significance level that should be used for each hypothesis separately is 1/n (Rice 1989; Table 2) with gradual decreasing relative frequencies of M. edulis were carried out. No significant interaction between the low and the mid intertidal levels were observed except for a few samples. No significant differences in the relative frequencies of M. edulis were observed among sites at the two intertidal levels at station Escuminac. Similarly, no distribution trend was observed in the frequencies of M. edulis at the different sites of the two intertidal levels or from one station to another at the same intertidal level, even if some significant differences (4 significant differences/18 total multiple comparisons) were observed.
Relation to Environmental Factors
During summer 2000, environmental data were collected. Surface water temperature formed a west-east gradient from Escuminac where mean water temperature was 19.2[degrees]C ([+ or -] 2.4) to Riviere-au-Renard where mean water surface temperature was 13.5[degrees]C ([+ or -] 2.9). Differences in mean water temperature between adjacent stations varied about 1[degrees]C to 2[degrees]C. During the observation period, the coldest water temperatures recorded at each site generally occurred on first day of measurement (end of June). In contrast, the warmest water temperatures were measured at the end of July and the beginning of August (17[degrees]C at Riviere-au-Renard; 25[degrees]C at Escuminac and New Richmond). Salinity varied from 20 to 25 ppt ppt
1. parts per thousand
2. parts per trillion and showed no specific west-east gradients (Fig. 3A). The semi exposed site at Escuminac, the sheltered sites at Grande-Riviere and Riviere-au-Renard were located near a fresh water source and, accordingly, relatively low salinities were observed at these stations (Fig. 3A). Wave action (Fig. 3B) was higher at exposed than at sheltered sites at stations New Richmond where values of mean wave force in the sheltered site was 6.6 N ([+ or -] 5.4 N) whereas values of the mean wave force at the semi exposed and the exposed sites were somewhat similar 11.8 ([+ or -] 4.1 N) and 11.5 N ([+ or -] 4.6 N). The same pattern is repeated at stations Grande-Riviere and Gaspe where values of mean wave force of the semi exposed sites were similar to the values obtained at the sheltered sites with values around 9.5 N ([+ or -] 4.5 and 2.6 N) at station Grande-Riviere and around 6.5 N ([+ or -] 1.4 and 1.7 N) at station Gasp6. At these stations, values of the mean maximum wave force at the exposed sites were respectively of 15.9 N ([+ or -] 7.5 N) at station Grande-Riviere and 10.2 N ([+ or -] 2.6 N) at station Gaspe. Finally, the stations Escuminac, Port-Daniel and Riviere-au-Renard show no particular maximum wave exposure gradient between the three different wave exposure degrees. Mean values of maximum wave force at station Escuminac varies between 5.0 N ([+ or -] 3.6 N) in the exposed site and 6.4 N ([+ or -] 5.7 N) at the semi-exposed site. Mean values of maximum wave force at station Port-Daniel varied from 5.5 N ([+ or -] 1.0 N) at the semi-exposed site and 8.5 N ([+ or -] 2.4 N) at the exposed site. Values of mean maximum wave force at station Riviere-au-Renard varied from 4.2 N ([+ or -] 0.8 N) at the semi-exposed site and 7.2 N ([+ or -] 2.9 N) at the exposed site.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Number of mussels per sample for the year 2000 varied between 30 and 50 (n total = 1504). Again, relative frequencies of M. edulis at station Escuminac varied between 31% and 43% except for the semi-exposed site where it reached 66% (Fig. 4). New Richmond was the station that showed the highest frequencies of M. edulis (56% to 86%). Proportions of the two species at Port-Daniel were variable, but M. edulis generally dominated the population with frequencies ranging from 48% to 64%. In contrast to 1999, M. trossulus were more frequent at Grande-Riviere (frequencies of M. edulis from 28% to 48%) in 2000. Gaspe showed higher frequencies of M. edulis in 2000 than in 1999. The sheltered and semi exposed sites were characterized by proportions of M. edulis over 50% but the proportions at the exposed site were lower than 30%. The population of Riviere-au-Renard was characterized by high frequencies of M. trossulus, from 57% to 71%, except at the semi-exposed site where the proportion was 35%.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Statistical analysis on these frequencies using Genmod (SAS Institute, Table 3) detected 2 significant interactions: Station X site (P = 0.0025) and Site X level (P = 0.0001). Multiple comparisons examining the effects of station and site (Table 4) showed no significant difference in frequencies of M. edulis due to wave exposure at all station, except at Gasp6 where the frequency of M. edulis at the exposed site was significantly lower than that observed at the sheltered or the semi-exposed site. When the stations were compared at the different wave exposures, station New Richmond was generally grouped with station Port-Daniel except at the exposed site. These stations showed the highest frequencies of M. edulis. Stations Escuminac, Riviere-au-Renard and Grande-Riviere were grouped together at the three wave exposure levels except for the sheltered site of Riviere-au-Renard, where the sample was missing. These samples were characterized by high frequencies of M. trossulus. In the interaction Site X tidal level there was a significant difference between frequencies at different tidal levels at the semi-exposed sites, but this difference was not observed at the exposed sites. Multiple comparisons were not carried out between low and mid intertidal levels at the sheltered sites because of the missing sample at station Riviere-au-Renard. Also, there were no significant differences at the three different sites at the low intertidal level. There was a significant difference between the frequencies at semi-exposed and exposed sites in the mid-intertidal level where higher frequencies of M. edulis were observed at the semi-exposed site. The sheltered site is not shown because of missing data.
Given that there was discrepancy between the anticipated maximum wave force and the estimated wave force, we performed a multiple regression on frequencies of M. edulis with environmental data (mean water surface temperature, mean salinity and mean wave force). Two variables were entered in the model: mean water surface temperature and salinity (P > 0.0218; model R-square: 0.2126; M. edulis frequencies = -24.56 + 2.90 mean water surface temperature + 1.17 salinity). It is interesting that maximum wave force was not retained by the model, but this result was expected, given that there were no coherent distribution patterns with respect to this factor (Table 2, Fig. 4B).
Our results show no differences in frequencies between low and mid intertidal levels at most of the compared sites. In 1999, 4 sites out of 18 shared a significant difference between the two tidal levels; 3 of the 4 sites had higher frequencies of M. edulis in the low intertidal level (Table 2) than in the mid intertidal level. In 2000, there was a significant difference between the frequencies of M. edulis, but only at the semi-exposed sites where high frequencies of M. edulis were observed in the mid intertidal level (Table 4B). Thus, no general pattern of distribution in relation with the tidal height can be drawn for the two species found in the Baie des Chaleurs and the Gaspe Peninsula.
Hybridizing between M. edulis and M. trossulus on North American North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. Atlantic coast is less extensive than between M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis in Europe (Innes & Bates Bates , Katherine Lee 1859-1929.
American educator and writer best known for her poem "America the Beautiful," written in 1893 and revised in 1904 and 1911. 1999). Frequencies of hybrid mussels in the Canadian maritime provinces Maritime Provinces or Maritimes, Canada, term applied to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, which before the formation of the Canadian confederation (1867) were politically distinct from Canada proper. were either very low in Nova Scotia (Mallet & Carver 1995, Mallet & Carver 1999) and in Magdalen Islands (Tremblay et al. 1998) or null in Newfoundland (Bates & Innes 1995) and Prince Edward Island (Mallet & Carver 1999). However, mussels identified by PCR with diagnostic loci markers (glu-5 or Its) showed 23% hybrid mussel frequencies in Nova Scotia and 26% in Newfoundland (Comesana et al. 1999). Thus, the variations observed in the level of hybridation may be related to the technique used: protein electrophoresis versus PCR. The combination of markers will increase the level of hybrid observed, but evidence for limited hybridization hybridization /hy·brid·iza·tion/ (hi?brid-i-za´shun)
1. crossbreeding; the act or process of producing hybrids.
2. molecular hybridization
3. persists. Toro Toro may refer to:
1. The cell formed by the union of two gametes, especially a fertilized ovum before cleavage.
2. The organism that develops from a zygote. reproductive isolating mechanisms Isolating Mechanisms are features of behavior, morphology, or genetics which serve to prevent breeding between species. Reproductive isolation of populations is established. operating early in the mussel's life history. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated incompatibility between M. edulis and M. trossulus at the gamete gamete (găm`ēt): see reproduction. stage (Rawson et al. 2003).
Within European hybrid populations of M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis, study of allozymes (Octopine dehydrogenase dehydrogenase /de·hy·dro·gen·ase/ (de-hi´dro-jen-as?) an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of hydrogen or electrons from a donor, oxidizing it, to an acceptor, reducing it.
n. , Odh; Esterase esterase /es·ter·ase/ (es´ter-as) any enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an ester into its alcohol and acid.
Any of various enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of an ester. , Est-D) on juveniles showed that allele frequencies of M. galloprovincialis were higher than in M. edulis from the intertidal zone The intertidal zone, also known as the littoral zone, in marine aquatic environments is the area of the foreshore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide, i.e., the area between tide marks. (Gosling & McGrath 1990). It was proposed that differences in distribution in the tidal zone Noun 1. tidal zone - an area subject to tidal action
zone - an area or region distinguished from adjacent parts by a distinctive feature or characteristic were due to differences in selection intensity (Gosling & McGrath 1990). In contrast, Gilg and Hilbish (2000) did not find differential primary or secondary settlement of M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis in relation to tidal level. They suggested that selection favoring M. gaUoprovincialis at high tidal level occurred after settlement (Gilg & Hilbish 2000). M. edulis distribution occurred higher on the shore than that of M. californianus (Suchanek 1978) but, no significant effects of shore level was observed for M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis (Sarver & Foltz 1993) even if Hofman and Somero (1995) suggested that M. trossulus were more thermosensitive than M. galloprovincialis (Hofmann & Somero 1995). Clearly more work is needed on this topic.
Mussel survival is partly dependent on attachment to the substratum sub·stra·tum
n. pl. sub·stra·ta or sub·stra·tums
a. An underlying layer.
b. A layer of earth beneath the surface soil; subsoil.
2. A foundation or groundwork.
3. . The different Mytilus species exhibit different attachment strength: M. galloprovincialis > M. trossulus (Bell & Denny 1994) and M. californianus > M. edulis (Witman & Suchanek 1984). M. galloprovincialis > M. edulis at exposed compared the sheltered sites at one location (Gardner 1994), Sarver and coworker co·work·er or co-work·er
One who works with another; a fellow worker. (1993) found no relation between the distribution of two Mytilus species (M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis) and the wave action. In Newfoundland (Canada), one study reported higher frequencies of M. trossulus at the exposed sites at two locations, but the authors noted that further investigations were required on this topic (Bates & Innes 1995).
At the larger scale (>100 km), the relative frequencies of both species observed in 1999 and 2000 are in agreement with the results of Thomas et al. (2002), indicating that pure or almost pure populations of M. trossulus were observed in Riviere-au-Renard and Miguasha, and pure populations of M. edulis were located in New Richmond. In the 1999 sampling no pure populations were observed, but those of Riviere-an-Renard and Escuminac were dominated by M. trossulus; populations in New Richmond were dominated by M. edulis. Other stations showed mixed populations of the two species in variable frequencies. Temperatures recorded in 2000 apparently never reached lethal levels: larvae Larvae, in Roman religion
Larvae: see lemures. survive in water from 5[degrees]C to 25[degrees]C and optimal growth occurs at 20[degrees]C and 20-35 ppt (HRS-Brenko & Calabrese 1969). Intertidal organisms may experience thermal stress during emersion e·mer·sion
The act of emerging; emergence.
[From Latin mersus, past participle of periods and metabolic costs combined with thermal stress could influence species distribution pattern (Hofmann & Somero 1995). Differential thermal sensitivity thermal sensitivity,
n See sensitivity, tooth. measured between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis by the synthesis of stress protein hsp-70 suggests that M. trossulus is the most sensitive to high temperatures (Hofmann & Somero 1996). Because we observed no particular patterns of distribution for each species in relation to shore level, we suppose that temperatures related to shore level were too small to induce differential survival.
M. trossulus populations generally dominate where salinity is reduced. Pure M. trossulus populations were found in the Baltic sea Baltic Sea, arm of the Atlantic Ocean, c.163,000 sq mi (422,170 sq km), including the Kattegat strait, its northwestern extension. The Øresund, Store Bælt, and Lille Bælt connect the Baltic Sea with the Kattegat and Skagerrak straits, which lead to the (4-5 ppt; Gosling 1992) or in Bras d'Or Lakes (<20 ppt; Mallet & Carver 1999). Qiu and coworkers (2001) tested the tolerance of the 2 species (M. edulis and M. trossulus) during larval larval
1. pertaining to larvae.
see cutaneous and visceral larva migrans. development. At 15 ppt, no M. edulis larvae and few M. trossulus survived. At 20 ppt, survivorship survivorship n. the right to receive full title or ownership due to having survived another person. Survivorship is particularly applied to persons owning real property or other assets, such as bank accounts or stocks, in "joint tenancy. of larvae was lower for M. edulis than for M. trossulus suggesting that M. edulis is less tolerant to reduced salinity during larval development (Qiu et al. 2001). Salinity recorded during year 2000 (Fig. 4B), reflect the presence of near freshwater sources in Escuminac (semi exposed), New Richmond (sheltered), Grande-Riviere (sheltered) and Riviere-au-Renard (sheltered). These sites are located near a river or a brook mouth that flows directly into bays. Salinity data were collected during low tide periods once a week but almost all other sites had salinity values over 20 ppt. As salinities over 20 ppt were observed at all sites and stations, selective pressures on larval development would not likely favor one species over the other. This might explain why M. edulis was observed in location know to harbor "pure populations" of M. trossulus, for instance at Riviere-au-Renard, Gaspe and Escuminac. We hypothesize that if selection occurs at low salinity, then it will occur when larvae are in their early developmental stages. Finally, temperature and salinity explained 21% of the variability of M. edulis frequencies with the multiple regressions performed on the 2000 data. Environmental factors such as salinity and, to a lesser degree, temperature have been shown to have a significant influence on the distribution of 2 species (M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis) all along the coast of California (Sarver & Foltz 1993).
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Our study cannot pinpoint the factors responsible for the local distribution of M. edulis and M. trossulus in the Baie des Chaleurs and the Gaspe Peninsula. Tidal amplitude, wave exposure and temperature and salinity gradients in the bay may not vary sufficiently to explain differential distribution between the two species.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
The authors thank E. Parent for his technical support and B. Tremblay, A. Moreau and R. Kervan for collecting data on the field. This research was supported by the Technopole Maritime (grant and scholarship) and GIROQ awarding to V. M. within the GIROQ research program.
Bates, J. A. & D. J. Innes. 1995. Genetic variation among populations of Mytilus spp. in eastern Newfoundland. Mar. Biol. 124:417-424.
Bell, E. C. & M. W. Denny. 1994. Quantifying "wave exposure": a simple device for recording maximum velocity maximum velocity
1. The maximum rate of an enzymatic reaction that can be achieved by progressively increasing the substrate concentration.
2. and results of its use at several field sites. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 181:9-29.
Comesana, A. S., J. E. Toro, D. J. Innes & R. J. Thompson. 1999. A molecular approach to the ecology of a mussel (Mytilus edulis-M, trossulus) hybrid zone A hybrid zone exists where the ranges of two interbreeding species meet. For a hybrid zone to be stable, the offspring produced by the cross (the hybrids) have to be less fit than members of the parent species, although this condition does not need to be met in the very first on the east coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Mar. Biol. 133:213-221.
El-Sabh, M. 1976. Surface circulation pattern in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Fish. Res. Board. Can. 33:124-138.
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Arising or occurring between species.
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VALERIE MOREAU, (1) REJEAN TREMBLAY (2) * AND EDWIN BOURGET (3)
(1) GIROQ, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada, G1K 7P4; (2) Centre Aquicole Marin-UQAR, MAPAQ MAPAQ Ministere de l'Agriculture, des Pecheries et de l'Alimentation du Quebec (French) , 6 rue du Parc, C.P. 340, Grande-Riviere, Quebec, Canada, G0C 1VO and (3) Vice-rectorat a la recherche, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1K 2R1
* Corresponding author. Present address: Dr Rejean Tremblay Institut des sciences de lamer A technophobic person or neophyte to computers and technology, as viewed by the technically competent who have little empathy for the novice. See technophobe.
(jargon) lamer - A hopelessly clueless luser. , Universite du Quebec a Rimouski 310 allee des Ursulines Rimouski, Qc, Canada G5L 3A1; Tel.: +1-418-723-1986, p1705; Fax: +1-418-724-1842; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE 1. Results of Genmod analysis examining the effects of Station (Escuminac, New Richmond, Port-Daniel, Grande-Riviere, Gaspe, Riviere-au-Renard), Site (sheltered, semi-exposed, exposed) and Level (low intertidal level, mid intertidal level) on the frequencies of M. edulis from samples collected in 1999. Source of Variation df [chi square] Pr > [chi sqaure] Station 5 89.90 <0.0001 * Site 2 5.49 0.0642 Station X site 10 37.85 <0.0001 * Level 1 6.31 0.0120 * Station X level 5 6.07 0.2990 Site X level 2 8.66 0.0132 * Station X site X level 9 17.37 0.0432 * Significant differences: * P [less than or equal to] 0.05. TABLE 2 Results of multiple comparisons tests examining the effects of the interaction between the factors Station, Site and Tidal level. Decreasing Niveau Within Site Escuminac sheltered low mid semi-exposed mid low exposed mid low New Richmond sheltered low mid semi-exposed mid low Port-Daniel exposed low mid sheltered low mid semi-exposed low mid exposed mid low Grande-Riviere sheltered low mid semi-exposed low mid exposed mid low Gaspe sheltered missing semi-exposed low mid exposed mid low Riviere-au-Renard sheltered low mid semi-exposed low mid exposed low mid Decreasing Site Within Niveau Escuminac low intertidal level shel semi exp mid intertidal level exp semi shel New Richmond low intertidal level shel exp semi mid intertidal level semi shel exp Port-Daniel low intertidal level semi exp shel mid intertidal level exp semi shel Grande-Riviere low intertidal level semi shel exp mid intertidal level semi exp shel Gaspe low intertidal level exp semi mid intertidal level shel exp semi Riviere-au-Renard low intertidal level exp shel semi mid intertidal level semi exp steel Effects connected by a line do not differ significantly from one another with the sequential Bonferonni correction P = 0.05. TABLE 3. Results of the Genmod analysis examining the effects of Stations (Escuminac, New Richmond, Port-Daniel, Grande-Riviere, Gaspe, Riviere-au-Renard). Sites (sheltered, semi-exposed, exposed) and Levels (low intertidal level, mid intertidal level) on the frequencies of M. edulis from samples collected in 2000. [chi Pr > [chi Source of Variation Df square] square] Station 5 68.40 <0.0001 * Site 2 6.90 0.0317 * Station X site 10 27.09 0.0025 * Level 1 2.70 0.1001 Station X level 5 6.56 0.2552 Site X level 2 18.19 0.0001 * Station X site X level 9 12.61 0.1810 Significant differences: * P [less than or equal to] 0.05. TABLE 4. Multiple comparisons examining the effects of Stations and Sites B, Multiple comparisons examining the effects of Site and Level. (A) Decreasing Site Within Station Escuminac semi shel exp New Richmond semi exp shel Port-Daniel semi exp shel Grande-Riviere exp semi shel Gaspe semi shel exp Riviere-au-Renard semi exp Decreasing Station Within Site sheltered NR Ga PD E GR semi-exposed NR PD Ga E RR GR exposed NR PD GR E RR Ga (B) Decreasing Level With Site sheltered missing semi-exposed mid low exposed low mid Decreasing Site Within Level low intertidal level shel exp semi mid intertidal level semi exp Effects connected by a line do not differ significantly from one another with the sequential Bonferonni correction at P = 0.05.